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trng i hc ngoi thng h ni khoa ting anh

translation
Bin so n Phan Hin Giang, Nguyn Thu Hng, Ng Quang Vnh, Phan Vn Quyt

nh xut bn gio dc

table of contents

Translation 1 (For intermediate learners) Part 1. Social issues i Unit 1. Education Making college pay off Nng cao cht lng gio dc trong nn kinh t ang chuyn i Unit 2. The dilemma that confronts the world What counts in environment protection UNDP gp phn loi b cc cht gy suy gim tng zn Vit nam Unit 3. Social problems Corruption a tax of the worst kind gia tng Unit 4. History and culture Nguyen dynasty Mn n Vit nam Unit 5. Biology the future industry GMOs the pros and cons Kha cnh o c trong khoa hc di truyn check your progress 1 Part 2. Economics and International Trade Unit 6. Trade pact offers hope Trade pact offers hope Ngoi trng M Albright mun xc tin hip nh thng mi Vit M Unit 7. Rethinking Asia after the crisis

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13 13 15

17 17 19 22 22 23 26 26 27 29 32 33 33 35 38

The answer: deglobalize Kim tm ng nng t ng tr ng mi Unit 8. China Deal of the Century How Beijing can learn from its neighbours blunders Trung Quc li v thit khi vo WTO Unit 9. Is Globalisation desirable? Advancing globalisation Xu hng ton c u ho trong thin nin k mi Unit 10. The Asian Century Asias economy surviving the aftershock Tnh hnh thng mi cc nc ng Nam check your progress 2 Translation 2 (For higher-intermediate learners) Part 3. Social issues ii Unit 11. Health and welfare Moonlighting medicos in Vietnam on kt chng li bnh AIDS Unit 12. Tourism, land and people The Saigon blues Du lch Vit nam Unit 13. Agriculture Would agriculture hold back the economy? Nng nghip Vit nam trong qu trnh i mi kinh t Unit 14. The digital age How e-smart are you? Cng ngh thng tin - c hi hn l thch thc

38 39 42 42 43 46 46 47 50 50 51 54 56 57 58 58 59 61 61 63 65 65 67 69 69 70
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Unit 15. The knowledge economy Who owns the knowledge economy? Tri thc l sc mnh check your progress 3 Part 4. corporate concerns Unit 16. Culture in business Dying to work Qun l tri thc phi xut pht t vn ho doanh nghip Unit 17. SMEs and the Private Sector Small business discover its strength Doanh nghip va v nh vn v gii php Unit 18. Foreign Direct Investment Forms of FDI Vit nam hoan nghnh s tr li ca cc nh u t Unit 19. Marketing No smoke without brand fire Marketing cc doanh nghip Vit nam Unit 20. Corporate governance and SOE reforms Corporate governance Gim bin ch DNNN nhng bc i ban u CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4 TRANSLATION 3 (For advanced learners) part 5. politics and foreign affairs Unit 21. International politics

73 73 74 77 80 81 81 83 85 85 87 90 90 92 95 95 96 98 98 100
102 104 105 106 4

Two great forces of our time Khi qut v chnh tr quc t Unit 22. Worlds Powers Fading superpowers and new great powers Liu nc M c tip tc thng tr trong thi n nin k mi? Unit 23. Critical relations U.S. policy turning toward Asia S chia r trong quan h u M Unit 24. International organizations Intergovernmental organizations H thng Lin hip quc Unit 25. Ready for tomorrow Start me up Thc o thnh cng check your progress 5 Part 6. money, Banking and finance Unit 26. Financial Hubs The foundation of stability Qu Tin t Quc t cn ci cch Unit 27. Monetary union and the euro Sleeping giant Cuc tranh lun xung quanh ng euro Unit 28. Modern banking Online payments sideline banks Ngnh ngn hng trong th k 21

106 107 110 110 112 115 115 116 119 119 121 124 124 125 128 131 132 132 133 136 136 137 140 140 141

Unit 29. Insurance Vietnams thriving insurance market To ra mt sn chi bnh ng cho cc cng ty bo him Vit nam Unit 30. Stock Market A start nonetheless Tin ti mt trung tm giao dch chng khon lnh mnh check your progress 6 annex 1 Marking scheme annex 2 English proverbs

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148 148 149 151 153 154

translation 1
For intermediate learners of English

part i. social issues i

UNIT 1. EDUCATION

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Making college pay off
1. College is an experiment in hope. Its also a risky investment for us all. Whether it is graduate or undergraduate school, a two-year program or an eight-year one, we entrust time in our lives to school for both a new identity and a ticket to the outside world. We come to college with unspoken anticipation of all that will be done for us. We expect to be made acceptable, valuable, and finally employable in the eyes of the world. We also hope that magic answers will be revealed to us through academic study, leading us to guaranteed success in the outside world. By graduation or completion of our chosen program, we presume everything will be clear; we will be made brilliant, and all knowledge will be accessible to us. 2. I have been a consultant to countless people who all had faith in this magic - many of whom were disappointed when the expected alchemy never took place. They discovered, years later, that this powerful, magical process just doesnt happen. 3. We have been all conditioned to wait for things to happen to us, instead of making things happen. Most of us learned that we would excel, or at least pass, if we did the work assigned to us by our teachers. We learned to find out what was expected to us, do it, and wait for a response. After we took all the required courses, we were promoted, say, from first to second year. But what did we really learn? System Dependency! We learned that the person who knew the greatest number of right answers was rewarded by being the first of her class. 4. Nothing like this happens in real life. Yet too many of us never recognize it. We are the same passive students at ten or twenty five or forty four as we are at fourteen, continuing the teacher-student dichotomy, which we automatically transfer to the employer-employee relationship. And we found that though studying history or art or whatever might be interesting, it alone didnt lead to much else - like new experiences, contacts, or even a job. 5. Much disappointment resulted from this misuse of college. Its time to retrain ourselves to approach school in the same positive, productive, active way that successful people approach life. 6. College can become all that you wished for - a time for learning, for broadening horizons, a time to discover who you are and how you work with others, for setting goals and making things happen. In short, college is a time for developing skills that will serve you far beyond your college years, which, even more than your degree, will prepare you for entrance into the real world. 7. So instead of thinking of college as a more difficult twelfth grade, learn to use college like the real world. Step up and out of the suffocating box and stop pulling the lid tighter down on your own possibilities. Remember, the longer you sit and wait, the harder it is to move up. The passive good student attitude absolutely stifles any chance for people to become motivated, impassioned, or connected to new ideas and network of people. Dont be afraid to make that extra effort. Doing only the minimum requirement is the grossest misunderstanding of what college is all about!

Task 2. Vietnamization
When translating, it is more important to convey the message in the most natural way possible, rather than stick to the English words or phrases. Look back at the examples from task 1: College is an experiment in hope Trng i hc l ni ta gi gm bao hi vng The longer you sit, the harder it is to move up Cng ngi lu th sc cng ln Now try to Vietnamize the following sentences: 1. The rural women have to work very hard from morning till night. 2. Have a safe journey home! 3. Its hard to overstate her beauty. 4. Time is what you make of it. 5. The sun also rises. 6. Your home away from home. (on the front door of a hotel) 7. Bacchus drowned more men than Neptune. 8. He talks to me as if there were nothing between us. 9. My new assistant is very efficient. 10. Unlike managers, leaders only use power as a last resort.

Task 3. Find the English equivalents to the following


nn kinh t ang chuyn i c trnh hc vn cao dn s trong tui lao ng bit c bit vit s lng ngi i hc tng trng ton din xo i ngho ph cp gio dc tiu hc gio dc ph thng c s (cp hai) gio dc trung hc gio dc i hc gi hc trn ging ng loi hnh o to

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trng dn lp trng bn cng

Task 4. Translate the following into English NNG CAO CHT LNG GIO DC TRONG NN KINH T ANG CHUYN I
1. Vit nam c mt trnh hc vn kh cao vi 91% s tr em t 5 n 10 tui c i hc v 88% dn s trong tui lao ng bit c bit vit. Tuy nhin, khi t nc bc vo thin nin k mi, s cnh tranh t cc nc lng ging ng s t ra nhng thch thc mi i vi h thng gio dc v o to ca V it nam. 2. Chnh ph Vit nam t ra nhng mc tiu ln nhm t ng s lng ngi i hc. Nhng Vit nam cng phi i mt vi nhng thch thc khng nh trong vic thc hin cc chnh sch gio dc nhm m bo rng h thng gio dc s cung cp nhng kin thc v k n ng cn thit p ng nhu cu ca x hi trong tng lai. Vit nam cn n lc rt nhiu, nht l cc vng nng thn, pht trin ngun vn con ngi qu gi phc v cho tng trng ton din. 3. Thch thc ln nht i vi cc nh gio dc Vit nam l lm sao m bo c rng h thng gio dc o to thch ng c vi nhng yu cu mi ca mt nn kinh t th trng ang pht trin. Vic m rng v hin i ho h thng gio dc o to l nhng nhn t quan trng trong chin lc pht trin ca chnh ph nhm duy tr t ng trng kinh t v xo i gim ngho. 4. Mc tiu ca chnh ph Vit nam l c gng ph cp gio dc tiu hc vo nm 2005 v ph cp gio dc ph thng c s vo n m 2010. S sinh vin i hc nm 2005 d tnh c th tng thm 30% so vi nm 2000 (hn 450 000 sinh vin). 5. t c nhng mc tiu trn, cn phi c s thay i ca c cung v cu v gio dc. V cung, cn nng cao cht lng gio dc. Mun vy phi nng cao trnh ca i ng gio chc v t ng lng cho h, ko di gi hc trn ging ng, v to iu kin cho gio vin v hc sinh c tip cn nhiu hn vi sch v v cc phng tin ging dy. 6. V cu, ngi dn cn nhn thc c rng li ch ca gio dc s b p li c nhng chi ph cho gio dc, c chi ph trc tip ln gin tip. Trn thc t, cu v gio dc nhng n m g n y tng ng k. iu ny c th hin bng s xut hin ca hng lot cc loi hnh v t chc gio dc mi nh trng bn cng, trng dn lp, i hc m...v.v....

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UNIT 2. the dilemma that confronts the world


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese WHAT COUNTS IN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
1. When one American astronaut saw our planet earth from his spaceship, he remarked, Its so, so vast, so beautiful. His view of earth from outer space gave him a special understanding of the natural treasures of our planet. Earth has oxygen in the air so that creatures can breathe. It has fresh water and salt water to supply humans, animals, birds, fish and plant life with the liquid they need to survive. It has a variety of soils in which nutritious food can grow. It revolves around a sun that provides energy, light and heat. Our air, water, soil, plant and animal life, and climate compose our natural environment, which supports over 13 million different kinds of plant and animal species, including our human race. 2. The study of the relationship between the human species and all the elements of the natural environment is called ecology, which teaches us about the delicate balance of nature in our home, the planet earth, and how we may upset that balance whenever we alter the environment. Ecological studies reveal the damage we have done to our natural home, some ways by which we could repair the damage, and some suggestions for preventing similar damage in the future. Although we cannot return all of our environment to its previous natural state, strict ecological control can preserve the unspoiled places that still exist. 3. In an assessment on the future for the human race in the early part of the next century, Klaus Topfer, the executive director of the UN environment programme, said that the main threats to human survival were posed by water shortages, global warming and worldwide nitrogen pollution. Only by a massive increase in political will can a series of looming crises and ultimate catastrophe be averted. We have the technology but we are not applying it, he said. 4. He described efforts to curb global warming as inadequate in comparison to the 60% cuts required and added that the world was already suffering as a result of climate change which was now unstoppable. Extreme weather events had left as many as 3 million people dead in the last 5 years. 5. Full scale emergencies already exist, says the report: water shortages are hampering developing countries; land degradation has reduced fertility and agricultural potential and destruction of the tropical rain forests has gone too far to be reversed; many of the planets species have already been lost or condemned to extinction; one quarter of the worlds mamal species are now at significant risk of total extinction. 6. At sea, fisheries have been grossly overexploited and half of the worlds coral reefs are threatened with destruction. Air pollution has reached crisis proportions in many cities and it is too late to prevent global warming. It is the lack of government control that has weakened the ability to solve problems. Dr Topfer said it was essential to force multinational companies to be accountable for their actions and what they produce.

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7. The present course is unsustainable and postponing action is no longer an option. Inspired political leadership and intense cooperation across all regions and sectors will be needed to put both existing and new policy instruments to work, the reports concluded.

Task 2. Emphasis - conversions and cleft sentences Look back at the examples from task 1: Only by a massive increase in political will can a series of looming crises and ultimate catastrophe be averted. Extreme weather events had left as many as 3 million people dead in the last 5 years. What matters is being constructive and realising that where there is a political will, much can be achieved. It is the lack of government control that has weakened the ability to solve problems.

Translate the following into English, using the prompts given


Note nhn thc cho ngi dn pht thi kh nh knh tng zn n ng lng thay th nhin liu ho thch cn kit bun bn ng vt hoang d cc loi c nguy c tuyt chng cng c quc t v a dng sinh hc

1. Cha bao gi min qu nh b ny phi hng chu mt trn bo khng khip n nh vy. (Never....) 2. iu m mi nc cn lm l nng cao nhn thc cho ngi dn v tm quan trng ca vic bo v mi trng. (What....) 3. Vic gim thiu pht thi kh nh knh v bo v tng zn khng cn l trch nhim ca mt quc gia n l no na m tr thnh nhim v chung ca c loi ngi. (No longer....) 4. Theo c tnh th v i mc tiu th nng lng nh hin nay v nu khng c s pht trin cc ngun n ng lng thay th th ch n nm 2050 thi, ton b nhin liu ho thch trn th gii s b cn kit. (... as early as ....) 5. Cc cng c quc t v a dng sinh hc to ra cc cng c php l kim sot vic mua bn cc ng vt hoang d trn th gii. Tuy nhin chnh do nhu cu i vi ti nguyn thin nhin gia tng lm cho vic suy gim s loi sinh vt c nguy c tuyt chng vn tip din. ( it is.....)

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Task 3. Find the English equivalents to the following


loi b cc cht gy suy gim tng zn tng cc kh tng thu vn gim thiu hin tng pht thi kh CFCs qu u thc ngh nh th ph i din thng tr nh du mt mc quan trng k (cng c) hin tng nng ln ca tri t ti s dng ti ch ngnh c in lnh mc tiu pht trin bn vng bin php (mang tnh) kinh t thng tng zn

Task 4. Translate the following into English UNDP GP PHN LOI B CC CHT Gy SUY GIM TNG ZN vit nam
1. UNDP s phi hp cht ch vi B Cng nghip v Tng cc Kh tng thu v n ca Vit nam thc hin mt d n 15 thng nhm gim thiu hin tng pht thi kh CFCs trong ngnh c in lnh. 2. D n s c qu u thc ca UNDP, Ngh nh th Montreal v C quan Bo v mi trng ca c cung cp gn na triu la xc nh v thc hin cc bin php ti s dng cng nh gim thiu pht thi CFCs mt cch kinh t. 3. Hm nay ng Nicolas Roselini, ph i din thng tr UNDP, cng k d n ny vi ng L Quc Khnh, th trng B Cng nghip. ng Roselini ni: Chng ti tin rng d n ny nh du mt mc quan trng cho vic loi b cc cht gy suy gim tng zn Vit nam. 4. Nm 1994, Vit nam k cng c Vin v bo v tng zn v Ngh nh th Montreal. Hai vn kin ny u nhm mc ch hn ch v tin ti chm dt vic sn xut v s dng cc cht gy suy gim tng zn. 5. Theo c tnh, ch ring trong ngnh c in lnh c khong 450 doanh nghip va v nh hin ang s dng CFCs, mt ho cht c lin quan ti tnh trng suy gim tng zn v hin tng nng ln ca tri t. Hng nm, cc doanh nghip ny tiu th trung bnh t 300 n 1500 kg CFCs.

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6. D n s phi hp vi cc doanh nghip tm kim nhng c hi gim thiu cc cht pht thi vi hiu qu kinh t cao nht thng qua vic ti s dng. D n sau s cung cp thit b v o to chuyn mn cho mt s doanh nghip h c th thc hin cc bin php ra. 7. ng Roselini ni Thnh tu ny thc s l bng chng cho thy chng ta c th t c mc tiu pht trin bn vng - bo v mi trng, ng thi nng cao hiu qu kinh t.

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unit 3. social problems

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese CORRUPTION - A TAX OF THE WORST KIND
1. Political and business leaders around the globe are today more than ever involved in seeking common solutions to the problem of corruption. Popular theories of the 1970s, which defended corruption as efficiency-enhancing, or at the very least a necessary evil, have been debunked by a mountain of research demonstrating its corrosive impacts. These include lost productivity, increased poverty, skewed public expenditure patterns and a host of other downstream ills. 2. One study found that a country which improves its standing by two points on the 0-10 corruption perception index, created by the Berlin-based non-governmental organisation Transparency International, will see its investment rate increase by 4% and its GDP by about 0.5%. Another found that a strong correlation exists between high levels of corruption and a poor-quality infrastructure, largely because insufficient funds are devoted to operations and maintenance, which are less lucrative sources of illicit income. 3. More recent research has argued persuasively that not only does corruption impose a kind of tax on both firms and citizens at large, it also tends to undermine the very institutions upon which functioning markets depend. Property rights and impartial mechanisms for enforcing commercial contracts are both imperilled when judges are for sale. If banks regulators violate capital-adequacy norms, rationality in the allocation of credit is dealt a fatal blow. 4. The persistent scale of worldwide corruption is a puzzle to many observers. At the beginning of the 1990s, as former Soviet-bloc countries joined developing nations as participants in WB and IMF market-oriented reform programmes, it seemed to many economists that corruption was well on its way to being eliminated. By cutting onerous regulations and thereby reducing the discretionary powers of officials, economic liberalisation was supposed to tackle the root causes of corruption. Doing away with artificial scarcities created by state-dominated economies, it was thought that bribe-taking bureaucrats might become an endangered species. 5. Things didnt quite turn out that way. Paulo Mauro, an IMF economist, argues that the shift from command economies to free markets has created massive opportunities for the appropriation of profits and has often been accompanied by a change from a well organised system of corruption to a more chaotic and deleterious one. 6. Research into the politics of economic reforms in countries like India, Uganda and South Africa suggests two very good reasons why liberalisation has not stamped out corruption as originally hoped. First, the process of transferring assets and responsibilities from the public to the private sector is itself an invitation to such forms of corruption as sweetheart privatisation deals and lop-sided implementation of investment-promotion tax incentives. 7. The second reason stems from the continuous nature of reform programmes in most developing and transitional economies. The initial big-bang reforms are usually followed

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by an open-ended process in which governments tinker with alternative rules, experiment with regulatory authorities, introduce corporate governance and so on. Reformers, in short, have great discretion in determining how reform is to be implemented. Which options they choose in each case has implications for major business groups. 8. The opportunities for corruption thus continue to evolve and in some cases far exceed the possibilities during the era of state control. Even where reform decisions are taken impartially, advance notice can be extremely valuable to private sector players, especially when regulations governing capital markets are concerned. Continuous reform makes inside information, in both timing and substance, a much sought-after commodity.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following:


s cch bit giu ngho gia tng bin son nh ti tr c quan chnh ph t chc phi chnh ph xo i ngho ng bng sng Hng ph v trng tng cc thng k iu tra trung tm thng tin khoa hc thng binh v x hi chu thit thi vng su vng xa c trong 5 ngi th c 4 ngi... min ng Nam b khu vc ng bng sng Cu long thu hp khong cch nhim v quan trng hng u

Task 3. Translate the following into English vit nam - phn ho giu ngho ang gia tng
1. S cch bit giu ngho trong cc tng lp dn c Vit nam ang c chiu hng gia tng, mc d nu xt theo tiu chun quc t th mc cch bit ny cha phi l ln. Kt lun ny c rt ra t Bo co Pht trin ca Vit nam n m 2002 do cc c quan chnh ph, cc nh ti tr v cc t chc phi chnh ph cng tc bin son nhm mc tiu tin ti xo b tnh trng ngho i Vit nam. 2. Theo bn bo co, s cch bit giu ngho trn c nc gia tng ch yu l do mc chnh lch gia nng thn v thnh th tng ln. T ng trng ca khu vc thnh th vt xa mc t ng trng ca nng thn mi vng, tr vng ng bng sng Hng. Cn nu em so snh gia cc vng giu nht v ngho nht Vit nam th c th thy s phn ho li cng su sc hn.

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3. ng Nguyn Phong, ph v trng V X hi v Mi trng Tng cc Thng k cho bit, trong khi thu nhp nng thn tng ln 30% th thu nhp thnh th tng ln vi tc gp i, thm ch ti 4-5 ln ti cc thnh ph ln. Theo iu tra ca Tng cc Thng k, c trong 5 ngi ngho th c 4 ngi sng bng nng nghip. 4. B Hong Thu Nhung, Trng Phng Thng k thuc Trung tm Thng tin Khoa hc Thng binh v X hi cho bit, s chnh lch ln v thu nhp gia thnh th v nng thn khng ch n thun l iu kin sng m cn nh hng nhiu n cc vn vic lm, y t, gio dc. Bn bo co ni trn c tnh mt ln n bnh vin c th lm cho mt ngi ngho mt i mt s tin tng ng 22% tng chi tiu cho lng thc ca h trong mt nm. 5. Mc d t l hc sinh n trng t ng cao, song cn rt nhiu v ng, nhiu nhm ngi nng thn phi chu thit thi so vi thnh th trong vic tip cn gio dc c bn. Theo bo co ni trn, chi tiu cho hc tp thnh th bnh qun cao gp khong 10 ln khu vc nng thn. Ti cc vng ni, vng su vng xa, vic hc tp cng kh khn hn. Lai chu, ch c 49% ph n trng thnh bit ch. 6. S tng trng khc nhau theo tng vng cng l mt nguyn nhn lm rng thm h ngn cch giu ngho. Bn bo co cho bit trong giai on 93-99, vng pht trin mnh nht l min ng Nam b vi tc k lc l 78%. Cn vng pht trin chm nht l khu vc ng bng sng Cu long vi tc 18%. 7. Do , hn ch din bin phn ho giu ngho v tin ti thu hp khong cch gia nng thn v thnh th ang tr thnh mt trong nhng nhim v quan trng hng u ca Vit nam trong qu tr nh hoch nh v trin khai chin lc pht trin kinh t x hi trong thi gian ti.

Task 4. Describing trends


To avoid repetition and to show that you have a wide range of vocabulary, one word in Vietnamese can be translated differently into English. Look back at the examples from task 3: S cch bit giu ngho ang gia t ng The rich-poor gap is widening mc chnh lch gia nng thn v thnh th ng y cng gia t ng the worsening discrepancy between urban and rural areas What are the other verbs that are used to describe upward or downward trends?

Complete the following table Table 1. Intransitive verbs


Increase Decrease

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What are the adjectives used to describe the characteristics of the trends?

Complete the following table Table 2. Maximizers and minimizers


Maximizers Considerable Minimizers Slight

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UNIT 4. History and culture

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Nguyen Dynasty ( 1802-1945 )


1. Emperor Gia Long initiated what historian David Marr has called a policy of massive reassertion of Confucian values and institutions in order to consolidate the dynastys shaky position by appealing to the conservative tendencies of the elite, who had felt threatened by the atmosphere of reform stirred up by the Tay Son Rebels. Gia Long also began a large-scale program of public works (dikes, canals, roads, ports, bridges and land reclamation) to rehabilitate the country, which had been devastated by almost three decades of warfare. The Mandarin Road linking Hue to both Hanoi and Saigon was constructed during this period, as were a string of star-shaped citadels built according to the principles of the French military architect Vauban in provincial capitals. All these projects imposed a heavy burden on the Vietnamese population in the forms of taxation, military conscription and the forced labour. Gia Longs son, Emperor Minh Mang, worked to consolidate the state and establish a strong central government. Because of his background as a Confucian scholar, he emphasized the importance of traditional Confucian education, which consisted of memorisation and orthodox interpretation of the Confucian classics and texts of ancient Chinese history. As a result, education and spheres of activity dependent on it stagnated. Minh Mang was profoundly hostile to Catholicism, which he saw as a threat to the Confucian state, and he extended this antipathy to all Western influences. Seven

2.

3.

4.

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missionaries and an unknown number of Vietnamese Catholics were executed in the 1830s, inflaming passions among French Catholics who demanded that their government intervene in Vietnam. 5. Serious uprisings broke out in both the North and the South during this period, growing progressively more serious in the 1840s and 50s. To make matters worse, the civil unrest in the deltas was accompanied by smallpox epidemics , tribal uprisings, drought locusts and most serious of all repeated breaches in the Red River dikes, the result of government neglect. The early Nguyen emperors continued the expansionist policies of the preceding dynasties, pushing into Cambodia and westward into the mountains along a wide front. They seized huge areas of Lao territory and clashed with Thailand over control of the lands of the weak Khmer Empire. Minh Mang was succeeded by Emperor Thieu Tri, who expelled most of the foreign missionaries. He was followed by Emperor Tu Duc, who continued to rule according to conservative Confucian precepts and in imitation of Qing practices in China. Both responded to rural unrest with repression.

6.

7.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


bnh a gia gim rau sng bnh cun bn ch nem rn chui tm bt rn ch u vn ming ngon H ni ming l Min nam Sch D a ch tm chua tiu vng tinh tu rau kinh gii gi bnh khoi cch dng gia v cch by bin ng i snh n tao nh x b thng tc ho cm u n thng thc

Task 3. Translate the following into English 21

MN N VIT NAM
1. Ngi nc ngoi thch mn n Vit nam khng ch bi n ngon m cn bi s a dng ca n. Ngi Vit nam t nht c ba phong cch nu n khc nhau, mi cch bt ngun t ba min : min Bc, min Trung, v Nam B; l cha k cc cch nu n cc tiu vng khc nhau. 2. Ngi min Nam thch dng u phng v bnh a lm nguyn liu nu nng. Ph l mt mn n gc Bc nhng khi nu ph th ngi min Nam li dng gia gim ngi min Bc khng n, v d nh gi v rau sng. 3. C mn n min Bc v min Nam u rt ngon, nhng mn n min Nam c xu hng ngoi lai, cn mn n min Bc c v tinh tu hn. C l bi vy m V Bng, mt ngi snh n ca Vit Nam, t tn sch vit v mn n t Bc ca mnh l "Ming ngon H Ni" v mn n min Nam l "Ming l min Nam". 4. Ngc li, mn n Hu li rt tao nh. Rt nhiu mn n Hu c ngun gc t triu Nguyn vo th k 19. Mt s mn n ni ting ca Hu l tm chua, bn b Hu, bnh khoi, ch u vn. Do ngy cng c nhiu ngi thch nm nhng mn n ngon ny nn cc qun Hu mc ln nh nm HN v TP HCM. 5. VN l mt nc di v hp, tri t Bc xung Nam vi rt nhiu vng v tiu vng khc bit nhau v x hi, vn ha v a l nn vic VN c nhiu mn n cng l iu d hiu. Mt cun sch dy nu n HN gn y c lit k ra 555 mn n VN nhng cc nh chuyn gia ni rng y ch l 1/10 tng s nhng mn n ca VN. 6. Mn n ca HN c t li trong sch s t rt sm. Trong cun "D a ch" c xut bn vo u th k 15, Nguyn Tri lit k ra rt nhiu mn n ni ting ca t kinh k thi . 7. V Bng nhn xt: "Vo mt ngy ma thu, ti lang thang khp 36 ph phng HN v cht nhn ra rng HN thay i rt nhiu: ph x , nh ca, qun o. Nhng c mt th vn khng thay i: mn n ca ngi HN". 8. Cch dng gia v trong mn n l mt phn rt quan trng trong cch nu nng ca ng i HN. Mi mn n u c nhng gia v v cch by bin ring ca n: l chanh v mui tiu n vi tht g luc, rau kinh gii n vi bn cua ng, tht vt i v i ti v tht b i vi gng. 9. i vi ngi HN gc th cch n cng khng km phn quan trng so vi n bi l h coi n ung l mt dp bn b v h hng gp g hn huyn. H n ung t t thng thc ht nhng v ngon ca cc mn n. Nhng trong s x b ca cuc sng hin i th cch n ung ny b thng tc ha v mi ngi ch cm u n m khng thng thc mn n.

Task 4. Look back at the examples from task 3

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Ngi nc ngoi thch mn n Vit nam khng ch bi n ngon m cn bi s a dng ca n. Foreigners like Vietnamese food not only because of its refined taste but also its variety.

Now translate the following sentences into English, using the prompts given
1. Dn tc Vit nam khng nhng anh hng trong chin u m cn cn c trong lao ng. (not only .. but .. as well) 2. Khng ch sinh vin m c gio vin cng phi n lp ng gi. (both) 3. Mn n Vit Nam khng ch hp dn khch nc ngoi m cn hp dn chnh ngi dn bn x. (alike) 4. Trong my thp nin qua Vit Nam t c nhng tin b ng k v kinh t cng nh x hi. (as well as) 5. Trung quc gi y ang c coi l nn kinh t n ng ng nht th gii v nc ny t ng trng khng nhng nhanh m cn bn vng. (coupled with) 6. S d bn Hin Php ca Hoa K tn ti c lu nh vy l v n va n gin li va rt linh hot. (and)

unit 5. biology - the future industry

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Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese gmos - the pros and cons
1. The developing worlds population is growing fast, but the amount of land available for cultivation is not. To feed the 2 billion new mouths expected by 2025, new ways must be found to squeeze more calories out of each hectare. More people means not just more stomachs to fill, but also more brains to figure out how to fill them. 2. There are plenty of good ideas available. The most powerful is biotechnology, and especially genetic modification (GM). It is a young science: the first commercially available genetically modified organism (GMO) appeared a mere five years ago. Supporters of GM expect it to end world hunger. Opponents fear it may poison us all. It is now worth stepping back for a moment to consider the breathtaking opportunities and the equally impressive dilemmas that were concomitant to that potential. 3. Farmers have been manipulating genomes since long before they knew about genes. For thousands of years, they sought to transfer desirable traits from one plant species to another by cross-breeding: this was how wild grasses were turned into wheat. They also selectively bred animals to make them fatter and tastier: this was how wild boars became pigs. 4. GM aims to achieve similar results, but much faster, and more precisely, too. Jennifer Thomson, professor and head of the microbiology department at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, describes how important genetically modified crops are to subSaharan Africa. In her work with maize, she has seen how it and other crops could be made drought-tolerant, virus-, fungus- and insect-resistant. Genetically modified food is part of an integrated approach to dealing with food shortages in parts of the world where famine still strikes. 5. Against these actual and potential benefits must, however, be set the potential dangers. Shifting genes between different species could create health risks, and GM crops may cause environmental problems. As with any new technology, it is impossible ever to prove conclusively that GM foods are safe. It is essential to test GM products carefully before releasing them, and to keep monitoring them afterwards. 6. For the poor, GM appeared at an awkward time. After several people in Britain died of what was almost certainly a human version of mad-cow disease, Europeans lost faith in their governments ability to keep dangerous food off their plates. This is probably why some poor countries hesitate to plant GMOs for fear of upsetting Europeans. NGOs claim that GM crops may contaminate neighbouring fields with their pollen. It would be a short step to call for a boycott of all the food exports, modified and unmodified, of countries where GMOs are widely grown. 7. Since people in rich countries rarely go hungry, they were not wildly excited about the promise of cheap and abundant food. But in the mean time, it is sad that the priorities of the well-fed few should make it harder for the worlds hungry billions to feed themselves.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following:

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kha cnh o c khoa hc di truyn liu php chn bnh tnh th kh x hi nhi xinh xn bom nguyn t th bom tia phng x sinh th c bin i gen hoi nghi ty chay tht cht qui nh dn nhn

Task 3. Translate the following into English kha cnh o c trong khoa hc di truyn
1. Khng ai c th ph nhn rng vic s dng cc liu php di truyn hc chn v cha bnh l mt bc tin ln trong lch s lo i ngi, nhng iu ny cng lm ny sinh nhng tnh th kh x v mt o c. Trong mt bui thuyt trnh mang ta Khoa hc v Y dc: c phi chng ta ang hnh ng thay cho Cha Tri?, gio s Peter Singer ca trng i hc Princeton Hoa K ch ra rng trn thc t vic s dng cc k thut di truyn chn v cha bnh c nhiu u im rt ln, nhng cng cn phi c mt gii hn nht nh. iu g s xy ra nu nh chng ta dng k thut di truyn to ra nhng hi nhi xinh xn theo n t hng ca b m chng? 2. Khng ch c gio s Singer m nhiu ngi khc cng t ra c bit quan tm n vic ng dng mn di truyn hc cng nh nhng nh hng lu di ca n. Ngi ta vn cha qun vic Robert Oppenheimer, ngi ch to ra bom nguyn t, v cc ng nghip ca ng phi cht v tia phng x nh th no khi M th qu bom nguyn t u tin Los Alamos. l mt bi hc thm tha cho tt c chng ta. 3. Hn na, ngi ta cn lo ngi v ngha ca cuc cch mng gen i vi nhng ngi khng c kh nng tip cn n, v iu ny s lm cho kho ng cch gia ngi giu v ng i ngho cng thm su sc. 4. Cn b Shiva, gim c trung tm Nghin cu Khoa hc v Cng ngh ca n th t ra hoi nghi i vi quan im cho rng nhng sinh th c bin i gen s u vit hn nhng sinh th t nhin. B ch ra rng ngi dn sng v ng ni Hymalaya qu b thng th n hn trm tui m chng phi ung bt k mt loi thuc bin i gen no. 5. mt s quc gia, nh c chng hn, dn chng ngy cng t ra lo ngi v nguy c ca vic pht trin nhng sn phm nng nghip c bin i gen. Mt s ni ng i ta thm ch cn ty chay khng dng nhng sn phm loi ny. Trn thc t, thi phn i ca dn chng lm cho cc chnh ph phi tht cht hn cc qui nh i vi vic pht trin, s dng v dn nhn hiu cc thc phm c bin i gen.

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Task 4. Translation of unidentified subjects Look back at the examples from task 3
Khng ai c th ph nhn rng... Few could argue that... Ngi ta cn lo ngi v... There is also massive concern about... Dn chng ngy cng t ra lo ngi v... There is growing public disquiet about... Thi phn i ca dn chng lm cho cc chnh ph phi... The hardening of public attitude has resulted in the governments...

Now translate the following into English


1. Nhiu ngi bt u t du hi i vi nhng li ch ca cng ngh bin i gen. 2. V mt sc kho v mi trng, chng ta tin l cha c bng chng khoa hc tho ng cho php vic sn xut thng mi cc loi cy trng c ci bin gen. 3. Chng ta cn thng lng v a vo thc hin cc tho c quc t bo v sc kho cng ng v ti nguyn mi trng. 4. Ngi ta trng i vn cy trng c ci bin gen s l mt ch tho lun c ng thng ti Hi ngh B trng WTO Doha. 5. D lun rng ri u cho rng cn thng qua nghin cu khm ph nhng c hi nhm gip nng dn ngho v ngi tiu dng c thu nhp thp c th thu c li t cy trng bin i gen.

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check your progress 1 (105 minutes)


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese
1. Ours is a world in which no individual, and no country, exists in isolation. We are all influenced by the same tides of political, social and technological change. Pollution, organized crime and the proliferation of deadly weapons likewise show little regard for borders. We are connected, wired, interdependent. 2. Much of this is nothing new, but todays globalisation is different. It is happening more rapidly and is governed by different rules or, in some cases, by no rules at all. It is bringing us new choices and opportunities, yet millions of people experience it not as an agent of progress, but as a disruptive force that can destroy lives, jobs and traditions. 3. Faced with the potential good of globalisation as well as its risks, faced with the persistence of deadly conflicts in which civilians are the primary victims, faced with the pervasiveness of poverty and injustice, we must be able to identify the areas where concerted action is needed to safeguard global interests. It is high time we gave more concrete meaning to the idea of the international community. 4. Some say it is only a fiction or too elastic a concept. But I believe it does exist. When we see an outpouring of international aid to the victims of earthquakes in Turkey and Greece, that is the international community following its humanitarian impulse. When governments are pressed to relieve the worlds poorest countries from crushing debt burdens, that is the international community throwing its weight behind the cause of development. When civil society obliges governments to adopt a convention banning weapons of mass destruction, that, too, is the international community in its attempt to protect world peace. 5. So what binds us into an international community? In the broadest sense there is a shared vision of a better world for everyone as set out in the founding Charter of the United Nations. There is a framework of international law, treaties and human rights conventions.

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There is also our sense of shared opportunity, which is why we build common markets and joint institutions. Together, we are stronger. Kofi Annan UN Secretary General

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the special terms below


thm thc b kh ccbonc kh mtan tia cc tm xt nit tm khin t nhin th phm bnh ci xng bnh si thn tr tri kh cn n mn lan can

Task 3. Translate the following into English


1. Trc khi con ngi xut hin, th gii ch thay i ht sc chm chp qua hng ngn, nu khng ni l hng triu nm. Nhng trong vng hai ngn nm tr li y th tc thay i li ht sc nhanh chng. Cc khu rng bin mt, sng ngi thay i dng chy, v cc thm thc b t nhin nhng ch cho t nng nghip v thnh ph. S cn bng tinh t ca to ho b ph v, gy ra nhng vn nan gii cho s sinh tn ca loi ngi. 2. Hiu ng nh knh. S tch t cc kh nh knh nh ccbonc, mtan v CFCs thi ra t hot ng cng v nng nghip lm cho nhit b gi li trong bu kh quyn, lm cho tri t ngy cng m dn ln. Nu tri t tip tc nng ln vi tc hin nay th n n m 2030, mc nc bin s dng cao thm 1 mt, khin cho 15 triu ngi B nglat lm vo cnh mn tri chiu t. Nhiu khu vc Lun n s chm di nc, v thnh Vniz s b ph hu hon ton. 3. Suy gim tng zn. Tng zn hp th ti 99% tia cc tm c hi t mt tri. Nhng cc cht gy nhim nh CFCs, mtan v xt nit ang ph hu tm khin t nhin ny v ng i ta pht hin c mt vi l hng ln trn tng zn. S suy gim tng zn l th phm chnh gy ra cc bnh nguy him nh ung th da, ci xng v si thn. 4. Nn cht ph rng. Hng n m c ti hn 100 ngn km vung rng b cht ph, m rng li l ngun cung cp xi ch yu cho chng ta. Nn ph rng lm bin mt cc loi ng thc vt cha c pht hin, m nhng lo i c th em li rt nhiu li ch cho con ng i. Nn t rng s thi ra kh ccbonc v lm hiu ng nh knh cng trm trng thm. t khng cn rng che ph s b ma ra tri, li mt khung cnh tr tri kh cn.

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5. Ma axt. Kh axt thi ra t sn xut cng nghip kt hp vi hi m trong khng kh to nn ma axt, lm thit hi cho cy ci , git cht c v cc loi ng vt thu sinh khc, ph hu cc ngi nh xy bng gch hay , v n mn cc cy cu v lan can bng kim loi.

part ii. economics and international trade

unit 6. trade pact offers hope


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese TRADE PACT OFFERS HOPE

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1. Spirits have been lifted by July 2001 agreement on the US-VN trade pact after more than four years of protracted negotiations. The agreement would dramatically open Vietnams economy and develop trade between the two nations. The deal will give the Vietnamese access to the US market on the same terms as other nations and could lead to $1 billion of extra business for Vietnamese companies. The deal will also help Hanois bid for membership of the WTO. In return, the agreement should result in enhanced opportunities for US investors in Vietnam. 2. It is important to realize the deal limitations. All the deal does is give Vietnam normal trade relations status (NTR), previously termed MFN, allowing its goods to enter the US at the same low tariff rates accorded to most countries. The deal does not touch the existing set of quotas. Though economists have estimated Vietnams exports to the US - which were $450 million last year - could double in the first full year of agreement, it is wise to remember that similarly optimistic forecasts were made following the normalisation of diplomatic ties in 1995. The expected tourism boom never materialised. 3. Another limitation is the severity of the foreign investment downturn, which can be ascribed partly to the regional crisis. But an equally important factor is foreign investors frustration at the difficulties of doing business in Vietnam. Since the opening of Vietnam to foreign investment in 1988, foreigners have run the spectrum from hope, to disillusion, to despair. 4. There are foreign firms making money in Vietnam. This fact is often given less than its due coverage. That is partly because it is wise for successful entrepreneurs, both foreign and local, to keep a low profile. The Party is suspicious of wealth and of private enterprise, and the tax authorities are quick to target the wealthy. 5. Recently licence procedures were simplified, even for 100% foreign-owned ventures. Initially 70/30 jointventure agreements dominated foreign investment into Vietnam, but it was found that the local partners frequently brought nothing to the table except overpriced land. Foreign investors have since increasingly preferred 100% foreign-owned enterprises, despite their more limited duration and the difficulties of securing land. Alternatively foreigners use business cooperation contracts, in effect sponsoring Vietnamese private entrepreneurs. Many of the success stories stem from these low-profile understandings. 6. The difficulties are enormous, however. All ventures in Vietnam are subject to shifting, unclear, and arbitrary taxation of the companys profits, its land, and its employees, who are subject to a steeply progressive tax regime which means that an employee earning $2000 a month will cost the employer around $10,000 a month. Firms can not translate their income into foreign currency. Entry into existing Vietnamese distribution channels is impossible. Contracts between Vietnamese and foreigners are largely unenforceable. The commercial court system is non-functioning. The local arbitration system has no power of enforcement and the enforceability of arbitration under the New York Convention of Foreign Arbitral Award, to which Vietnam has acceded, is untested. 7. The authorities claim to be addressing these problems and hold occasional high-profile dialogues between officials and foreign investors, but the value of these get-togethers is treated by investors with growing scepticism.

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Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


b trng ngoi giao (M) th trng (M) b trng ngoi giao (Vit nam) th trng (Vit nam) cuc hp bo tng b th th tng(VN) th tng (c) thng k s ngi M mt tch du n nhp c tip tc hon thi hnh tu chnh n Jackson-Vanik quan h lnh s cho php thnh lp to lnh s i n k kt hip nh ang trong qu trnh thng lng hip nh mang tnh bc ngot quc hi (M) quc hi (Vit nam) ph chun lnh vc cn tr tr tin chng bun bn ma tu

Task 3. Translate the following into English Ngoi trng M Albright mun xc tin hip nh thng mi Vit-M (Trch bi pht biu ca bgoi trng Madeleine K. Albright ti cuc hp bo ngy 6/9/99 ti khch sn Daewoo, H ni. Ngun: B Ngoi giao Vit nam)
1. Xin cho qu v . Ti rt vinh d c tr li Vit nam ln ny. Trc khi bay i thnh ph H Ch Minh, ti mun pht biu v i li v cuc hi kin hm nay vi ngi Tng b th, ngi th tng v ph th tng. 2. K t chuyn ving thm Vit nam ca ti cch y 2 nm, Vit nam v M cng c c mi quan h hai nc trong hai vn c bn. Trc tin, chng ti lun bit n s hp tc ca cc bn trong vic cng chng ti c gng thng k s ngi M mt tch trong cuc chin tranh Vit nam. 3. Mt du n quan trng khc trong vic bnh thng ho quan h l vn ngi nhp c. Nhng tin b r rt ca Vit nam cho php chng ti tip tc ho n thi hnh tu chnh

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n Jackson-Vanik v bnh thng ho quan h lnh s gia hai nc - iu ny c th hin bng vic ti s cho php thnh lp to lnh s mi ti thnh ph H Ch Minh ng y mai. 4. Tuy nhin trong cuc hi kin sng nay ti cng nhn mnh rng Vit nam cn phi i n k kt mt s bn hip nh cn ang trong qu trnh thng lng, v nhng hip nh s gp phn thc y tng trng v tht cht hn quan h kinh t gia Vit nam v M. 5. iu ct yu nht by gi l chng ta cn i n tho thun v mt hip nh thng mi mang tnh bc ngot. Nu c quc hi M ph chun, hip nh ny s to iu kin cho quan h thng mi t do hn gia hai nc chng ta. Sau bn n m c gng m phn, chng ta cn hnh ng nhanh chng nu khng mun b l c hi qu bu ny. 6. Tt nhin, vic pht trin kinh t ca Vit nam khng ch ph thuc vo cc hip nh k kt vi M. thc y u t nc ngoi v mu dch ni chung, Vit nam cn phi tip tc v tng cng i mi. y cng l tin Vit nam c th gia nhp WTO. 7. Ti cng thc gic cc nh lnh o Vit Nam phi hnh ng trit trong mt s lnh vc phi kinh t hin nay cn tr tr, chng hn nh vic chng bun bn ma ty, hay vic k kt mt hip c to iu kin cho hp tc hai bn trong cc nghin cu khoa hc v y t. 8. Mt ln na, ti xin cm n B trng Ngoi giao Nguyn Mnh Cm nhit tnh n tip ti. Mc d cn mt s vn cha gii quyt c gia hai nc, nhng nu Vit Nam n lc th chng ti cng s c gng gp i trong thi gian ti. By gi ti xin ch c tr li cc cu hi ca qu v.

Task 4. Possessive adjectives


Normally in VN-EN translation, it is necessary to add posessive adjectives before some nouns to make them more identifiable. Look back at the examples from task 3 Ti mun pht biu v i li v cuc hi kin hm nay v i ngi... I would like to say a few words about my talks today with.... Nhng tin b r rt ca Vit nam cho php chng ti tip tc hon thi hnh tu chnh n Jackson-Vanik Vietnams strong performance has permitted us to renew our Jackson-Vanik waiver Vit nam cn phi tip tc v tng cng i mi. Vienam needs to continue and intensify its reforms. Ti xin cm n B trng Ngoi giao Nguyn Mnh Cm n tip ti. I would like to thank Minister Cam for his welcome.

Now translate the following into English, paying special attention to the possessive adjectives
if necessary

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1. D b ngoi khng my d coi nhng anh y vn c mi ngi qu mn. 2. Trong bi din v n, v thng c cam kt s c gii php tho g cho hon cnh kh khn ca nhng ngi v gia c. 3. Dn chng ang ni dy chng li nhng nh lnh o thi nt. 4. Sau khi ln cm quyn, ng ta thanh ton mi i th chnh tr. 5. Th gii ang ku gi h tn trng bn ho c h k kt vi cc nc lng ging. 6. H phn bi t quc khi bn nhng b mt qun s cho cc ip vin ca ch. 7. Cc ngn hng ni rng vic thua l l mt bc tt yu trong qu trnh phc hi sau khng hong.

8. Chnh s suy yu trn th trng chng khon M khin cc nh u t chuyn vn


sang th trng chu . Related links:

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Unit 7. Rethinking Asia after the crisis


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese THE ANSWER: DEGLOBALISE
1. The financial crisis has spawned 1001 proposals for the reform of the global financial order. But beneath the technical details and differences, there are three basic approaches. 2. The first sees the current financial architecture as basically sound. What needs improvement is the wiring of the system. The way to deal with the crisis, according to this

34

school, is not to create a new global regulatory structure but to expand the role and resources of the IMF, making it a lender of last resort, but only to countries willing to undertake tough financial reforms, which include more liberalisation, greater transparency, tougher bankruptcy laws and more prudential regulation. 3. The second approach might be called the Back to Bretton Woods school. It proposes controls on capital flows via a transaction tax. These are not only meant to prevent destabilising movement of speculative capital or to encourage greater inflow of long-term direct investment and credit. Capital controls should also be seen as legitimate instruments for the pursuit of trade and industrial policies aimed at national economic development. 4. The third school views the problem differently. The main problem, according to this school, lies in the development model itself - the institutionalisation of exports and foreign capital as the twin engines of economic growth. The fundamental flaw of these economies is their indiscriminate integration into the global economy and their overreliance on foreign capital for development. 5. The way out of chronic and continuing crisis is the de-globalisation, albeit limited, of the domestic economy - that is, its reorientation toward greater reliance on the internal market, greater dependence on domestic capital resources, closer cooperation with neighbouring economies to create protected regional markets, a lower rate of growth that would generate less income inequality and inflict less harm on the environment, and income distribution and political reforms to underpin controlled development. 6. It would, of course, be ideal to have a more congenial international financial architecture, but since this is not going to happen soon, there are two overriding tasks. The first is to prevent current reforms from becoming a project to integrate financial sectors of developing economies into the global system controlled by the North. The second is to devise a set of effective capital controls, trade measures and regional cooperative arrangements that would allow internal economic transformations to take place with minimal disruption from external forces and developments.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


ng n ng tng trng tn d cuc i suy thoi bt u phi thai b tan r l ng c thc y ging mt n ch mng vo..... con s thng k cng nhc ng mng dn vn cc cng ty c u tin vay vn quay v hng ni phi mt mt thi gian .... c cu li h thng doanh nghip phn phi li ngn sch nh nc

Task 3. Translate the following into English

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KIM TM NG NNG TNG TRNG MI


1. Trong qu trnh pht trin ca cc nc ng , qua tn d ca mt trong nhng cuc khng hong ti chnh ln nht t cuc i Suy Thoi n nay, ngi ta cui cng nhn thy rng nhng nn tng cho mt nn kinh t mi ang bt u phi thai. Quyt nh ca Trung Quc trong vic ni lng cc hng ro mu dch nhm gia nhp WTO v thc y t ng trng kinh t l mt phn ca xu th t do ho ang din ra mnh m trong ton khu vc. 2. Thc t kinh t ng lo ngi ng , nht l h thng ti chnh b tan r ca khu vc, l ng c thc y xu th ny. S tin khng l 3% GNP m M phi b ra thanh ton nhng khon n hi thp k 80 tr nn chng c ngha l g nu em ra so snh vi s tin 15% GDP m Hn Quc cn thanh ton n (khong hn 95 t la, theo c tnh ca cc nh phn tch). Theo Deutsche Bank, s tin m In nsia cn khi phc h thng ti chnh l 50% GDP, v Thi Lan l 56%. 3. Cuc khng hong ti chnh cng vi nhng i thay ca kinh t to n cu ging mt n ch mng vo m hnh kinh t c ca chu . Nhiu tp on khng l tng l ng lc cho cc quc gia chu ngy xa gi y tan r. Cc ngn hng ti tr cho cc tp on ny cng vy. Hn na, ngnh cng nghip ch to cng ang b e do bi gi quc t ngy cng thp v p lc cnh tranh t chu M Latinh v ng u ngy cng tng ln. Do , chnh ph cc quc gia chu ang phi n lc tm kim mt ng n ng t ng trng mi cho th k 21.

4. Ln u tin k t thp k 60 khi khu vc bt u ct cnh, cc tp on cng nghip khng l bt u ch tm vo li nhun ch khng phi vo nhng k lc mi v sn lng. Nhng tp on hng mnh mt thi nay bt u tch nh, v chu gi y khng th trng cy vo h pht trin c na. Cc ngn hng trc kia ch ng vai tr ng mng dn vn vo cac cng ty c u tin vay vn, gi y cng buc phi a dng ho hot ng ca mnh. Chnh ph, trc kia ch quan tm n nhng con s thng k cng nhc, nay ch trng hn n cc nhu cu c bn ca x hi. Nhn chung cc nc chu u quay v hng ni, tm kim ng n ng tng trng t ngi tiu dng trong nc, t nhng ngnh s dng cng ngh cao, t dch v, v t cc doanh nghip nh. 5. Mc tiu ca cc nh lnh o chu khng g khc hn l lp li c thnh cng ca M trong M hnh Kinh t Mi ca nc ny. Theo li ng Tng Gim c U ban Pht trin Kinh t Singapore Liew Heng San, nhng nc no ph thuc qu nhiu vo ngnh cng nghip ch to s nhanh chng tr nn li thi. Do Singapore ang tch cc lp k hoch bin o quc ny tr thnh mt trung tm nghin cu v pht trin. ng Liew cn ni M hnh pht trin mi phi da trn kin thc. 6. Tuy nhin, c i mi l c kh khn v ri ro. M hnh kinh t mi ca chu phi mt mt thi gian pht trin mt cch y . Chu khng th ci t trong mt sm mt chiu. Nc M phi mt 20 nm mi xy dng c nn mng cho nn kinh t mi bng vic c cu li h thng doanh nghip, phn phi li ngn sch nh nc, v u t cho cng ngh. i vi chu , chng ng ny ch mi bt u.

Task 4. Use of English proverbs 36

Look back at the example from task 3 Chu khng th ci t trong mt sm mt chiu. Rome was not built in one day.

Translate the following into English, paying attention to the italicized phrases:
1. Cu nn kin nhn. C cng mi st c ngy nn kim. 2. - Bn c ht ch hng ny, t s tr tin cho cu. - ng tnh cua trong l, chc g c ngi mua hng ca cu. 3. Nu ti l anh th ti s khng mua nhiu c phiu ca cng ty ny nh vy, phi bit phn b ri ro ch! 4. Ti ngh sp qu li ri, l con ngi th c ai ton din u. 5. Theo ch, em khng nn hc cng mt lc hai ba trng nh th. Ci g cng bit th s chng bit n ni n chn u. 6. Ti thy tng ca anh rt hay v c th thc hin c, anh nn trin khai ngay i. ng n o nhiu qu, mu s ti nhn, thnh s ti thin m. 7. iu quan trng l anh chun b k lng. Vn s khi u nan, nu cn ti s gip anh.

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Related links:

UNIT 8. CHINA - DEAL OF THE CENTURY


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese How Beijing can learn from its neighbours blunders
1. The notion that market liberalisation is purely good is usually a given. But as Beijing, Washington and the world celebrate Chinas WTO pact, it is worth remembering that there are real hazards to plugging into the high-voltage grid of world capitalism with inadequate preparation. In the time before China must comply with the new rules, it should study the mistakes of other countries that liberalised ahead of it and implement the needed reforms. 2. The experiences of South Korea and Thailand in opening their financial markets prior to the Asia crisis offer hard lessons. Making the yuan freely convertible and dismantling barriers to foreign capital inflows arent yet part of Chinas plan for entering the WTO. But as its companies grow more sophisticated and are forced to fight to compete in the borderless world, China inevitably will be pushed to open its capital markets further. 3. When Korea faced this challenge, it managed the transition badly. Seoul liberalised its financial markets to coincide with its entry into the OECD in 1996. The result was that its banks, brokers and companies went on a wild spree. Allowed to borrow directly from foreign banks, giant conglomerates such as Daewoo Group loaded up on debt. Korea exhausted its foreign exchange reserves a year later. Humiliated, Seoul had to crawl to the IMF for a $58 billion bailout. 4. Thailand did no better. Its decision to introduce Bangkok International Banking Facilities in 1993 was applauded by free marketeers. This program, intended to make Bangkok an international financial centre, allowed Thai companies to borrow more easily in foreign currencies, typically at interest rates that were 5 to 6 percentage points lower than domestic rates. The wave of cheap foreign money at first looked benign. But as Thailands

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balance of payments worsened and short-term foreign loans came due, the baht collapsed. Dozens of finance firms were wiped out, and Thailands banking system is still buried in unpayable debts. 5. Although Chinas WTO deal mostly is about trade, it does offer foreign banks, fund managers and insurance firms greater access to its vast market. Once on the ground, the foreign companies will likely disrupt the fragile balance of Chinas wobbly financial structure. 6. This isnt an argument against liberalisation. It is a reminder that China must be savvy in laying the ground for what lies ahead. It must begin now to train bankers, brokers and mutual fund managers of tomorrow. If China doesnt get financial reform right, it wont realise the benefits of the WTO.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


li v thit lung lay (nn kinh t) th tc quan liu rm r iu k diu trong nhy mt tr cp xut khu luyn kim ho du cng ngh sinh hc

Task 3. Translate the following into English TRUNG QUC - LI V THIT KHI VO WTO
1. Ngy 15 thng 11 va qua, B trng thng mi Trung Quc v i din thng mi M k tho thun v vic Trung Quc gia nhp WTO. R rng l vo thi im ny Trung Quc gn nh khng cn s la chn no khc. Nn kinh t nc ny ang lung lay, nhp tng trng chm v tht nghip ln n mc hai con s. Cc nh u t nc ngoi ang rt vn khi Trung Quc v qu mt mi vi nhng th tc quan liu rm r. Trung Quc cn phi c WTO tin hnh ci cch. 2. Tuy nhin, tho thun Trung - M m ng cho Trung Quc gia nhp WTO cng khng th em li iu k diu trong nhy mt. Nhng tho thun ny l mt bc quan trng i vi Trung Quc trong qu trnh m ca th trng sau nhiu thp k khng c tin b. Mc d ci cch s i km vi nhiu thit hi, cc nh lnh o Trung Quc vn thc c rng s c nhiu ci li khng th b qua. 3. Theo c tnh, vic gia nhp WTO s em li cho Trung Quc mt khon u t 100 t la mi n m, v gip cho nn kinh t nc ny tng trng nhanh thm 1% nh vic tng hiu qu, t ng sc cnh tranh v t ng xut khu. Cc cng ty trong lnh vc cng ngh cao v cng ngh sinh hc s pht t. Ngnh dt may ni trong 5 nm c th to thm 5 triu vic lm, ngnh dch v 2,6 triu v ngnh xy dng 1 triu.

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4. Tuy nhin, c t c s tng trng trn hay khng cn tu thuc vo vic Trung Quc c thc hin nghim tc nhng cam kt ca mnh hay khng, v vo lng tin ca cc nh u t vo cng cuc i mi ca nc ny. Tho thun Trung - M yu cu Trung Quc phi m ca nhiu lnh vc bao gm vin thng, dch v internet, ngn hng, th trng chng khon v mng li phn phi. Ngoi ra Trung Quc cn phi ct gim thu nhp khu t 22% xung 17%, v bi b cc tr cp xut khu. 5. Ln u tin cc cng ty phng Ty c th bn sn phm trc tip cho ngi tiu dng Trung Quc. Hin nay, cc nh sn xut my tnh ang au u v cc loi hn ngch v thu quan i vi linh kin my, v v cc tr ngi trong vn phn phi. Gi y, vi tho thun WTO, cc cng ty c th ngh ti vic m rng kinh doanh. 6. Cc nng dn M cng c hi vng. Trung Quc s phi bi b tr cp xut khu v ct gim thu i vi cc mt hng nng phm. Nhng i vi nng dn v cc nh sn xut Trung Quc th tnh hnh khng my kh quan. Vic gia nhp WTO s dn n mt s phn cch ln gia k thng v ngi bi. Nhiu cng ty trong cc ngnh cng nghip nng nh luyn kim v ho du s c nguy c ph sn khi khng cn nhng hng ro mu dch mt thi nng h.

Task 4. Verb - noun collocations


In translating verbal phrases, it is wise to translate the noun (object) first and then consider what particular verbs can go with that noun. Never translate the verbs separately, as this may produce non-English phrases. Look back at the example from task 3: Trung quc cn thc hin cam kt ca mnh China needs to follow through its commitments Trung Quc phi bi b cc tr cp xut khu China needs to end all export subsidies What verbs can go with the following nouns? 1. policy 2. target 3. commitment 4. confidence 5. measure 6. barriers 7. restrictions 8. skills 9. poverty

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10. burden Related links:

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unit 9. IS GLOBALISATION DESIRABLE?


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese ADVANCING GLOBALISATION
1. Because of many countries inability to deal adequately with the effects of globalisation, as has happened in Asia during the financial crisis, many pundits declared the nation-state to be in retreat. Multinational corporations, financial institutions, labour unions, nongovernment organisations and other civil groups now seem to play more important roles in the world economy. This has led to the belief that the market has taken over, leaving governments on the sidelines. The danger in such a view is that it prompts another belief that since globalisation may not be in a nations best interest, neither can it be in an individuals. And in this may be a backlash against globalisation. 2. Against this, leaders such as Britains Tony Blair have responded with a third way, which seeks to place the nation-state firmly at the heart of globalisation. While a governments role may not be to intervene in the market, it can be in helping markets function properly and efficiently; and when there are social costs involved, it can lend a hand. Understood in this way, the nation-state isnt retreating, just repositioning itself as an integral part of globalisation. But while many European leaders have responded favourably to this new view, none has successfully shown how to translate it into policy. However, there is indeed a way. 3. First, a governments duty under this vision is to compel economic actors to meet basic standards of conduct, so markets function properly. It can achieve this by setting and supervising regulatory standards. Next, a government can help equip its citizens with the skills necessary in global economic competition. It is increasingly important these days that, for example, workers are computer literate and can communicate in more than just their mother tongue. Lastly, there is a need for social safety nets. Competition produces winners and losers. But unless someone takes care of the losers, social cohesion will fray as losers are shunted to the margins. 4. But thats not the end of it. Increasingly, there are concerns that the market imposes a value that is anathema to human dignity. Is governments role no more than to ensure market efficiency and to sharpen citizens competitiveness? What about nurturing a cultural and philosophical identity, offering a more spiritual fulfilment? Addressing these questions is a means to make people realize the importance of globalisation. This is particularly important in an Asia that now may be a little sceptical about this overwhelming trend. 5. Thus, beyond the bare basics, a government must also promote moral virtues, which in a limited definition means teaching people to be humble winners and sporting losers qualities that are important if we are to maintain social cohesion. In short, competition serves us well only if it is accompanied by moral virtues. A government can do much here through education, by inculcating a sense of cultural identity.

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6. Indeed, respect for virtues defined in this way isnt uniquely Asian. It is universal, in so far as it embraces respect for other cultures. The Asian crisis was a tragedy that occurred because of globalisation. Not because globalisation is bad, but because many in Asia were insufficiently prepared for it. Nevertheless, there is a bright side. At last, it awakened many in Asia to the fact that they had been slow to adjust to the new rules. It also reminded us all that under the press of technological innovation and globalisation, the importance of our moral virtues had been overlooked. Globalisation can, and should have, a human face. And it may indeed evolve into an even stronger force in the next century.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following:


thiu nin y hoi bo khuych trng thuy t chn lc t nhin ca Darwin tc chng mt nhy bn vi thi cuc vp phi s phn ng ca... nn kinh t non nt

Task 3. Translate the following into English xu hng ton cu ho trong thin nin k mi
1. Cch y 30 n m, khi ngi ta hi cc thiu nin v mong mun ca cc em khi bc sang n m 2000, nhiu em s tr li: em mong mun ho bnh trn ton th gii. Gi y, nu chng ta t li cu hi cho vn nhng ngi th cu tr li rt c th s l: Ti mong mun c thng tr th gii, bi v nhng em thiu nin y hoi bo xa kia nay tr thnh lnh o ca nhng cng ty hng u th gii v ang lm vic khng mt mi khuych trng cng ty ca mnh. 2. Mi y, ng John Zeglis, ch tch cng ty AT & T by t quan im ca mnh v tm quan trng ca vic ton cu ho. Theo ng, trong tng lai, cc cng ty s ch c hai s la chn: hoc phi ton cu ho, hoc s ph sn. Quan im trn phn nh tinh thn ca mt th gii thng nht m trong thuy t chn lc t nhin ca Darwin t ra ng n hn bao gi ht. 3. Nhng iu ny cng chng c g mi. Trong th k va qua c rt nhiu cng ty m rng hot ng ra phm vi ton cu, v hin rt nhiu cng ty trong s vn ang thng tr th trng th gii. Trong s nhng cng ty hng u th gii, cc cng ty nh Ford Motor, General Electric v IBM hin vn c sn phm c cc h gia nh trn ton th gii a dng. 4. Ci mi l tc hot ng v thay i n chng mt ca cc cng ty. Cc tin b trong lnh vc thng tin gip cc cng ty c th qun l c mt b my hot ng rt ln m vn bo m c s nhy bn vi thi cuc. Cc k thut sn xut mi lm gim chi ph vn hnh v gip cng ty t c s sn xut nhng ni c nguyn liu v lao ng r.

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5. Nhng trong khi cc tp on khng l lu i ang s dng nhng tin b cng ngh phc v cho mnh, h cng phi i mt v i mt nguy c ln: cc i th cnh tranh non tr ca h cng c th s dng nhng tin b , v vi s ra i ca Internet, cc tp on khng l trong nhy mt c th b tut mt mt th phn ln m h dy cng xy dng by lu nay. 6. Xu th ton cu ho cng ang vp phi s phn ng ca cc quc gia ang pht trin, v h lo ngi rng cc cng ty a quc gia c th e da nn kinh t v cc cng ty ni a non nt ca mnh. Nhiu ngi cho rng M ang s dng h thng thng mi th gii phc v cho li ch ca ring mnh. Do cc nc ang pht trin ngy cng c nhng yu cu cao hn khi tham gia cc tho c thng mi v kinh t.

Task 4. Passives
Its more natural in Vietnamese to use active voice. But in English, passives are more widely used, especially when readers are not interested in the agent of the action. Look back at the examples from task 3: khi ng i ta hi cc thiu nin v mong mun ca cc em... when asked what they wished for... ch tch cng ty AT & T by t quan im ca mnh v tm quan trng ca vic ton cu ho the importance of globalisation has recently been spelt out by AT & T president cc tp on khng l trong nhy mt c th b tut mt mt th phn ln m h dy cng xy dng by lu nay market shares built up over decades could be lost overnight Now translate the following into English, using passive voice if it makes the sentences more natural: 1. Ti din n kinh t th gii va qua, ngi ta khng ch trch vic ton cu ho, m ch tp trung tranh lun v nhng cch tip cn khc nhau i vi xu th ny m thi. 2. Chng ta ai cng mun sng trong mt nn kinh t th trng, nhng li chng ai mun sng trong mt x hi mang tnh th trng. V mt thch thc m chng ta ang gp phi gi y l lm sao gi cho x hi ca chng ta ng mang tnh th trng thun tu. 3. Theo th tng Anh Tony Blair, vai tr lnh o chnh tr ca chnh ph trong x hi ang thay i. Ci chng ta cn l mt chnh ph nhy bn vi ci cch v khng s ci cch. 4. Vin tr khng hon li c mt s u im so vi vic cho vay. Cc nc vin tr c th ng ng cp vin tr khng hon li nu cc nc nhn vin tr khng tun th cc iu kin do nc vin tr t ra. 5. Qu trnh ton cu ho i hi chng ta phi thay i nhng lut l v thi quen c.

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Related links:

UNIT 10. the ASIAn century


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese ASIAS ECONOMY SURVIVING THE AFTERSHOCK
1. If anyone in Asia thought the atrocities of September 11 were distant events, tragic but far removed, with no real impact on their daily lives, they have surely changed their minds by now. 2. Already the economic downdraft from the U.S. tragedies is fanning a chill wind across the Asia-Pacific region. As trade evaporates and inveestment flows dry up, Asia is beginning to experience the flip side of globalization. Now, through no fault of their own, Asian countries are facing a slump likely to last 6 months longer, and with a trough far deeper, than anyone had expected. 3. Worst of all, theres very little Asia can do about it. The regions central banks can cut rates in response to cuts in the U.S, governments sitting on spare cash can raise public spending, and countries with floating exchange rates can try to massage their currencies

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lower. But with confidence inside the U.S, the worlds biggest economy and long the engine of global growth, hammered hard by the attacks on New York and Washington, such measures can only cushion the blow, not deflect it. 4. The impact of U.S recession will be felt keenly by Asias export-led economies. The regions smaller, more open countries had already suffered bitterly from the slowdown in external demand caused by the global technology slump. After seeing record double-digit declines in electronics export during the first half of the year, Singapore and Taiwan have already been pushed into recession. 5. Its not only exports that will be affected by the September 11 attacks, investment is also at risk. The sharp sell-off in global stock markets over the second half of September emphasizes the heightened sense of risk aversion among porfolio investors. The contagion has been particularly brutal across much of Asia. Whereas the benchmark Down Jones Industrial Average droppoed by 8% over the 3 weeks following the attacks, Singapores Strait Times index lost a whopping 15%. 6. Even before the horrific events of September 11, Asia was preparing for a global economic slowdown. But now, the regions economies will have to navigate a longer and more painful path to recovery.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


hip nh khung c hiu lc ho n ton iu tr tru hp l ho ni dung chng cho iu khon min tr c bit lch trnh m ca th trng d thay lng i d k hoch ct gim thu quan ban u phn tc dng

Task 3. Translate the following into English tnh hnh thung mi cc nc ng nam
1. t nht, v l thuyt, vi bao nhiu l hip nh thng mi m cc nc ng Nam , ang v sp sa k kt th chc chn thng mi khu vc ny s phi pht trin mnh m. Ti hi ngh thng nh ln th 8 Phnm pnh vo u thng 11 va qua, cc nc ASEAN cng b hip nh khung v t do thng mi vi Trung Quc vo n m 2013. ng thi cc nc ny cng ra tuyn b v vic tht cht quan h thng mi vi Nht bn, t chc cuc hi ngh thng nh u tin v i n (trong thng mi s l vn c u tin tho lun), v xut bn mt bn bo co v qu trnh hi nhp cc nn

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kinh t ASEAN + 3 nhm bt tay vi Nht Bn, Trung Quc v Hn Quc. Tun trc, Hoa k va tuyn b mt k hoch mi nhm xc tin cc hip nh thng mi vi cc nc thnh vin ASEAN. Cn vo ngy 1 thng 1 n m 2003, khu v c mu dch t do ASEAN bt u c hiu lc hon ton v i 6 nc thnh vin u tin l Bruny, Innxia, Malaysia, Philppin, Singapo v Thi lan. 2. Tuy nhin iu tr tru l vic cc nc ua nhau k kt mt lot cc hip nh li chng t l nhng n lc thc y t do mu dch ca khu vc cha em li kt qu no ng k. Trc y, vi nn kinh t m, n nh v chi ph thp, ASEAN tng thu ht c nhiu d n u t nc ngoi c nh hng xut khu. Nhng cuc khng hong ti chnh nm 97 v giai on bt n sau khng hong lm cho khu vc ny km hp dn i nhiu, khin cho cc nh u t chuyn hng sang th trng Trung Quc hp dn hn. T n nay chnh ph cc nc ASEAN tng cng cc bin php tin n mt th trng chung vi 500 triu dn nhm ku gi cc nh u t tr li. Mt biu trng cao nht ca n lc ny l khu vc mu dch t do ASEAN, trong thu nhp khu gia cc nc b gii hn mc ti a 5%. Tuy u nhn thc c v nhng li ch ca t do mu dch, cc thnh vin AFTA cha c s tin tng ln nhau hp l ho li h thng hin nay cng nh cng m phn nhng hip nh chung vi cc nc ngoi khi. Kt qu l c c mt ng cc ngh nh th v hip nh vi ni dung chng cho c k kt. 3. Ngay c hip nh mi k kt vi Trung Quc cng s qui nh nhng iu khon min tr c bit v cc lch trnh m ca th trng khc nhau vi tng thnh vin ASEAN, mc d nm trong khun kh chung. D sao th y cng l mt hip nh do pha Trung Quc ch khng phi ASEAN xng. Trung Quc ln u tin a ra tng ny cch y hai n m - v c gng lm ngh ny hp hn bng nhng nhng li ha hn y thin ch v vic gim thu nhp khu vi hng nng sn t ASEAN trong vng 3 nm. 4. Tt nhin l hip nh ny c li cho ASEAN: thng mi vi trung Quc t ng ln 3 ln trong thp k qua vi thng d thng mi nghing v ASEAN. Mc tng tng nhanh ny ang gip gim bt s ph thuc ca ng Nam vo xut khu sang M, Chu u v Nht Bn hin ang tr tr. Khng c g phi nghi ng l trin vng xut khu min thu sang Trung Quc s thuyt phc mt s nh u t d thay lng i d tr li ASEAN. Khu v c mu dch t do ny s tr thnh mt th trng ln nht th gii vi hn 1.7 t ngi tiu dng. 5. Hy vng rng cc li ch ca k hoch ct gim thu quan ban u ca Trung Quc c thng bo ti Phnm Pnh s thc y ASEAN y mnh tin trnh hi nhp v t do ho thng mi. Nhng mt s ngi lo ngi vic ny s phn tc dng: nhng tho thun nh vy c th gy chia r su sc hn trong khi ASEAN v lm yu i kh n ng m phn tp th ca hip hi ny vi cc i tc bn ngoi.

Task 4. Figurative expressions 1


It is wise in reading English passages to make notes of beautiful structures and expressions, which may become handy in VN-EN translations afterwards. Look back at task 1 and underline any expressions or words you find beautiful.

Now try to translate the following into English, paying attention to the italicized phrases:

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1. Vic mt s quan chc cao cp c dnh lu n v b bi trong gii x hi en lm cho uy tn ca nh cm quyn b lung lay nghim trng.(sbs credibility/reputation takes a severe beating/is punctured/undermined) 2. a ng l iu khng th xy ra Vit nam. (the door remains shut to sth) 3. Ph th tng V Khoan c nhiu kinh nghim trong qu trnh m phn HTM Vit M v ng c th h tr c lc cho chnh ph trong vic xc nh nhng u tin cng nh nhng thch thc m Vit nam c th gp phi. (lend a big hand //pinpoint) 4. Yu t c bn ca mt h thng doanh nghip mnh l tnh minh bch v tinh thn trch nhim cao. (the nuts and bolts/the heart and soul) 5. Vic sp nhp ang tr thnh mt i vi cc cng ty chu hin nay. (mating season) 6. V Th tng mi c c s phi gnh trng trch lm trong sch chnh ph v y mnh hn na ci t kinh t. (shoulder the burden)

Related links:

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check your progress 2 (90 minutes)


Task 1. Translate the following into Vienamese
1. Globalization has replaced the Cold War as the main arena of debate over the values upon which societies, nations and international organizations should be built. The process of globalization has recently been accelerating for several reasons, including the latest wave of democratic transition. Following the collapse of communism in Eastern and Central Europe, many formerly authoritarian countries have embraced democracy and rejoined the international economy. Globalization is both the construction of a set of international relationships and a process of change. The wave of globalization that began after the Second World War has been shaped by a set of international rules or institutions ranging from the well known, such as the World Bank, to the relatively obscure, such as the International Organization for Standardization. Although this process has seen periods of pause and acceleration over the last fifty years, it is now fundamentally different than earlier periods in world history. Each nation also has to decide how to engage in the globalization process. Developed and developing countries alike must come to terms with the rapid integration of markets, the increasing flow of finance and the widespread use of technology. Even countries with a small, open economy need not be hapless victims swept up by international forces beyond their control. Failing to integrate into the emerging rule-based global system also has consequences. The experience of the former command economies in Central and Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union, is not simply the result of a failed ideology. It demonstrates that attempts to supplant a competitive market economy with government-driven investment plans can no longer be sustained.

2.

3.

4.

Task 2. Translate the following into English


1. R rng nn kinh t ca Vit Nam ang bc l nhng khim khuyt v khng c con ng no khc hn l phi m ca lm n vi th gii. Theo mt iu tra ca Phng Thng mi v Cng nghip Vit Nam gn y (c Ph th tng Nguyn Mnh Cm dn ra ti hi ngh), 16% doanh nghip cha c thng tin g v hi nhp kinh t quc t v n 50% cc doanh nghip cha bit g v Hip nh Thng mi Vit - M. Bn cnh , bao cp vn cn rt nng. chnh l ci khng th chp nhn khi hi nhp. 2. Chng ta ang ni n thi c v thch thc. Tuy vy, thi c khng phi t trn tri ri xung, m do chnh ta to ra v nm bt ly khi chng ta vt qua c thch thc ca

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chnh mnh. Ph th tng Nguyn Mnh Cm nhn mnh: Chng ta phi nhn r nhng yu km ca mnh khc phc khi lm n v i bn ngoi. 3. Theo ng Nguyn nh Lng, tr l B trng B Thng mi, trc ht chng ta cn phi u tranh vt qua nhng kh khn v thch thc ni ti ca nn kinh t. l nhng thch thc d nhn ra, nhng li v cng kh khc phc. Theo nhiu i biu tham d hi ngh th tnh cnh tranh yu ca hng ho Vit Nam l mt thch thc v l thch thc hng u. 4. cp n nhng thun li khi Vit Nam gia nhp WTO, Ph th tng Nguyn Mnh Cm cho rng Vit Nam s c mt th trng xut khu tng i n nh v c ch gii quyt cc tranh chp quc t. Thm vo , vic Vit Nam gia nhp WTO s gp phn lm quy ch thng mi quc t hp l hn, trnh b p t. Tuy nhin, Vit Nam cng s phi i mt vi nhng bt li nh nn kinh t cn lc hu, hay vic phi ct gim thu tc l gim ngun thu, th phn trong nc ca hng Vit Nam cng c th gim, v.v. Tuy nhin, xt trn ton cc, Vit Nam s bn lnh khc phc kh khn ni ti, chin thng nhng thch thc bn ngoi.

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translation 2
For higher- intermediate learners of English

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part iii. social issues ii

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UNIT 11. hEalth and welfare

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese moonlighting medicos in vietnam


1. Since health-care reforms were carried out in 1989, physicians and dentists have been allowed to supplement their incomes by seeing private patients on the side - after their regular office hours at state-run clinics and hospitals. Retired physicians, formerly on the state payroll, have also been allowed to start private practices. The reform and Vietnams move to a market-driven economy are starting to reshape healthcare services in the country. The government encourages private doctors and this is evident in the fact that doctors are not taxed for income earned from private practice, nor are public clinics. Proof of their popularity lies in Vietnams madical bills: the Vietnamese now dip into their pockets for more than half of the countrys total health care expenditure. Figures from the World Bank indicate that the Vietnamese spend more money on private doctors, dentists and privately-purchased medication than they do at state-run facilities. Although it costs more to visit a private doctor, its worth it for good care. But its more than just a quality issue, convenience is also a key selling point. Private doctors are open on weeknights and weekends, and theres less red tape. They can also perform additional diagnostic and other services such as laboratory tests, electrocardiograms, and minor surgeries. Doctors cite inflation, the cost of living, and their children education as key motivations for moonlighting. As in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, many Vietnamese pay for afterschool catch-up classes in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and foreign languages to improve their childrens chances of getting into a good university. Still, not everyone is so sanguine about the reforms. Some hospital administrators worry that the changes will lower the quality of health care and add to the burden of the already over-burdened doctors in the country. Moonlighters, they argue, will be overworked and too exhausted to provide quality care during regular clinic and hospital hours, let alone their private patients. Moreover, with many doctors quietly dispensing drugs as a side business, concerns have also been raised that medication will be over-prescribed. In addition, the uneven distribution of physicians is problematic too. The government no longer assigns medicalschool graduates to work in specific areas, and few leave the larger cities where they were trained.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


virt suy gim min dch mc, nhim bun bn ph n v tr em s ly lan

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nn dch phng bnh pht hin (bnh) nhm ngi c ri ro nhim bnh cao

Task 3. Translate the following into English ON KT CHNG LI BNH AIDS


1. Xt v mt t nhin th phi ni rng HIV thnh cng. Trong vng 20 nm qua k t khi tc hi ca n c y hc pht hin, loi virt suy gim min dch ny lm gn 60 triu ngi mc bnh, v con s mi ngy li tng thm 16000 ngi. Nhng nu xt t gc con ngi th HIV l mt thm ho. Trong s 60 triu ngi nhim HIV, hn 22 triu ngi cht v bnh AIDS, cn bnh do HIV gy nn. S cn li cng khng cn sng c bao lu na. 2. S ly nhim HIV bt ngun t Nam v chu Phi, v l mi e do ln i vi nhng n lc pht trin kinh t v xo i gim ngho trong khu vc. Nguyn nhn ly nhim l do nhng hnh vi c mc ri ro cao, hot ng thng mi ho tnh dc, nhn thc cn hn ch, an ton mu km, s dng thuc bng bm kim tim, s di chuyn trong dn c (t nc ny sang nc khc hoc t nng thn ra thnh th), v nn bun bn ph n v tr em cho hot ng mi dm. Nhng kh khn v kinh t x hi trong c i ngho v nn m ch lm cho chng ta cng nhn thy rng cn phi hnh ng trit v c hiu qu gim bt s ly lan ca i dch ny. 3. Vit nam, s ca c xt nghim HIV dng tnh tng u t nm 1990 khi ca nhim HIV u tin c pht hin thnh ph H Ch Minh. Tnh n thng 2 n m 2002, tng s c 18 196 ngi c chn on HIV dng tnh, hn 3000 ngi nhim bnh AIDS, v hn 2000 bnh nhn AIDS qua i. 4. Nhng con s k trn mi ch l nhng trng hp c ghi nhn, v con s thc t m chnh ph d on cn cao hn nhiu. Ti t hn l cn bnh ny ang bt u lan t nhm ngi c ri ro nhim bnh cao sang nhng ngi dn bnh thng. Trng hp ly nhim qua ng tnh dc ngy cng nhiu, vic s dng ma tu ng y cng tng, v lc lng lao ng ngy cng lu ng hn u ang khin cho mc ly lan ngy cng trm trng thm.

Task 4. Compound adjectives


Look back at the examples from task 3: s ly nhim qua ng tnh dc = sexually transmitted infections trng hp c ghi nhn = officially reported cases There are a number of ways adjectives are formed: adj + n + ed a cold -hearted girl, a thick-skinned man adv + Pii a well-educated girl, a beautifully-decorated vase noun + Pii a hand-made product, a fun-filled lesson adj + Ving a happy-looking child, a fast-moving society noun + Ving a heart-warming tale, a ground-breaking agreement

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Translate the following adjectives into English, paying attention to the underlined phrases
1. Xe my sn xut trong nc ang phi i mt vi s cnh tranh gay gt t xe my nhp khu vi gi r. Chnh ph tuyn b rng vic pht trin nhanh chng v cn i ca khu vc nng thn l u tin hng u ca t nc. Mt cuc iu tra do UNDP ti tr cho thy rng an ninh lng thc cng vi gio dc v chm sc sc kho ban u l mi quan tm hng u ca b con dn tc thiu s. Vit nam v Trung quc cam kt y mnh mi quan h lu i v s hp tc nhiu mt gia hai nc. C y thch loi nc hoa c mi nh nhng thm lu.

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Related link:

Unit 12. Tourism, land and people


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese The Saigon Blues
Months of fending off feral cyclo drivers and cigarette vendors can take its toll from Saigons expats. Yet, as Marie-Claire Arrts discovered, the only cure is more. 1. The Saigon Blues, my friend Barbara said abashed, after she had just abused a persistent cigarette vendor. Sometimes life in Saigon gets just a little too much for foreigners, and then they snap. The Saigon Blues are not quite so unexpected, but usually build up gradually and early symptoms are easily recognizable by those who have an eye for it. Someone once

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compared the stress process to having little pebbles thrown at you day after day. One pebble is harmless enough, but its the ceaseless bombardment which ultimately pushes you over the edge. 3. It starts on arrival at Tan Son Nhat airport, where youre pursued by an army of hawkers, money-changers and taxi drivers. Once all these have been negotiated and you enter the city proper, you discover its the hunting ground of cyclo drivers. Cyclo madam? is the inevitable greeting, preceded by a cheerful salute as if you were a long-time acquaintance. Do you know him? you wonder in the beginning. Because its inexcusable to cut an old friend dead. After all, were in this country to establish in-depth contacts with the local population. Sadly the exuberant greeting just happens to be the standard way to address potential customers. Just imagine how much energy is involved in this type of canvassing for custom. Cyclo drivers seem to have unlimited resources, as opposed to the easily drained foreigners. And if its a question of who has the most stamina, youll find that the salesman always wins. In fact, theres only one way to survive the rollercoaster called Saigon: dont look up, whatever happens. Because eye contact is fatal. Its an invitation for a lifelong friendship, or at least until you manage to sneak into a shop. Where you can not linger longer than two hour either, without arising suspicions. In any case, shopkeepers have learned to recognize fugitives from the street, and before you know it youll be the bamboozled owner of genuine Zippo lighters and antique dishes made just around the corner. When you do finally leave the shop, laboring under the weight of all those unwanted knick-knacks, there he is again, your loyal friend - the cyclo driver. Of course, madam definitely needs a cyclo now to cart all that junk back home. Sighing defeat, you clamber aboard this grown-ups pram and name your destination. OOOPS! Big mistake! First you have negotiated a fare, because suddenly a five minutes ride will cost you $2 - while an entire Vietnamese family with father, mother, kids and five ducks will pay just 40 cents. At moments like this, you realize that an attack of the Saigon Blues is imminent. Theres no real remedy for the Blues. Of course, theres always the option of booking a one-way ticket out of Vietnam. The outside world awaits, whether its some empty, unspoilt beach or the familiar sights and sound of home. Yet wherever you choose as an escape, the improbable invariably occurs: a deep yearning for Vietnam. Many have tried to get - and stay - away, but you always see them back a few months later. Shrugging and smiling sheepishly, though undoubtedly more energetic than before: Yes, I missed it after all, they say. Namstalgia is what photographer Tim Page calls the phenomenon. He was based in Saigon in the late 60s and is drawn back again and again by intensity of life in Vietnam. Its a bizarre longing for a country where every day is an ordeal, but where life is never boring.

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Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


s a dng v vn ho v sc tc lch s ho hng cha c knh xm nhp th trng sn u ton cu kin trc theo phong cch Php Qui hoch tng th Pht trin Du lch vn mang tnh c th c ch hai gi c ch cp php phn cp qun l chng cho nn i tin bi dng t v qu ti sn chi bnh ng cht xc tc

Task 3. Translate the following into English Du lch Vit Nam


1. L do m cc cng ty kinh doanh du lch hng u th gii quan tm n Vit Nam tht n gin: t nc ny c mt tim nng ln v du lch cha c khai thc. Vit Nam thu ht khch du lch bi s a dng v v n ho v sc tc, mt lch s ho hng, bi nhng cng trnh kin trc theo phong cch Php, Trung Hoa v Chm, nhng ngi cha c knh, bi mt b bin di, nhng mn n ngon v tt nhin c nhng c hi kinh doanh na. Trong thi gian gn y, Vit Nam tr thnh mt trong nhng im du lch hng u chu . Hu nh mi lnh vc i sng t nc ny hin ny u t nhiu chu s tc ng ca du lch. Mc d s liu thng k chnh thc t ra khng ng tin cy nhng c tnh ngnh du lch ng gp khong 2% trong tng s vic lm ca c nc. Doanh thu t du lch lin tc t ng t nm 1996. Nhn thc c y l mt ngun thu ngoi t v to cng n vic lm ng k, chnh ph Vit Nam a ra Quy hoch Tng th Pht trin Du lch Giai on 1995-2010, trong t ra khun kh chung cho vic pht trin ngnh du lch ca t nc. Mc d xm nhp ng k vo th trng du lch khu vc, song trn sn u ton cu hin nay, v c th l trong nhiu nm ti, Vit Nam vn cha phi l mt i th ng k. Mt nghin cu gn y ca Ngn hng Th gii ch ra nhng vn mang tnh c th ca ngnh du lch v nhng vn c tnh cht lin ngnh cn tr hot ng v s pht trin ca cc doanh nghip du lch Vit Nam. Mc d du lch Vit Nam t nhiu tin b trong thi gian qua (v d: nng cao cht lng khch sn, trang b mng Internet, nng cp c s h tng v xo b c ch hai

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gi), nhng khu vc t nhn vn cha c t do khai thc mi c hi kinh doanh. C ch cp php khng cho cc doanh nghip t nhn c tham gia y vo cc hot ng lin quan ti khch quc t trong khi cc doanh nghip nh nc li kim sot ton b ngnh ny. 6. Bn cnh , ngnh du lch cn phi i mt vi mt s thch thc nh th tc u t rm r, phc tp, phn cp qun l chng cho v nn i tin bi dng; nhng iu ny gy cn tr vi c u t trong nc v nc ngoi. Theo cc nh nghin cu, cn c mt s tn ti khc nh hng n s pht trin ca ton ngnh. V d, nhng quy nh hin hnh v th thc c th khin khch du lch chn im n khc chu , thay v chn Vit Nam. Hoc, tnh trng c quyn trong ngnh hng khng dn n vic t v qu ti, thiu chuyn bay, hnh khch khng hi lng vi cht lng phc v, c bit l trong ma du lch.

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Vit Nam cn n lc hn na khai thc tt nhng c hi ln cho pht trin du lch trn th trng khu vc. M ca ngnh du lch nhm chun b cho vic gia nhp WTO s thc y cnh tranh v mang li nhiu li ch quan trng; nhng iu ch xy ra trong di hn. Trc mt, Vit Nam cn to mt sn chi bnh ng gia doanh nghip nh nc v doanh nghip t nhn. Vic loi b nhng quy nh hn ch hot ng ca khu v c t nhn s mang li li ch cho doanh nghip thuc mi loi hnh s hu. Ngoi ra, m bo mt tng lai v ng chc, ngnh du lch phi xy dng mt chin lc ton din. iu khng ch phc v cho li ch ring ca ngnh v kinh nghim thc t cho thy rng du lch c th l cht xc tc pht trin cc ngnh kinh t khc.

Task 4. Polishing first draft


In VN-EN translation, it is wise to spend very little time to produce your first draft, and then take another look and see if you can polish it by using more formal/elegant/refined vocabulary or structures.

Try to find at least three ways to express each of the following in English
c mt tim nng ln v du lch cha c khai thc Vit Nam thu ht khch du lch bi ... hu nh mi lnh vc u t nhiu chu s tc ng ca ... doanh thu t du lch lin tc t ng cha c t do khai thc nh hng (xu) n s pht trin ca ... xm nhp ng k vo th trng khu vc

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Unit 13. Agriculture


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese would agriculture hold back the economy?
1. For politicians and economists, economic development has long been synonymous with industrialization. Todays advanced economies grew rich by shifting resources from agriculture into industry, so it is no wonder that emerging economies have sought to emulate that trick by fostering manufacturing. This belief in the importance of industry has come into conflict with one of the fashions of the 1990s, freer trade. Under free trade, each country tends to specialize in those products in which it is relatively most efficient, compared with other countries. This might mean that some countries will end up producing coffee and cattle rather than computers and cars. If they get stuck in agriculture, are they condemned to poverty and slow growth? Chile provides a strong case against this. Since the country opened up to trade, the relative size of its manufacturing sector has declined, while agriculture grown steadily as a share of GDP. The decline of manufacturing has not meant slow growth, however. The economy has continuously expanded. Exports have been the engine of growth and agricultural produce has been star performer. Chile went from being a small player in the global fruit market, exporting just apples in the 1960s, to become one of the worlds largest fruit exporters currently. Such exports may not be manufactured, but the businesses that make and export them have been using increasingly sophisticated production technology and management methods. Although grapes are by far the main fruit export, Chile began exporting wines in the 1980s and achieving important world market shares in the 1990s. Similarly, fish exports, once produced entirely by an ocean-going fleet, are now seeing the growth of salmon farms. Technological advance has meant marked productivity increases in agriculture and higher incomes.

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So does agriculture offer an alternative path of economic development? We used to think that countries would develop by climbing ladders of production that would go from textiles, to clothing, to toys and eventually electronics, says an economist. Now we know that there are different ladders and countries can grow by going from fruit to wine, salmon ... Fair enough, say some advocates of industrial policy. But even if agriculture is highly productive, emerging countries need to industrialize because there is a limit to the demand for foodstuffs. This contention is based on the well-established finding known as Engels law, which holds that people tend to spend a smaller share of their budgets on food as their incomes rise. Engels law, however, does not mean that agriculture will sooner or later become a slow-growth sector. Rather, it implies that producers must constantly adapt to changing tastes: wealthier societies may consume less potatoes but more beef and fruits. One final argument against the idea that countries will end up getting stuck in agriculture: this worry assumes that a countrys comparative advantage is static; so that a country that grows bananas today will inevitably grow bananas in 20 years time. This neednt be the case. If a country does what it does best and sees its incomes grow as a result, it can afford better education and infrastructure. These, in turn, will give it an advantage in other products in future. It is hard to forecast today how open, agriculturally-rich economies will continue to develop. Maybe they will move towards a service sector without ever having a large industrial sector. Or they may find new ways to prosper from their natural resources. Although open trade may make it difficult for them to establish certain industries, this does not necessarily doom them to slow growth.

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Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


sn lng lng thc bnh qun u ngi hp tc ho nng nghip ci cch su rng c ch giao khon n h nng dn Ngh quyt trung ng 5 i hi ng ch trng tha nhn vai tr ca kinh t t nhn tnh t ch sng to cy trng hng n m cy lu n m quyn tha k quyn th chp kim ngch xut khu mi lin kt th trng an ninh lng thc ngun thu nhp phi nng nghip mt hng nng sn c tnh thng mi cao

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Task 3. Translate the following into English Nng nghip Vit Nam trong qu trnh i mi kinh t
1. Khu vc kinh t nng nghip gi vai tr trng yu trong nn kinh t Vit Nam, do cng gi v tr trung tm trong cng cuc i mi quc gia ny. Trc khi bt u i mi, c trng c bn ca khu vc ny l sn xut yu km v sn lng lng thc bnh qun u ngi thp. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn gy ra tnh trng ny l vic hp tc ho nng nghip. S tht bi ca qu trnh hp tc ho l mt trong nhng ng lc dn ti nhng n lc ci cch su rng Vit Nam. Cng cuc i mi trong nng nghip bt u t nm 1981 nhng phi n n m 1988 Vit Nam mi tht s ci cch mnh m khu vc ny. i vi hot ng nng nghip, bc i u tin v cng l bc i quan trng nht l chuyn i t cc hp tc x sn xut sang c ch giao khon n tng h nng dn. Thm mt bc tin na trong ci cch nng nghip c nh du bng s ra i ca Ngh quyt Trung ng 5 i hi ng VII vo n m 1993. Cc quyt nh ban hnh nhm thc hin ch trng ca Ngh quyt u hng ti vic y mnh pht trin nng nghip nng thn ni chung, tha nhn v khuyn khch vai tr ca kinh t t nhn trong nng nghip, v y mnh ci cch cc doanh nghip nh nc v cc hp tc x theo hng cao tnh t ch sng to trong kinh doanh. Khi Lut t ai sa i c thng qua vo nm 1993, nh nc tha nhn 5 quyn ca nng dn. l quy n s dng t lu di (20 n m i vi cy trng hng nm v 50 nm vi cy lu nm), quyn chuyn nhng, quyn mua bn, quyn tha k v quyn th chp t ai. n nm 1998 Lut t ai li tip tc sa i theo hng m rng hn na phm vi quyn s dng t ai ca nng dn. Nh nc cho php nng dn c quyn cho thu t v c php chuyn nhng t ai cho nhng ngi khng lm nng nghip. Di chnh sch i mi, nn nng nghip Vit Nam c nhng bc chuyn bin tch cc. Trong sut thi k 1991-99, tng sn lng ton ngnh tng bnh qun 5,4%/nm, cn sn lng lng thc/u ngi t ng bnh qun 3,1%/n m. Thnh qu ln nht l sn lng go - lng thc chnh ca c nc - tng nhanh chng tnh t cui nhng nm 1980. Nh m Vit Nam khng ch chuyn t mt nc phi nhp khu go sang mt nc xut khu go, m cn tr thnh nc xut khu go ln th 3 th gii tnh v sn lng v th 4 th gii tnh v kim ngch.

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Cc u tin trong chnh sch pht trin nng nghip v nng thn ca Vit Nam hin nay

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Nhng chnh sch gn y ca Chnh ph tp trung vo vn m rng cc mi lin kt th trng nng nghip v thc y pht trin nng thn. M rng cc mi lin kt th trng trong nng nghip l mt trong nhiu bin php c nh nc thc hin nhm chuyn hng t u tin ch trng sn xut go m bo an ninh lng thc sang sn xut cc mt hng nng sn khc c tnh thng mi cao, v c bit l phc v cho xut khu. Mc tiu quan trng khc ca cc chnh sch gn y ca Chnh ph Vit Nam l u tin pht trin khu vc nng thn. Tnh trng i ngho nng thn vn cn ph bin; kho ng cch giu ngho gia n ng thn v thnh th ng y cng tng. V vy, cn phi to ra cc c hi vic lm cng nh cc ngun thu nhp phi nng nghip cho nng dn, v ng thi y mnh hn na qu trnh cng nghip ho nng thn. Tuy nhin iu ny i hi chnh sch pht trin nng thn phi da trn s a dng ho trong bn thn ngnh nng nghip, nhm to iu kin cho hot ng sn xut nng nghip thch ng linh hot vi cc iu kin th trng, cng nh da trn vic a dng ha cc hot ng kinh t khc.

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Task 4. Inverted Sentences


Look back at the examples from task 3 ... nhng phi n nm 1988 Vit Nam mi tht s ci cch mnh m khu vc ny ... but not until 1998 was more profound reform introduced Thnh qu ln nht l sn lng go - lng thc chnh ca c nc - tng nhanh chng tnh t cui nhng n m 1980 Most important has been the rapid expansion in rice production, the main staple crop, since the late 1980s

Translate the following into English, using inverted structures


1. Mc d c hng lot hnh thc s hu doanh nghip mi ra i, song qu trnh t nhn ho cc doanh nghip nh nc Trung Quc ch thc s din ra vo gia thp k 1990. Trong nhng n m gn y, tht him khi cc nhn nh v tng lai ca t nc li khc nhau nhiu n nh vy. Hu nh mi bng chng u cho thy rng anh ta chng qua cng ch l ngi ngoan ngon thc hin mi mnh lnh ca cp trn m thi. Cha y mt tun k t ngy gim c iu hnh ri b cng ty, li c thm hai gim c y kinh nghim khc ra i. OPEC va thng bo v vic tm thi ct gim sn lng, lp tc gi du th trn th trng th gii tng ln.

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unit 14. The digital age

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Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese HOW E-SMART ARE YOU?
1. Are you an e-believer? Then you probably are convinced that the Internet rewrites the rules of competition, overturns conventional wisdom about how to run a company, and offers limitless opportunities to grow new businesses and create wealth. 2. Or are you cyberspaced-out? Perhaps you think that the Internet is overhyped, or that ecommerce promises more than it has delivered, or that e-mail and websurfing consume too much time, draining productivity. 3. Enthusiast or sceptic - choose your side of the debate. These are just some of the views expressed by leaders of organisations throughout the world. Beneath these general attitudes lie a series of assumptions about whether, when, and how much to change. When Internet experts talk about the old days, they mean late 1997. E-commerce is sweeping the landscape of almost every industry so rapidly that the concept of new has become irrelevant. 4. The advent of the Internet is a massive, even unprecedented, exercise in managing change. The Internet presents a new context for all businesses, whether or not they conduct transactions over the www or add dotcom to their names. Established companies in traditional industries are just beginning to grapple with the nature and magnitude of the changes. Some are waiting to let their customers, suppliers, or competitors determine their fate. 5. But success is not simply a matter of linking to the Internet or creating a website. One leader used the analogy of putting lipstick on a bulldog to express efforts to get old companies to do business on the web. Not only is this makeover job hard to do, but the bulldog doesnt suddenly become beautiful because it is forced to wear lipstick. A company is not transformed just because it creates a website. Success requires changing the model for how to organise the work and lead the organisation. It requires challenging traditional assumptions about organisation, communication, decision-making, operating style, managerial behaviour - and then defining a new way. That is a human problem, not a technological one. 6. To take full advantage of the potential in e-business, leaders must lead differently, and people must work together differently. Lets call this new way of working e-culture - the human side of the global information era, the heart and soul of the new economy. 7. E-culture is neither well-defined nor well-understood. If an enterprise is not born digital, then what must it change in its culture and operating style to become digital? To identify the dimensions of e-culture, the readiness of companies to embrace it, and the capability of leaders to lead within it, a global e-culture project has been launched. The project includes Harvard Business School cases, interviews with selected executives in companies with contrasting strategies, and a global print and online survey. 8. The projects initial investigations have uncovered a long list of reasons established companies give for shifting slowly, or not at all, into e-business mode. Barriers to change range from a reluctant workforce, or financial and human resource constraints. In some slow-moving companies, leadership itself is a barrier. This is easy to understand: taking

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advantage of any major new technology requires rethinking every aspect of the whole system.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


ng lc tt hu s phn cc trong cng ngh thng tin v tr tin phong chi phi th trng ng i i sau tip thu tri thc cng ngh dy cp ng cng ngh hu tuyn cng ngh v tuyn ph sng cy a thn

Task 3. Translate the following into English cng ngh thng tin c hi HN L thch thc
1. Ngy nay, khi CNTT c coi l ng lc ch yu thc y t ng trng trong vi thp k ti, nhiu ngi lo lng cho rng cc nc ang pht trin vi h thng my tnh v kt ni mng Internet t i s tt li pha sau so vi cc nc pht trin. Tuy nhin, nhng lo lng v s phn cc CNTT dng nh xut pht t nhng nhm ln v bn cht ca s t ng trng v CNTT. Nu CNTT thc y tng trng cc nc giu, th ti sao iu li khng th xy ra cc nc ang pht trin? 2. Nhng ngi bi quan vin dn rng cc nc giu ch chim c 15% dn s th gii song li chim ti 90% chi tiu ton cu cho CNTT v 80% lng ngi s dng Internet. Phn ln ngi dn cc nc ang pht trin li qu ngho, khng th trang b my tnh hay in thoi. Bn cnh , mt s nh kinh t e ngi rng cc nc pht trin, vi v tr tin phong, s d dng chi phi th trng, khin cc nc ang pht trin khng th tham gia vo thng mi in t. 3. Lp lun trn khng phi l hon ton v l, song cng c nhiu l do xc ng chng ta tin rng so vi cc nc giu, cc nc ang pht trin thm ch c th cn thu nhiu li ch hn t CNTT. L ngi i sau, h u cn t sng ch li in thoi hay my tnh, n gin h ch cn m ca nn kinh t tip thu tri thc t cc nc giu. 4. Ngy nay, my vi tnh, mng vin thng hin i v mng Internet tt c u gp phn gim chi ph lin lc v ph v nhng ranh gii a l, v th chc chn vic truyn b tri thc trn phm vi ton cu s c y nhanh. CNTT cn cho php cc nc ang pht trin b qua nhng cng ngh c, v d cng ngh dy cp ng. So vi nhng cng ngh hu tuyn kiu c, cng ngh v tuyn mi i hi vn u t c nh v chi ph bo dng t hn, v vy ph hp vi nhng nc c dn c sng ri rc v a hnh phc tp.

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Hn th na, in thoi di ng c th ph sng ti nhng vng m xy dng h thng cp ng th c l phi mt vi chc nm tri. Nh , ngi dn sng cc vng xa xi c th tip cn khai thc tri thc ton cu. 5. Tuy nhin, trc khi qu vui mng vi mt tng lai ti sng l CNTT s em n s thnh vng cho cc nc ang pht trin, chng ta khng nn qun mt s vn mu cht. Khong cch kinh t khng th t n xo b. CNTT to iu kin cho cc nc ngho thu hp khong cch vi nhng nc i trc, song trang b mng li thng tin ch l bc khi u. CNTT khng phi l cy a thn gip cc chnh ph b qua tt c nhng cng vic kh kh n nh m ca th trng mu dch v u t, t do ho lnh vc vin thng, ci cch gio dc v m bo mt h thng php lut v th trng ti chnh hiu qu. Trn thc t, CNTT li cng thc bch cc chnh ph thc hin nhng bc i c bn ny, bi n em li li ch ln hn t nhng bc i . Dc ti hng triu -la ni mng Internet cho cc lng x cng chng c ngha l g khi phn ln ngi dn cn cha bit c bit vit. u t vo CNTT mang li nhng li ch kinh t, cc nc ang pht trin cn thc thi nhiu chnh sch khc na.

Task 4. Modals + the perfect infinitive


Look at this example from Task 3 in thoi di ng c th ph sng ti nhng vng m xy dng h thng cp ng th c l phi mt vi chc nm tri. Mobile phones can extend communications to areas that copper wires might have taken decades to reach

Translate the following into English, using the prompts given:


1. Mi ch mt vi nm trc y, mc mt chic o smi c thu logo ca nh thit k trn ti o c th c coi l snh iu, th by gi iu dng nh li mt ri. (might) ng l ngi ta c th cho qua mi chuyn nu khng xy ra v b bi tI chnh . (could) Mt s nh kinh t cho rng c th quc gia ny thot ra khi khng hong qu nhanh nn khng th tin hnh nhng ci cch c bn. (may) Mt s Ngh s M pht biu rng chnh ph thc ra bit trc v thm ho s xy ra tp on Enron v l ra h nn cnh bo iu v i dn chng. (should) Hn Quc hn phi n lc rt nhiu mi c th cho chng ra khi cn bo ti chnh chu (must)

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Related link:

Unit 15. The knowledge economy


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Who owns the knowledge economy?
1. "If nature has made any one thing less susceptible than all others of exclusive property, it is the action of the thinking power called an idea. No one possesses the less, because every other possess the whole of it. He who receives an idea from me receives instruction himself without lessening mine, as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me." In Thomas Jefferson's vision, there are no barriers to the acquisition of knowledge. Nobody owns it, everybody partakes of it - and the world becomes richer. 2. When knowledge has taken over much of the economy, Jefferson's words now seem to take on a new power. After all, capital has always been one of the main economic barriers to entry, and these days ideas are capital. If getting hold of capital becomes as easy as getting a light, barriers to entry everywhere ought to be tumbling. So farewell, monopoly. 3. But how is it, in that case, that in America, judgment on the Microsoft case in April 2000 caused turmoil in financial markets? And how is it that new monopolies in cyberspace are being created all the time? The reason is that ideas are not in practice the free currency that Jefferson observed them to be in their natural state. Governments award property rights, making ideas vulnerable to monopolists if the system is abused.

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4. The Microsoft case is in many ways an old-fashioned sort of antitrust affair about a dominant firm bullying smaller rivals. But behind it lies a systemic worry about the wired world's natural susceptibility to monopoly. Increasingly, the value of any good (say, a computer operating system) depends on the number of users; so a new entrant has little hope against a widely used product (say, Windows). The American administration has rightly become more alert to incipient network monopolies of this kind. 5. Which makes its policy on patents even odder. Patents are the strongest form of intellectual property. Their purpose is to reward investors so as to encourage future invention. Society is balancing the benefits of a free exchange of ideas against future gains from further invention. And the means of striking this balance is to award legal monopoly to patent-holders for a certain period of time. 6. New kinds of patents are being awarded in areas that might have been thought unpatentable. The authority says there is no reason not to issue such patents: they fulfill the criteria that ideas embodied in a patent application must be novel, useful and nonobvious. But that invites a big question: does the law, which has barely changed in two centuries, still work? The office retorts that the system's durability is testimony to its success, as are the waves of technological change it has fostered. History's great inventors armed themselves with sheaves of patents. Without such protection, they would not have bothered. 7. The trouble is that the law does accord as much protection to an idea thought up in the bath as to a drug that may have taken many years and millions of dollars to move from conception to marketplace. Inventors still need some protection, but they are getting too much. America needs to scrap its one-size-fits-all system, and replace it with one that responds to the investment that an invention represents. The indiscriminate creation of exclusive privileges tends rather to obstruct than to stimulate invention. It creates a class of speculative schemers who make it their business to watch the advancing wave of improvement, and gather its foam in the form of patented monopolies, which enabled them to lay a heavy tax on the industry of the country, without contributing anything to the real advancement of the arts, as foreseen by the American Supreme Court in 1882.

Task 2. Find the Englh equivalents to the following


yu t hu hnh li nhun cn bin gim dn c chim th trng hiu qu kinh t theo qui m hiu ng trung thnh vi sn phm pht trin v bo d di nh tay ht cng

Task 3. Translate the following into English

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Tri thc l sc mnh


1. T trc n nay, tri thc, th hin trong ngun nhn lc v cng ngh, lun ng vai tr trung tm trong pht trin kinh t. V vy, kinh t tri thc (KTTT) cng khng xa l g i vi cc nh kinh t hc. im mi y l cng ngy hot ng sn xut trong nn kinh t cng l thuc nhiu hn vo khai thc cc yu t tri thc ch khng phi khai thc cc y u t hu hnh. 2. KTTT dng nh i ngc li vi quy lut kinh t c bn v s khan him. Nu mt ng i bn i mt chic TV, th anh ta s khng cn s hu n na. Nhng khi mt ngi bn i mt tng th n vn thuc s hu ca ngi v anh ta c th tip tc bn n thm nhiu ln na. Cho d c bao nhiu ngi s dng tri thc i chng na tri thc cng khng th cn ht c. 3. Theo kinh t hc truyn thng th nn kinh t da trn c s s khan him ngun lc. Phn ln cc ngnh kinh t, n mt lc no , s u ri vo tnh trng li nhun cn bin gim dn. V th khng mt doanh nghip no c th c chim th trng. 4. Tuy nhin, ngy cng c nhiu hng ho tun theo quy lut li nhun cn bin tng dn. xy dng mt chng trnh phn mm mi c th tn ti hng triu -la, nhng sao chp chng trnh ra thnh nhiu bn th hu nh chng tn xu no. Hiu qu kinh t theo quy m nh t ng ln rt nhiu. Nu u th k 20, mt hng c quy m gp i i th cnh tranh th chi ph n v trung bnh ca hng s thp hn 10% so vi ca i th. Ng y nay, nu mt hng sn xut phn mm c quy m gp i i th, chi ph n v trung bnh ca h thp hn ti 50%. iu khin mt hng mi s rt kh thm nhp th trng. 5. Mt vn phc tp khc l i vi nhiu hng ho (v d my fax, phn mm vi tnh), gi tr ca chng t ng theo s lng ngi s dng. Nu tt c nhng ngi quen bit u s dng Microsoft Word, th mi vic tr nn thun tin hn hn bn cng s chn phn mm . iu cng to ra nhng ro cn kh chu trong vic thm nhp th trng. 6. Mt yu t khc gip mt doanh nghip thng lnh cng c ngi v ca mnh trn th trng l hiu ng trung thnh vi sn phm. Mt khi khch hng hc cch s dng mt phn mm my tnh h s ngi chuyn sang s dng mt phn mm khc bi vic hc cch s dng cng c lm phin toi. V th, mun khch hng chuyn sang s dng sn phm mi, sn phm phi c nhng u im ni tri. 7. Nhiu hc gi cho rng lut php hin hnh v cnh tranh khng cn thch hp i vi nn kinh t thng tin. C th, h xut rng cc chnh ph cn t ra d di hn i vi cc cng ty cng ngh cao. Vi pht trin cng ngh v bo v bi cnh cnh tranh ngy cng khc lit, c quyn ch mang tnh tm thi. Hn th na, ph b c quyn c th gy tn hi n li ch ngi tiu dng. Mt hng c quyn trong nn kinh t truyn thng ti a ho li nhun bng cch hn ch ngun cung v tng gi. Nhng trong nn kinh t mi, mt hng c quyn s lm ng c li hon ton. V th, cc chnh ph rt nn nh tay i vi cc hng c quyn, cho php h khai thc ti a hiu qu kinh t quy m. i mi cng ngh din ra lin tc s buc cc hng phi lun cnh gic cao . Nu hot ng km hiu qu, h s ngay lp tc b cc i th mnh hn ht cng.

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Task 4. Relative Clauses


Read the text in Task 1 again. Underline all the sentences containing Relative Clauses. Point out which Relative Clauses are defining and which are non-defining. Now look at the following examples He who receives an idea from me receives instruction himself without lessening mine, as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me. Khi mt ngi lng nghe kin ca ta, t anh ta tip nhn thm tri thc cho mnh m khng lm cho ta km i. Cng ging nh khi anh ta thp sng ngn nn ca mnh t ngn nn ca ta, anh ta sng ln m khng lm ta ti i Does the law, which has barely changed in two centuries, still work? Liu h thng lut php ca M trong lnh vc ny c cn pht huy tc dng khi m hai th k qua n chng c iu chnh g ng k?

Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese, making them as natural as you can
1. Some Central European states who would like to be EU members now think of making the euro their official currency even before joining the Union. That presidential candidate has built a reputation for economic competence which the struggling economy now badly needs. If the government continues lifting the obstacles that have kept capital out, India can finally join the ranks of Asian tigers. Those new opportunities could materialize in Europe, which is on track to offer the world economy more help this year than it has in recent times. Though Korea survived the 1997 crisis, the structural problems that triggered it have not been fully addressed. The poor countries hope that a new round of global trade talks will result in the elimination of barriers to the textiles and agricultural products that matter most to them. The terrorist attacks of September 11 th are supposed to have altered profoundly the way in which American politicians look at the world. The creation of a modern banking system is essential to improving the efficiency with which capital is allocated and to sustaining rapid economic in all transition economies. State-owned banks are extending loans at what appears to be a pace that will not be economically sustainable.

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10. The failure of major bank also could have long-term negative implications for the high rate of household savings, which has become the principal source of growth in the reform era.

check your progress 3 (90 minutes)

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Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese


1. In the decades following WWII, the name Vietnam came to signify to many Westerners either a brutal jungle war or a spectacular failure of American power - or both. While no doubt the Vietnam war continues to weigh heavily on the consciousness of all who can remember the fighting, the Vietnam today, with its unique and rich civilisation, astonishing scenery and highly cultured and friendly people, is a country at peace. Most visitors to Vietnam are overwhelmed by the sublime beauty of the countrys natural setting. The Red River Delta in the north, the Mekong River Delta in the south, and almost the entire coastal strip are patchwork of brilliant green rice paddies manually tended from dawn to dusk. Vietnams 3,451km of coastline include countless kilometres of unspoiled beaches and a number of stunning lagoons; some sections are shaded by coconut palms and casuarinas, others bounded by seemingly endless expanses of sand dunes or rugged spurs of the Truong Son mountains. Tourists to Vietnam have their senses thrilled by all the sights, sounds, tastes and smells of a society born of over a century of contact between an ancient civilisation and the ways of the West. Theres nothing like grabbing a delicious lunch of local delicacies at a food stall deep inside a market place, surrounded by tropical fruit vendors and legions of curious youngsters. Or sitting by a waterfall in the Central Highlands, sipping soda water with lemon juice and watching newly wed couples on their honeymoon tiptoe up to the streambank in their Sunday finest. To many, Vietnam offers a rare opportunity to see a country of traditional charm taking the first hesitant steps into the modern world.

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Note: Sublime(a) = stunning (a) : hng v , tuyt vi Lagoon (n) : vnh nh, eo bin nh Casuarina (n) : cy phi lao

Rugged spur (n) : mm ni lm chm Legion (n) : on, nhm

Task 2. Translate the following into English


1. Trong bi cnh hin nay, khi xy ra mt lot cc v khng hong trong ngnh cng ngh thng tin v nhng v khng b, cng vi tnh hnh kinh t bi t ca n m 2002, chng ta c cm tng rng s cung nhit hi thp nin 90 i vi h Internet c v nh tr thnh mt d vng xa xi. Nhng d chng ta khng cn mn m vi cuc cch mng cng ngh thng tin th tm quan trng ca n vn khng h suy gim. i vi nhiu quc gia, HIV/AIDS khng ch l vn sc kho m cn l mt tr ngi cho pht trin kinh t. Chnh v vy cn phi c s phi hp hnh ng tt c cc ngnh cc cp mi c th t ng cng v duy tr cc bin php phng chng c hiu qu s ly lan ca cn bnh ny. Trong nn kinh t tri thc ang pht trin hin nay, vic sng to v truyn b tri thc ngy cng ng vai tr quan trng trong vic nng cao nng lc cnh tranh cho cc cng ty cng nh cho cc quc gia. Tri thc khng ch c th hin gi tr ca hng ho v dch v m cn chnh bn thn tri thc vi t cch l mt th hng ho v hnh di cc dng nh quyn s hu tr tu hay ti nng ca nhng nhn vin, cn b ch cht ca mt cng ty.

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part iv. corporate concerns


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unit 16. culture in business


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese dying to work
1. A recent television special said it all: It showed a building in downtown Tokyo with preprogrammed office lights that uniformly shut off at 10p.m; seconds later, virtually every light in the building came right back on. Despite such displays, the nation that has taken the sting out of the word workaholic, producing 10 percent of the worlds exports with just 2 percent of its population, is suddenly obsessed with a deadly phenomenon known as karoshi. Thats the Japanese word for death from overwork. Tetsunojo Uehata, the medical authority who coined the word, defines karoshi as a condition in which psychologically unsound work processes are allowed to continue in a way that disrupts the workers normal work and life rhythms, leading to a buildup of fatigue in the body and a chronic condition of overwork accompanied by a worsening of pre-existent high blood pressure and a hardening of the arteries and finally resulting in a fatal breakdown. Translation: all work and no play can really wreck ones health, even in Japan. Hardly a week goes by without a grim report about some overzealous worker in the prime of his life who could not just say no to overtime. Not long ago, a 39-year-old police sergeant, Haruo Okada, captured headlines as a karoshi victim by working double shifts for a month during the enthronement ceremonies for the nations new monarch. There are no reliable figures on the number of victims, but analysts believe that tens of thousands of Japanese become seriously ill or die from overwork each year. Despite promises by the government to trim working hours, the average Japanese clocked 2,150 hours in 2001, compared with 1,920 hours for Americans and 1,640 hours for the French.

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Some Japanese want change. When a group of lawyers and doctors set up the nations first karoshi hot line in 1988, 135 people phoned in on the first day. Since then, nearly 6,000 cases have been reported to the 42 hot lines across the nation, and an international call-in center has been set up recently. To raise public awareness about the problem and to pressure the government and corporate Japan into action, a group of lawyers, doctors and victims wives has published a book called Karoshi: When the Corporate Warrior Dies, which recounts numerous horror stories. Yet the government and most Japanese companies rarely acknowledge karoshi and provide no special compensation to survivors. As the Ministry of Labour defines it, overwork can only be considered a cause of death if a victim worked continuously for 24 hours preceding death, or worked 16 hours a day for seven consecutive days leading up to death. Alas, the recent media attention probably wont slow down the production lines much. In a poll conducted by an insurance company, more than 40 percent of the employees the firm covered said they feared that overwork might kill them; few planned to do anything about it. All in all, it looks like another busy year for the folks at the karoshi hot line.

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Task 2. Expressing contrast


Look back at the examples from task 1: Despite such displays, the nation is obsessed with a deadly phenomenon known as karoshi. Despite promises by the government to trim working hours, the average Japanese clocked 2,150 hours in 2001.

Now translate the following into English:


1. Mc d c mt s ph n Nht Bn rt thnh t trong kinh doanh, nhng hu ht cc cng ty ca Nht u do nam gii iu hnh. 2. Mc d rt tn tm vi cng ty nhng vn c nhiu nhn vin Nht mun c nhiu thi gian rnh ri hn. 3. Mc d c thi quen lm vic vi cng cao, nhng nhiu ngi Nht vn bit cch ngh ngi hp l sau gi lm vic. 4. Mc d c hng mt mc lng cao hn, nhng 60 phn trm ngi Nht vn lm vic ngy th By. 5. Mc d c i nt tng ng, song vn c rt nhiu im khc nhau c bn gia phong cch qun l ca ngi M v ng i Nht. 6. Hu ht cc cng ty ln ca Nht u c tr s ti Tokyo mc d gi thu vn phng y rt t .

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Task 3. Find the English eqivalents to the following


qun l tri thc khai thc... ti a ti tr dc sc mng ni b phong cch lm vic hiu qu nht trung tm ca nhng ti n ng c iu cha n khuyn khch nhn vin pht huy ti nng ni sung ku ca ng i thay th ngang tm khng c pht huy ht ti n ng

Task 4. Translate the following into English QUN L TRI THC PHI XUT PHT T VN HO DOANH NGHIP
1. Trong khong 4 nm tr li y, c rt nhiu ngi t ra quan tm c bit n vn qun l tri thc - c ngha l tm cch khai thc ti tr, kin thc ca nhn vin mt cch ti a v duy tr nhng kin thc ngay c khi ngi lao ng ngh hu hoc chuyn sang cng ty khc. Thot nghe th c v nh y l mt tng m ai ngh ti t lu. V chnh l nguyn nhn khin cho hu ht cc cng ty t Intel cho n Chevron hay Lockheed Martin v cn nhiu cng ty khc na ang dc sc thit lp mt h thng qun l tri thc cng ty mnh. Chng hn nh trong mng ni b ca cng ty Intel, ngi ta lp ra mt trang vng nhng ngun chuy n gia c th mi n khi cn thit, mt trang web khc lit k nhng phong cch lm vic hiu qu nht ca cng ty, mt trang web khc gm mt mng li nhng chuyn gia chuyn thit k nhng chun mc v tc phong lm vic ca mt lnh vc kinh doanh no , v rt nhiu cc trang web khc c coi nh mt trung tm ca nhng ti nng c chc nng gn ging nh mt trng i hc thc th i vi cc nhn vin ca cng ty. ng nhin, chng ai li phn i tng qun l tri thc c. Trn thc t, vic mt cng ty mun tn dng ti a nhng tri thc v kinh nghim ca nhn vin nhm to ra nhng sn phm v dch v tt hn l hon ton hp l. Nhng khi mt cng ty no ni vi bn rng h ang mun thit lp ngay mt h thng qun l tri thc, th bn s c cm gi c rng phong cch qun l ca cng ty ny vn cn c iu cha n. C th iu cha n l lnh o cng ty chng h khuyn khch nhn vin pht huy ti nng, m ch ni sung nh vy thi. Cng c th h ngh rng h c mt mi trng tt c th khuy n khch c sng to, nhng ho ra h li khng h c mi trng . Hoc cng c th h chng h bit qun l nhn vin ca mnh nh th no, cng chng bit lp k hoch cho tng lai ra sao.

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bao nhiu ln bn nghe thy cc nh qun l ku ca rng ngi duy nht tho vic trong cng ty sp ngh hu, v h khng bit s xoay s ra sao tm c ngi thay th ngang tm? V bao nhiu ln bn chng kin cnh nhng nhn vin c ti m li khng c pht huy ht ti nng ? Chng ta khng h nghi ng rng qun l tri thc l c li i vi cng ty. Nhng nu mt cng ty mun qun l c tri thc, th trc ht cng ty cn xem xt li cch qun l, mi trng lm vic, v v n ho trong doanh nghip mnh m bo rng l mt mi trng m trong mi ngi u ci m v mun chia s kin thc, kinh nghim vi nhau.

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Related link:

unit 17. SMEs and the private sector

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Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Small Business Discovers Its Strength
For the first time of in America history, small-business men and women throughout the land are about to become the most powerful political lobby in the country. 1. The backbone of the American enterprise system has always been the ambitious entrepreneur who want to be in business for himself or herself and with drive, imagination, innovation, salesmanship - and a good head for staying in the black manages to make his or her way in our competitive system. But it is the chief executive officer of the big corporation who has had the loudest voice in regard to national economic policy. Now, all that may change. We will be hearing much more from collective voice of the local florist, stationer, travel agent, restaurateur, who together constitute more than 14 million small business entrepreneurs in the U.S. Is this an overstatement? Definitely not. Anyone who witnesses the amazing performance of 2,100 representatives who attended the recent White House Conference on Small Business would agree that the entrepreneurial spirit in America is on the verge of making a new breakthrough. First, and perhaps most important, small-business people have discovered that congressmen, senators, government officials - even the President of U.S. - are willing, even anxious, to listen to them. This is true of not only the delegates to the White House conference but of thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of their friends who got the words when the delegates return to their communities. Washington has finally heard how important they are to the future of the country. Second, vested interests that have divided the small-business community in the past now have apparently been overcome. Two previous White House conferences - one in 1937, which ended in fist fights, and another in 1956, which ended in platitudes - were failures. A tremendous amount of planning went into this years conference, but with the demanding voice of women, minorities, veterans, and other factions, the conference also could have ended in clashes and conflicts. Instead, to the amazement and the delight of all participants, there was a spirit of unanimity and harmony, which clearly can establish the basis for a new and dynamic political voice. Third, small-business people have now exchanged views on what they want to lobby for in the year ahead, and they have agreed on their priorities. The small business community has also developed a program to work toward their common objectives.

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The greatest of this new program may turn out to be the reawakening of respect for, as well as the self respect of, entrepreneurship in America life. Small business people have considered themselves to be unknown and forgotten little people of our business economic system. They no longer believe this is true. One of the more remarkable consequences of this new element in American political life will be changing public attitudes toward business in general. Lawmakers and the general public will have an inherent feeling of goodwill toward the corner storekeepers of

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America. When these entrepreneurs speak about economic freedom, they will be respected by many of the vociferous critics who have long been convinced that big business is exploiting the public for its own. 8. Some people are still waiting for a curtain to fall on small business. But it is commonly believed that the drama is just beginning and the American way of life is due for a revival of spirit in the economic sphere as a direct result of the new determination of the small business community to perform a starring role.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


s nht tr cao khu vc kinh t ngoi quc doanh ng lc trn tr bc xc ca ci vt cht tn dng trit m trn u ngn tay quyn s hu ti sn sch nhiu giy php thanh tra kim tra sn chi bnh ng bt cp ng b thit thc t xoay x cng ty cho thu ti chnh hng nh gi tn nhim c hi ngn nm c mt chng ng l bao so vi ...

Task 3. Translate the following into English DOANH NGHIP VA V NH - vn v gii php
1. Cha bao gi chng ta li c s nht tr cao nh vy v nhng iu cn lm xo b i ngho, v mt trong nhng vn c mi ngi ng tnh l phi nhn thc c tm quan trng ca khu vc kinh t ngoi quc doanh - mt ng lc then cht cho tng trng kinh t. Mt trong nhng bin php tt nht xy dng khu vc ny l t di ln - tp trung vo nhng doanh nghip nh. C ngha l phi lng nghe nhng trn tr, tm t ca h, tm ra nhng bc xc ln nht ca h, v gip h cnh tranh c trong mt nn kinh t vi mc ton cu ho ngy cng cao. Nu c trang b nhng cng c thch hp, cc DNN s to ra c mt phn khng nh lng cng n vic lm v ca ci vt cht m x hi ang cn rt thiu.

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iu cn thit l phi xy dng c mt khu vc kinh t lnh mnh hn, cnh tranh hn v bn vng hn cho cc DNN h c th tn dng trit c nhng c hi m ra cho mnh. Nhng kinh nghim cho thy DNN khng t mnh pht trin c. h c th pht trin nhanh hn v t tin hn, cn phi c s can thip hp l, cng khai v c la chn k cng, nht l trong vic to iu kin cho h tip cn nhiu hn vi cc ngun lc quan trng nh vn, k nng v thng tin th trng. T lu, cc t chc pht trin trn ton th gii c gng thc hin iu , nhng h cng thy vic h tr khu vc ny c khng t kh khn. Mc d c rt nhiu d n v chng trnh h tr DNN c thc hin, nhng s d n t c nhng thnh qu lu di v bn vng ch m c trn u ngn tay. Trong khi chnh lch v thu nhp nhiu ni t ng ln v ngy cng c nhiu ngi sng trong cnh ngho i do hu qu ca s tng dn s. Do , nhm cc t chc thuc Ngn hng Th gii bt u c mt cch tip cn ch ng v sng to hn gip cc quc gia xc nh nhng kh khn chnh trong s pht trin ca cc DNN, v cng c rt nhiu n lc c th a cc vn v DNN vo trong cc cng c lp chnh sch ca cc nc i vay. gii quyt c nhng vn c bn nht v DNN, ngi ta xy dng c mt chin lc vi bn ni dung chnh. Mi trng kinh doanh. DNN khng hot ng mt mnh, m trong mt mi trng kinh doanh c hnh thnh bi cc chnh sch ca chnh ph, cc t chc trong v ngoi quc doanh, c s h tng, v nhiu yu t khc. Cc DNN thng xuyn phi i mt vi rt nhiu kh khn nh mi trng v m khng n nh, c s h tng ngho nn, nn tham nhng trn lan, v kh khn trong vic thc hin hp ng v quyn s hu ti sn. Ngoi ra cn c nhiu yu t khc cn tr h nh nhng sch nhiu qu mc v cc loi giy php, thanh tra, l ph, thu kho hay cc c ch qun l nng n khc. Do vy, cc DNN cn mt sn chi bnh ng hn bt k iu g khc. Nu khng khc phc c nhng bt cp trong mi trng kinh doanh th hot ng ca cc DNN s gp phi nhng tr ngi ln, v nhng n lc ca cng ng quc t nhm ci thin v th ca khu vc kinh t ny s kh c c nhng kt qu ng b. H tr k thut v xy dng nng lc. DNN khng ch cn vn. C rt nhiu doanh nghip khng bit h thiu nhng kin thc g. pht trin, h cn c kh nng tip cn c vi chuyn vin k ton, cc t vn qun l v marketing, cc chuyn gia k thut v chuyn gia trong nhiu lnh vc khc c c nhng li khuyn hay s h tr trc tip, thit thc, st vi nhng vn ca doanh nghip mnh. Tip cn vi cc ngun vn. Cc t chc ti chnh ln khng mun cho cc DNN m h khng bit r vay, do cc DNN thng l phi t xoay x hoc da vo nhng ngun vn khng chnh thc v km tin cy khc. iu cn thit l chng ta phi thit k v cung cp c cc sn phm ti chnh mi hn v ph hp hn. Ngy nay ngi ta bt u ch trng hn vo vic gip cho cc ngn hng, cc cng ty cho thu ti chnh, cc nh u t c phiu, cc hng nh gi tn nhim v cc t chc ti chnh khc trong nc nhn thc c v nhng li ch c th thu c t vic cung cp cho cc DNN nhng sn phm ti chnh trn gi c c cu mt cch ph hp. Mt khi t c iu ny, cc th ch ti chnh c th thit lp mt ngnh kinh doanh mi c kh nng pht trin mnh trong tng lai. Tip cn vi cng ngh thng tin. Cc DNN thng thiu hiu bit v k n ng tn dng c nhng c hi ngn nm c mt do vic s dng cc my tnh c ni mng

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Internet mang li. Vy m h Internet li cn c coi l mt cng c gip cho cc doanh nghip trng thnh. Chng hn nh thng mi in t c th gip cho cc doanh nghip vi s vn hn hp khm ph nhng th trng mi nc ngoi, m nu khng c Internet th iu khng th thc hin c. Vic t hng, giao hng, vay v cho vay, k ton, bo him, giao dch vi nh phn phi u c th c thc hin qua mng vi chi ph chng ng l bao so vi chi ph thng thng. cc DNN tn dng c nhng c hi nh vy, h cn phi c kh nng tip cn c vi h Internet v cc cng ngh mi khc.

Task 4. Translation of passives into Vietnamese


Sometimes it is necessary to change the passive voice into active in order to make the translation more natural in Vietnamese. Try the following: 1. A British journalist is said to possess tapes of four phone conversations between Prince and Lady Diana in which he is alleged to have been rude about Australians. 2. Speaking of the merits of the Royal Airforce after WWII, British Pime Minister Churchill said: Never before in the entire history of the United Kingdom has so much been owed by so many to so few. 3. Sleep is a natural process, and although a lot has been written about the subject, it is still surrounded by mystery. It is used by some as an escape from the world, and regarded by others as an irritating waste of time. It is widely believed that sleep repairs the body and make good the damage caused by being awake. 4. This day has been made possible by the work of many Vietnamese and many Americans who have joined hands to account for our missing service personnel. Never before has such an extensive effort been made to resolve the fate of soldiers who did not come home from war. 5. Tourists to Vietnam are happy to pay, but they dont want to pay for the hidden extras. 6. Governments, always eager to deflect political pressure, may prefer to justify unpopular decisions by pretending that their hands are tied. 7. As Asia is home to 2/3 of the worlds poor, the battle against poverty must be won here in this region.

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Related links:

unit 18. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Forms of fdi
1. In carrying out its foreign direct investment (FDI), a multinational corporation has a variety of ownership choices, ranging from 100 per cent ownership to minority interest. As many markets are becoming less attractive to investment alternatives, many firms are looking at management contracts as an approach to international involvement. Full ownership. For many firms, the FDI decision is, initially at least, considered in the context of 100 per cent ownership. The reason may have an ethnocentric basis; that is, management may feel that no outside entity should have an impact on corporate decision making. Alternatively, it may be based on financial concerns. For example, the management of IBM believes that by relinquishing a portion of its ownership abroad, it would be setting a precedent for shared control with local partners that would cost more than could possibly gained. In some cases, IBM has withdrawn operations from a country rather than agree to government demands for local ownership. In order to make a rational decision about the extent of ownership, management must evaluate the extent to which total control is important to the success of its international marketing activities. Often full ownership may be a desirable, but not a necessary, prerequisite for international success. At other times it may be essential, particularly when strong linkages exist within the corporation. Interdependencies between and among local operations and headquarters may be so strong that nothing short of total coordination will result in an acceptable benefit to the firm as a whole. Increasingly, however, the international environment is hostile to full ownership by multinational firms. Government action through outright legal restrictions or discriminatory actions is making the option less attractive. The choice is either to abide

2.

3.

4.

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by existing restraints and accept a reduction in control or to lose the opportunity to operate in the country. In addition to formal action by the government, the general conditions in the market may make it advisable for the firm to join forces with local entities. 5. Joint Ventures. Governmental pressures are not the only reason for the substantial increase in joint ventures in the international marketplace today. With the increasing cost of developing business, and with competition growing more fierce, companies are looking at collaborative ventures as a solution to their problems. Joint ventures are nothing new. In 1879 Thomas Edison teamed up with Corning Glass Works to make his experimental incandescent light bulb. Similarly, railroads in the U.S. formed partnerships in the late 1880s for large-scale projects. While these ventures have traditionally been used in the manufacturing sector, they are becoming more and more prevalent in the services sector as well. Next to manufacturing, the information and communications industry registers the most joint ventures, followed by transportation and natural resources. The key to a joint venture is the sharing of a common business objective, which makes the arrangement more than a customer-vendor relationship but less than an outright acquisition. The partners rationale for entering into arrangement may vary. A example is New United Motor Manufacturing Inc., the joint venture between Toyota and GM. Toyota needed direct access to the U.S. market, while GM benefited from the technology and management approaches provided by the Japanese partner. Joint ventures are valuable when the pooling of resources results in a better outcome for each partner than if each were to conduct its activities individually. Traditionally, joint ventures have occurred only when there is an operating venture; that is, a stand-alone operating company is established. However, new forms of joint ventures are emerging. Research and development ventures are likely in the high-technology area. Cooperative ventures in which two or more companies undertake a specific enterprise without forming a separate entity are occurring in the services sector. Even the terminology is changing; joint ventures are known today as strategic alliances or strategic partnerships. As one executive puts it: A companys competitive situation no longer depends on itself alone, but the quality of the alliance it is able to form.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


x nh my lc du tham vng b v thi ca quyn thiu minh bch mng tng s ch quan ngy th ng trch tht vng trn tr mc thp cha tng c du hiu tch cc

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ngnh giy dp ngnh may mc ngnh dt t do chuyn i (tin) Din n Khu v c T nhn nng trn li sut li sut c s S GDCK c ng o d lun hoan nghnh lut ngh nh qui nh thng t v n bn di lut khng bit ng no m ln thi hnh phn quyt khng nghim chnh tnh hnh bi t

Task 3. Translate the following into English Vit nam hoan nghnh s tr li ca cc nh u t
1. C khng t cc nh u t phi tht vng khi mi bc chn vo th trng Vit nam. Vo nm 94, 95, h x vo Vit nam vi nhng k hoch ln lao nh xy dng nh my lc du hay sn xut t. Nhng hu ht tham vng ca h u b v: cn ng tin ca h l thi ca quyn, l s thiu minh bch trong ng li chnh sch, cn lut l th thay i lin tc. Mt s nh u t th nhn ra rng ci th trng to ln m h mng tng khng h tn ti. V s ch quan ngy th ny cng ng trch ch km g nhng l do khch quan v mi trng u t. D v l do g i na th cng c nhiu nh u t rt vn khi Vit nam vi tht vng trn tr. 2. Nhng mc du u t nc ngoi hin nay ang mc thp cha tng c (tng vn u t 6 thng u nm ch t 318.6 triu ), nhng bt u xut hin nhng du hiu tch cc hn i vi cc nh u t nc ngoi. Ngoi cc ngnh truy n thng nh giy dp, qun o, dt may, in t, hi sn ch bin..., cc nh u t hi ngoi cn c nhiu c hi tham gia vo cc ngnh cng nghip dch v nh t vn php l, ngn hng, bo him... 3. Bn cnh , cc vn bn lut php mi ban hnh cng lm cho Vit nam tr nn hp dn hn. Lut u t nc ngoi cho php ng Vit nam c t do chuyn i. Lut doanh nghip cng gip cho vic thnh lp doanh nghip c gin tin rt nhiu. 4. Mt du hiu ng mng l Ngn hng Th gii v Cng ty Ti chnh Quc t phi hp vi B K hoch u t lp nn Din n cho Khu vc T nhn nhm h tr cho cc chng trnh ci t khu vc kinh t ny. Vic Vit nam quyt nh nng trn li sut, hnh thnh li sut c s v thnh lp s giao dch chng khon cng c coi l nhng biu hin tch cc.

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5. Tuy nhin, d c ng o d lun hoan nghnh, nhng nhng i mi v php l ni trn cng l mt vn nan gii. Mi ngi thng hay phn nn rng php lut Vit Nam cn cha y , nhng thc t th hon ton ngc li. Mt lut s nc ngoi ti thnh ph H Ch Minh, c Wayne, cho bit: n m 1998 Vit nam c khong 4600 lut, qui nh, thng t v cc vn bn di lut khc; v n nay con s t ng ln gp i. iu ny lm cho cc nh u t nc ngoi nhiu khi khng bit ng no m ln. Hn na vic thi hnh phn quyt ca to n s rt kh kh n v khng nghim chnh. 6. Tt nhin khng ai dm ni rng s khng c kh kh n g i vi cc nh u t nc ngoi ti Vit Nam. Ngay c nhng nh d on lc quan nht cng cho rng phi 5-7 n m na Vit Nam mi tr thnh mt th trng n nh v vng chc. Nhng nu so vi tnh hnh bi t ca n m nm va qua th c th ni rng tnh hnh by gi sng sa hn.

Task 4. Phrasal verbs Translate the following sentences into English, using the given phrasal verbs
1. Mc d cuc m phn ko di ti vi thng tri, hai bn vn cha i n mt tho thun chung v ng bin gii. (drag on) 2. Khon h tr trn gi ca IMF gip Th Nh K trnh c mt cuc khng hong ti chnh, song liu n c t nc ny tip tc cng cuc ci cch kinh t b b d hay khng? (fend off, get sth back on track) 3. Xt v di hn, m mu cu kt gi c s khng th thc hin c do p lc ca th trng, v vy cc hng kh c th tin hnh lng on th trng. (fall apart under) 4. Nhiu chnh ph hin vn nhm mt lm ng cho cc hip hi ngh nghip th sc hn ch cnh tranh; chng hn, Hip hi cc lut s hoc bc s c th quy nh mc gi sn cho dch v m h cung cp. (turn a blind eye to) 5. c qu nhiu bin c xy ra trong na n m qua khin chnh ph nh phi chp nhn rng khng th che giu vn ny thm na. (sweep under the carpet) 6. Hin nay th chng ta tm thi c th kim sot c tnh hnh, nhng nu tnh hnh kinh t khng ci thin th nhng xung t x hi s khng th kim sot ni. (get out of hand)

Related links:

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Unit 19. Marketing


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese No smoke without brand fire
1. There is a lot of nonsense being spouted about the issue of tobacco promotion. On the one hand there are those who see it as an issue of principle - as long as tobacco is legally on sale, it should be provided freedom of commercial speech. This is absurd. It picks a fight on the worst possible grounds (a product that kills) and it sidesteps the real issue, which is not the principle of advertising regulation, but what sort of restrictions should apply.

2.

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3.

On the other side, and equally absurd, are those who see the banning of tobacco advertising (and perhaps, sponsorship) as the be-all and end-all of their campaign. It is utter nonsense to think that Silk Cut and Marlboro would stop selling if all advertising were banned. The brands are far too powerful. Which gets us to the real point: the power of branding, as opposed to mere advertising. Anyone serious about being anti-tobacco would use all the Ps to undermine cigarette brands, just as marketers use all the Ps to build them. The Product could be made less appealing and less dangerous by making it smaller. They would look less elegant and 20 a day would mean less tobacco. Legislation on Packaging could really undermine cigarette brands. What would happen if manufacturers were forced to sell their goods in packs without logo, called perhaps, 20 Govt standard, Type A, Low Tar? Then theres Price. How about putting up the price to pay for a powerful anti-smoking campaign? The sponsorship problem would disappear. Few manufacturers would want to sponsor the Imperial Type B Snooker Championships. And how about Place? Ban cigarette sales from everywhere but CTNs (Confectioners, Tobacconists and Newsagents), and extend the current bans on smoking in public places. Add all these together, and the hotly debated principles paraded about tobacco advertising would all but disappear - and the real principle, a political decision about societys attitude towards the product, would come to the fore. The point of all this? First, to show that those who really want to tackle an issue such as tobacco should think in terms of marketing, rather than advertising.

4.

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7.

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10. Second, to point out how ignorance of the real power of marketing is muddying the waters. Finally, and most important of all to emphasise to all those doubters, in the boardroom and out, just how powerful the full marketing mix is. Underestimate it at your peril.

Task 2. Find the English eqivalents to the following


cng tc tip cn th trng nguyn nhn khch quan nguyn nhn ch quan tm hot ng ln b chi phi bi ... quyn ch ng u t trn lan mt hng s trng gia cng trnh marketing nh ngh thua thit v phn mnh khch hng l thng s phn

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Task 3. Translate the following into English marketing cc doanh nghip vit nam
(nhn xt ca mt chuyn gia marketing quc t)

1.

Ti i thm mt s n v kinh t quc doanh v t doanh Vit Nam, nhng xin c php khng bnh lun c th mt n v no, cng nh khng cp n nguyn nhn a n thnh cng hay tht bi nhng trng hp , m ch xin nu mt vi kin t gc ca mt ngi quan st. Qua mt s n v n tham quan, ti nhn thy cng tc tip cn th trng cc cng ty quc doanh c phn km hn so vi cc cng ty t doanh. Nguyn nhn khch quan l Vit Nam cn ang trong thi k chuyn i sang kinh t th trng, khi nim marketing cn nhiu mi m i vi cc nh qun l. Cn nguyn nhn ch quan l cc cng ty quc doanh hin nay c quy m v tm hot ng ln, sn phm ca h sn xut ra chim mt t trng kh ln trn th trng, nhng hu ht cc cng ty ny li cha pht trin c i ng chuyn vin nghin cu v tip cn th trng, m hot ng ny thng gn vi b phn kinh doanh tiu th sn phm, v th h t hiu bit v th trng, nhu cu, th hiu ngi tiu dng v.v... dn n hot ng km hiu qu. Mt nguyn nhn khc l cc cng ty quc doanh, quyn lc ca ban lnh o thng b chi phi bi ban lnh o cp trn nh Tng cng ty, Lin hip. V vy h khng thc s c ch ng trong k hoch sn xut v u t. Hin nay, cn nhiu cng ty Vit Nam u t trn lan, khng bit khai thc th mnh ca n v sn xut v kinh doanh nhng mt hng s trng m cng mt lc h sn xut v kinh doanh qu nhiu mt hng khc nhau. Kh nng cnh tranh ca h nhn chung cn yu, trong khi bn thn cc doanh nghip ny li cnh tranh gay gt vi nhau, c bit l cc cng ty chuyn xut nhp khu v nhn gia cng hng cho khch nc ngoi. Tm li, cc cng ty Vit Nam kh c th thnh cng trong cng cuc lm n ca h khi hiu bit qu t v th trng trong nc cng nh nc ngoi. Mc d trong thi gian qua hot ng marketing Vit Nam cng c nhiu tin b, song nhn chung vn cn phi c thay i hn na. Cc n v mi ch ch trng n cng tc qung co n thun, cn gi c, cht lng sn phm, v th hiu, nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng li khng c quan tm nhiu lm. Ti y, khi cc cng ty nc ngoi u t vo Vit Nam ng y cng nhiu, h n v mang theo nhng cng ngh hin i, trnh marketing nh ngh, nu cc nh sn xut Vit Nam vn tip tc nhng hot ng marketing theo kiu truyn thng th sao trnh khi thua thit v phn mnh? Vn t ra l cc doanh nghip phi nhanh chng nh hng chin lc cho cng tc marketing v p dng nhng chin thut hin i, hiu qu. Hy nh rng Khch hng l Thng bi h l ng i quyt nh s phn ca cc doanh nhn chng ta.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Task 4. Idiomatic expressions Translate the following sentences into Vietnamese, making them as natural as you can
1. Some businesses have understood that environmental protection and economic progress can go hand in hand.

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2. Your arguments are all true enough - yet, unhappily they are also largely beside the point. 3. The opposition parties do have the government on the ropes over several corruption and campaign-finance scandals. The trouble is that the opposition, too, is far from clean. 4. The various opposition parties have talked about running on a unified ticket in next Julys election. 5. Unless serious action is taken soon, he may leave office as a president long on reform rhetoric, but short on delivery. 6. The fact that the economic situation is becoming worse could be helpful to the Prime Minister: it gives him a rod with which to beat the back of opponents of change. 7. The statist Ministry of Trade and Industry has had the word Economy inserted into its name as a nod to broader thinking. 8. As Hu Jintao struggles to find his feet after the congress, bold new moves to tackle state enterprise reform and clear up bad debts look unlikely in the short term. 9. Globalization is adding to the reach of the market. Now individuals, firms and even governments have to bow down before this new master of competition.

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unit 20. corporate governance and soe reforms


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese corporate governance
1. Few topics are more central to the international business and development agendas than that of corporate governance, which is typically perceived by academic literature as dealing with "problems that result from the separation of ownership and control". A series of events over the last two decades have placed corporate governance issues as a top concern for both the international business community and the international financial institutions. Spectacular business failures such as the infamous BCCI scandal, or the United States savings and loan crisis. More recently, several high profile scandals in Russia and the recent Asian crisis have brought corporate governance issues to the fore in the developing countries and transitional economies. Further, national business communities are learning and re-learning the lesson that there is no substitute for getting the basic business and management systems in place in order to be competitive internationally and to attract investment. 2. The fall of the Berlin wall and the drive to rapidly privatize the entire business structure of the post-communist economies began to increase interest in corporate governance as a development topic. As a start, state owned firms had to be corporatized, i.e. converted from a governmental type structure to a corporate form. Second, the whole body of commercial law had to be put into place including bankruptcy, laws on property, accounting systems, and a host of other rules of the game. Most dauntingly, talent had to be nurtured. Few individuals had any experience as members of a board of directors. 3. When the subject of corporate governance arises in the context of transitional or developing countries, it involves a much wider range of issues. The recent Asian economic crisis, the continuing turmoil in Russia, and the recent experience of the Czech economy have combined to push the issue of corporate governance from the sidelines to center stage. In Asia, what began as a financial crisis is now viewed to be a crisis of corporate transparency involving relationships between government and business, between holders of debt and equity, and the legal remedies for bankruptcy and cronyism. Further, as seen in the daily papers, the lack of adequate institutions in Russia have resulted in several highly publicized cases involving allegations of asset stripping, stock register manipulation, and fraud. The Czech Republic privatization program has demonstrated the weakness of the voucher method in the absence of sound corporate governance mechanisms since it resulted in a lack of corporate restructuring and a consequent decline in competitiveness.

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4. How often has it been said that, "the government should get out of the way and let the market function?" Of course, that idea is a myth. Government is absolutely essential in setting up the framework of a market economy. Without rules and structures of a binding nature, anarchy results. Under such conditions business becomes nothing but "casino capitalism" where investments are simply bets: bets that people will keep their word, bets that the firms are telling the truth, bets that employees will be paid, and bets that debts will be honored. What corporate governance is all about in larger terms is how a structure can be set up that allows for a considerable amount of freedom within the rule of law. Ultimately, these arrangements provide the basis for the establishment of trust, one of the most important ingredients in business. 5. A strong system of corporate governance can be a major benefit to society. Even in countries where most firms are not actively traded on stock markets, adopting standards for transparency in dealing with investors and creditors is a major benefit to all in that it helps to prevent systemic banking crises. Taking the next step and adopting bankruptcy procedures also helps to ensure that there are methods for dealing with business failures that are fair to all stakeholders, including workers as well as owners and creditors. 6. Corporate governance is also directly related to another topic that has emerged to a position of great prominence world wide combating corruption. The recent signing of the OECD anti-bribery convention is the beginning, not the end, of a concerted global anti-corruption campaign. Creating sound corperate governance system is now a top concern for international development organizations, think tanks and business associations throughout the developing world and in the transitional economies.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


gim bin ch sung sc tn tu cng nhn thuc bin ch nh nc thc hin th im tha nhn cng ti tr n nn ngp c lao ng di d cho ngh vic ng vin lo thnh tnh hnh lm n st km bin php c gi tr mt cc h thng an sinh x hi bng lc

Task 3. Translate the following into English

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Gim bin ch doanh nghip nh nc nhng bc i ban u


1. Chng ti gp ng L Trung Tin, c cng xy dng 57 tui ca cng ty xy dng H ni 2. ng Tin phi tha nhn rng sau 27 n m tn tu vi cng ty, gi y ng khng cn sung sc na. Nhng ch n gia thng 10 ny, ng v 252 cng nhn khc s ri cng ty sau khi lnh mt khon tin mt v hng mt s bng lc khc. y l t cng nhn thuc bin ch nh nc u tin t nguyn ngh vic theo chng trnh mi ca chnh ph (s c thc hin th im 7 doanh nghip nh nc) nhm y mnh vic ct gim bin ch cc doanh nghip nh nc vn ang tha nhn cng. 2. Vi tr gi 400 triu la do Ngn hng Th gii v cc nh ti tr khc ti tr, chng trnh ny c mc ch gim nh bt gnh nng bin ch cho cc doanh nghip nh nc ang n nn ngp c; iu ny s gp phn y mnh qu trnh t nhn ho v gii quyt nhng mn n kh i ang khin cc ngn hng thuc s hu nh nc phi lao ao. 3. So v i Trung Quc th s lao ng di d trong cc doanh nghip nh nc Vit Nam khng phi l nhiu. V Vit nam c hn 80% dn s sng bng nng nghip, nn s cn b lm trong 5650 doanh nghip nh nc ch c 1.6 triu ngi, v 400,000 ng i trong s s c cho ngh vic trong vng 5 nm ti. Tuy nhin y l mt vn nhy cm v mt chnh tr. S phn ca nhng ngi c cho ngh vic, trong c nhiu ng vin lo thnh, s ra sao? 4. D sao th tnh hnh lm n st km ca cc doanh nghip nh nc cng cho thy r rng ci cch l cn thit. Tnh n cui n m ngoi, tng s n ca cc doanh nghip nh nc ln ti 190 ngn t ng, gp khong 10 ln tr gi ti sn m h c. Hn na chnh ph Vit nam cng cam kt vi Qu Tin t Quc t v mt lch trnh ci cch cht ch nn khng th tr hon thm na vic tinh gin bin ch trong cc doanh nghip ny. 5. khuyn khch ngi lao ng t nguyn thi vic, nh nc ang a ra mt bin php c gi vi nhiu u i hp dn. Hi cui nhng nm 80 v u 90, cn b nh nc ngh vic ch c tr mt cc tin rt t v khng c hng lng hu. Cn gi y chnh ph t ra rng tay hn: c mt nm lm cho nh nc, ngi lao ng s c tr 2 thng lng c bn, mt cc tin 5 triu ng, thm su thng lng y sau khi thi vic, v vn c hng lng hu mi thng khi h bt u n tui ngh hu. 6. Liu chng trnh c t c mc tiu ra hay khng - chng ta cha th ni trc c. Nhng cn nh rng ct gim bin ch ch l mt bin php nh nhm nng cao n ng lc cnh tranh. Cc nh qun l Doanh nghip nh nc cn chng minh rng cng ty mnh c th n nn lm ra m khng cn n mt h thng an sinh x hi vi nhng khon tr cp khng bao gi cn t chnh ph.

Task 4. Use of nouns as verbs


In many cases, words that are traditionally nouns will add to the vividness of the sentence when they are used as verbs.

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Look back at the example from task 3


... sau khi lnh mt khon tin mt v hng mt s bng lc khc ... after pocketing a cash payment and other perks

Now try the following


1. Thng qua vic nh thu v chi tiu cng cng, chnh ph c th bo v li ch cho nhng ngi thua cuc. (cushion) 2. Lng tin ca dn chng b nh hng nng n sau v b bi ti chnh ca tp on Enron. (hammer) 3. Hip hi cc quc gia ng Nam k kt tho thun EAN+3 nhm lin kt vi Nht, Nam Hn v Trung Quc. (rope) 4. Cc ngn hng quc doanh n ng qu nhiu n ni khng th tip tc chu cp cho cc doanh nghip nh nc c na. (milk) 5. Bc vo th k 21, nn kinh t ton cu ang phi i mt vi nhiu thch thc mi. (dawn) 6. Mt trong nhng phng chm kinh doanh kh ni ting ca Honda l ct gim chi tiu nhm nng cao nng sut. (axe) 7. Doanh nghip va v nh ng vai tr quan trng trong vic thc y tng trng kinh t. (fuel) 8. D c nhng ci cch mnh m nhng kinh t Nht vn cha thot khi tnh trng tr tr. (bottom out)

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4 (100 minutes)


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese
9. Eight months ago, a frustrated Communist party cadre decried the radical weaknesses of Vietnams economy. Poor productivity, competitiveness and quality especially at the state-owned enterprises bore the brunt of his criticism. It wasnt a voice from the political wilderness. The dour assessment came from none other than the prime minister, Soviet-trained economist Phan Van Khai, in a speech last year to the national assembly, Vietnams highest legislative body. 10. Khais has won some acclaim for pushing ahead with economic reforms, in particular expanding the private sector. This time around, the leadership is grappling with a high-

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profile corruption scandal and struggling to digest the consequence of imminent trade liberalization. Its also locked into an ambitious reform timetable reflected in the new bilateral trade agreement with the U.S that came into effect in December 2001. 11. With competition looming from the AFTA and WTO accession just around the corner, the party is counting on Khai more than ever to correct the economys radical weaknesses. 12. Khai certainly appears to have a better shot this time at slimming down the nations 5650 state enterprises, a prerequisite to recapitalizing the overburdened state-owned commercial banks. In October 2002 the government began to dole out more generous cash payments to workers who volunteer to leave their state jobs, as part of the new social safety net program. 13. The private sector, meanwhile, is showing greater ability to absorb surplus workers. Thanks to a recent law that has made it easier to set up a business, 2000 new companies are being launched each month. But Khai must yet suceed in abolishing hundreds more licences standing in the way of start-ups, and pump credit into the private sector. 14. The WB and the IMF are counting on greater support for the private sector, as well as progress in banking and SOE reforms, as mandated by commitments hammered out in 2002. With potential investors waiting in the wings, the clock is ticking.

Task 2. Translate the following into Vietnamese


1. Do nn kinh t ton cu ngy cng c t do ho, cc nc phi cnh tranh nhiu hn thu ht vn u t t bn ngoi. Trc tnh trng , nhiu nc ang tch cc ni lng cc chnh sch, quy nh v FDI ca mnh. Sau y l ba yu t c bn m bo thu ht FDI thnh cng. 2. Xy dng mt tm nh n chin lc v i mi cng ngh v nh hng hot ng FDI theo chin lc . Cc nc phi t ra nhng mc tiu chin lc v xc nh nhng lnh vc ha hn tim nng pht trin quc gia c lin quan n u t nc ngoi. Chnh sch thu ht FDI khng nhng phi c tnh chuyn nghip v to bo m cn phi c tnh chn lc v l mt phn thng nht ca chin lc tng th pht trin quc gia ni chung. Trc tin, cn phi thng nht nhn thc ca cc doanh nghip, nghip on, cc nh hoch nh chnh sch v cc t chc on th v tm quan trng ca vic i mi cng ngh. Th hai, cn vch ra nhng mc tiu chin lc.Th ba, phi xc nh nhng nh u t no v nhng hot ng u t no l thch hp v c kh nng hin thc ho nhng mc tiu ra. iu ny i hi cc nc phi lun quan st tnh hnh bin ng ca th trng v nm c th cc im yu, mnh ca mnh nhn nh ng v kp thi nhng lnh vc ha hn tim n ng pht trin. Th t, trn c s nhng nhn nh , phi y mnh cc bin php xc tin nhm thu ht cc nh u t mc tiu. 3. Xy dng v qung b mt hnh nh tch cc v nc thu ht u t . Cc nc u ang n lc t qung co cho hnh nh ca mnh nc ngoi. Cng tc xc tin u t thng c m nhn bi cc c quan nh nc hoc cc t chc t nhn phi li nhun. Tuy nhin, hot ng ca h cn phi c t chc mt cch c h thng v hiu qu, v theo hng coi trng khu vc kinh t t nhn. Vic tuy n truy n cho thnh cng ca cc nh u t tham gia vo th trng cng rt hu ch bi cc nh u t cn ng

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ngoi th trng thng quan st tht k hot ng ca nhng ngi i trc mnh ri mi a ra quyt nh u t - y chnh l mt phng php hiu qu h gim thiu ri ro.

4. To dng nhng yu t thu ht FDI theo hng hin i v chuyn mn ho.

Mt s nc ang pht trin c gng thu ht FDI thng qua nhng li th ca h v chi ph thp (c bit l gi nhn cng v ti nguyn) v u i h tr (thng th hin hnh thc h tr ti chnh, min gim thu, hoc tr gi thu t). Trn thc t y l nhng yu t rt c bn v ph bin, v chng khng duy tr kh nng c nh tranh lu bn. Tr cp u t khin cc nc phi hi sinh ngun lc ginh cho cc hot ng khc v ng thi li c th ko theo mt cuc ua v tr cp u t gia cc i th cnh tranh, nhng li khng th ci thin kh nng cnh tranh mt cch c bn. t c mc tiu ra, cc nc phi to dng nhng yu t thu ht u t hin i v c tnh chuyn mn cao. iu bao gm vic xy dng lc lng lao ng tri thc, y mnh cng tc nghin cu v trin khai, xy dng c s h tng trong mt s lnh vc nh cng ngh thng tin.

translation 3
For advanced learners of English 94

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part v. politics and foreign affairs

UNIT 21. INTERNATIONAL POLITICS


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese the two great forces of our time
1. It has been only more than one decade since the fall of the Berlin wall, but we are in a new age. For almost half a century, the West has struggled mightily to spread capitalism and democracy around the world. Now it has gotten what it wanted unbridled market and people power - and they will prove harder to handle than anyone imagined. Capitalism and democracy are the two dominant forces of modern history; they unleash human creativity and energy like nothing else. But they are also forces of destruction. They destroy old orders, hierarchy, tradition, communities, careers, stability and peace of mind itself. Unsentimental about the world as it exists, they surge forward, changing everything they encounter. The challenge of the West in the next century will be to find ways to channel the sweeping power of these two as they reorganise all human activity. Otherwise for much of the world, it may be too fast a ride.

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2. Things are so different now. For three generations, the world was defined by great political struggles: the Depression, World War II, the cold war, and decolonisation. Politics and diplomacy held center stage. Today the air is filled with a new sort of energy - to get rich. The heroes of the past may have been soldiers and statemen, artists and writers. Today they are entrepreneurs. Even countries like China, India and Brazil that once scoffed at the crass commercialism of the West now search desperately for ways to create export zones and high-tech corridors. 3. Intellectuals like to remind us that globalisation is actually not that new. At the turn of the 20 th century, free trade, free markets and democratic politics flourished. Today one does not need a visa to travel through much of Europe; then you did not even need a passport. 4. But there are crucial differences between this turn of a century and the last one. Globalisation today describes a far more pervasive and deep phenomenon than has ever existed before. Thousands of goods, services and even ideas are manufactured globally, creating complex interconnections between states. Another difference is the nature of the superpower. An open world economy rests upon the broad edifice of peace, which usually requires a great global hegemony - Britain in 1900, America in 2000. But in 1900 Britain was a declining power. The picture today could not be more different. Not only is the US securely the leading power in the world, its advantage is widening: we are living in the American Age. 5. What can we expect in this new era? Most countries recognise the need to tame the fires of capitalism. It will be harder for them to determine how best to handle democratic populism. Some countries have already begun to see its dangers. They recognise that democracy without the rule of law, minority protections and property rights can be a hollow shell. Most difficult of all, societies must make the adjustments as the forces of change swirl around with gathering fury. Whatever the balance countries arrive at, they will still be riding farther, faster than they have ever done. The only advice one can give as we enter a brave new world is this: fasten your seatbelts. Its going to be a bumpy ride.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


vng triu ch hiu chin n ng ci t chp nhong chuyn thm him trn bin cng vc vng ln ginh c lp ch ngha thc dn c ch hng i hng k thng tr cha truyn con ni sp t li bn c chnh tr trng tm quyn lc lin minh giai on phc hng mi

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tan r

Task 3. Translate the following into English Khi qut v chnh tr quc t
1. Ch trong nhng nm gn y nht trong lch s tn ti ca loi ng i chng ta mi c c mt th gii c s tng tc thng xuyn gia cc quc gia khc nhau, hay cn gi l chnh tr quc t. Vic khm ph phn ln hnh tinh ca chng ta mi ch hon thnh cch y 300 nm, nhng tm bn chi tit cha trn 100 tui, v mi ti nhng nm 60 ca th k trc chng ta mi thy c bc tranh ton cnh tri t qua nhng bc nh chp u tin c gi v t nhng chuyn du hnh ngoi v tr. 2. S ln mnh ca chu u trong th k XV nh du bc khi u ca chnh tr quc t ngy nay. Thi , cc vng triu chu u chng kin cc ch hng mnh v hiu chin n ng nhng tuyn ng thng mi huyt mch sang pha Nam v pha ng ca h. V l , ngi Ty Ban Nha v B o Nha v sau ny l ngi Bc u, c trang b v kh hin i v c dng kh thc hin nhng chuyn thm him trn bin xa xi v y nguy him, m ng tm kim nhng tuyn ng thng mi v c hi mi. V chnh nhng tuyn ng bin ch khng phi ng b t nn tng u tin cho hnh thc giao lu quc t mi. Tt nhin, mt s dn tc, nht l ng i Nga, m rng cng vc sang pha ng, song phn ln cc dn tc khc li vt bin v pha Ty khm ph v chinh phc chu M. n th k XVIII, cu trc c bn ca h thng chnh tr quc t hin i c hon thnh. n th k XIX trong lc cc thuc a chu M ang vng ln ginh c lp th chu Phi li tr thnh mc tiu nhm ng ca ch ngha thc dn chu u. 3. Kt qu l, s bnh trng sc mnh ca chu u m ng cho nhng t tng chnh tr v tn gio mi v lm cho quan h quc t ngy cng kh ng kht hn trong lnh vc thng mi. Chng hn, vic trao i cc loi cy trng gip sn xut lng thc tng ln t, ko theo s gia t ng dn s ba bi. Dn s t ng ko theo nhu cu giao thng ngy cng ln, v kt qu l xung t li ch gia cc quc gia ngy cng nhiu. 4. Xung t li ch xut pht t vic trao i hng ho v t tng li dn ti cc cuc chin tranh tranh ginh quyn lc v ca ci. Ngi ta cng mong mun c mt loi tin t d dng bun bn, thay th c ch hng i hng tr nn li thi. S xut hin ca tin t cng gip to ra tng lp thng nhn mi. Tng lp ny bt u tranh ginh quyn lc vi nhng k thng tr cha truyn con ni hoc gii lnh o qun s ... 5. Trong th chin th hai M chin thng v vang ti chu v cng ginh chin thng vi ng minh ca h chu u. Sau chin tranh, Lin X tr thnh cng quc hng mnh nht lc a chu u. Khi gii phng ng u, Lin X thit lp cc chnh quyn thn thin v do cng sn lnh o. iu ny to ra mi thch thc i vi trt t chnh tr ti Ty u. Cc ch c ca chu u b tan r, do vy ngi ta phi sp t li bn c chnh tr. 6. Nm 1945, 51 quc gia thnh lp Lin hip quc, nhng r rng l khng phi tt c cc quc gia u bnh ng nh nhau. Hai siu cng X v M chi phi ton b tt c cc quc gia khc. Tuy nhin, trng tm quyn lc ca th gii khng hon ton dch chuyn khi chu u. Chu lc ny thc s b chia r thnh hai phe ng-Ty, v cc

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siu cng chia ct chu u thnh nhng lin minh ch cht to c s cho cuc cnh tranh quyn lc khp ton cu ca h. Tuy cc ng minh chu u u c tm quan trng i vi c Mc T Khoa v Hoa Thnh n, nhng vic thi k chu u khng cn chi phi quan h quc t tr nn qu r rng. 7. Tuy nhin, cui thp nin 80, M dn dn phi tha nhn mc nh hng ngy cng gim i ca h d nhiu ngi M cm thy min cng phi chp nhn thc t . Song chnh nhng ci t chp nhong ca Lin X mi lm cho th gii sng st. Mikhail Gorbachov rt qun i Lin X khi nhng cam kt xa xi v nht l cho php ng i dn ng u t b ch ngha cng sn. Bc tng Berlin sp ngy 9/11/1989 nh du on kt ca cuc chin tranh Lnh v c l nh du giai on Phc hng mi ca chu u. n u nhng nm 90, nhiu nc, c th nht l Lin X, tan r thnh nhiu quc gia mi. Nhiu xung t bt ngun t chin tranh Lnh c khp li, nhng mt lot cc cuc xung t mi li ti din. K t n m 1945, cha bao gi cn cn quyn lc li tr nn m mt n vy.

Task 4. Choice of equivalents


One Vietnamese word may sometimes have different meanings in different contexts and therefore may be translated differently into English. Now try to find the English equivalents to the words below, being aware of what they really mean: xy dng lng tin xy dng k hoch xy dng chnh sch xy dng n xy dng nn mng xy dng ch s

thc hin d n ng k hoch ra thc hin k hoch thc hin c m thc hin li ha thc hin chuyn thm thc hin cam kt thc hin nhim v thc hin chnh sch thc hin kim tra gim st thc hin n hng p dng bin php p dng khoa hc k thut p dng chin lc

thnh ph ln s tin ln cng ty ln

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vn ln thnh tu ln tin b ln thch thc ln mc tiu ln khng hong ln nh hng ln s phn cch ln gii thng ln s a dng ln

t hng t phng t v my bay t bn n t nim tin v o ... t bt a ln bn t nn mng cho ...

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UNIT 22. WORLD POWERS


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese FADING SUPERPOWERS AND NEW GREAT POWERS
1. The rise and fall of great powers, not to mention their consequent rivalry, is the greatest of games in the world today. For a brief few decades since 1945, there emerged two socalled Superpowers who had the nuclear weapons capable of destroying all of civilization in a nuclear holocaust, alongside the awesome ability to deploy military forces around the globe. But by the early 1990s, one Superpower had broken apart and the United States was retreating from many global commitments. The world was gradually reverting to the more familiar, yet more complex, scramble of great power politics. 2. The Superpower age emerged as the United States and Soviet Union dominated the post Second World War world. Each led one of the two most powerful military alliances and both controlled more nuclear weapons than any other state. They each espoused political programs hostile to the other and struggled to win friends and influence in distant parts of the globe. 3. Although the Russians and Americans had worked together to defeat Germany and Japan, they could not agree on the shape of the post-war world. Europe was divided along the lines of military control agreed during the war. It certainly was unnatural that central Europe should be ruthlessly divided by what Churchill called an iron curtain, but until a clear dividing line was drawn, crises were commonplace. 4. Europe was sufficiently stabilized by the Cold War that the main instabilities soon emerged in the regions more distant from the direct interests of the Superpowers. The Korean War of 1950-3, was followed by a series of crises in Asia and the Middle East as Superpower conflict was displaced from Europe and parts of the developing world sought independence from the old European great powers. But the most conflict of all over Cuba in 1962 - involved the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in the American backyard. The two Superpowers were sufficiently scared by how they came to nuclear war to establish new systems for managing crisis and sign the first major arms control agreement - the Partial Test Ban pact of 1963. 5. As the Superpowers recognized that their nuclear arsenals were not useful instruments of policy, they also began to realize the real limits to their super status and the risks they should run as rivals. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) agreements were reached in 1972 and in 1975, measures for East-West dtente in Europe were signed in Helsinki. But as far as both Superpowers were concerned the limits that such agreements placed on their rivalry, did not mean that the end of their competition. 6. By 1980, the Superpowers seemed to be trying to deal with their frustrations by descending into what was called a new Cold War. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979 and the election of the conservative Reagan administration in the United States in 1980 led to a heightened tension, mostly manifest in rougher rhetoric about competition. But in most spheres, the reality was far less dangerous. The Polish crisis of 1980-1 lasted for longer than the Czech crisis of 1968, but at no time did the United States

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seriously challenge the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe. The Iran-Iraq war raged from 1980, with oil tankers regularly being sunk, yet both Superpowers showed immense restraint. And by increasing the size of their nuclear arsenals without upsetting the stability of deterrence, the Superpowers could merely threaten to make the rubble bounce higher. 7. The impotence of nuclear weapons and the inability of the Superpowers to gain by conflict in the developing world encouraged a rethink of what it meant to be a Superpower. As the United States and the Soviet Union lost confidence, China, Japan and the European Community began to assert their claim to take some of the super out of Superpower. The United States recognized that it no longer dominated the international economy and had to treat Japan and Western Europe in particular with much greater care. Yet it was the Soviet Union that was in the deepest trouble, as its economy failed. Both Superpowers were in the mood for a deal, if only to salvage something from their once-exalted status. 8. The death of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the drawdown of United States forces after the end of the Cold War were only temporally halted by the US-led defeat of Iraq in 1991. The United States could not have put together or paid for its winning coalition without support from allies. What began to emerge in place of a Superpower-dominated world was interlocking circles of power. There were the permanent five powers of the United Nations Security Council, the big seven industrial powers or possibly even three major trading blocks in Europe, East Asia and North America. This new and more uncertain world may turn out to be more dangerous than a world of insensitive Superpowers.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


v nhiu mt khng tranh ngi th cuc xung t p o kit qu i th xng ng trang b hin i c ng hin thc kh ph nhn bn chy h t tng t tng ch ch ngha pht xt cao nhn phm bp mo bp nght ca... thanh bnh bt n x hi m m hng mnh s ph bin v kh ht nhn nn khng b

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v kh git ngi hng lot k thng tr/tn sen m QT

Task 3. Translate the following into English Liu Nc M cn tip tc thng tr trong thin nin k mi?
1. V nhiu mt, c th ni th k 20 l th k ca nc M. K thng tr khng th tranh ngi th ny khng ch hin din cc cuc xung t ln ca th k, m thng li ca M trong cc cuc xung t cn gip nc ny loi tr c nhng i th v sau. Th chin th nht gip M p o c Anh Quc. Th chin th hai c cng chu s phn tng t. V chin tranh lnh lm cho nc Nga kit qu. 2. Cho n thi im ny, M cha c i th tng xng v qun s hay kinh t. Qun i ca Trung Quc c th ng hn, nhng qun i Hoa K li c trang b ti tn hn v c ng hn. iu ny c minh chng r rng qua cc cuc chin tranh Vng Vnh v Kosovo. V kinh t, tng sn phm quc ni ca M n m 99 t con s hn 8 ngn t la, cao hn thu nhp ca ton b Lin minh chu u, mc d cng ng ny ng hn M 100 triu dn. Thu nhp bnh qun u ngi ca M cao hn mc sng chu u 45% v hn mc ca Nht 26%. 3. S thng tr ca M hu nh tr thnh mt hin thc kh ai c th ph nhn. Trong s 10 cng ty a quc gia hng u th gii th 5 cng ty l ca M. Coca Cola l loi nc ngt bn chy nht th gii. Hollywood l th ca ngnh cng nghip gii tr trn th gii. H t tng M l h t tng duy nht cn tn ti vo cui th k 20, vt ln trn t tng Ch hi u th k, hay t tng Cng sn hoc ch ngha pht xt hi gia th k. l h t tng cao nhn phm, t do v tin b vt cht. 4. Vi thc ti , c v nh phi l nu chng ta ngh rng th k ti s khng thuc v nc M. Vy m iu hon ton c th xy ra. Ci tn th k ca nc M phn no bp mo thc t lch s. Nc M thi gian va qua khng phi l ng i ch huy cc s kin lch s, m ch can thip th bo vo ca cc nc khc. X hi M cng khng phi l mt x hi n nh thanh bnh, m hai v d in hnh nht l cuc i Suy Thoi kinh t thp nin 30 v s bt n x hi nhng n m 60. Thp k 80 tnh hnh cng ht sc m m, vi lm pht ln ti mc 14%. 5. Hn na, v tr thng tr ca M cn ph thuc vo thc t khch quan. Mt t nc d hng mnh n u cng kh c th vt qua c nhng thch thc ca thin nin k mi. l s ph bin v kh ht nhn, l nn khng b, l vic s dng nhng v kh git ngi hng lot, l s mt n nh kinh t, l nhng s c c th xy ra vi nhng h thng vi tnh v thng tin quan trng. y l cn cha k n nhng vn v kinh t x hi trong ni b mi quc gia. Tng lai s ra sao, chng ta hy thi gian tr li.

Task 4. Combination of sentences


To avoid repetition, sometimes translators can combine two or more sentences into one. Look back at the examples from task 3:

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H t tng M l h t tng duy nht cn tn ti vo cui th k 20, vt ln trn t tng Ch hi u th k, hay t tng Cng sn hoc ch ngha pht xt hi gia th k. l h t tng cao nhn phm, t do v tin b vt cht. The American ideal, which emphasises..., was the only ideal that survived at the end of the century, overruling the Empire... C v nh phi l nu chng ta ngh rng th k ti s khng thuc v nc M. Vy m iu hon ton c th xy ra. That the next century wont belong to America is hard to believe but quite possible. Mt t nc d hng mnh n u cng kh c th vt qua c nhng thch thc ca thin nin k mi. l s ph bin v kh ht nhn, l nn khng b, l vic s dng nhng v kh git ngi hng lot, l s mt n nh kinh t, l nhng s c c th xy ra vi nhng h thng vi tnh v thng tin quan trng. y l cn cha k n nhng vn v kinh t x hi trong ni b mi quc gia. Even the most powerful nation could hardly tame the next milleniums menaces, which include..., let alone internal socio-economic troubles.

Now translate the following into English, combining sentences if that produces better translation:
1. Nm ngoi, ai cng t ra ht sc phn khi trc vic Trung Quc sp sa gia nhp WTO. Nhng gi y, r rng l s phn khi hy cn l qu sm. 2. Din n Seattle tht bi thm hi khi hi ngh b trng ca WTO kt thc m khng thng nht c v ni dung vng m phn cho thin nin k mi. iu ny gy mt nh hng ln n gii chnh tr gia quc t. H lo ngi v vn chnh sch thng mi th t m lo ngi v tng lai ca ton cu ho th nhiu. 3. Tng thng Wahid ca Innxia cho rng s chnh lch giu ngho l mt h qu tt yu ca cnh tranh, m cnh tranh li l c ch mu cht cho s pht trin kinh t. 4. Quc hi Hoa K c th ngh sa i Hin php nu H vin v Thng vin c 2/3 s phiu ng h vic ny.

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UNIT 23. critical relationS


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese U.S. POLICY TURNING TOWARD ASIA
1. Periods of political transition in the United States are supposed to be times designed to provide average Americans and prospective presidents alike an opportunity to reflect on recent political history and speculate on what might lie ahead for the nation. This is true for all aspects of national policy, both domestic and international. But one of the unfortunate consequences of the 2000s protracted post-election campaign has been the absence of a major public reflection on national priorities. 2. There has been scarcely time to reflect about the policy challenges ahead. This is a shame because even though the political pages and editorial space of most American newspapers have been bereft on international coverage in favour of lengthy features on obscure electoral procedures, world concerns still wait for the next president - especially in Asia. 3. This millennial campaign and subsequent transition period will come to be seen as an epochal transition point in American attentions, away somewhat from European pursuits and more toward Asia. The possibility of a turn to Asia in future foreign policy preoccupations received scant attention in the actual presidential campaign. Part of the reason for this is the general agreement in responsible Republican and Democratic circles around three central objectives in Asia: the importance of the U.S. bilateral alliances, a

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consensus on engaging China, and the desirability of enhanced and open trade and investment. 4. Yet, despite this general political consensus and the benign neglect during the campaign, challenges on the Asian horizon are looming. The Pacific century, long hailed but little understood, lies directly ahead. After a decade of relative quiescence, Asia now stands on the cusp of major strategic change. The top three challenges for the U.S. in the immediate future are anticipating and dealing with the inevitable changes that are directly ahead on the Korean peninsula, managing the further security and political manifestations of Chinas rise on the international scene, and coping with with perhaps further calamitous signs of political incoherence in Indonesia. 5. If that list were expanded, the next tier of challenges would likely contain still more Asian concerns. Specifically, transpacific trade friction - long dormant because of the strength of the U.S. economy - will reappear with a vengeance if the American engine of growth slows significantly. The Taiwan Strait is also emerging as one of the most dangerous and unpredictable places on the globe with a U.S. role that is far from clear. Indeed, the entire security architechture (or lack thereof) in Asia may well emerge as a critical shortcoming in the years ahead. 6. The point of all this is that whether the period ahead will be stable and secure will be directly affected by policy decisions taken by the U.S during the next few years. The changing strategic landscape in Asia demands that Washington pay at least as much highlevel attention to the region as it did to the shaping of the new Europe during the 1990s.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


c ng thng ch ni cm gc r vn xem thng nguy c chng cht Hip nh cm th v kh ht nhn ton b cuc khng kch y li b binh n phng ch ngha ln ting ng h h thng phng th tn la quc gia nh bnh lun ch c v tr thng soi thi k trng nc h thng 2 cc m bo cho li ni c trng lng e da dng v lc

Task 3. Translate the following into English

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s chia r trong QUAN H U M


1. Mt trong nhng ch ni cm trong cuc hp thng nin ca din n kinh t th gii va qua l s lo ngi v quan h ngy cng cng thng trong quan h u M. Theo quan im ca chu u, gc r vn l ch M tr thnh mt siu cng duy nht trn th gii. Hu qu l nc ny bt u xem thng cc quc gia khc. Vic loi b c mi nguy c t khi Lin X c r rng lm M gim dn nhng cam kt ca mnh u lc. Ch ni trong thp k 90, s qun M chu u gim t 300,000 xung cn 100,000 lnh. 2. Chu u cng buc ti M rng nc ny ngy cng t ra min cng hn trong vic tham gia vo cc hip nh, cng c v t chc quc t. Khon tin khng l M n Lin Hp Quc mi ngy li thm chng cht. Quc hi M t chi k hip nh cm th v kh ht nhn ton b v hip nh Kyoto v thay i kh hu ton cu. Trong v xung t ma xun va ri Kosovo, khi cc cuc khng kch ca NATO khng y li c qun Serbs ra khi khu vc ny, M cng rt chm tr trong vic a b binh n Kosovo. 3. Ngoi ra, cc quc gia chu u cn cho rng M ang dn ng theo xu hng n phng ch ngha. Bng chng l cc tng lp chnh tr M u ln ting ng h vic thit lp mt h thng phng th tn la quc gia, bt chp s phn i quyt lit ca Nga v cc ng minh chu u. 4. Cn theo cch nhn ca M, chu u ang ngy cng tr nn thng nht v iu ny khin khng t ngi dn M phi quan ngi. Mi ch hn mt n m trc khi lu hnh ng euro, nhiu nh bnh lun M cn cho rng chu u s chng bao gi c c ng tin chung. Gi y khi iu ny tr thnh hin thc, h li cho rng ng euro s khng ch c v tr thng soi ca ng la, v do M chng vic g phi iu chnh cc chnh sch ca mnh. 5. Nhng c th h sai lm. Tuy ng euro vn cn thi k trng nc, nhng mt khi n t khng nh mnh l mt ng tin mnh, cc nh u t v ngn hng trung ng s u t vo euro cn bng vi s u t bng la ca h. S xut hin h thng ti chnh ton cu hai cc kiu ny qu l chng d chu cht no i vi M. 6. Chu u khng ch ang hp nht v mt kinh t m cn c trn phng din quc phng na. Cc chnh ph u chu cho rng h cn phi c kh nng m bo cho nhng tuy n b ngoi giao ca mnh c trng lng bng nhng li e do dng v lc. Do 15 quc gia chu u, vi s ku gi ca Anh, nht tr rng h s ch trng tng cng tim lc qun s trong thi gian ti. 7. Do kh m c th lc quan trc vin cnh v quan h u M trong tng lai. Tuy nhin v lu di, s xut hin ca mt u lc hng mnh hn v thnh cng hn s khin cho M phi chp nhn mt trt t th gii mi t n cc hn v c nguyn tc hn.

Task 4. Parallel structure


Look at the following sentence: Sheila is intelligent, beautiful, and has a lot of money.

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Although the sentence is not grammartically wrong, it is unaccepted in standard written English, because the structure is not parallel. To describe Sheilas qualities, we should use the same part of speech: Sheila is intelligent, beautiful, and rich. Look back at the example from task 3: M phi chp nhn mt trt t th gii mi t n cc hn v da trn nguyn tc nhiu hn. America needs to accept a new world order that is less unipolar and more rule-based.

Now translate the following into English, making sure that the structure is parallel:
1. Ti rt thch c n phng ny v n c thit k rt p v trang thit b trong phng cng rt tt. 2. Mc d thng mi in t ang l mt hin nay, mt cuc iu tra gn y cho thy 75% s cng ty nh kinh doanh lnh vc ny tht bi do h khng c k hoch kinh doanh chu o v do k vng qu nhiu n mc phi hin thc vo lnh vc bo b ny. 3. Khi cc nc ng nhn ra mt tri ca t do ho, h khng c thi gian, sc lc cng nh khng dng cm thnh lp cc th ch cn thit nhm bo v mnh phn no trnh khi s bin ng ca th gii bn ngoi. 4. Hin php ca mt quc gia l cng c php l quan trng nht ca chnh ph v to n ti cao ca quc gia . Hin php cng l c s t c n nh chnh tr, t do c nhn v tin b x hi.

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UNIT 24. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. International organizations or intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are one of the key actors in the contemporary global system. The IGO label is often used because it stresses the fact that such organizations, for example, the United Nations, are composed of states, that the individuals who are sent as representatives to such organizations represent the interests and policies of their own states. 2. IGOs may be usefully categorized according to the scope of memberships and the scope of their purposes. On the one hand, we have universal political organizations such as the old League of Nations and the United Nations, which aim to include as wide an international membership as possible. Such organizations are also general purpose in that they perform political, economic, developmental, military, sociocultural, and other functions for member states. Other general-purpose organizations have more limited memberships. These include organizations like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and several others. The British Commonwealth is not regional in the sense of its membership being grouped in any one geographical area, but it is limited to former colonial holdings of the British Empire. 3. A significantly greater number of organizations, called functional IGOs or limited-purpose IGOs, perform more specific functions. Some stress military functions, for example, the Arab League, NATO, and the Warsaw Pact in their early days. Others are related to primarily economic matters, for example, the various organs of the European Community or organizations like the Central American Common Market, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), or the Soviet-established Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECOM) in Eastern Europe. Others provide various social services, for example, the World Health Organization (WHO) or the International Labor Organization (ILO). Others are involved in monetary matters and economic development, for example, the IMF or the World Bank, and so on. 4. IGOs do have a significant and continuing impact on interstate relations. The international role of many IGOs is clearly institutionalized in that states expect them to act in certain areas. They expect the UN, say, to act in areas of perennial conflict, for example, to help, as it did in 1988, to bring a halt to the fighting between Iran and Iraq; they expected the OAU to act in Angola in 1976 or the Arab League to act in Lebanon in the late 1970s. When a state finds itself in serious economic trouble, it almost automatically looks to the World Bank or the IMF for various kinds of aid. Third-world states increasingly find that association with IGOs will help their economic performance. In addition, IGOs are actors in the sense that they continually affect the foreign policy behavior of their members to the extent that member states join the organization and value the continuation of membership. Merely sending representatives to an organization, employing resources to maintain IGOs, or interacting with others through IGOs has an impact on the state. Perhaps most importantly, the IGOs may be considered actors because states and leaders believe that IGOs are behaving as international actors and

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must be taken into account in foreign policy deliberations. They are seen to affect where and how states interact. 5. IGOs have this effect in several ways. Most clearly seen in the United Nations, but common to many other IGOs, is the IGO function of acting as a forum for the member states to meet and communicate. The IGO may act passively as a line of communication or a meeting place or actively as a mediator. In a more active manner, IGOs perform a number of regulative functions across such areas as economics, health, communication, and transportation; for example range from the African Postal Union to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Here IGOs, with the consent of member states, regulate how members should interact to function smoothly, efficiently, and beneficially in an area of concern. This management or coordination function is essential to the orderly functioning of day-to-day global relations. 6. However, some IGOs also have distributive functions - distributing benefits and costs among states. Although organizations such as the World Bank spring most readily to mind, others such as the International Court of Justice, which dispenses legal decisions, are equally distributive. States must take into consideration the predispositions and power of the permanent staff of the pertinent IGO, which will decide how to distribute the costs and benefits it has at its disposal. 7. Taking the distributive function a step further, a very small number of IGOs may be termed supranational; these have the power to make decisions that are binding on their members even if some members disagree. These IGOs indeed appear to take aspects of members sovereignty away from them. Various organs of the European Community have such power and are the only true supranational IGOs in existence today.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


ch ngha thc dn bt bnh ng bu thng qua hin chng LHQ quyn ph quyt Hi ng Bo an LHQ i hi ng LHQ Qu Nhi ng LHQ Cao u LHQ v ngi t nn

Task 3. Translate the following into English h thng lin hip quc
1. Sau Th chin th hai, Lin Hip Quc phn nh mong mun ca cc nc thng trn trong vic duy tr ho bnh th gii v trit thoi nhng iu kin dung dng cho mm mng chin tranh. l ch ngha thc dn, i kh, bt bnh ng v ngu dt. Hin chng Lin Hip Quc c son tho ti hi ngh Dumbarton Oaks vo thng 8

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n m 1945 phn ln l kt qu m phn ca M, Anh v Lin X. Ti hi ngh Yalta thng ging nm 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill v Stalin nht tr v cc c ch m bo s thng tr ca cc cng quc ti Lin Hip Quc. Bn Hin chng c 51 thnh vin k ngy 26/6/45, trong c 20 thnh vin M Latinh, 11 thnh vin chu v ch c 3 thnh vin chu Phi. 2. Tr s Lin Hip Quc t ti New York, mt phn l tha nhn vai tr tin phong trong vic son tho Hin chng ca M. Ngn ng chnh thc hin nay gm ting Rp, ting Trung Quc, ting Anh, ting Nga v ting Ty Ban Nha, th hin ng tnh cht quc t ca t chc ny. Tuy vy, cho n nay, vai tr dn ho quan trng nht ca Lin Hip Quc vn th hin cc th ch m t chc ny thit lp. C ba c quan chnh. 3. C quan quyn lc nht l Hi ng Bo an c trch nhim duy tr ho bnh v an ninh. 15 thnh vin ca Hi ng chu s chi phi ca n m U vin thng trc (Anh, Trung Quc, Php, Nga v M) c quyn ph quyt bt c vn khng mang tnh th tc no. Quyn ph quyt l bng chng sinh ng chng t sc cng trong thut ng cng quc. Mi thnh vin khc ca Hi ng Bo an c c quan ch cht th hai ca LHQ l i Hi ng LHQ bu ln vi nhim k 2 n m. 4. Ti i Hi ng LHQ, trn danh ngh, tt c cc thnh vin u bnh ng - mi quc gia mt phiu bu. i Hi ng hp thng k vo thng 9 hng nm v c 7 u ban chnh chuyn trch mt lot cc vn . i Hi ng c th tho lun bt c ch no, song cn phi c a s 2/3 ng h trc khi mt vn quan trng c thng qua. Tuy nhin, i Hi ng ch c quyn khuyn ngh, tc l khc vi Hi ng Bo an ni c quyn bt buc tun th. 5. C quan th ba ca LHQ l Ban th k vi ngi ng u l Tng Th k c bu theo nhim k 5 nm. Tng thng Roosevelt ch trng Tng Th k l ng i trung gian ho gii trn th gii, nhng thc t cho thy Tng Th k thng l ng i khng c thc quyn v vai tr ca ng thng b ngi ta pht l. 6. Mc d b lm dng qu mc trong sut thi k Chin tranh Lnh, song LHQ cng c nhng im tch cc. Th nht, mt lot cc hnh thc gi gn ho bnh ca LHQ t ra hu ch. Cho n nay chng ta quen thuc vi nhng ngi lnh i m st xanh, a chng tc v a ngn ng, c trang b v kh nh nhng v lm nhim v nhng ni xa xi bn thu. H phi thc hin nhng nhim v kh khn, nu khng mun ni l bt kh, bi l bn thn LHQ him khi bit r h ang lm g v khng dnh nhiu quyn lc cho lc lng ca h. Tuy nhin, c bit bao quc gia tranh th c i qun ca LHQ thc hin mt lot vai tr khc nhau. 7. Th hai, LHQ ng vai tr trung gian v l a im gp g cho hot ng ngoi giao mang tnh truy n thng. Trong hnh lang mt m khi thuc hay trong nhng c n phng nh pha sau cnh g, cc nc th ch c th gp g nhau, tn hiu c pht i v ng i ta c th bt u m phn. Ngay c trong th gii ngy cng tr nn nh b nh nhng phng tin lin lc hin i, ngi ta vn cn c nhng cuc tip xc trc din. 8. Th ba, LHQ thit lp mt lot cc c quan chuyn mn v cc t chc lin i c vai tr thit thc. Ngn hng Th gii v Qu Tin t Quc t c l l hai th ch cp vn c bit n nhiu nht cho cc quc gia ang gp kh kh n v kinh t. Qu cu

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tr Nhi ng v Cao u LHQ v Ngi t nn th em li cho cc c nhn gp kh kh n nhng gip thit yu. 9. Th t, LHQ n gin l ni cc nc ngho v nhc tiu c th cm thy ting ni ca mnh c trng lng trong mt th gii b cc cng quc v cc nc pht trin chi phi. Chc chn iu ny nhiu khi b bin tu thnh nhng xut v l v k quc, nhng tr h u tr v nhng bi pht biu inh tai nhc c. Nhng nc yu cm thy tho mn hn v c ch trch nhng quc gia hng mnh, song thc cht nhng hnh ng ca h ch lm hng kh nng hnh ng mt cch c hiu qu ca LHQ m thi. 10. Liu LHQ c thc hin c tt vai tr ca mnh hay khng, chng ta cn cha th kt lun. Mc d c kh nng ci cch s c thc hin - cc cng quc nh Nga v M s tr n nhiu hn, v thm ch c th s c mt gh trong Hi ng Bo an dnh cho Nht Bn - song hu nh cha c du hiu no cho thy LHQ c kh nng m bo an ninh ton cu mt cch c hiu qu. Mc d chng ta c th nho bng hay th i vi LHQ, nhng nu gi s ngy nay cha c LHQ th chc hn chng ta s phi thit lp nn t chc ny.

Task 4. Change of verbs into nouns


Look at the following example: M v Trung Quc c th hp tc trong rt nhiu lnh vc There is a wide scope for mutual cooperation

Translate the following into English, using the nouns given in brackets
1. Cng ty kinh doanh thc phm khng l ny s th nghim s dng th tn dng ti 12 im bn l. (trial) 2. Vic s dng th tn dng c thay i mt s im lm cho chng tr nn thng dng hn. (alterations) 3. S ngi s dng sc gim xung chng t l th tn dng tin li hn trong thanh ton. (reduction) 4. Km theo th ny, chng ti xin gi ngi cun catalog v bn bo gi mi nht. Xin ngi lu rng chng ti sa i mt s iu khon lin quan n vic thanh ton nhng n t hng s lng ln. (changes) 5. Trong cuc hp cn b cng nhn vin mi y, nhiu ngi t phn i vic ht thuc trong phng lm vic. (objections) 6. H khng my tin tng vo li ha ca v b trng. (trust) 7. 18 nm nay, kinh t M lin tc tng trng. (expansion/growth). 8. Trng Kinh Doanh Lun n l mt trng ni ting ton th gii. (recognition)

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unit 25. READY FOR TOMORROW


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese START ME UP
1. Europe needs a new economic story. It needs to explain how it can transform European science and technology, knowledge and creativity into jobs, growth and economic success. The generation, dissemination, application and exploitation of distinctive know-how is the driving force behind economic growth in a globally interconnected economy. That puts a premium on innovation, entrepreneurship and agility. To explain how Europe will make its way in the knowledge-driven economy is to answer the question that most worries many people: how will I, and my children, earn our living in the future? Unless political leaders can give a clear and compelling answer to that question, they will lose credibility and trust. Yet it has become increasingly difficult to deliver a convincing answer because our economic lives are, more than ever before, in upheaval. 2. The economy is changing as a result of several factors. Globalisation is opening companies up - on the one hand to competition from lower-cost producers, and on the other to pressure from more demanding investors and capital markets. The long-run shift from manufacturing to services has been accelerated and complicated by the pervasive influence of computing and communications technologies. Manufactured products are increasingly knowledge-intensive and technologically complex. The Internet and mobile communications have given us unprecedented capacity to store, retrieve, analyse and share information. Advanced societies are doing more scientific research more

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productively than ever before and translating the results more quickly into new products and industries such as biotechnology and genomics. 3. This combination of forces means that intangible assets - research and development, brands, know-how, human capital - have become the fundamental sources of wealth and value. Innovation and entrepreneurship are transforming these intangible assets into products and services and driving forward economic growth, creating jobs, meeting social needs and improving efficiency. 4. Europe has been slower to respond to these emergence of this new economy than the United States. That is one reason why its record of job generation is poor compared to the US. Europe seems to be losing out in high-tech industries. US companies are writing the rules of the game, yet many US firms that now have global reach were small operations a decade ago. This new economy poses huge challenges to the economic order in Europe. 5. Entrepreneurship requires more risk-taking, and entrepreneurial societies have to tolerate high rates of failure, which are an essential ingredient in the searching and learning that drive experimentation and improvement. Many successful entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley have been through two or three failed start-ups before hitting a home run. A society that can not accommodate failure can not be entrepreneurial. 6. A more innovative economy will encourage a faster rate of change. Innovation only succeeds if new ideas, products, services and companies drive out the old, allowing resources to be transferred to other areas of the economy. In the 50s and 60s it took 20 years for 1/3 of the 500 largest US corporations to be replaced; in the 70s a decade; in the 80s just 5 years. And now the average US manufacturing company is 3 years old. This faster rate of change poses a challenge to many of Europes established economic organisations.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


thc o cng nhn chng trnh hnh ng xung t ng i ca ci vt cht t l m ch tui th trung bnh tnh hi ho theo ui mc tiu nhm sc tc lng ho ng i b nh i lang thang v t st n chng tc a chng tc

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Task 3. Translate the following into English THC O THNH CNG


1. Chu u chun b c nhng g cho th k 21? Phi cng nhn rng trong 50 nm qua, cc nc ng v Ty u u c nhng tin b vt bc. Tuy nhin, chun b tt cho tng lai, lc a gi ci ny cn phi thay i chng trnh hnh ng, hng hnh ng cng nh nhng u tin hnh ng ca mnh. Mt nhm cc nh lnh o chu u hp ti din n kinh t th gii tm cch xc nh nhng iu cn lm trong tng lai. 2. Cc v ng u quc gia nht tr vi nhau rng nhng thc o thnh cng c, nht l nhng thc o ch tp trung vo s giu c v kinh t, gi y khng cn thch hp na. Nhim v ch yu ca cc nh lnh o chu u khng cn l vic ti thit mt lc a b chin tranh tn ph, m l m bo cm no o m cho th h tip theo. Trong tng lai, mt x hi thnh cng phi l mt x hi n nh v c kinh t, chnh tr ln mi trng, gip cho cc cng dn c c hi pht trin v trng thnh. X hi cng phi c kh nng gii quyt cc xung t ca mnh. y qu l nhng i hi rt cao m cha mt x hi chu u ng i no t c. 3. Nhng tng trn c cc nh lnh o chu u c th ho thnh bn ch s chnh v s thnh cng: S n nh: mt kha cnh quan trng trong vic m bo n inh x hi l ca ci vt cht, nhng khng phi l kha cnh duy nht. Mt x hi n nh cn phi c mt h thng ch m sc y t tt, mt mi trng sng lnh mnh v mt chnh ph ng vai tr tch cc trong nn kinh t. Mc sn sng cho tng lai: v khoa hc k thut ng vai tr rt ln trong tng lai nn ch s ny c o bng s lng v tnh hiu qu ca cc my tnh c ni mng internet v cht lng ca h thng thng tin lin lc. Ngoi ra, ch s ny cn bao gm mc nghin cu v pht trin, cc bng pht minh sng ch, cng nh lc lng lao ng c trnh hc vn v tay ngh cao. Cng bng v t do c nhn: mi cng dn phi c c hi pht trin bnh ng. C th l ch s ny cp n s thanh nin c vic lm, cht lng ca h thng gio dc, t l m ch, tui th trung bnh ca ngi dn, v s phn phi thu nhp. S hi ho: trong khi mi theo ui nhng mc tiu chnh tr v kinh t, chng ta chng my khi n iu ny, th nhng li l c im quan trng ca mt x hi m ai cng mong mun. Tnh hi ho th hin kh nng ca mi x hi trong vic gii quyt cc mu thun gia cc tng lp x hi, hay gia nhng nhm sc tc, tn gio khc nhau. V ch s ny rt kh lng ho nn cc nh lnh o ch a ra mt s thc o c tnh tng i nh s t nhn, s ngi b nh i lang thang, hay s v t st.

4. Cui cng, cc nh lnh o p dng bn thc o trn xy dng mt ch s thnh cng tng hp cho cc quc gia chu u. H rt ra nhn xt rng nhn chung, cc nc bc u tin b hn nam u, cc nc nh tin b hn cc nc ln, v cc nc n chng tc tin b hn cc nc a chng tc.

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5. Nhng cuc nghin cu khng ch dng li . Cc nh lnh o cn em ch s ca chu u so snh vi ch s ca M, Canada v Nht bn. V ngi ta thy rng khng ch c cu lc a l ng i duy nht phi lo lng cho tng lai. Ch s ca Nht thp hn ch s ca 3 nc chu u, cn M v Canada th thp hn 9 nc.

Task 4. Real and unreal passive voice


Ussually, passives can be recognised by such words as c, b... However, some sentences with c, b... are not really passive, while some sentences without c, b... must be understood as passive. Try the following: 1. Sao trng anh hm nay ti tnh th? , ti mi c tng lng. 2. Trong cuc hp phng va ri anh y b kim im rt gay gt v hay i lm mun. 3. ng baht b xung gi lm cho Thi lan tr thnh mt im du lch hp dn. 4. iu xu nht c th xy ra vi nhng ngi u t vo cng ty trch nhim hu hn l b mt nhng khon u t ban u nu cng ty b ph sn. 5. Hm nay trng anh bnh qu! , l v ti mi i ct tc. 6. Ti rt vui mng c nhn tm bng thc s sau gn hai nm hc tp vt v. 7. Trng anh y sao bun th nh? C g u, anh y va b thi vic m. 8. Ci my photo ny hng ri! Th . Ti s cho ngi sa ngay.

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check your progress 5(100 minutes)

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese the fragile global economy
1. Capitalism is the most successful wealth-creating economic system that the world has ever known. It creates wealth through advancing continously to ever higher levels of productivity and technological sophistication; this process requires that the old be destroyed before the new can take over. Technological progress, the ultimate driving force of capitalism, requires the continuous discarding of obsolete factories, economic sectors, and even human skills. The system rewards the adaptable and the efficient; it punishes the redundant and the less productive. 2. This process of creative destruction produces many winners and losers, at least in the short term, and poses a serious threat to traditional social values, beliefs, and institutions. Moreover, the advance of capitalism is accompanied by periodic recessions and downturns that can wreak havoc in peoples lives. Although capitalism eventually distributes wealth more equally as it does tend to reward the most efficient and productive, it tends to concentrate wealth, power, and economic activities. Threatened individuals, groups, or nations constitute an ever-present force that could overthrow or at least significantly disrupt the capitalist system. 3. Propelled by a number of political, economic, and technological developments, the world has moved from the sharply divided international economy of the Cold War to an increasingly integrated global economy. The rapid industrialization in the 1980s and 1990s of the emerging markets of East Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere shifted global economic power and created an increasingly competitive international economy. However, by the end of the decade, these developments had also produced upheaval in both domestic and international affairs. 4. Spreading quickly throughout the industrializing economies of Pacific Asia, and even to Japan, the global economic turmoil which began in Thailand in July 1997 soon engulfed much of the world. By the fall of 1998, a quarter of the world economy was in recession. Evaporation of wealth in Pacific Asia and elsewhere was enormous, and commodityexporting countries suffered huge losses as their export markets dried up. Emerging markets, hailed in the early 1990s, were by the end of the decade considered a major source of global economic and political instability. 5. At the beginning of the 21st century, the increasingly open global economy is threatened although the East Asian troubles have significantly moderated. The international capitalist system could not possibly survive without strong and wise leadership, which must promote international cooperation to establish and enforce rules regulating trade, foreign investment, and monetary affairs. But it is equally important that leadership ensure at least minimal safeguards for the inevitable losers from market forces. Those who lose must at least believe that the system functions fairly. Continuation of the market system will remain in jeorpady unless considerations of efficiency are counterbalanced by

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social protection for the economically weak and training/education of those workers left behind by rapid economic and technological change.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


sn lng u t cho xy dng c bn khin ... phi ng ngng sng st din bin lm bin i din mo ca ... bao vy b ch lin minh cng quc tnh trng xo trn

Task 3. Translate the following into English ch ngha khu vc ca nn kinh t chu
1. T gia nhng nm 80 n khi cuc khng hong ti chnh n ra vo ma thu nm 97, khu vc chu Thi bnh dng (CATBD), gm mt di cc nc t Nht bn v Nam Hn pha ng bc cho n In nxia, Thi lan, Singapore v nam Trung quc pha ng nam, l khu vc c tc tng trng nhanh nht trong nn kinh t th gii. Mt s ng i c tnh rng cc nc ny tng trng 8% mt nm v chim xp x 1/4 tng sn lng v gn 2/3 tng u t cho xy dng c bn ca th gii. Thc vy, s tng trng kinh t y ngon mc ca cc th trng mi ni ca ng khin cho cc nc khc phi ng ngng sng st. Trc khi xy ra cuc khng hong nm 97, tng chng nh ng s tr thnh trung tm ca kinh t th gii vo u th k 21. 2. Trong vng 25 n m qua, mt lot cc din bin quan trng trong khu vc rng ln v ht sc a dng ny lm bin i din mo ca c khu vc cng nh ngi v ca n trong nn kinh t ton cu. S pht trin vng chc ca kinh t v bn sc khu vc di s dn dt ca u tu Nht bn, qu trnh cng nghip ho nhanh chng ca nam Trung Quc, v cuc khng hong ti chnh t ngt bao vy khu vc cui nm 97 l nhng s kin c bit quan trng v nh hng su sc n tng lai ca khu vc ny. 3. Ch ngha khu vc CATBD c mt vi nt c trng ring khin cho n khc hn vi ch ngha khu vc Ty u hay Bc M. y khng c mt nc ng vai tr b ch nh Hoa k Bc M hay mt lin minh cng quc no nh lin minh Php-c Ty u. CATBD, c ba cng quc chnh l M, Nht v Trung quc, nhng ba nc ny li c nhng mi quan tm v theo ui nhng mc tiu hon ton khc nhau. 4. Mc d khu vc hi nhp ngy cng nhiu trn mt vi phng din, nhng s a dng ln v kinh t, v n ho v chnh tr cn tr ng k s pht trin ca tinh thn v th ch ca ton khu v c. Tuy c mt s im chung, nhng cc nc chu vn mang nhng nt v n ho v kinh t khc nhau v vn cn nhng xung t nghim trng v chnh tr.

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5. Bc vo th k 21, khu vc CATBD vn cha thot khi tnh trng xo trn v kinh t. ng ang dn phc hi sau cuc khng hong nghim trng nm 97, cn Nht vn ln su trong suy thoi. Tuy nhin khu vc ny vn cn nhiu yu t kinh t c bn nh lc lng lao ng c tay ngh cao v mt khi lng tit kim quc gia ln thc y tng trng kinh t trong tng lai. D vn cn nhiu tn ti cn khc phc, song khu vc ny ang dn ly li sc mnh ca mnh.

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part Vi. money, banking AND FINANCE

unit 26. financial hubs


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese the foundation of stability
1. Finance officials around East Asia can boast at last that they are putting some flesh on the skeletal framework of regional cooperation. The recent formalization of the currency swap arrangements - known as the Chiang Mai initiative - by finance ministers from Asean countries, Japan, South Korea and China is significant on a number of fronts. 2. There has been scepticism in the markets about these proposals on the grounds that they are small-scale and politically inspired. But the announcements mean that the chances of another capital account crisis spreading through the region now look increasingly remote, in spite of looming global economic uncertainty.

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3. The agreements - signed during the ADBs annual meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii in May also signal the emergence of East Asia as a more coherent policy-making entity, which is laying the foundations of a deeper regional integration. As trade, investment and crossborder stock and bond markets become more integrated, greater currency and monetary coordination will become both a necessity and a reality. 4. Under the agreements, countries agree to give each other money to bolster foreign exchange reserves in the event of a currency crisis. So far, Japan has pledged to lend up to $3 billion to Thailand, $2 billion to South Korea and $1 billion to Malaysia. These are not sums that will terrify the markets, but large enough to put the conditions that apply to disbursement under scrutiny. These countries will only be able to use more than 10% of these sums with IMF approval - a key point which helps to allay fears about financial support for unwise policies. 5. While the swap accords will provide a quick and flexible response to the sort of panic which swept capital markets in 1997, they are also part of a wider financial architecture which is aimed at making sure the region never has to use them. There has already been a dramatic improvement in the quality, transparency and usefulness of economic data in the region, which limits the likelihood of unpleasant surprises. Most of the crisis-hit nations are now far less dependent on short-term loans from foreign banks. None fixes its currency to a rigid but brittle peg. All have had large devaluations and are less at risk from greedy speculators. 6. This is not to say that the regions economies are completely out of the woods. Many have yet to sort out corporate restructuring, transparency and corruption issues that laid them bare to the ravages of contagion back in 1997. The swap arrangements, however, provide a degree of psychological comfort, and a symbol of the regions willingness to cooperate. The best hope for these defences is that they should never actually be tested.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following:


nhn nh vng mc pht huy hiu qu vai tr m nhn vay iu chnh c cu trong sch ho

Task 3. Translate the following into English Qu tin t quc t cn ci cch


1. R rng l hin nay c IMF v WB u ang lm vo tnh trng khng hong. Mi y, Ban C vn T chc Ti chnh Quc t trnh ln quc hi M mt bn bo co bao gm nhng phn tch v nhn nh quan trng v nhng vng mc m hai t chc ti chnh quc t ln ny ang gp phi, cng nh nhng gii php t t nht khc phc nhng vng mc .

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2. Mc d ngay trong ni b Ban C vn vn cn nhng bt ng v mt s vn , nhng nhn chung a s u nht tr cho rng c IMF ln WB u khng pht huy c vai tr ca mnh mt cch hiu qu trong vng hai thp nin tr li y. Khi mi c thnh lp sau th chin th hai, ban u Qu Tin t Quc t c chc nng duy tr n nh ti chnh thng qua vic gim st v t vn cho cc chnh ph thnh vin, ng thi ng vai tr ng i cho vay cui cng khi cc quc gia thnh vin lm vo tnh trng khng hong ti chnh nghim trng nh trng hp ca cc quc gia chu nm 97. Tuy nhin, vai tr ca IMF c m rng rt nhiu k t nhng n m 70. 3. Bn cnh vai tr duy tr n nh ti chnh, IMF m nhn thm hai nhim v to ln khc. Th nht, trong vng 20 n m qua, t chc ny cng vi Ngn hng Th gii gim st cc khon cho vay iu chnh c cu i vi nhng nc ngho nht th gii nhm gip nhng nc ny gim i ngho v t mc t ng trng kinh t n nh. Th hai, IMF gip cc nc hu cng sn ng u v Lin x c trong qu trnh chuyn i sang mt nn kinh t th trng. 4. iu ng bun l IMF t ra yu km trong vic thc hin c ba nhim v trn. Cc th trng mi ni M Latinh, ng u v chu gp phi nhng con sc ti chnh ln trong nhng n m cui ca thp k 90. IMF khng lng trc c nhng cuc khng hong , v nhng can thip ca t chc ny nhm hn ch nhng hu qu nng n ca khng hong cng t ra khng my hiu qu. 5. Ngay c hin nay, khi kinh t cc nc b khng hong ang dn hi phc, vai tr ca IMF vn khng r rng. Ngi ta vn cn ang tranh ci kch lit v vic liu s phc hi kinh t c ng l nh vic thc thi cc chng trnh ca IMF, hay ch phn nh mt chu k kinh t trong khng hong tt yu phi nhng ch cho n nh m thi. Bi v ni cho cng th nhng nc khng thc thi hoc ch thc thi mt phn nhng chng trnh do IMF a ra nh Malaysia hay Hng Kng cng phc hi nhanh chng km g nhng nc c IMF gip ton b. 6. Theo kt lun ca Ban C vn, IMF cn phi quay tr li tp trung vo nhim v c bn ca mnh: m bo n nh ti chnh ton cu. Tt nhin, t chc ny vn c th ng vai tr quan trng trong vic t vn v chnh sch, theo di hot ng kinh t, hay thu thp v cung cp thng tin, s liu. Nhng IMF khng nn ng vai tr cho vay di hn. Ngay c i vi vic cho vay i vi nhng nc b khng hong ti chnh, t chc ny cng cn yu cu cc nc i vay phi trong sch ho khu vc ngn hng v c bin php qun l ngn sch tt hn.

Task 4. Omission of words and phrases


Sometimes it is unnecessary to translate every word in the Vietnamese version into English. For the sake of brevity and to avoid repetition, some words or phrases can be omitted, provided that the basic message is retained.

Now translate the following into English, keeping the sentences as brief as possible:
1. Bnh tim l cn bnh c t l gy t vong cao nht M. 2. qua ri ci thi nh nc can thip vo mi kha cnh ca nn kinh t.

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3. Thi i ca thng tin v khoa hc k thut em n cho chng ta rt nhiu nguy c, trong c nguy c ngi lao ng mt cng n vic lm v nhu cu i vi gio dc v h thng an sinh x hi gia tng. 4. Chi tiu cng cng khng cn b thm ht, v nng sut lao ng t ng ln ng k nh nhng tin b trong lnh vc cng ngh nh vic gim iu tit nn kinh t v vic tinh gin bin ch ca cc cng ty. 5. chu ngy nay, s phc hi kinh t nhanh chng lm cho ngi dn tin tng tr li, nhng ngi ta vn cn nghi ng khng bit s phc hi liu c lu di hay khng. 6. Singapore l nn kinh t pht trin ngon mc nht khu vc ng Nam k t sau cuc khng hong chu , nhng tng lai ca Singapore - mt t nc m s pht trin ca n ph thuc nhiu vo cc yu t bn ngoi - c th s b hn ch bi nhng s kin kinh t ngoi tm kim sot ca nc ny, mc d chnh ph lin tc tin hnh cc cuc ci t c cu.

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UNIT 27. MONEtary union and the euro


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese sleeping giant 1. The euro is a world currency. It is currently the currency both of more than 300 million
people and of the largest trading partner in the world economy, accounting for almost 20% of world export and more than 15% of world GDP. The coverage of the euro as a currency has the potential to widen even further by 60% in terms of population and by 35% in terms of GDP should all three non-participating EU Member States and all the candidate countries join the single currency in the years to come.

2. The main goal of the single currency is to produce monetary identity and internal
stability for the euro area and to enhance its economic and social performance. The global role of the euro is not a goal in itself for the decision-makers and certainly not for the European Central Bank. This role is and must be to strengthen the integration and economic performance of the EU and to keep "the euro house in order", and is fully dependent on market forces and the markets' assessment of the internal stability and economic performance of the euro area. However, the euro now is less liked, and less talked about, than it was expected.

3. Optimists like to think that hostility to something alien - such as foreigners, or their
currencies - declines on closer acquaintance. Thus scepticism about the single currency was supposed to soften once Bristons realized that euros wouldnt stain their palms or spontaneously combust.

4. That optimism seems to have been misplaced. A poll which quizzed holiday-makers
before and after their summer breaks suggests that paying for sangria with actual euros had little or no impact on peoples views. Other pollsters also report a general hardening of opinion against ditching the pound. Complaints across the euro area about opportunistic price hikes may be part of the explanation.

5. In so far as Bristons are thinking about the single currency, most remain unimpressed.
The euro is not being thought or talked about much at all. Monetary union has never excited ordinary voters as much as the small bands or fanatics who either love or loathe it. Now, though, polls also suggest, the proportion of people who consider it an important issue is at a low ebb. But since the government is keeping silence about it, the euros low profile is not at all surprising.

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6. Of course, high politics tend to drop down news agendas during the summer. The
government is due to reveal whether Britain have passed Gordon Browns five economic tests for euro entry by June 2003. Many observers predicted that a referendum on entry would be called for in spring, which would require prior legislation. But nothing much seems to be happening.

7. In the first few years of the single currency, the integration of financial markets was
triggered and mainly driven by market forces. Now the continuation of this process needs concrete, determined decisions to lend support by national authorities and market organisations. Price stability, fiscal adjustment, the harmonisation of legislatory and regulatory structures, the integration of financial markets and the removal of unnecessary rigidities from product and labour markets are needed for the deepening and widening of the euro markets.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


st gi ln sng lo ngi hin tng bt thng nh ti chnh ly li t ng trng xoay chuy n theo chiu ngc li km si ni ng i ot gii Nobel thm ht ti khon vng lai lm cc nh u t chng my mn m chng ch khc phc nhng bt hp l v n ho in t ng i tin phong cng ngh v tuyn

Task 3. Translate the following into English CUC TRANH LUN XUNG QUANH NG EURO
1. Vic ng euro st gi xung di mc d on so vi ng la ang gy ra mt ln sng lo ngi. Nhng hu nh tt c cc nh kinh t hc u cho rng v lu di th s st gi ny khng thnh vn , v h c d liu d on rng ng euro s sm ln gi tr li. ng Willem Buiter, thnh vin y ban Chnh sch Tin t ca Ngn hng Trung ng Anh ng thi l gio s kinh t ca trng i hc Cambridge gi s st gi ca ng euro l hin tng bt thng nht ca thp k. Cn ng Earnst Welteke, ch tch ngn hng Bundesbank th ni rng s st gi ny tri ngc hn vi d on ca mi ngi, v n mang bn cht tm l ch khng mang bn cht kinh t. 2. Theo nh ti chnh George Soros, s xung gi ca ng euro ch yu l do cc dng chy t bn gy nn, v th trng M ang thu ht vn mnh trong khi khu vc chu u

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th km sc hp dn hn. Tuy nhin, ng ni thm trong mt bui hp bo nh rng Ti ngh rng s l mt sai lm ln nu ta bo h ng euro bng cch nng li sut ln qu cao v khu vc ang bt u ly li c t ng trng. Thm ch ng Bergsten, gim c Vin Kinh t Quc t t ti Hoa k cn cho rng tnh hnh lu chuyn vn c th xoay chuyn theo hng ngc li khi cc nh u t bt u lo ngi v hot ng mu dch ngy cng km si ni v ti kho n vng lai ang b thm ht ca M. 3. Mt s nh kinh t khc th c phn km lc quan hn. ng Robert Mundell, ng i tng ot gii Nobel, li cho rng nu Ngn hng Trung ng Chu u khng ch n t gi hi oi th khu v c rt c th s phi chu mt p lc lm pht. Vy nhng nhn t no khin cho ng euro suy yu? Trc tin, phi k n cc vn mang tnh c cu. Tht nghip tuy c gim song vn cn mc cao. Ch thu sut km hp dn v th trng lao ng km linh hot cng c xu hng lm cc nh u t chng my mn m. Thm vo li cn nhng bt n tim tng v chnh tr c v o. 4. Ngn hng Trung ng Chu u cng nn cng c thm uy tn ca mnh. Nu 11 ngn hng trung ng ca 11 nc thnh vin EU li theo ui nhng chng trnh khc nhau th iu ny c th s dn n nhng tn hiu tri ngc nhau i vi th trng. Mt s nh phn tch ch ra rng qu trnh ra quyt nh ca Ngn hng Trung ng Chu u cn minh bch hn tr nh b hiu nhm l cc chnh ph thnh vin ang b li ch quc gia chi phi. Ph ch tch Ngn hng Trung ng Chu u ng Christian Noyer ch cn bit chng ch rng ngn hng c gng t c mt s cn bng trong chnh sch m bo tnh minh bch v trch nhim ca cc chnh ph thnh vin m khng gy tr ngi g n s tranh lun ci m gia cc bn. 5. Ngi ta nht tr vi nhau rng nu thc s c mt nn kinh t mi M th chu u cn phi hc tp nn kinh t y. Nhng c mt bi hc chng ta cn phi nh, l vic tng n ng sut lao ng m M vn thng t ho ch yu l nh cng ngh thng tin. Nu chu u mun lm ch mt nn vn ho in t th cn phi tin hnh ti c cu mt cch trit v lm cho th trng lao ng linh ho t hn. Bn thn ng euro cng ang gp phn khc phc nhng bt hp l ca th trng vn v to iu kin thun li cho cc giao dch gia cc quc gia. Hn na chu u li cn c mt li th l ng i tin phong trong cng ngh v tuyn. Gi y chng ta ch cn phi ngi i xem liu cc chnh tr gia chu u c tm huyt bin nhng li th ny thnh mt thi k tng trng bn vng hay khng, v nh ngn chn c vic ng euro tip tc st gi hay khng.

Task 4. Figurative expressions 2 Translate the following into English, using figurative expressions for the italicized phrases:
1. Sau khi gi c phiu ca i lc ln cao n chng mt trong ma h va qua, gi y gi xung tr li. (reach dizzying heights, come back down to earth) 2. Bin ng li sut trn th trng M ang gy nh hng nng n i vi Hng Kng, lm cho nc ny ngy cng thy c nhu cu phi hu b ch t gi hi oi c nh vi ng la. (fuel sth) 3. Hin nay Malaysia, dn chng ngy cng t ra tin tng hn, v tt c cc ch s c bn u cho thy nn kinh t ang phc hi mnh m.

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4. Vic h li sut lm cho th trng tri phiu tr nn si ng. (inject life into sth) 5. Nhng n lc ca chnh ph nhm thu ht u t nc ngoi bt u mang li hiu qu. (bear fruits) 6. Tin trnh ton cu ho khin cho sc mnh ca th trng ngy cng c cng c. Gi y khng ch cc cng ty m ngay c chnh ph cng phi nhng b th trng. (bow down before sb) 7. thnh cng trong n lc xo i gim ngho, cc nc chu cn y mnh ci cch chnh sch kinh t hn na. (win the battle against sth)

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unit 28. modern banking

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese ONLINE PAYMents SIDELINE BANKS
1. The central role of banks in the payment system is under fierce attack from new players offering electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP). Already 2% of US households pay their bills online, although even these online payers still receive a pile of paper bills in the mail each month.

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2. The attractions of EBPP are obvious. Billers will save money as paper handling and postage are reduced and accounts receivables drop due to a faster payment cycle. Estimates of the savings to billers in the US over the next few years surpass $2 billion. 3. Although payers will also reap some savings in postage, envelopes, and perhaps checking fees, the primary benefit will be convenience. Transpoint, conceived by Microsoft and First Data, estimates that consumers today spend two hours per month paying bills and that could be cut in half. Tower Group predicts that these advantages will lead to online payment expanding from 1.3 million to 10 million households in the US by 2003. 4. The question for banks is whether they can retain their central role in the system as payments move online. The downside risks are enormous. If banks were to forfeit their role in the payment system, they would lose critical customer relationships. 5. EBPP could be the killer app that online banking has been waiting for. If another firm, such as Microsoft, becomes the central player, then consumers will be logging on to their Web site each month to pay their bills. Once there, it will be a small step to provide products to serve all their financial needs, from investments to home mortgages. 6. It gets worse. EBPP will cause revenues from lucrative cash management services to decline as the mountains of paper bills and checks are replaced by online equivalents. If banks are cut out of EBPP and lose their special relationships with corporate customers, the lost revenues from such services as lockbox, controlled disbursement, and account reconciliation will be far greater. 7. The threat is similar to a battle the banks fought, and lost, over credit card transactions. Today 75% of all credit card transactions in the US are processed by nonbanks. To make sure this will not happen again, US banks have responded by creating Integrion and Spectrum - consortiums that are striving to serve as aggregators and provide EBPP products to banks. So far they have been slow to get off the ground and have had trouble making progress, bogged down by governance issues and disagreements over standards and content. 8. With so many moving pieces, many banks are hedging their bets. For example, Citibank is a member of Integrion and also an investor in Transpoint, while Chase is a Spectrum member and has partnered with CheckFree. The banks know that the stakes are high. They also know that if they don not get EBPP right, someone else will.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


nghch l kh x nhanh nhy vi thi cuc i ph vi ginh git khch hng lut d tr bt buc nh gi ri ro tn dng xo nho s chm chp theo kp thi i mu thun

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ct gim bin ch hu qu nng n bo ton vn o thi khi th trng

Task 3. Translate the follwing into English ngnh ngn hng trong th k 21
1. Bc vo thin nin k mi, cc ngn hng trn ton th gii phi i mt vi mt nghch l kh x. Mt mt, qui m ngn hng cn c m rng hn, hot ng ngn hng cn phi a dng hn, v dch v ngn hng cng cn phi ton din hn c th cnh tranh trn trng quc t. Nhng mt khc, trong mt th trng thay i nhanh chng, ch c nhng ngn hng nhanh nhy vi thi cuc mi c th tn ti m thi. 2. Phi i mt vi nhng kh khn ln nht l cc ngn hng chu u, v nhng ngn hng ny va phi i ph vi nhng nh hng ca vic lu hnh ng tin chung, li va phi lun i mi khng b tt hu v cng ngh. Vic sp nhp cc ngn hng li vi nhau ang c chiu hng gia tng, v ngn hng no cng mun cng c v tr ca mnh. Nhiu ngi d on trong th k 21 s cn nhiu v sp nhp hn na, c bit l gia cc ngn hng cc quc gia khc nhau, mc d c mt s biu hin ng lo ngi v vn ny. 3. Cc nh phn tch kinh t bt u nhn thy rng vic sp nhp cha chc l tt. Tuy tnh hiu qu c th cao hn, nhng iu ny rt d b xo nha bi cc mu thun v vn ho, trong khi lut lao ng kht khe ca chu u s lm cho vic ct gim bin ch tr nn kh khn hn. Mt thc t ng lo ngi na l c khng t trng hp gi c phiu b gim sau khi sp nhp. 4. S chm chp ca cc tp on ngn hng ln ang l c hi cc loi hnh ngn hng mi bung ra, c bit l cc ngn hng Internet. Vi chi ph c nh thp v li ang hp mt, cc ngn hng Internet chu u ang ginh git khch hng t cc i th c l s v pha mnh. Do cc ngn hng truyn thng ang phi lin tc i mi theo kp thi i. 5. Cc ngn hng nhng nc ang pht trin li phi i mt vi nhng kh kh n khc khi bc vo th k mi. S lo ngi ca cc nh u t trn th gii v ri ro tn dng, cng nh nhng hu qu nng n ca cuc khng hong chu nm 97 lm cho ng i ta ch tm nhiu hn n vic bo ton vn khi u t vo cc th trng mi ni. Vic p dng lut d tr bt buc v nh gi ri ro tn dng i vi cc ngn hng c th dn n mt s o thi t nhin trong ngnh ngn hng, buc cc ngn hng uy tn thp phi rt lui khi th trng. Trong ngnh ngn hng, ngi ta ch c mt nguy n tc: qui m cng ln cng tt.

Task 4. Figurative expressions 3


Look back at the examples from task 3: lun i mi khng b tt hu v cng ngh : play catch-up on technology

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c biu hin ng lo ngi : clouds are gathering over/are hitting the rocks... hu qu nng n : the lingering pains buc ngn hng phi rt lui khi th trng: shunted to the margin/driven to the sidelines

Now translate the following into English, using figurative expressions for the italicised phrases:
1. Mc d gi chng khon trn th trng ang c chiu hng tng ln, cc nh u t vn nn suy xt cn thn trc khi quyt nh b vn. 2. Vi t pht hnh tri phiu mi ny, th trng chng khon si ng tr li, bo hiu s bt u ca mt k nguyn mi. 3. Ci t h thng ti chnh l mt u tin hng u trong khu vc. 4. Trung Quc ang ngy cng mt dn tnh hp dn i vi cc nh u t. Nguyn nhn ch yu l do cc quy nh u t qu h khc v s cnh tranh ngy cng gay gt t pha cc i th ni a. 5. S l thuc qu mc vo trin vng kinh t i lc v vo chnh sch tin t ca M nh hng tiu cc n cc d on v tnh hnh Hng Kng. Tuy nhin cng bt u xut hin du hiu cho thy mt tng lai sng sa hn. 6. Vic ci t khu vc nh nc chc chn s gip cho nhng ngi c nng lc c dp chng t ti nng ca mnh. 7. Theo cc nh phn tch, gi chng khon In nxia s khng tip tc t ng thm v cc nh u t bt u lo ngi v t tham nhng trn lan nc ny. 8. Singapore hu nh khng c mt sai phm no trong qu trnh khc phc khng hong. Vi s qun l cht ch ca chnh ph, nn kinh t nc ny ang phc hi trn mi kha cnh.

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unit 29. insurance

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese Vietnams thriving insurance market
1. With 80 million people, Vietnam has the second largest population in South East Asia. Ever since Vietnam began transforming itself towards a market economy, the Vietnamese insurance market has been enjoying a fast and steady growth (from a small base). Bao Viet, established in the 1965, was operated by the Ministry of Finance as a monopoly insurer until 1994. The company focused primarily on insurance for import-export, small scale maritime and river navigation insurance and motor vehicle insurance. It served the demands of a small economy comprised only of other state-run companies. But as the economy underwent economic renovation in 1996, foreign firms and joint ventures demanded insurance products that were beyond Bao Viets capabilities. At the same time, several dozen regional and multinational insurance companies expressed interest in serving the market of Vietnam such as Allianz (Germany), Tokyo Fire and Marine (Japan), and ACE INA (USA), etc. 2. Despite the fact that some foreign companies were allowed to conduct insurance business in the market, there were restrictions set by the Ministry of Finance in order to protect Vietnamese insurance companies (which are also owned by that ministry), and to assist the growth of those companies so that they are better prepared to compete with foreign insurers when they gain permission to operate. For example, in 1997 several foreign companies were granted the right to sell health and life insurance, but only to nonVietnamese (i.e. foreigners working in Vietnam or their families). 3. In March 1998, the top Communist body, the Politburo, issued an official letter that reversed its ideological position and endorsed the right of life and non-life insurers to win 100 percent foreign owned licences. For the first time foreign companies were able to freely market and sell a variety of modern and specialised insurance products directly to the public with a minimum of restrictions and competitive disadvantages compared to companies owned by the Ministry of Finance. 4. Today there are five major domestic insurance companies. Beside these, more than 45 foreign insurance companies and 4 brokerages have established offices in Vietnam

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because they perceive a large market potential and are attracted to the high annual growths. Some are big name international insurers and these powerful, experienced companies have considerably raised the competitive stakes between foreign and local insurers. 5. Thanks to brighter economic prospects and the new Law on Insurance Business, which came into effect on 1 st April, 2001, it is expected that the insurance market will see new development in the 21st century. Growth rate for the whole market in 2001 is estimated at over 40%, including life and non-life. Life insurance may grow over 80 percent to account for more than one-half of the total market premiums. Non-life business is expected to grow by 10%. 6. Unlike other sectors, the insurance market is not entirely limited to the growth of Vietnams economy. Foreign firms can take advantage of the fact that the demand for insurance products is larger than current supply. This refers to current types of insurance, such as property, liability, oil and gas, marine hull and P & I, and CAR/EAR, because Vietnams domestic insurers do not have the capacity to meet current demands. Demand is also not being met for products that are not currently available, are available on a pilot basis, or have not even been legalised or popularised yet. This includes various life and whole life products, health and even social insurance. With WTO membership just around the corner and the improved trade relations with the U.S, Vietnam will create a more potential market for both domestic and foreign insurance companies.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


c bi bn tin phong mc thu ph bo him nhn th phi nhn th hp ng bo him hoa hng thng t sng lp vin

Task 3. Translate the following into English to ra mt sn chi bnh ng cho cc cng ty bo him vit nam
1. Mc cnh tranh trn th trng bo him Vit nam kh khc lit, v cc cng ty bo him thuc s hu nh nc ang c gng bo h v tr c tn trc y ca mnh trc p lc cnh tranh rt bi bn v hiu qu ca cc cng ty bo him nc ngoi. 2. Tng Cng ty Bo him Vit nam (Bo Vit) l cng ty tin phong v vn ny. Vo 63 chi nhnh v hn 4000 nhn vin, Bo Vit vn l cng ty bo him hng u Vit nam, chim khong 63% th phn trong c nc. Cng ty t li nhun 6.8 triu la n m 1999, vi tng mc thu ph 96 triu la. Sau Bo Vit l Bo Minh ( lin doanh gia tp on ti chnh Colonial ca c vi Cng ty Bo Him thnh ph HCM), cng

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ty Prudential ca Anh (cng ty bo him nc ngoi ln nht vi tng vn u t ln n 14 triu ), v AIG (tp on bo him quc t M). 3. Sn chi khng cng bng ang l mi quan ngi i vi cc cng ty bo him, nht l nhng cng ty kinh doanh sn phm phi nhn th. bn c hp ng bo him, nhiu cng ty sn lng tr hoa hng cao hn mc do B Ti chnh qui nh v h ph bo him xung mc thp kh c th chp nhn c. ngnh bo him c th pht trin n nh v bn vng, chnh ph c nhng bin php tng i c hiu qu thng qua vic ban hnh nhiu chnh sch v qui nh mi. Chng hn nh thng t s 14 iu chnh mc hoa hng i vi i l v mi gii. Thng t ny qui nh v 5 sn phm bo him l: bo him t vong, an sinh gio dc, ph trng an, ... v nin kim nhn th. 4. Vic thnh lp Hip hi cc nh bo him Vit nam cng l mt bin php ng n chn cnh tranh khng lnh mnh v thc y hp tc trong ngnh. Cc sng lp vin ca hip hi hi vng s i n nht tr v mc thu ph ti thiu cng nh tm ra c bin php hp tc c hiu qu c th i ph vi p lc cnh tranh t cc cng ty nc ngoi. 5. Bn cnh vn cnh tranh, nhiu ngi cn quan tm n v th ca ngnh bo him trong nn kinh t. Theo s liu ca B K hoch v u t, doanh thu t ph bo him ch chim c 0.58% GDP ca Vit Nam, trong khi t l ny cc nc pht trin l 514%. Nhng c mt iu khin chng ta c th lc quan l t nm 1993 n nay mc thu ph lin tc tng mnh (khong 30% mt nm). Do cc cng ty bo him tin rng nu y mnh cng tc tip th v thnh lp nhng lin minh chin lc th nhu cu i vi cc sn phm bo him s t ng. Cc cng ty trong v ngoi nc cng ang c gng to ra nhng sn phm mi ph hp vi ti tin ca i b phn 80 triu c dn Vit Nam.

Task 4. Noun - adjective collocation


In translating noun phrases, it is wise to translate the noun first and then consider what particular adjectives can go with that noun. Never translate the adjectives separately, as this may produce non-English phrases.

What adjectives can go with the following nouns?


1. debate 2. pressure 3. understanding 4. issue 5. competition 6. trend 7. reform

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8. problem 9. storm 10. performance 11. impact

12. opportunity 13. answer 14. investment environment 15. economic rebound 16. effort

UNIT 30. stock market


Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese a start nonetheless

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1. It boasts a total of 4 listed companies, is only open every other weekday, and the trading rules changed twice in its opening week. But lets not mock Vietnams new stock exchange. Its a landmark that it exists at all. You can argue about the date, but its fair to say it has taken at least 6 years for the Securities Trading Centre - located in Ho Chi Minh City - to open its doors to investors. 2. It wasnt an entirely smooth beginning. Day one, July 28, saw only two companies traded, Refrigeration Electrical Engineering (REE) and Cables and Telecommunications Materials (SACOM), with a total first-day turnover of VND70.4 million (just over USD5,000). Two other companies, Haiphong Paper Co and Transforwarding Warehouse, which hadnt completed their paperwork in time to be listed on the first day of trading, have since listed - making this perhaps the only exchange in history to log a 100% increase in listed companies in its first week. 3. And if the figures are unimpressive to foreign eyes, then the governing State Securities Commissions approach to regulation is equally unfamiliar. Immediately before the first days trading, and without warning, it instituted price ceilings on both listed stocks (with the result that 187,600 SACOM shares were bid for but only 100 changed hands). Before the second day, the maximum trading band of 5% was cut to 2%. A quote ran in the local newspaper saying the measure had been taken to stop speculation : a rare ambition on a stock exchange. 4. There is plenty of scope for scorn. But locally, the exchange has been welcomed. Deputy director of the centre Tran Dac Sinh says he would like to see 20 to 30 companies listed on the market, but perhaps the size is more relevant than the number. The companies that have listed so far are known as reasonably solid enterprises, but for the world to take note, the exchange needs one of the countrys bigger companies to list: a Post and Telecommunication, a Petro Vietnam or a Vietnam Airlines. 5. Another challenge faced by the government in getting investors interested in the market is Vietnams cash-based economy, due partly to the high level of upper-tier tax common to socialist economies. Buying shares requires investors to register with one of the 6 locally-appointed brokerages and place money in its account before a trade can take place. Local investors worry that this will demonstrate a level of wealth they would rather the government didnt know about.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following:


trung tm giao dch chng khon khun kh php l khng ch bin dao ng gi cng ty mi gii chng khon qu u t u i thu min thu gim thu thu thu nhp doanh nghip

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Task 3. Translate the following into English TIN TI MT TRUNG TM GIAO DCH CHNG KHON LNH MNH
1. Cc nh qun l qu u t ang n lc chun b ng ph vi s ra i ca trung tm giao dch chng khon u tin Vit nam h tun thng 7 va qua. ng Trn c Sinh, ph gim c trung tm, cho bit : Trc y chng ti tng c th trng s cp v th trng chng khon phi tp trung. Mc ch ca chng ti l a ton b h thng giao dch chng khon vo mt khun kh php l bng cch thnh lp mt s giao dch chng khon chnh thc, gi l Trung tm Giao dch Chng khon. 2. ng Sinh cng cho bit mt lot cc bin php bo v quyn li ca cc nh u t chng khon c p dng. Mt h thng quy nh php l ton din i vi hot ng kinh doanh chng khon c ban hnh, cc cng ty chng khon chuyn nghip c thnh lp, cc thit b v c s vt cht hin i cng c lp t. Ngoi ra, UBCKNN s ch cho php kinh doanh cc ti sn ti chnh ng tin cy, chng hn nh cng tri, hay c phiu ca cc cng ty c yt danh trn S GDCK. Tng gi tr c phiu v tri phiu sn sng cho giao dch vo khong 214.9 triu la M. 3. Theo ng Sinh th mt bin php khc nhm m bo cho giao dch th trng chng khon cn non tr ny din ra sun s l UBCKNN s khng ch bin dao ng gi ti a mc 5% trong mt ngy. ng Sinh cho bit: Chng ti hon thnh vic lp t h thng giao dch v t chc cc lp hun luyn v o to cho nhn vin. Trong thi gian ti chng ti s c gng to ra mt mi trng lm vic thun li v thit lp mi quan h gia sn giao dch v cc cng ty chng khon. 4. Khi c hi v qui m cn qu khim tn ca th trng chng khon mi (ch c 5 cng ty mi gii v 2 cng ty c phn ng k giao dch), ng Sinh cho bit ng hon ton lc quan v tin rng s lng cc cng ty cng nh s lng chng khon s tng ln nhanh chng khi th trng bt u n nh hot ng v t ra c hiu qu. 5. Tuy nhin vn cn phi thn trng. 5 nm trc y, khi ng i ta cn ang ht sc lc quan v trin vng ca Vit nam, ch c 6 qu u t Vit nam m huy ng c ti 400 triu la. Tic rng khng mt qu no trong s u t c ht s tin mnh huy ng, do khu vc t nhn ca Vit nam cn qu hn hp. Hai qu trong s ny rt khi Vit nam. S cn li buc phi gim bt s tin huy ng. 6. Do chnh ph Vit nam ra quyt nh u i thu khuyn khch cc hot ng kinh doanh chng khon. Hot ng kinh doanh ca cc cng ty chng khon c min thu GTGT. Cc cng ty ny cn c min thu TNDN trong nm u v c gim 50% trong 2 n m tip theo.

Task 4. Translating negative ideas


Look at the following examples: Ti hon ton ng vi anh I can not agree more.

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Hu nh khng c lnh vc no l khng chu s tc ng ca du lch Hardly any aspect is left untouched by tourism Chng ta khng cn con ng no khc m phi m ca lm n vi th gii Staying disconnected is no longer an option.

Now try the following:


1. Vin cnh chnh tr ca Trung quc t ra kh quan, song xt v tnh hnh ti chnh th hon ton ngc li. 2. T ng trng kinh t khng ch ph thuc vo s gip ca nc ngoi. 3. Chng ta khng nn dng v lc m nn gii quyt bt ng bng thng lng v ho gii. 4. Khng c tun no l cng ty khng nhn c khiu ni ca khch hng. 5. Vai tr ca Nht bn trong nn kinh t khu vc vn cha r rng. 6. Thc t cuc sng li hon ton khc. 7. Bn khng th thuyt phc khch hng nu chnh bn li khng tin vo cht lng sn phm m mnh em bn.

check your progress 6 (90 minutes)

Task 1. Translate the following into Vietnamese


1. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank will again be under siege this weekend. Thousands of anti-globalisation protesters intend to encircle the organisations' Washington headquarterswhere finance ministers and central bankers from 184 countries hold their annual meetings on September 28th and 29thin order to save the world from the economic smallpox inside. After a brief lull in the wake of last year's terrorist attacks, the travelling circus of anarchists, students and activists, who try to wreck international economic meetings with what they call creative confrontational opposition to capitalism, is back. 2. Though these banner-wavers hog the headlines and disrupt the streets, they pose no serious threat to the two Bretton Woods institutions. Their goals (such as end capitalism) are too absurd; their arguments too incoherent. But this year, more than most, the IMF faces criticism from a more serious sourcethose inside rather than outside the barricades. A growing chorus of insiders, from staff members (sotto voce) to Wall Street bankers (more loudly), is asking whether the Fund and the rich countries that largely determine its policies know what they are doing. 3. The Fund's main explanation for previous mistakesthat it was practising battlefield medicineis less credible this time round. In Asia, it had to decide quickly how to cope with sudden exchange-rate crises in countries with which it had not been closely

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involved for years. In Russia, it was assisting in an unprecedented switch from communism to capitalism. Given the Fund's close involvement in Latin America, even Horst Kohler, the IMF's boss, recently admitted that the failure to avoid the current turmoil suggests that we still have a lot to learn.

Task 2. Find the English equivalents to the following


cc n v tha vn cc n v thiu vn trung gian ti chnh qu tit kim ngn hng tit kim tng h qu tn dng tin gi khng k hn tin gi c k hn tnh thanh khon cng ty bo him thng vong thng k bo him

Task 3. Translate the following into Engish


1. Tt c cc n v kinh t u c th c phn loi thnh mt trong 3 nhm: h gia nh, doanh nghip v chnh ph. Trong mt k ngn sch nht nh, ngn sch ca mt n v c th mt trong 3 tnh trng: cn bng, thng d hay thm ht. Vai tr ca h thng ti chnh l to iu kin cho vic chuyn vn t cc n v tha vn sang cc n v thiu vn mt cch hiu qu. Vic chuyn vn ny c th c thc hin theo hai knh: cp vn trc tip v cp vn gin tip (qua trung gian). Thng thng th vn c chuyn qua con ng trung gian v cc t chc trung gian ti chnh c th cung cp cc dch v ti chnh chuyn nghip vi chi ph thp. 2. Ngn hng thng mi l trung gian ti chnh ln nht, a dng nht v quan trng nht trong nn kinh t. Ngn hng thng mi cng vi cc qu tit kim v cho vay, cc ngn hng tit kim tng h, v cc qu tn dng c gi chung l cc t chc theo kiu nhn tin gi. Cc t chc ny nhn tin gi khng k hn v c k hn ca dn ri dng s tin cho ngi tiu dng, cc cng ty, v nhng ngi mua nh tr gp vay. Do cc khon tin gi cc t chc ny phn ln l ngn hn, nn tnh thanh kho n l mt trong nhng kh khn ln m cc nh qun l phi tnh n. 3. Cc cng ty bo him nhn th v thng vong v cc qu hu tr c gi chung l cc t chc ti chnh theo hp ng. Cc t chc ny huy ng vn da trn nhng hp ng di hn, v dng s tin u t vo th trng vn. H c th u t mua cc chng khon di hn v s vn huy ng tng i n nh, ng thi da trn phng php thng k h li c th d tnh trc c s tin s phi tr cho ngi mua bo him.

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ANNEX 1
Marking scheme
Scores from 1-5 (including half-point scores) will be given for each text (EN-VN and VN-EN). Below is a rough interpretation of the scores: 1 = strongly indicates inability to get the message across. Brief and fragmented sentences. No real range of structures or vocabulary. Frequent and significant errors which lead to serious breakdown in communication. 2 = minimal ability to translate, but weak structures and expressions and poor vocabulary. Many significant errors which sometimes interfere with understanding or lead to mistranslations. 3 = moderate ability to translate. Some minor mistranslations. Simple sentence structures and vocabulary. Despite frequent errors , the student is able to convey his or her message. 4 = competent translator. More sophisticated sentence structures and vocabulary, but minor problems with either grammar or vocab which do not generally interfere with understanding. Student still, however, fails to refine and polish his/her work. 5 = skilled translator who displays consistent confidence and facility in manipulating both languages. Text not only accurately but also naturally and elegantly translated. Student exhibits very strong sentence structures and expressions (including idiomatic ones) and successful use of varied and sophisticated vocabulary (including technical terms). Infrequent minor errors.

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annex 2
English Proverbs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. A bad penny always turns up. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. A chain is no stronger than its weakest ... A fool and his money are soon parted. A friend in need is a friend indeed. A friend who shares is a friend who cares. A man is known by his friends. A man is known by the company he keeps. A mans home is his castle. A miss is as good as a mile. A rolling stone gathers no moss. A stitch in time saves nine. A womans place is in the home. A womans work is never done. A word to the wise. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. Action speaks louder than words. After a storm comes a calm. After the feast comes the reckoning. All good things must come to an end. All is fair in love and war. All roads lead to Rome. All that glitters is not gold. All the world loves a lover. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Alls well that ends well. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Appearances are deceptive. April showers brings May flowers. As soon as a man is born he begins to die. As you make your bed, so you must lie in it. As you sow, so shall you reap. Ask no questions and hear no lies. Bad news travels fast. Barking dogs seldom bite. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Beauty is only skin-deep. Beggars cant be choosers. Better late than never.

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40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.

Better a live coward than a dead hero. Better be safe than sorry. Better die with honour than live in shame. Better the devil you know than the devil you dont know. Better to live alone than in bad company. Birds of a feather flock together. Blood is thicker than water. Boys will be boys. Business before pleasure. Business is business. Charity begins at home. Christmas comes but once a year. Cleanliness is next to godliness. Clothes do not make a man. Crime does not pay. Curiosity killed the cat. Cut your coat according to your cloth. Dead men have no friends. Dead men tell no tales. Death is the great leveler. Diamond cut diamond. Diligence is the mother of good fortune. Discretion is the better part of valor. Divide and rule. Do as I say, and not as I do. Do not wear out your welcome. Do unto others as you would like them to do unto you. Dont bite off more than you can chew. Dont bite the hand that feeds you. Dont count your chickens before they are hatched. Dont cut off your nose to spite your face. Dont go near the water until you learn how to swim. Dont judge a man until youve walked in his boots. Dont look a gift horse in the mouth. Dont make a mountain out of a molehill. Dont put all your eggs in one basket. Dont put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Dont put the cart before the horse. Dont teach yor grandmother to suck eggs. Dont trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. Dont wash your dirty linen in public. Early to bed and early to rise, make a man healthy, wealthy and wise. Easier said than done. Easy come, easy go. Empty vessels make the most sound. Even a worm will turn. Every bird loves to hear himself singing. Every bullet has its billet. Every cloud has a silver lining. Every dog has his day. Every family has a skeleton in the cupboard.

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91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141.

Every man has his faults. Every man has his price. Every man is his own worst enemy. Every picture tells a story. Experience is the best teacher. Experience is the mother of wisdom. Failure teaches success. Faith will move mountains. Familiarity breeds contempt. Fear is stronger than love. Fear of death is worse than death itself. Fight fire with fire. Finders keepers, losers weepers. Fine feathers make fine birds. First come, first served. First things first. First think, and then speak. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Forbidden fruit is sweeet. Forewarned is forearmed. Garbage in, garbage out. Give credit where credit is due. Give him an inch and hell take a yard. Give the devil his due. God helps them that help themselves. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. Good fences make good neighbours. Good things come in small packages. Goodness is better than beauty. Grasp all, lose all. Great minds think alike. Half a loaf is better than no bread. Handsome is as handsome does. He is the best general who makes the fewest mistakes. He laughs best who laughs last. He that is master of himself, will soon be master of others. He that knows nothing, doubts nothing. He that plants a tree plants for prosterity. He who hesitates is lost. Hindsight is better than foresight. Homer sometimes nods. Honesty is the best policy. If a jobs worth doing, its worth doing well. If you cant beat them, join them. If you cant stand the heat, get out of the kitchen. Ignorance is bliss. Ignorance of the law excuses no man. Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery. In for a penny, out for a pound. It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest. It is best to be on the safe side.

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142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192.

It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is too late to lock the stable door when the horse has been stolen. It never rains, but it pours. It takes two to tango. Jack of all trades, master of none. Keep your mouth shut and your ears open. Laughter is the best medicine. Leave well enough alone. Let bygones be bygones. Let sleeping dogs lie. Let the buyer beware. Let the dead bury their dead. Life is just a bowl of cherries. Lightning never strikes twice in the same place. Like father, like son. Like mother, like daughter. Live and learn. Live and let live. Look after number one. Look before you leap. Look on the bright side. Lookers-on see most of the game. Love conquers all. Love is blind. Love makes the world go round. Love sees no fault. Love will find a way. Make hay while the sun shines. Man cannot live by bread alone. Man proposes, God disposes. Many hands make light work. Marriages are made in heaven. Might is right. Mind your own business. Misery loves company. Misfortunes never come singly. Money does not grow on trees. Money is the root of all evils. Money isnt everything. More haste, less speed. Necessity is the mother of invention. Never judge from appearances. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. Never mix your liquor. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Never say die. Never speak ill of the dead. Never too late/old to learn. Never too late to repent. No man can serve two masters. No man is indispensable.

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193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. 243.

No news is good news. No pain, no gain. Nothing hurts like the truth. Nothing is certain but death and taxes. Nothing succeeds like success. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Old habits die hard. Old soldiers never die, they simply fade away. Once bitten, twice shy. One cannot run with the hare and hunt with the hounds. One good turn deserves another. One mans gravy is another mans poison. One mans loss is another mans gain. One swallow does not make a summer. Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches Opportunity seldom knocks twice. Out of sight, out of mind. Patience is a virtue. Penney wise, pound foolish. Possession is nine-tenths of the law. Practice makes perfect. Practice what you preach. Prevention is better than cure. Pride comes beore a fall. Rain, rain, go away, come again another day. Rats desert a sinking ship. Revenge is sweet. Robbing Peter to pay Paul. Rome was not built in a day. Scratch my back and Ill scratch yours. Seeing is believing. Silence is golden. Something is better than nothing. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Speak when you are spoken to. Still waters run deep. Strike while the iron is hot. Sweet things are bad for the teeth. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves. Talk of the devil and he is sure to appear. The apple doesnt fall far from the tree. The best go first. The best of friends must part. The best things in life are free. The bigger they are, the harder they fall. The burnt child dreads the fire. The devil finds work for the idle hands to do. The early birds catches the worm. The end justifies the means. The female of the species is more deadly than the male. The first blow is half the battle.

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244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. 258. 259. 260. 261. 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 269. 270. 271. 272. 273. 274. 275. 276. 277. 278. 279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. 287. 288. 289. 290. 291. 292. 293. 294.

The first step is the hardest. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. The last straw breaks the camels back. The leopard cannot change his spots. The more one knows, the less one believes. The more you get, the more you want. The pen is mightier than the sword. The pot calls the kettle black. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. The road to hell is paved with good intentions. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. The squeaking wheel gets the oil. The way to a mans heart is through his stomach. There are as good fish in the sea as ever came out of it. There are only twenty four hours in a day. There are two sides to every question. There is a time and a place for everything. There is honor among thieves. There is more than one way to skin a cat. There is safety in numbers. Theres a black sheep in every flock. Theres no fool like an old fool. Theres no place like home. Theres no rose without a thorn. Theres no smoke without fire. Theres one law for the rich, and another for the poor. They that dance must pay the fiddler. Things are not always what they seem. Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. Time and tide wait for no man. Time cures all things. Time flies. Time is a greatest healer. Time is money. To err is human. Tomorrow is another day. Too many chiefs, not enough Indians. Too many cooks spoil the broth. True love never grows old. Truth is the mother of deceit. Turn the other cheek. Two heads are better than one. Two is company, three is a crowd. Two wrongs do not make a right. United we stand, divided we fall. Variety is its own reward. Variety is the spice of life. Walls have ears. Waste not, want not. What you dont know cant hurt you. When in doubt, do nothing.

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295. 296. 297. 298. 299. 300. 301. 302. 303. 304. 305. 306. 307. 308. 309. 310. 311. 312.

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out at the window. When the cats away, the mice will play. Where there is no trust, there is no love. Where theres a will theres a way. While there is life, there is hope. You can lead a horse to water, but you cant make him drink. You cant have it both ways. You cant have your cake and eat it. You cant make an omelette without breaking eggs. You cant please everyone. You cant take it with you when you die. You cant teach an dog new tricks. You cant tell a book by its cover. You cant win them all. You dont get something for nothing. You have to take the good with the bad. You win some, you lose some.

annex 3
handy structures
1. t ra thch thc i vi ... Pose challenges/threats/hazards to 2. To iu kin tip cn nhiu hn i vi ... Provide better access to sth 3. X l do Y X is caused by Y X results in/ leads to Y Y results from X Y can be attributed to X 4. X nh hng nhiu n Y X has major implications for Y X has important impact/effect on Y 5. Khng nhng ... m cn ... Both ... and ... Not only ... but also ... Not only ... but ... as well 6. l cha k n ... This is not to mention ... To say nothing of ...

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7. Ngi ta vn cha qun ... People still recall ... Memories of ... are still too fresh 8. Bit n ... v ... To be grateful to sb for sth To be indebted to sb for sth To owe sth to sb 9. Thc gic ... phi ... To urge sb to do sth 10. L ng c thc y ... To drive behind sth 11. Tr nn khng c ngha l g so v i ... To pale in comparison to sth At a fraction of ... 12. Ging mt n ch mng vo ... To deal a fatal/heavy blow on ... 13. L mt bc ngot trong ... To mark a milestone/turning point/cornerstone in ... 14. C nguy c ... To run the risk of ... To be in danger of ... 15. T ra ng n To hold true 16. C sn phm c ... a dng To be a favourite brandname 17. S dng ... phc v cho li ch ring To take advantage of ... To abuse To rig sth for ones own benefits 18. Lm ... hp dn hn To sweeten sth/add to sths appeal/improve sbs charm To be another selling point 19. Lm ... km hp dn i To erode sths charm/appeal 20. Khin ... chuyn sang ... To direct sb toward sth

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21. Nhn thc c v ... To be aware of ... To realize ... 22. Xt t gc ... From the angle of ... In terms of ... 23. Bt ngun t ... To take root from ... To originate from ... To stem from ... To owe its origin to ... To date back from ... 24. Khai thc ... To tap into To exploit 25. Thu ht ... bi ... To attract sb by sth Sths attraction/selling point lies in ... To appeal to sb by ... 26. Xm nhp vo ... To break into ... To penetrate To make inroads into ... 27. Khng cho ... tham gia vo ... To prevent sb from taking part in ... To freeze sb out of sth 28. Gy cn tr cho ... To hinder/block/impede sb in doing sth 29. Gi vai tr quan trng trong ... To play an important/key/pivotal role in ... To be central to ... To be of utmost importance to ... 30. c trng ca ... l ... To be symbolised by ... To be chracterized by ... Sths features/chracteristics are ... 31. Lm cho X thch ng vi Y To match X to Y To make X compatible to Y To ensure harmony between X and Y

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32. Tt hu so vi... To lag behind sb To play catch-up on sth To be left (far) behind 33. To iu kin cho ... To facilitate To open way for ... 34. B ... ht cng To get displaced by sb/sth To be ruled out of the game by ... To be kicked out of the field by ... To be supplanted by ... To play a losing battle 35. Khin cho ... khc hn vi ... To set sth/sb apart from sth/sb To single out sth/sb

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