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ABSTRACT Marcet Boiler is a bench top unit designed for the demonstration of the basic principal of boiling phenomenon

to study the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium with water. This experiment was also conducted to demonstrate the vapour pressure curve. Water at room temperature was boiled until 185.0 C and every changes of pressure, the temperature was recorded until 10.0 bar. Air was removed first to avoid any of inaccuracy. After the heater was turned off and being cooled, the temperature was recorded again until the steam pressure reached atmospheric pressure. The reading of increase and decrease in temperature was being calculated to find temperature at average. Average temperature at first reading is 106.15 C and increase until 184.60 C with 29 readings. The graph also shows that the curve of pressure and temperature are directly proportional as the temperature increase with pressure. The graph of absolute pressure against dT/dP (measured slope) was slightly deviate compared to absolute pressure against Tvg/hfg (calculated slope). This occurred maybe because of a few errors during the experiment was conducted. Steam was allowed to come out from the vent valve for about 30 seconds before the valve was closed is the main procedure. Air maybe not completely flowed out from the valve so the reading was not being constantly increased. Besides that, maybe temperature was taken while the pressure still not stable.

TABLE OF CONTENTS : Abstract . 1 Table of contents ... 2 1.0 Introduction . 3 2.0 Objectives 3 3.0 Theory . 3 4.0 Diagram and Description of Apparatus .. 4 5.0 Experimental Procedures 6 6.0 Results and Discussions .. 9 7.0 Sample calculations ....... 13 8.0 Conclusions and Recommendations . 14 9.0 References . 14 11.0 Appendices .. 15

1.0 INTRODUCTION The marcet boiler is the unit for the demonstration of the basic principle in Thermodynamics studies which is the boiling phenomenon. Initially, the discovery of this phenomenon is founded by Rudolf Clausius, a German physicist that was a thermodynamics power icon [1]. Marcet boiler is also a device that is used for the understanding of the basic properties of saturated steam to superheated steam. It consists of cylinders surrounded with isolated substance in its electrically heated boiler which is used to heat up water and to measure both the temperature and pressure. Marcet boiler also contains thermometer, barometer and safety valve. The saturation pressure curve can be determined at the pressure within 10 bar [2]. 2.0 OBJECTIVE The aim of this experiment is to study the relationship between the pressure and temperature of saturated steam in equilibrium. Besides that, this experiment was also done to demonstrate the vapour pressure curve. This was accomplished by collecting the reading of temperature when pressure increases. The respective values of pressure and temperature are able on the digital indicators as the unit comes with the pressure and temperature transducers. Drawing the graph of pressure against temperature allows the experiment to draw conclusions of the relationship between pressure and temperature. 3.0 THEORY Thermodynamics is a part of physics, which deals with work, energy and power of a system. Thermodynamics mainly works with large-scale system, which can be measured by experiment study of liquid or gas [3]. The properties of fluid is also a part of thermodynamics. Most Thermodynamics substance such as gases and vapours are often referred as P-V-T substance which is absolute pressure (P), volume (V) and absolute temperature (T).

An ideal gas obeys the equation of state relates the absolute pressure (P), volume (V), number of moles (n), ideal gas constant(R) and absolute temperature (T). PV = nRT .(2) However, real gas does not absolutely obey the equation of state. A few changes on the ideal gas equation of state allow its application in the properties of real gas [3]. When water was boiled, the energy will increase. This situation will affect the number of molecules escape from the surface until an equilibrium state achieved. This is because the activities among the molecules will be increase. The state of equilibrium depends on the pressure between the water surface and the steam [2]. Saturated temperature is called for temperature where equilibrium occurs at given temperature, while saturated pressure is the pressure where equilibrium occurs at a given temperature. The measured value of the slope of the graph (dT/dP) obtained from the experiment results can be compared to the theoretical value determined through calculation from the steam table [4]. Clausius-Clapeyron states : .(2)







In which,

= specific volume of saturated liquid = specific volume of saturated vapour = enthalpy saturated liquid = enthalpy of saturated vapour = lantent hat f vaporization 4.0 DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Legend: 1= Pressure Transducer 2= Pressure Indicator 3= Temperature controller/indicator 4= Control Panel 5= Bench

6= Bordoun Tube Pressure Gauge 7= Temperature sensor 8= Pressure Relief Valve 9= Heater 10= Water Intel Port & Valve

The Marcet Boiler apparatus is equipped with a stainless steel pressure vessel fitted with high pressure immersion electrical heater. It has a temperature and pressure devices controlled which is needed to set at 185.0 and 15 bar which is slightly above the expected boiling

point of the water at 10 bar (abs). Next, it comes together with temperature and pressure transducers so that students will able to read the respective values on the digital indicators easily. Water inlet port and valve is formed to allow water charging and together with a safety relief valve which is used to control or limit the pressure in a system. On the other hand, it consists of temperature sensor to measure the temperature of a medium and bourdon tube pressure gauge that is used to quantify the pressure in a vacuum. Then, it contains a control panel with comes with three important buttons such as main switch to switch on the water heater and reset/emergency button to stop the devices if any leakage or uncontrolled temperature is happened. Finally, it has a bench which is supported the unit and the water heater is protected from burnout by setting high temperature cut-off by means of a temperature controller. 5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 5.1 General Start-up Procedures. 1. A quick inspection was performed to ensure that the unit was in proper operating condition. 2. The unit was connected to the nearest power supply. 3. The water was already filled in boiler. If already filled skip step 4 and 5 below. 4. The level sight tube (V1, V2, & V3) and the valves at the feed port were opened. 5. The boiler was filled with distilled water through the feed port and the water level was at about the half of the boilers height. Then, the valves, V1 & V2 were closed at the level sight tube.

6. The power supply switch was turned on. 7. Now you are ready to carry on with the experiment. 5.2 Procedures. 1. The general start-up procedures were performed as described in section 5.1. 2. If the boiler is initially filled with water, open the valves at the level side tube(V2 & V3) to check the water level. Pour in additional distilled water if necessary. Then, close the valve. 3. The temperature controlled was set to 185.0 boiling point of the water at 10.0 bars (abs). 4. The valve, V3 was opened and the heater was turned on. Important: Always make sure that the valves at the level sight tube are closed before turning on the heater as the sight tube is not designed to withstand high pressure and temperature. 5. The steam temperature was observed, rise as the water boils. 6. The steam was allowed to come out from the valve, V3 for about 30 seconds, and then the valve was closed. This step is important to remove air from boiler as the accuracy of the experimental results will be significantly affected when the air is present. 7. The steam temperature and pressure was recorded when the boiler was heated until the steam pressure reached 10.0 bar (abs).The intervals for pressure data for initially, followed by 0.2 and 0.5 for the following data were made. Warning! Never open the valve when the boiler is heated as pressurized steam can cause severe injury.

which slightly above the expected

8. Then, the heater was turned off and the steam temperature and pressure was dropped. The steam temperature was recorded when the boiler was cooled until the seam pressure reached atmospheric pressure. 9. The boiler was allowed to cool down to room temperature. 10. The steam temperature was recorded at different pressure readings when the boiler was heated and cooled. 5.3 General Shut-down Procedures. 1. The heater was switched off and the boiler temperature was allowed to drop until room temperature. Note: Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as it is highly pressurized at high temperature. 2. The main switch and the main power supply were switched off when it had dropped to room temperature, 3. The water was retained to the next use. 4. The upper part of the level sight tube, V3 was opened to drain the water, and then V1 and V2 were opened to drain off the water.

6.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 6.1 Results Of Experiments : Tabulated Data Measured Pressure , P (bar) Te perature, T Slope, Calculated Slope,

dT/dP Inc. Gauge Absolute C) 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.50 3.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.50 4.00 105.60 107.20 109.70 112.00 114.30 116.30 118.20 120.10 121.90 123.50 126.60 129.70 132.40 135.00 137.40 142.90 147.80 106.70 106.15 109.40 108.30 111.80 110.75 114.00 113.00 115.90 115.10 117.80 117.05 119.80 119.00 121.70 120.90 123.40 122.65 125.20 124.35 128.20 127.40 131.20 130.45 133.90 133.15 136.30 135.65 138.80 138.10 144.10 143.50 148.90 148.35 (K) 379.30 381.45 383.90 386.15 388.25 390.65 392.15 394.05 395.80 397.50 400.55 403.60 406.30 408.80 411.25 416.65 421.50 0.215 0.245 0.230 0.225 0.240 0.150 0.190 0.175 0.170 0.153 0.153 0.135 0.125 0.123 0.108 0.097 Dec. Tavg Tavg ( K/kPa)

Tvg/hfg (K/kPa)

0.214 0.217 0.203 0.190 0.178 0.166 0.156 0.150 0.145 0.135 0.124 0.115 0.109 0.103 0.091 0.082

3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00

4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00

152.50 156.30 159.90 163.30 166.50 169.50 172.50 175.00 177.60 179.00 182.40 184.60

153.20 152.85 157.20 156.75 160.90 160.40 164.20 163.75 167.40 166.95 170.40 169.95 173.20 172.85 175.90 175.45 178.30 177.95 180.80 179.90 183.20 182.80 184.60 184.60

426.00 429.90 433.50 436.90 440.10 443.10 446.00 448.60 451.10 453.05 455.95 457.75

0.090 0.078 0.072 0.068 0.064 0.060 0.058 0.052 0.050 0.039 0.058 0.036

0.074 0.068 0.063 0.060 0.056 0.053 0.050 0.047 0.045 0.044 0.042 0.040


6.2 Results of Experiment : Graph Graph of Average Temperature, T against Absolute Pressure, P

Graph of Average Temperature, T against Absolute Pressure, P




170.00 Average Temperature, T (C)







100.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 Absolute pressure, P (bar)


Graph of dT/dP and Tvg/hfg against absolute pressure, P

Graph of dT/dP and Tvg/hfg against absolute pressure, P

0.3 0.25

dT/dP and Tvg/hfg

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00

dT/dP (K/kPa) Tvg/hfg (K/kPa)

Absolute pressure, P (bar)

6.3 Discussion It is necessary to remove air form the boiler as this could affect the accuracy of the experimental results. When there were air trapped inside the boiler, it will affect the pressure readings. Based on the graphs, the relationship between pressure and temperature is directly proportional and there is a slightly deviation between the experimental slope and the theoretical slope at the beginning. The percentage of error ranged from 0% until 50%. Sources of errors are measurements or reading accuracy, pressure, and calculations (decimal points were not being constant when calculating every data). When the liquid absorbed enough heat energy, it will change to vapour form. As the steam is not allowed to exit, it will cause an increase in pressure and thus causing the temperature to increase. Applications of boilers include water boiling, gasifier system, power plant and cooking utilities.


7.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION Temperature Average, Tavg (0C) = T increases + T decreases 2 = 107.20 0C + 109.40 0C 2 = 108.30C Tavg (K) = T (0C) + 273.15 = 381.45 K Measured slope, dT/dP = 381.45 K 379.30 K 1.1 bar 1.0 bar = 2.15 K Bar

= 0.215 K/ kPa

Calculated slope, Tvg/ hfg = (381.45 K)(1.256 m3/kg) (2234.3 kJ/kg) = 0.2144 K. m3 kJ 1 kJ = 1 kPa. m3 = 0.2144 K/ kPa

8.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions The pressure increase as the temperature increase. This was proved with the obtained graph of average temperature against absolute pressure that directly proportional. The vapour pressure curve obtained was slightly deviate because of some errors of data. Recommendations Air must be completely removed from the valve to avoid any inaccuracy of the readings. The readings of temperature also should be recorded after the pressure was stable. Switch on the heater to boiled the water when the temperature reading at room temperature. 9.0 REFERENCES
1) Mechanical Engineering (Marcet Boiler). (2013). Retrieved July 7, 2013, from 2) Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual (CHE331), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UiTM Penang. 3) Marcet Boiler Experiment. (2012). Retrieved July 7, 2013, from 4) Marcet Boiler Lab Report. (2011). Retrieved July 7, 2013, from