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1. As pointed out by Drazenovic (1969), a salient feature of sliding mode

control is that it is completely robust to matched uncertainties that lie in the range
space of the input matrix. It is certainly true that many systems can be classified
under this category. For example, the rigid robot is one of them. However, there
are even more systems which unfortunately are affected by mismatched

2. The Model Of The System

The multi input systems described with the set of n differential first order
equations will be discussed.
x  Ax  Bu  DF (4.1)

X n state vector-column. It is understood that all its elements are

available for forming a control function.
B (n×m) constant matrix, with linearly independent columns
U m control vector-column. Its elements, called control functions, are
linearly independent.
D (n ×L) matrix with linearly independent columns
F L vector-column of disturbances, with linearly independent
A (n × m) matrix

4. Equations Of The Motion In The Sliding Mode

The sliding surface is defined by

  Sx (4.2)
The sliding condition

 0 (4.3)

 is given by substituting equation (4.1) as
 .
  S x  SAx  SBu  SDF (4.4)

If the matrix SB is nonsingular, u, is determinable in a unique manner as:

u  ( SB ) 1 ( SAx  SDF ) (4.5)
Substituting this value of u in (4.1), the sliding mode equations are obtained as:
x  ( I  B ( SB ) 1 S ) Ax  ( I  B ( SB ) 1 S ) DF (4.6)

where I is the unity matrix.

5. The Disturbance Influence On The Sliding Mode Motion

It is seen from (4.6) that disturbances F, in general, act in equations of the sliding
mode motion. There are two sorts of disturbance influences on that kind of

(a) the values of disturbances up to beginning of the sliding mode which

determine the initial conditions of the sliding mode.

(b) the values of the disturbances after the sliding mode begins, but only if
F acts in (4.6).

Let the following equation be satisfied:

( I  B ( SB ) 1 S ) DF  0 (4.7)
The disturbance F is no longer present in the sliding mode equations, so that the
trajectory of the sliding mode motion depends only on the values of disturbances
up to the beginning of the sliding mode via the initial conditions. If the preliminary
part of the motion is shortened by a suitable choice of control function, the time of
disturbance influence, and by that its effect on the initial conditions as well, can
be remarkably decreased, so that the whole system exhibits a low sensitivity to

Equation (4.7) can be satisfied for all the possible values of F, if all the columns
of D are linear combinations of the columns of B i.e.,
DF  B (4.8)
This requirement is represented by the equation
rank [B, D] = rank B (4.9)
where [B, D] is a matrix composed of all the columns of D and B.

Sliding Mode Control of Linear Systems with

Mismatched Uncertainties*

In this paper we present some results to explicitly tackle the mismatched

uncertainties. We shall describe two schemes to handle mismatched
uncertainties. Although the design procedures are quite similar, the assumptions
and stability results are quite different. Our new dynamical approach of sliding
variable formulation introduces on-line estimation capability to the sliding variable
so that, when the system is in sliding mode, an adaptive reference signal is
realized which can explicitly deal with mismatched uncertainties. Note that when
the system is in sliding mode, the system behavior is completely determined by
the reduced-order system. Hence we can allow (lb) to be highly nonlinear and
time-varying. This is a result of the well-known model reduction capability of
sliding control.

The main contribution of this note is to resolve one of the is major problems of
sliding mode control: how to counteract mismatched uncertainties explicitly?
The reasoning behind our new method is the belief that if we want to increase
robustness of systems with mismatched uncertainties we must provide some
dynamics in the sliding variable so that when the system is in sliding mode, these
dynamics will work against the mismatched uncertainties. Our dynamical sliding
variable formulation is an adaptive one. If we compare the sliding variables
defined in (2) and (8) [or between (25) and (26)], one will see that our new
approach is a simple and natural extension of conventional sliding variable
An adaptation law estimates the unknown mismatched parameters on-line and
provides information for a fictitious adaptive controller which consequently
reduces the effects of mismatched uncertainties. The fictitious controller is
robustly realized by the sliding mode technique. Furthermore, by virtue of the so-
called model reduction capability of sliding mode control, we can allow equation
(lb) to be highly nonlinear and time-varying. Although we cannot handle all kinds
of mismatched uncertainties, we believe that this is still a significant step towards
a more general theory of handling mismatched uncertainties.