Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33
Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

DNA (Polynucleotide)

DNA

NITROGENOUS

BASE

A DEOXYRIBOSE PENTOSE

SUGAR

PURINE

PYRIMIDINE

A PHOSPHATE

GROUP

ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com
ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com

ADENINE

CYTOSINE

GUANINE

THYMINE

http://schools.aglasem.com

PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE THYMINE http://schools.aglasem.com

DNA

Nitrogenous base is linked to pentose sugar through a n-

glycosidic linkage to form a nucleoside.

Phosphate group attached to5 -OH of a nucleoside through phospho-ester linkage, and a nucleotide is formed.

Two nucleotides are linked through 3 -5 phosphodiester linkage to form a dinucleotide, and in this manner many nucleotides are

linked forming polynucleotide.

A polynucleotide has a free sugar at its5 end and a free phosphate at its 3 end.

http://schools.aglasem.com

Double helix model of DNA

( Watson and Crick model)

DNA is made of 2 polynucleotides.

Backbone is formed by sugar and phosphate.

Nitrogen bases project inside.

Hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases hold the chain

together.

Adenine pairs with thymine through 2 hydrogen bonds and

guanine with cytosine with 3 bonds.

Two chains have antiparallel polarity.

Two chains are coiled in a right handed fashion. And pitch of each helix is3.4nm, and 10 base pairs in each turn.

http://schools.aglasem.com

A NUCLEOSOME

A NUCLEOSOME http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

Griffith’s experiment on transformation

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

DNA is the genetic material

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

Characteristics of genetic material

Able to generate its replica.

Chemically and structurally stable.

Provide the scope for mutation necessary for evolution.

Able to express itself in the form of Mendalian character.

http://schools.aglasem.com

RNA (Polynucleotide)

RNA

NITROGENOUS

BASE

A

PENTOSE

SUGAR

PURINE

PYRIMIDINE

A PHOSPHATE GROUP

ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com
ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com

ADENINE

CYTOSINE

GUANINE

URACIL

http://schools.aglasem.com

PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com
PURINE PYRIMIDINE A PHOSPHATE GROUP ADENINE CYTOSINE GUANINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com

TYPES OF RNA

RNA TRANSFER/ MESSENGER RIBOSOMAL SOLUBLE mRNA rRNA tRNA
RNA
TRANSFER/
MESSENGER
RIBOSOMAL
SOLUBLE
mRNA
rRNA
tRNA

http://schools.aglasem.com

A tRNA MOLECULE

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

Semiconservative replication of DNA

Semiconservative replication of DNA http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

Meselson- Stahl experiment

(semiconservative replication)

Meselson- Stahl experiment (semiconservative replication) http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

Replication of DNA (schematic representation)

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

A TRANSCRIPTION UNIT

A promoter

Structural genes

A terminator

http://schools.aglasem.com

A TRANSCRIPTION UNIT

Transcription
Transcription

http://schools.aglasem.com

TRANSCRIPTION IN PROKARYOTES

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

GENETIC CODE

Codons are triplets

61 codons code for 20 amino acids.

Unambigous each coden codes for only one/ particular amino

acid.

Degenerate some amino acids are coded by more than one

codon.

Commaless codons are read in continuous manner in a 5 to 3 direction without punctuation

Universal codes for same amino acid in any organism.

AUG- initiation codon and codes for methionine.

 AUG- initiation codon and codes for methionine.  UAA, UAG and UGA are stop codons

UAA, UAG and UGA are stop codons

http://schools.aglasem.com

MUTATION

MUATION POINT FRAME SHIFT SILENT
MUATION
POINT
FRAME SHIFT
SILENT

http://schools.aglasem.com

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

TRANSLATION

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

COMPONENTS OF OPERON

Structural gene Promoter gene

Operator

Regulator gene

Inducer

http://schools.aglasem.com

LAC OPERON IN E.COLI

http://schools.aglasem.com
http://schools.aglasem.com

LAC OPERON IN E.COLI

LAC OPERON IN E.COLI http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com

GOALS OF HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)

Identification of all genes

Determination of the sequence of the 3 billion base pairs in human DNA.

To store the information in data base.

Improvement of the tools for data analysis

Transfer of the technology to other sectors (industries)

To address the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from this project.

http://schools.aglasem.com

METHODOLOGIES OF HGP

Expressed sequence tags (ESTs)- identifying all genes that expressed as RNA.

Sequence annotation- sequence the whole sequence of genome, that included all coding and noncoding sequences and later assigning function to different

regions in the sequence.

http://schools.aglasem.com

SALIENT FEATURES OF HUMAN GENOME

Contains3164.7 million nucleotides.

Size of genes varies, average size contains 3000 bases, the largest

gene dystrophin contains 2.4 million bases.

Total no. genes about 30000 and99.9 % of the nucleotides are

same in all humans.

Function of 50% genes are not known.

2% of the genome codes for protein.

Repetitive sequence make up large portion of genome which throw

light on structure, dynamics and evolution though they do not have

coding function.

In 1.4 million locations DNA differs in single base.

http://schools.aglasem.com

USES OF HGP

To diagnose, treat and prevent a number of disease or

disorder that affects human beings.

Provides clues to the understanding of human biology.

http://schools.aglasem.com

THE PROCESS OF DNA FINGER PRINTING

http://schools.aglasem.com

STEPS OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

Extraction

Amplification Restriction digestion

Separation of DNA sequence/ restriction fragments

Southern blotting

Hybridisation

Autoradiography

http://schools.aglasem.com

USES OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

To identify criminals

To determine the true biological mother or father in case of disputes

To verify an immigrant, really a close relative of a resident

To identify racial groups to rewrite the biological

evolution.

http://schools.aglasem.com

PRESENTATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY:

PRESENTATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY: http://schools.aglasem.com

http://schools.aglasem.com