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Geography
Geography
stage four 1
stage four
1
Sue van Zuylen Glyn Trethewy Helen McIsaac
Sue van Zuylen
Glyn Trethewy
Helen McIsaac
Geography stage four 1 Sue van Zuylen Glyn Trethewy Helen McIsaac

Author acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Sue Watson for her work on this book; and acknowledge their considerable respect and value of her opinions during the initial editing process.

The authors would also like to acknowledge the role played by our publisher, Penelope Naidoo. Her coordination of and perseverance throughout the production process of the Geography Focus series has been highly valued by them all.

Author dedications Sue van Zuylen: To my parents: Godfrey and Peggy Fowkes. Glyn Trethewy: To my wife, Karen, and my children Sarah, Nicholas and Hannah. Helen McIsaac: To the Irving and McIsaac families.

Pearson Education Australia

A division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

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Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2007 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) First published 2007

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Edited by Susan Watson and Writers Reign Designed by Paul Ryan Illustrated by Bruce Rankin and Wendy Gorton Prepress work by The Type Factory Produced by Pearson Education Australia Printed in Hong Kong

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data

Trethewy, Glyn. Geography focus 1: stage four.

For secondary school students. ISBN 978 0 7339 7714 5 (pbk.).

1. Geography - Textbooks. I. McIsaac, Helen. II.Van Zuylen, Sue. III.Title.

910

Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. However, should any infringement have occurred, the publishers tender their apologies and invite copyright holders to contact them.

should any infringement have occurred, the publishers tender their apologies and invite copyright holders to contact
Contents
Contents

Series features

vi

How to use this book

viii

Syllabus correlation grids

x

Investigating the world
Investigating the world
1
1

Unlocking the world

1.1 The nature of Geography

1.2 Wonders of the world

1.3 Maps and map reading

1.4 Physical elements of the environment

1.5 Human elements of the environment

1.6 Fieldwork

1.7 Measuring the weather

2
2

Our world and its heritage

2.1 Introducing our world

2.2 Map making and map projections

2.3 Latitude and climate

2.4 Longitude and time

2.5 Mapping the physical and human world

2.6 Our world heritage

2.7 Criteria for World Heritage listing

2.8 Valuing World Heritage

2.9 Galapagos Islands—a World Heritage site

2.10 Introducing global environments

2

4

6

10

14

16

18

20

24

26

28

32

36

40

42

46

48

52

54

Global environments
Global environments
3
3

Polar lands

56

3.1 The polar land environment

58

3.2 The northern polar lands—the Arctic

60

3.3 Living in polar lands—the Sami

62

3.4 The changing Sami culture

66

3.5 The Sami and self-determination

70

3.6 The southern polar land—Antarctica

72

3.7 Antarctica’s ecosystem

74

3.8 Human impact on Antarctica

76

3.9 Protecting Antarctica

80

4
4

Coral reefs

82

4.1 Coral reefs—rainforests of the sea

84

4.2 Coral reefs—plant or animal?

86

4.3 Coral reef formations

88

4.4 Animals of the coral reef environment

90

4.5 Human threats to coral reefs

92

4.6 The Great Barrier Reef

94

4.7 Natural threats to coral reefs

98

4.8 Global warming—the end of coral reefs?

100

4.9 Coral reef destruction—a global issue

102

5
5

Mountains

5.1 Mountain landforms

5.2 Plate tectonics

5.3 Earthquakes and volcanoes

5.4 Glaciation

5.5 Mountain climate

5.6 Mountain tourism

5.7 Khumbu—land of the Sherpa

5.8 Living in the mountain environment— Sherpa people

6
6

Rainforests

104

106

108

112

116

120

122

126

128

132

6.1 Rainforest environments

134

6.2 How the Amazon rainforest works

136

6.3 Living things of the Amazon

140

6.4 Indigenous people of the Amazon

144

6.5 The Congo rainforest and its community

146

6.6 The Daintree—Australia’s tropical rainforest

150

6.7 The future of rainforests

154

7
7

Deserts

156

7.1 World deserts and their people

158

7.2 Processes in the desert atmosphere

160

7.3 Processes in the hydrosphere and lithosphere

162

7.4 Processes in the desert biosphere

166

7.5 Human impact on the desert environment

170

7.6 A desert community—the San of the Kalahari

172

7.7 Deserts in Australia

176

Global change
Global change
8
8

Changing

global

relationships

178

8.1 The globalisation process

180

8.2 Advances in communications technology

182

8.3 Motorola—a telecommunications giant

184

8.4 Computers and the World Wide Web

186

8.5 Transport technology and globalisation

188

8.6 Transnational corporations and globalisation

192

8.7 The globalisation of sport

196

8.8 The sweatshop side of globalisation

198

8.9 Cultural impacts of globalisation

200

8.10 Globalisation—winners and losers

202

9
9

Global

inequality

204

9.1 Accessing the necessities of life—fresh water

206

9.2 Accessing the necessities of life—food and shelter

208

9.3 Other aspects of the quality of life

210

9.4 The world and its resources

212

9.5 Measuring inequality between countries

216

9.6 The Human Development Index

218

9.7 Life opportunities throughout the world

220

9.8 Reducing global inequality

222

9.9 The importance of action

224

9.10 Global organisations

226

Global issues and the role of citizenship
Global issues and the
role of citizenship
10
10

Climate

change

228

10.1 Climatic records

10.2 Natural climate change

10.3 The greenhouse effect

10.4 Global warming

10.5 Different perspectives on climate change

10.6 Living more sustainably

230

232

234

236

240

242

11
11

Access

to fresh

water

246

11.1 Water—a scarce and precious resource

11.2 Groundwater—a hidden resource

11.3 Effects of falling water tables

11.4 Contamination of groundwater

11.5 Water and health

11.6 The Aral Sea ecological disaster

11.7 The issue of dam-building

11.8 Conflict or cooperation?

248

252

254

256

258

260

262

264

12
12

Urbanisation 266

12.1 Cities of the world

12.2 The growth of cities

12.3 The urban footprint

12.4 New York City—a world city

12.5 Issues in cities of the developing world

12.6 Mumbai—India’s megacity

12.7 Mexico City—a megacity from Latin America

268

272

274

276

278

280

282

13
13

Land degradation 284

13.1 The nature of land degradation

286

13.2 Soils and their degradation

288

13.3 Desertification

292

13.4 Soil salinity

294

13.5 Mining and land degradation

296

13.6 War and land degradation

298

13.7 Nuclear pollution and land degradation

300

13.8 Land management

302

14
14

Human

rights

304

14.1 Human rights for all

306

14.2 Life and liberty

308

14.3 Discrimination denies human rights

312

14.4 Children’s rights

314

14.5 Child labour

316

14.6 Child soldiers

318

14.7 Child trafficking

320

14.8 Campaigning for human rights

322

15
15

Threatened

habitats

324

15.1 The dimension of habitats

326

15.2 The threats to habitats

328

15.3 Perspectives on threatened habitats

330

15.4 Management of threatened habitats

332

15.5 Grasslands—a threatened habitat

336

15.6 The lemurs of Madagascar—an endangered species in a threatened habitat

340

15.7 Threatened species profiles

342

Acknowledgements

344

Index

346

GEOGRAPHY FOCUS 1
GEOGRAPHY FOCUS 1

Geography Focus 1 is specifically written to provide comprehensive coverage of the NSW Stage 4 Geography syllabus.

Geography Focus 1 Coursebook Includes Student CD Geography Focus 1 provides a thorough introduction to
Geography Focus 1
Coursebook
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Stunning visuals, together with the most up-to-date and stimulating material, will
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topic, country or place
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Geography Focus 1

Companion Website

www.pearsoned.com.au/schools/secondary The Companion Website contains a wealth of support material that has been written
www.pearsoned.com.au/schools/secondary
The Companion Website contains a wealth of support material that
has been written to enhance teaching and learning:
Surf: activities relating to specified units from the coursebook.
These activities address necessary skills in an ICT environment
Review Questions and Quick Quizzes: auto-correcting
multiple-choice questions for revision
Web Destinations: a list of reviewed websites that support
further investigation and revision
Additional content: for selected units in the coursebook.
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Helen McIsaac
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and learning of Geography confidently using the Geography Focus 1 package.
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a practical exam for each chapter in the book, consisting of multiple-choice
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AGRICULTURE
INDUSTRY
Glyn
Trethewy
Focus 1.5
Work, employment
Agri culture involves
human act iv i t ies that have been
In the past i ndustri
es were located
close to the raw
editable
teaching
programs
materi als that they needed or to the coalfields that
shapi ng the landscape
for centur i es. In some parts of the
Helen
McIsaac
world the natural env
ironment has been s ignificantly
prov ided the ir power.
Today, modern h igh-tech industri es
Patterns are present in the human
landscape as well as the natural
and enterprise
changed by farm ng practi ces. Patterns
practical
exams
and
answers
i
created by
are more concerned with access to the
ir markets and
agri culture vary from patchworks of
costs. Thei r locat ion can be influenced
ti ny fields typi cal of
reduc i ng labour
subsi stence farmi ng i n Asi a to the featureless expanses
for
each
chapter
by many factors
as shown i n 1. XX .
Ask students two further questions
environment.
The
way
settlements,
created by modern commerci al
grain farmi ng i n
have been two ma jor changes i n the locat i on of
There
an extension to the activities:
agriculture
at and
industry
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studies
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last
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Boli
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Human
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atlas
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quizzes
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. Each
agri
cultural
pin-wheel
pattern
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centred
on
are
presently
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1.22
buildings
of the city
of Singapore
are
Factors labour
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elements
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building factories is cheap,
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• • • • • • • • Companion
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or relax working
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Vocabulary
to live.
encourage factories to relocate,
SETTLEMENTS
preview
rich countries have more
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Settlements
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culture
urban
1.23
traditional
and the management of business
village A on
one of the
Knowledge
8
In class discuss
the lifestyle of the people that live in each of
Greek islands in the
easier between the factories and
industry
these settlements.
Name two different types of settlement.
1
What is a settlement?
Mediterranean Sea
a
What jobs might they do?
their head offices.
e
2
What is a megalopolis?
Name one.
b
What clothes might they wear?
How will the jobs available for
Refer to the news article
3
in this unit.
2
What food do you think
c
they would eat?
a
Where does the largest
percentage of the world’s
d
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people change as more people
around?
population now live?
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might they have?
move into urban areas?
List the five cities predicted to be the largest in 2015
b
and
their project population.
9
Which place would you most like to live in? Why?
Quality teaching
Changes could include more
Define
term
'agriculture'.
Application
office
in jobs,
more
building
5
List
the
has the factors the
that
affect
the location
of industry.
10
Compare
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buildings
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unit the place
you
live
with
those
in
and learning
as
construction
increases,
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a
6 4
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location
of industry
changed
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Singapore
and
the this
in
the
that Amazon of and
on
page
4.
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at
tell building
materials
and
and style
buildings.
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jobs
labouring
and
they
you
about
people
that
live
the work
there?
How
Providing intellectual
emphasis
on
service
jobs,
depth and
Skills
has
the the
physical
Oia environment
influenced
the
settlement?
Describe the buildings in 1.22 and 1.23.
as
waiters,
nurses,
doctors,
higher-order thinking are key factors
7
Surf
accountants
and
taxi
drivers.
in providing quality teaching and
learning opportunities.
This unit is
GEOGRAPHY FOCUS
an excellent springboard
17
for looking
Unlocking the world
rs
megalopolis
of several
at these factors. Skills activity 3
asks students to gather facts directly
cities
in is the merged 600 made
up together.
BosWash
that of stretches have
from
Boston
to a
Surf
A distance Washington
United
States,
from the newspaper
article on page
Answers to activities
5
energy, raw materials,
over
kilometres.
government, site, capital or
16. They can also use this article to
labour, transport,
Activities
finances,
markets
stimulate a
deeper understanding
6
Over
last new
years,
old industrial
areas
have
closed
Knowledge
by using their prior knowledge of
Invite students to conduct Internet
while
industrial
estates
have
been
established.
1
Settlements are places where people live. Settlements can be a small
the increasing number of people
research to find one place in the
Also
down factories the
50 have
moved
from
richer
countries
to poorer
moving from the country to
farmhouse
or
large
city.
the city,
where their costs will be lower.
world where people have
overcome
countries
CD
should
launch
and by looking
at the implications
megacity
or
a million; the megalopolis
is huge
city
over
10 million
people
a
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this double
automatically.
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Skills
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of the facts detailed
within
example
with
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click
Consult
over
million.
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constructed
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‘ReadMe’
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35 50
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the
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population
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invite
8 7
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needed.
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be
further
information.
Tokyo,
Japan:
35
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Mumbai,
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New
Delhi,
students to discuss the possible
9
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ground,
flooding,
the
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India:
20.9
Mexico
a City,
Mexico:
20.6
million;
in Sao
Paulo,
future
climate.
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could
be
Application
Brazil:
20
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movement of people into urban
areas. Construct a table of the
steep paddies,
rice
a
dam or a or whole
even city.
4 3 2
Agriculture
is
organised
production
food
created
10
Answers will vary.
n
points discussed.
when
the
natural
environment
modified.
16 Geography Focus 1 Teachers
Edition
Chapter 1 Unlocking the world 17
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For more information on the Geography Focus series,

visit www.pearsoned.com.au/schools

How to use this book
How to use this book

There are 15 chapters in the book, each with the following features:

Geography allows us to see the world more clearly. Geographers learn to view things from
Geography allows us to see the world more
clearly. Geographers learn to view things
from different perspectives and understand
the natural and human processes that shape
our world. The discipline involves two key
dimensions:
Chapter opening pages outline the syllabus outcomes
and geographical tools addressed within the chapter.
The opening pages also define all the key terms used
in the chapter.
• the spatial dimension—where things are
and why they are there
Coral reefs
• the ecological dimension—how humans
interact with environments.
Coral reefs have been labelled the
‘rainforests of the sea’ because they
contain a wide and colourful variety
of plants and animals. Located in the
warm tropical waters of the world,
they are increasingly coming under
pressure from human activities and are
an environment at risk. Geographers
need to study the interrelationships that
exist within coral reefs so that they can
make recommendations about their
management and ensure that these
precious ecosystems exist into the future.
Geographical tools
Maps
• use various types of maps
• locate features using latitude and longitude,
area and grid references
identify physical and cultural features on a
map
measure distances on a map using linear
scale
Definitions
identify scale as written, linear or
archipelago—a chain or cluster of islands
representative fraction
atoll—a circular or ring-shaped coral reef that nearly or
use the points of a compass to determine
entirely encloses a lagoon
direction
barrier reef—a coral reef that forms to protect a lagoon or
• construct a sketch map
coastline from the ocean
• read synoptic charts
biodiversity—the variety of all living things
Outcomes
calcium carbonate—the chemical compound created by the coral
Graphs and statistics
polyp as it grows. (It is the skeleton of the coral and is frequently
A student:
identify and calculate maximum, total,
found elsewhere in nature.)
range, rank and average
4.1
identifies and gathers geographical
coral bleaching—where coral polyps expel multi-coloured
zooxanthellae from their cells, making coral lose its colour,
information
construct and interpret bar, column, line,
causing the reef to die
climatic and proportional graphs
4.2
organises and interprets geographical
fringing reef—a coral reef that forms close to an island or
information
Photographs
coastline
4.3
uses a range of written, oral and graphic
draw a line drawing
hard coral—corals that form calcium carbonate skeletons
forms to communicate geographical
as they grow, giving reefs their structure
collect and interpret photographic images
information
soft coral—corals with a small amount of calcium carbonate
distinguish between oblique, aerial, ground-
4.4
uses a range of geographical tools
that they use to attach themselves to the reef
level photographs and satellite imagery
symbiotic relationship—a mutually beneficial interaction
4.6
describes the geographical processes that
ICT
between two living organisms
form and transform environments
collect and interpret electronic information
synoptic chart—a map that shows air pressure across an
4.8
describes the interrelationships between
area, enabling predictions about the weather to be made
people and environments
practise ethical behaviour when using email
zooplankton—very tiny, drifting animals such as shrimp and
and the Internet
4.10
explains how geographical knowledge,
small fish
understanding and skills combine with
knowledge of civics to contribute to
informed citizenship
zooxanthellae—algae that grow in the tentacles of the coral
polyp
Geography Focus 1 addresses the content,
outcomes and objectives of the New South Wales
Stage 4 Geography syllabus.
The coursebook is divided into four colour-coded
sections, corresponding to each of the prescribed
focus areas:
Activities at the end of each unit are broken down
under the following headings:
• Knowledge: comprehension and recall questions.
Investigating the world
• Global environments
• Skills: questions that relate specifically to the
Stage 4 course content and address the Stage 4
skills outcomes.
• Global change
• Global issues and the role of citizenship.
• Application: extension-type questions where
students are asked to apply their knowledge.
Civics and citizenship activities are embedded
within these activities.
Deserts
• Surf: activities that incorporate ICT, including
Internet-based skills. These activities can be
found on the associated Companion Website and
are cached on the Student CD.
Deserts are stark but spectacular
environments, portrayed in books and
motion pictures as places of adventure and
mystery. They have very little precipitation
and high levels of evaporation, leading
to scattered vegetation and highly
adapted flora and fauna. Almost one
third of Earth’s land surface is classified
as arid or semi-arid desert. This global
environment is located on every continent
except Europe. Geographers study
the geographical processes in desert
environments and the adaptations people
have made to live in them.
Geographical tools
Maps
• use various types of maps
• locate features using latitude and longitude,
area and grid references
Definitions
identify physical and cultural features on a
map
aeolian—processes to do with the wind
measure distances on a map using linear
arable—land that is capable of growing crops
scale
arid—dry, parched climate or land
use the points of the compass to determine
atmospheric pressure—the weight of the air on the
direction
Earth’s surface
• identify and interpret relief
desertification—the spread of desert lands and land
degradation across more arable land
• construct a sketch map
ecosystem—a community of organisms interacting with one
Graphs and statistics
another and with the environment in which they live
identify and calculate maximum and
evaporation—the process by which water turns from liquid
• Fieldwork: activities carefully planned to
achieve syllabus outcomes. They enhance
learning opportunities and cater for a variety of
teaching and learning styles.
to vapour
minimum, total, range, rank and average
nomadic—a lifestyle where people move around an
construct and interpret bar, column, climatic
environment to a range of locations, usually related to the
Syllabus outcomes
and proportional graphs
seasons and the availability of food
A student:
Photographs
oasis—an area in the desert where groundwater is close to
the surface and plants can grow
• draw a line drawing
4.1
identifies and gathers geographical information
playa—a flat basin in the desert that is covered in water every
• collect and interpret photographic images
4.2
organises and interprets geographical
so often
information
• distinguish between oblique, aerial, ground-
salinisation—the process by which soil and water become
level photographs and satellite imagery
4.3
uses a range of written, oral and graphic forms
salty due to salts moving in soils
to communicate geographical information
semi-arid—the transition zone between desert and grassland
ICT
that receives an average 250–500 millimetres of rain per year
4.4
uses a range of geographical tools
• collect and interpret electronic information
SNAPSHOT 2
subsistence—crops or food grown to satisfy a community
4.6
describes the geographical processes that
• design and create a multimedia presentation
and not for sale
form and transform environments
4.8
describes the interrelationships between
subtropical—climates close to the Tropics of Cancer and
Capricorn but not between them
people and environments
sustainable—using resources in a way that does not degrade
them
4.10
explains how geographical knowledge,
understanding and skills combine with
knowledge of civics to contribute to informed
citizenship
wadi—a stream or river course in a valley of a desert
xerophyte—a plant adapted to living in the desert or in
drought
7.22 The sidewinder
rattlesnake
Sidewinder rattlesnake
The s i dew i nder rattlesnake i s so called because of the way
that i t moves s i deways w i th an S-shaped curve . It l i ves i n the
Mo
j ave and Sonoran deserts of the Un i ted States .
The snake’s venom helps i n catch i ng prey, but i t also prov i des
a
defence . Rattlesnakes are generally heavy-bod i ed and
slow-mov i ng, unable to chase down the i r prey or k i ll i t by
constr i ct i on, so they need another means to make themselves
compet i t i ve predators—the i r venom . It i s produced l i ke
sal
i va and the chem i cal k i lls by stopp i ng the normal cellular
processes i n a b i tten v i ct i m . Venom also a i ds i n the d i gest i on
of prey by break i ng down i ts t i ssue .
A rattlesnake also conta i ns a rattle i n i ts ta i l to warn other
creatures away. The rattle probably developed as a means
to
alert the other an i mals shar i ng the snake ’s hab i tat to i ts
presence, and thus protect i t from be i ng stepped on .
Rattlesnakes prey on small mammals, b i rds and rept i les . The
snakes are, i n turn, preyed upon by var i ous mammals, such
as
coyotes and badgers, b i rds of prey and humans .
A CHANGE IN BALANCE
viii
If one aspect of the ecosystem is changed then the other
aspects can also become unbalanced. For example, if one
species in 7.20 becomes extinct, then other species and
the environment may be affected. If rodent populations
were to drop then there would also be fewer of their main
predator, the rattlesnake. There may also be an increase
in beetles because there are fewer rodents to eat them,
and an increase in lizards because they would have less
competition for food. These changes in turn would affect
other species in the web.
Deserts 169
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTS
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTS
Skills Master sections provide students with the knowledge they require to use and apply geographical

Skills Master sections provide students with the knowledge they require to use and apply geographical tools.

SKILLS MASTER How to write latitude and longitude 2.23 Atlas map of Fiji Latitude and
SKILLS
MASTER
How to write latitude and
longitude
2.23 Atlas map of Fiji
Latitude and
longitude are two numbers
GH
I 3
describing the position of any point
on
16°S
178 ° E
180 °
the surface of the Earth. There are a few
rules to follow.
Labasa
Vanua
1 Latitude and longitude are
expressed Levu
in degrees. Degrees latitude refers to
Yasawa
the distance of a place either north
Group
or south of
the equator. Degrees
Taveuni
2
Nabouwalu
longitude refers to the distance of
a place
either east of west
of the
Tavua
Ell i ngton
Koro
Prime Meridian.
Lomaloma
Ovalau
Koro
Sea
2 Latitude is always written
first and
Levuka
the letters ºN (north) or ºS
(south)
Nad i
Nausor i
must follow the number.
18°S
Gau
N
Lakeba
3 Longitude follows latitude
and must
SUVA
Viti Levu
be labelled ºE (east) or ºW (west).
F
I
J
I
An example from the Fiji extract in
2.23 is:
0
10
20 km
1
Suva is about 18 degrees south of the
Equator and 178 degrees east
of the
Legend
Vun i sea
Prime Meridian. This is written
Capi tal c i
ty
Kadavu
18ºS, 178ºE.
178°E
180°
town or ci ty
e
g
a
s
s
a
P
u
v
a
d
a
K
place name country name or state name alphanumer i c grid reference SKILLS MASTER page
place name
country name or state name
alphanumer i c grid reference
SKILLS
MASTER
page number
lati tude
longi tude
How to use an atlas
An atlas is a collection of maps of
different parts of the world. The
Nabouwalu
Fiji
82
H2
17 . 00S
178
. 43E
maps may show
the whole world or
specific regions or countries.
2.24
How to read the index
Use the table
of contents to find
a
map, not a place. For example, you
might want to find a map of Canada,
a settlement
map of Africa or a
political world map.
N
Use the index to
place like a town
find a particular
or city, mountain,
Naalehu Hawaiian Is
82 J10
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
19.04N 155.36W
river or lake but not an entire map.
In the index every place is listed in
Naberezhnyye Chelny Russian Fed. 118 H3
55.42N 52.20E
alphabetical order.
Nabeul Tunisia 116 F4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
36.28N 10.44E
Using the index
Nablus West Bank
109 A3.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
32.13N 35.16E
Nadi (shown
in 2.25) would be found
on page 82, in the grid of G2. Its
Nabouwalu
Fiji
82
H2 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17.00S
178.43E
latitude and longitude reading is
17º47’S 177º29’E.
Nacala
Mozambique
123 D3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
14.30S 40.37E
Nadi
Fiji
82 G2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17.47S
177.29E
Nador
Morocco
116 C4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
35.12N 2.55W
Næstved
Denmark
114
I3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
55.14N 11.46E
2.25 Part of the ‘N’ section in an atlas index
38 Geography Focus 1
Snapshots incorporate high-interest items
to illustrate aspects of the text.
SNAPSHOT
Genocide of the Hmong people
to hunt down and el i m i nate the
14.7 Location of the
Hmong and the i r fam i l i es . The Lao
Hmong people
government has cont i nued w i th th i s
CHINA
a i m for over 30 years .
Hanoi
Between 1975 and 2005 ethn i c
LAOS
cleans i ng took place i n the j ungles
Xaysomboune
of
Laos . More than 300 000 Hmong
Hmong people
hiding in jungle
THAILAND
and Laot i an people were k i lled,
i nclud i ng many of the 14 000
people that have surrendered .
Others were put i nto concentrat i on
Bangkok
camps . Those that rema i n free
CAMBODIA
are try i ng to surv i ve i n remote
Phnom Penh
mounta i n areas .
Gulf
of
N
The Lao Human R i ghts Counc i l has
Thailand
0 300 km
appealed to the UN to stop the Lao
government from carry i ng on the
ethn i c cleans i ng and genoc i de .
Dur i ng the V i etnam War, the
i nd i genous Hmong people of Laos
s i ded w i th the Un i ted States to fight
aga i nst commun i sm . Because of
th i s, when the commun i sts took
The i r cause was further advanced
by
a 2006 documentary Hunted
Like Animals, wh i ch was made by
a
human r i ghts act i v i st and reveals
shock i ng i mages of the m i l i tary ’s
control of Laos i n 1975, they vowed
brutal i ty.
14.6 These Hmong protestors want
human rights for their people.
GEOGRAPHY FOCUS
Although some of these deaths happen in countries such
as Australia and the United States, the largest proportion
occurs in the world’s poorest countries (see 14.8). While
many children there continue to starve to death, others—
especially in developed countries—are facing increasing
problems due to obesity.
The world has the resources and the
know-how
create
a poverty-free
world i n less to than
a generati
on .
14.9 Not all of the world’s people have the opportunity
of a secure lifestyle with plenty of food to choose from.
14.8 Highest and lowest infant mortality rates, 2006
Country/region
Infant mortality rate (deaths per 1000 live
births of children under 1 year)
Angola
188
Afghan i stan
163
S
i erra Leone
162
L
i ber i a
162
Mozamb i que
131
Iceland
3
Japan
3
Hong Kong, SAR
3
Sweden
3
S
i ngapore
2
Human rights 309
V
I
E
T
N
A
M

Case studies are treated in depth as unit topic spreads.

The lemurs of 15.27 The female ring tailed lemur is dominant in the group. Madagascar—
The lemurs of
15.27 The female
ring tailed lemur is
dominant in the group.
Madagascar—
an endangered species
in a threatened habitat
Madagascar is the world’s fourth-largest island, located
off the east coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. It has a
land area of 582 000 square kilometres or about three-
quarters the size of New South Wales. The capital
Antananarivo has a latitude of 18°52'S and longitude of
47°30'E. It is covered by many types of habitat, including
rainforest, temperate inland areas and arid desert in
the south.
LEMUR CHARACTERISTICS
Lemurs are small primates that are known as
prosimians. They are only found on Madagascar and
the Comoros Islands. Lemurs range in size from the tiny
30-gram pygmy-mouse lemur to the cat-size Indri lemurs.
They can live to about 18 years of age.
Lemurs are arboreal (they live in trees) and spend most of
their time in the canopy of the rainforest. Lemurs live in
groups with a dominant female leader. She controls the
15.28
Location of Madagascar
movement of the group and chooses a mate first. Lemurs
40°E
45°E
50°E
N
Comoros
Ants iranana
eat fruit, leaves and other plant material. They use their
Islands
long plumy tails and scent to communicate.
Mozambique
Key
15°S
Lemurs are important to Madagascar as they disperse
seeds from their food through droppings. These seeds
cap i tal c i ty
Maha janga
town
help to regenerate forests.
road
0
200 km
Toamas i na
THREATS TO LEMUR SPECIES
Antananar i vo
Lemurs are threatened. Of the 61 types of lemurs:
Morondava
20°S
• 10 are critically endangered
Manan j ary
Ei anarantsoa
• 7 are endangered
• 19 are vulnerable.
Tol iara
Madagascar
Tolanaro
25°S
ENDEMIC SPECIES
Madagascar has been isolated from other landmasses for
about 60 million years. This means that there are many
species that are endemic—they are unique because they
live in Madagascar and are found nowhere else on Earth.
Sixty-one of these unique species are lemurs. Madagascar
is considered to be one of the world’s 25 biodiversity
hotspots. A biodiversity hotspot contains a very large and
diverse range of plant and animal species. Madagascar has
lost over 70 per cent of its original habitat.
One main threat comes from increasing population pressure
and poverty. The population of Madagascar exceeds
14 million in an area less than the size of New South Wales
(which has 7 million). The population is growing at a rapid
rate of 3 per cent per annum. Many Malagasy people live
on only AU$350 a year in a subsistence lifestyle. Poverty
means that the environment can be less important to most
people than finding the next meal.
Another threat to lemurs is the reduction in their natural
forest habitat due to deforestation. Madagascar used to
be covered by a large area of rainforest. Up to 80 per cent
of this has been cleared for logging, fuel wood and crop
cultivation (see page 149).
Lemurs have also been hunted for pet trade and food,
which has had a significant impact on their population.
340
Geography Focus 1
Mozambique Channel

Geography Focus boxes provide interesting facts and definitions that will enhance student learning.

GEOGRAPHY FOCUS The average urban resi dent in a developed country generates four to s
GEOGRAPHY
FOCUS
The average urban
resi dent in a developed
country generates four
to s ix ti mes more waste
than the average urban
res i dent i n a develop ing
country.

ICT competencies such as Internet research,

using websites, creating emails, designing

web pages and making multimedia

presentations are addressed through the

activities. The ICT icon indicates when an

activity addresses any of these skills. ICT

skills are also usually incorporated in Surf activities which can be found on the live Companion Website and the cached version on the Student CD.

Companion Website and the cached version on the Student CD. The CW icon indicates when an

The CW icon indicates when an activity or additional content is available for students on the Geography Focus 1 Companion Website. These can be found on the live Companion Website and the cached version of the CD.

Syllabus correlation grids
Syllabus correlation grids

The content and activities in Geography Focus 1 and Geography Focus 2 have been designed to engage students as they work towards achieving the outcomes of the New South Wales Years 7–10 Geography syllabus. The key elements featured in the following grids are the Stage 4

STAGE 4 MANDATORY OUTCOMES

Mandatory Outcomes and the Stage 4 Geographical Tools. These outcomes and tools have been extracted from the 7– 10 syllabus document prepared by the New South Wales Board of Studies. The grids below relate specifically to Stage 4 outcomes for Geography Focus 1.

Outcomes

   

Focus Areas (chapters)

 

A student:

 

4G1 (1–2)

4G2 (3–7)

4G3 (8–9 )

4G4 (10–15)

4

. 1

ident i fies and gathers geograph i cal i nformati on

*

 

* *

 

4

. 2

organ ises and i nterprets geograph i cal i nformat i on

*

 

* *

*

4

. 3

uses a range of wr i tten, oral and graph i c forms to commun i cate geograph i cal i nformat i on

 

**

*

*

4

. 4

uses a range of geograph i cal tools

*

*

*

*

4

. 5

demonstrates a sense of place about global env i ronments

*

 

*

 

4

. 6

descr ibes the geograph i cal processes that form and transform envi ronments

*

*

   

4

. 7

i denti fies and d iscusses geograph ical i ssues from a range of perspecti ves

   

*

*

4

. 8

descr ibes the i nterrelat i onsh i ps between people and env i ronments

 

*

 

*

4

. 9

descr i bes d i fferences i n l i fe opportun i t i es throughout the world

   

*

*

4.

10

expla i ns how geographi cal knowledge, understand i ng and sk i lls comb i ne

 

**

*

*

 

w

ith knowledge of c i v i cs to contr i bute to i nformed c i t i zensh i p .

GEOGRAPHICAL TOOLS

Skills Masters follow the format of the syllabus; they have been integrated into chapter content so that they form a part of the teaching of Geography. They have been designed to enable students to develop their knowledge and understanding of the range of geographical tools relevant to Stage 4 Geography. The knowledge and understanding

gained from these Skills Masters and information units is then applied, and competency in the use and application of the tools a geographer uses is developed as students complete activities that cover a range of stimulus and activity types in further units of the text.

Tool

Content: In working towards Stage 4 outcomes, students learn to:

Geography Focus 1 unit number

Maps

• use an atlas

2 . 4

• use var i ous types of maps: physi cal, pol i t i cal, topograph i c, themat i c

2 . 5; 5 . 4; 6 . 6

i dent i fy and use elements of maps, i nclud i ng legend, di rect i on, ti tle, scale, border

1 . 3

• d i st i ngu i sh between d ifferent types of map pro j ecti ons

2 . 2

• locate features on a map us i ng:

– lati tude and long i tude

2 . 3; 2. 4; 6 . 6

– area and gr id reference

1 . 3; 6. 6

i dent ify phys i cal and cultural features on a map

2 . 5; 6. 6

• measure d i stances on a map usi ng a li near scale

1 . 3; 6 . 6

i dent i fy scale as wr i tten, l inear or representat i ve fracti on

1 . 3; 6 . 6

• use the poi nts of a compass to determ i ne d i rect i on

1 . 3; 6 . 6

ident i fy and i nterpret rel ief us i ng shad i ng, spot he i ghts, colour and contour l i nes

1 . 3; 5 .4; 6 . 6

• construct a sketch map

1 . 3

• read synopt ic charts: w i nd d irect ion and speed, pressure patterns, fronts and ra i nfall

1 . 7

Fieldwork

• use geograph i cal i nstruments, i nclud ing:

 

– a compass to determ ine d i rect ion

1 . 3

– weather i nstruments, a Beaufort w i nd scale and cloud i denti ficati on charts

1 . 7

• collect and record data i n the field, i nclud i ng:

– des i gn and conduct i nterv iews

1 . 6

– construct and i mplement surveys

1 . 6

– field sketch, d i agram

1 . 2

Graphs and Stat i sti cs

i dent i fy and calculate max i mum, m in i mum, total, range, rank and average

3 . 3; 3 . 8

• construct and interpret bar, column, l i ne, cl i mat i c and proport i onal graphs

3 . 3; 3 . 8; 11 . 1

Photographs

• draw a li ne drawi ng

1 . 2; 2 . 3

• d ist i ngu ish between obl i que, aer i al, ground-level photographs and satell i te i magery

1 .2

• collect and i nterpret photograph i c images

1 .2; 2 .6

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT)

ICT skills have been addressed in the Skills Masters and through the activities. The ICT icon in the coursebook indicates when an activity addresses the development and application of ICT skills. ICT skills in the form of Surf activities are incorporated into the majority of units.

Surf activities are incorporated into the majority of units. These can be accessed and found on

These can be accessed and found on the associated Companion Website and on the cached version on the Student CD and offer the opportunity for students to investigate course content by using specific websites on the Internet.

Unlocking the world INVESTIGATING THE WORLD
Unlocking the
world
INVESTIGATING THE WORLD

Geography is not just a body of knowledge. It is a style of learning that will prepare you for the future. Through meaningful research geographers expand their knowledge and understanding of the world. By learning geographical skills and developing spatial awareness you will be equipped to become an active citizen of the world.

Geographical tools

Maps

• identify and use elements of maps: legend, north point, title, scale and border

• locate features on a map using area and grid references

• identify physical and cultural features on a map

• use the points of a compass to determine direction

 

• construct a sketch map

• read synoptic charts

Syllabus outcomes

Fieldwork

A student:

• use geographical instruments

4.1

identifies and gathers geographical information

organises and interprets geographical information

• collect and record data in the field

4.2

Photographs

• draw a line drawing

4.3

uses a range of written, oral and graphic forms to communicate geographical information

• collect and interpret photographic images

ICT

• create a desk-top published document for a specific audience

4.4

uses a range of geographical tools

4.6

describes the geographical processes that form and transform environments

• develop and refine search techniques using the Internet

Definitions cartographer —a specialised geographer who draws maps citizen —a person who is part of

Definitions

cartographer—a specialised geographer who draws maps

citizen—a person who is part of a society with the right to protection from it and the responsibility of loyalty to it

condensation—the process by which water vapour turns to liquid

contour—a line on a map joining places of equal height

ecosystem—a community of organisms interacting with one another and with the environment in which they live

environment—the total surroundings

evaporation—the process by which water turns from liquid to vapour

human features—areas of the Earth's surface that have been built or changed by humans

isobar—a line on a synoptic chart joining places of equal air pressure

nutrient—a source of nourishment

physical features—areas of the Earth’s surface that are naturally occurring or have been largely unaltered by humans

precipitation—any form of water falling to the Earth’s surface including rain, hail and snow

relative humidity—the amount of moisture in the air compared to the amount it could hold

settlement—a place where people live

spatial dimension—where things are and why they are there

temperature—a measure of the amount of heat energy

water cycle—the continuous movement of water, in its different states, between land, sea and air (also called the hydrological cycle)

wind direction—where the wind is coming from

wind speed—the rate of air movement

The nature of Geography
The nature of Geography
1.1 Geography is everywhere.
1.1 Geography is everywhere.

Geography allows us to see the world more clearly. Geographers learn to view things from different perspectives and to understand the natural and human processes that shape our world.

It is a spatial subject, which means it is concerned with where people and places are located and the patterns of features on the Earth’s surface.

Geographers need to be curious and ask questions about the world around them. This is the basis of geographical research.

KEY GEOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONS

Geographers start by asking questions.

WHY STUDY GEOGRAPHY?

Geographers are curious people. They investigate the ways in which people and places affect each other so that they can understand how to manage environments for the future. They become powerful when they use their knowledge to influence the decisions that are made about issues that affect our lives.

As far as we know the Earth is the only planet that supports life. With a population of nearly seven billion people and increasing competition for resources, there are many issues that are causing concern. By studying Geography we can become active and informed citizens and do something to help protect our future.

1.2 Geography is always in the news.

• What is it?

• Where is it?

• Why is it there?

When investigating issues they go on to ask questions, such as:

• What are the effects of it being there?

• How is it changing?

• Should it be like this?

Then they consider citizenship.

• What groups are involved?

• What do different groups think?

• What action is appropriate?

GEOGRAPHY FOCUS The word ‘Geography’ comes from the Greek word Ge ( ) meaning ‘the
GEOGRAPHY
FOCUS
The word ‘Geography’
comes from the Greek
word Ge (
) meaning
‘the Earth’, and
graphein (
meaning ‘to describe’
)
or ‘to write’.
Protestors rally against increased whaling for scientific purposes Nuclear power is the answer to global
Protestors rally against increased whaling for scientific purposes
Nuclear power is the
answer to
global warming
CYCLONE SEASON
IN FULL FORCE
Indigenous group settles with
mining company over land use
Tourism
brings
wealth
to African
nation
MASSIVE EARTHQUAKE HITS
HIMALAYA REGION
High-rise office block to
tower over native bushland

4

Geography Focus 1

 

GEOGRAPHERS HAVE THEIR SAY ABOUT GEOGRAPHY

1.3 Tim Flannery—Australian of the Year, 2007

 

‘Geography allows us to see the world more clearly.’

         
 

‘By learning Geography we gain a greater understanding of the world in which we live and the people that share our world.’

         
 

‘Geography is our future.’

         
 

‘Geography is POWER!’

         

FAMOUS GEOGRAPHERS

         

There have been many famous geographers throughout history, such as:

 

‘[The Australian of the

Eratosthenes (276–194 BC) is thought of as the father of Geography. He was the first person to use the term ‘Geography’ and also calculated the Earth’s circumference.

 

Year Award 2007] also means I have an obligation to the people of Australia to continue the quest to create a sustainable future for our country and for our children.’

Al-Khwarizmi (780–850) was one of the earliest Arabic geographers. He wrote a famous book Kita b Su rat al-Ard (The Form of the Earth) and was the first to produce maps of global geography.

         

Gerardus Mercator (1512–94) is known as the prince of

Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) is regarded

         
 

modern geographers. He was the first to use the term

   

Activities

 

‘atlas’ and was a leading cartographer.

Knowledge

   
 

as the founder of modern Geography. He spent years

1

Where does the word ‘Geography’ come from?

 

exploring South and Central America and was one of the first people to look at the spatial relationships

2

List five things beginning with P that geographers study.

 

between plants and climates.

3

Why are geographers powerful?

 

Thomas Griffith Taylor (1880–1963) became the first

4

Who was the first person to use the term ‘Geography’?

 

president of the Institute of Australian Geographers

5

Who founded the Institute of Australian Geographers?

 

in 1959. He believed that academics had a duty to be concerned with the great controversies of their day

Application

   
 

and spoke out against the White Australia Policy, which prevented non-white immigrants from coming to Australia. In the year of his death, he was still

6

Read the quotes about Geography and then hold a class discussion on the question: ‘What is Geography?’

 

publishing on the contribution of geographical studies

 

a

Record all the ideas that are put forward.

 

to world peace.

 

b

Write your own definition of Geography.

Mother Teresa (1910–1997) taught Geography at

 

c

Compare your definition with those of other students.

 

St Mary’s High School in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) from 1933 to 1948, becoming its principal in 1944. She left to found the Missionaries of Charity that has become a worldwide organisation helping the poor.

Surf

   
Wonders of the world
Wonders of the world

1.4 Mount Everest, Nepal

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World—amazing structures built thousands of years ago—were regarded as the most impressive monuments of their time. They demonstrated the ability of humans to change their surrounding landscape.

Try choosing just seven places to put on a new list and you will soon realise how many spectacular places there are in the world, and how much more we know about the world than our ancestors who named the ancient wonders.

the world than our ancestors who named the ancient wonders. PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FEATURES AN AMAZING

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FEATURES

AN AMAZING SURVIVOR

Only one of the original seven ancient wonders, the Great Pyramid of Giza, built 4500 years ago, has survived to the present day. It was built exactly in line with the four points of the compass. This means that its four sides point toward true north, south, east and west. The error from true north is about one-twelfth of a degree. What is even more astounding is that this was done without a compass, which was not invented until thousands of years later!

which was not invented until thousands of years later! 1.6 Christ the Redeemer statue, Rio de

1.6 Christ the Redeemer statue, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The term ‘environment’ means total surroundings. Geographers classify the features of environments as either human—those that are made, or physical—those that occur naturally. They examine environments at a variety of scales from local to global, and are particularly interested in the relationships between physical and human features.

MODERN WONDERS With only one of the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World left
MODERN WONDERS
With only one of the original Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World left there have been many attempts
to come up with a new list of Wonders of
the Modern World and also one for the
Natural Wonders of the World. Some
of the suggestions for these lists are
shown here.
1.5 The Great
Pyramid of
Giza, Egypt
Wonders of the World. Some of the suggestions for these lists are shown here. 1.5 The
Wonders of the World. Some of the suggestions for these lists are shown here. 1.5 The

1.7 Angel Falls, Venezuela (top left), Grand Canyon, Arizona, United States (top right) and Mount Rushmore, South Dakota, United States (bottom right)

These images show some of the most spectacular physical and human features of our world. However, not all features are as impressive as these. Consider your own local environment; does it have any special features? Are you surrounded by mostly human features, physical features or a mixture of both?

In Australia most people live in towns and cities containing human features such as houses, schools, roads, railways, shopping malls and entertainment centres. But there are also many physical features. The weather, plants, animals, rocks and soil, as well as the water in rivers, lakes and seas, are all physical features.

well as the water in rivers, lakes and seas, are all physical features. 1.8 The Great

1.8 The Great Wall of China

Unlocking the world 7
Unlocking the world 7

USING PHOTOGRAPHS IN GEOGRAPHY

Geographers often use photographs to record their observations of features of the environment. They can do this by annotating the photographs (see the Skills Master opposite) or by making a line drawing of the photographs. There are many different types of photographs and they are all useful in different ways.

Close up To show the specific characteristics of a feature, for example a plant or
Close up
To show the specific
characteristics of a feature,
for example a plant or
animal. In this example
the different elements that
make up a mangrove leaf
can be seen.
Aerial To show the location of features in relation to each other and their surroundings.
Aerial
To show the location
of features in relation
to each other and their
surroundings. In this
example the lake and
mangroves are the dark
areas and the straight line
of the bridge can be seen
in the centre.
Panorama To show a total scene and the relationship of different features in the environment.
Panorama
To show a total scene and the relationship of different features
in the environment. In this example the relationship between
mangrove trees and water can be seen.
Ground level To show the nature of features. In this example the size, shape and
Ground level
To show the nature of
features. In this example
the size, shape and
colour of the mangrove
tree are all clear.
Oblique angle To show a three- dimensional (3D) view of the environment. In this example
Oblique angle
To show a three-
dimensional (3D) view of
the environment. In this
example the size and
location of the mangroves
can be seen in relation to
the surrounding parkland.
Places in the distance look
smaller than those in the
foreground.
Satellite image To show the location of features, particularly land use over a large area.
Satellite image
To show the location of features, particularly land use over a
large area. In this example Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay
in bright blue stand out from the built-up area of Sydney in
grey and natural vegetation (bushland) in green.
SKILLS MASTER Annotating a photograph or line drawing Notes are printed around the outside of
SKILLS MASTER
Annotating
a photograph
or
line drawing
Notes are printed around the outside
of the image.
Ruled lines/arrows
connect the notes
to the features.
The photograph
or line drawing is given a title.
The source
of the photograph
is
recorded.
Pittwater is a
sheltered
1.9 View of Palm
Beach and
1.10
Line drawing of Palm
waterway 5.5 kilometres
Pittwater
looking
south-west from
Beach looking
south-west from
long
and
1
kilometre
Barrenjoey
headland
Barrenjoey headland
wide where it enters
Broken Bay at
Barrenjoey
headland.
Palm Beach with a
Pittwater
population
of
1600
Palm
is
the most northerly
Beach
beachside
suburb of
suburb
golf
course
Sydney.
Palm
jetty
Beach
Barrenjoey
Lighthouse
Vegetated
was
built in 1881
from
Barrenjoey
sand
the local
Hawkesbury
lighthouse
dunes
sandstone.
It
is
the third
light to occupy this site.
Barrenjoey
walking
Barrenjoey
is
a
headland
track
sandstone
headland
joined
to
the
mainland
by a
tombolo
(a sand
spit). The vegetation
is
mostly open scrub,
but there is a sheltered
patch of
rainforest on
open scrub: black she-oak;
the south-west
side.
heath-leaved
banksia; coast
ti-tree
the south-west side. heath-leaved banksia; coast ti-tree Activities Knowledge 1 What is astounding about the

Activities

Knowledge

1 What is astounding about the Great Pyramid of Giza?

2 What does the term ‘environment’ mean?

3 What are human features of the environment? Give two examples.

4 What are physical features of the environment? Give two examples.

5 Why are photographs useful to geographers?

Application

6 Look at the photographs on pages 6 and 7. Think of any other places in the world that are spectacular, then make your own

list of ‘The Seven Wonders of the World’. You can include both human and physical features.

7 Compare your list with those of other students.

a Are there any places that appear on everyone’s list?

b Do the lists have more human or physical features?

8 Make a class collage of Wonders of the World, including both physical and human features.

Skills

9 Collect photographs of your local environment and present them either electronically or on a poster. Use annotations and/or line drawings to describe the physical and human features in each.

Maps and map reading

Maps and m a p r e a d i n g Geographers can use photographs
Maps and m a p r e a d i n g Geographers can use photographs

Geographers can use photographs in a variety of different ways to help describe features, relationships and changes within environments. Photographs are just one of the many valuable tools that geographers use. As Geography is a spatial subject, another essential tool is a map.

There are many different types of maps and they are all useful in different ways. Anything that has a location can be marked on a map. There are maps that cover the entire surface of the Earth and others that show only a very small area. Maps are important to geographers because they show spatial distributions.

SCALE AND DISTANCE

A map is a two-dimensional drawing of a place viewed

from above. It is drawn to scale so that the features on the map are in the same proportions as those in the real place. The scale of the map can be shown in three different ways:

words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre

linear:

0

5

words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre • linear: 0 5 kilometres • ratio: 1:100 000. The
words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre • linear: 0 5 kilometres • ratio: 1:100 000. The
words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre • linear: 0 5 kilometres • ratio: 1:100 000. The
words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre • linear: 0 5 kilometres • ratio: 1:100 000. The
words: 1 centimetre represents 1 kilometre • linear: 0 5 kilometres • ratio: 1:100 000. The

kilometres

ratio: 1:100 000.

The ratio may look complicated but it is easy to use.

It is like using shortcuts in a mobile phone text message.

For the scale 1:100 000:

1 means one unit measured on the map

: means represents

100 000 means 100 000 of the same units in the real place.

Putting it all together, 1:100 000 means that each centimetre measured on the map represents 100 000 centimetres (cm) in the real place. As we do not usually measure large distances in centimetres, we change 100 000 cm to 1000 metres (m) or 1 kilometre (km), so 1 cm represents 1 km.

For a scale of 1:50 000:

1 cm represents 50 000 cm, which is 500 m or 0.5 km. So 2 cm represents 1 km.

For a scale of 1:25 000:

1 cm represents 25 000 cm, which is 250 m or 0.25 km. So 4 cm represents 1 km.

1.11 Map and compass

DIRECTION

Maps are usually drawn so that north is at the top of the map. The orientation of the map is indicated by a north arrow or compass rose drawn on the map. Directions are described using the points of the compass. The four main points north (N), south (S), east (E) and west (W) are called the cardinal points.

1.12 The compass rose N NNW NNE NW NE WNW ENE W E WSW ESE
1.12 The compass rose
N
NNW
NNE
NW
NE
WNW
ENE
W
E
WSW
ESE
SW
SE
SSW
SSE
S
SKILLS MASTER Grid reference A grid reference pinpoints a specifi c place within a Locating
SKILLS
MASTER
Grid
reference
A grid
reference
pinpoints a specifi c place
within a
Locating features
on
a map
grid square and
is
made up
of six numbers (1.14).
The first
three numbers indicate
the
position going
Some
of the maps that you will
use
will have
a
across
the
grid and
the
second
three
numbers
give
grid system like the one
on Gem Island
(see 1.15).
the position
going up
the
grid.
The grid is
used to
locate places
on
the
map. There
are
two
different
ways
that the grid
can be used to
identify locations—one is with an
area reference
and
the
other
is with
a
grid reference.
Area reference
An area reference identifies
one
square
in the grid
and is made up of four numbers (see 1.13). The
first
46
two
numbers are those for the line along
the
left
side
of the square. The second two
numbers
are
those for
the
line along the base of the square.
A
5
B
47
2
45
B
*
5
9
46
21
22
A
Grid
reference (GR)
of point A
Start at the bottom
left corner of
the square
*
45
Record the two numbers for
the line along the
left side
of
the
square
21
Imagine
the width of the square is divided into
10 equal parts
and
estimate how far
across the
square point A is located.
21
22
23
Half-way is 5 out
of 10.
5
Go back
to the
bottom left
corner of the
square *
Square
A
Record the two numbers on
the line along
the
base of the
square
45
Line
on left
21
Estimate how far
up the
square point
A
is
located. Half-way
is
Line
along base
45
5
out of
10
5
Area
reference (AR)
2145
The
GR is
215455
Square
B
Grid
reference (GR)
of point
B
Start at *
Line
on left
22
Line along
left
21
Line
along base
46
Distance across square
9
Go back
to *
Area
reference (AR)
2246
Line along
base
45
Distance up square
2
1.13
Locating
places with an area
reference
The
GR is
219452
1.14 Locating places
with
a
grid reference

50

SYMBOLS AND LEGEND

Not every feature on a map can be shown in detail. Instead colours and symbols are used to represent them. Traditionally blue is used for water, red lines for roads, and brown for highlands. Individual buildings such as churches and hospitals often have their own symbols. The symbols are all identified in the legend, which can also be called the key.

Remember all maps must have BOLTS:

Border Orientation Legend Title Scale

RELIEF

Relief is the term used by geographers to describe the ups and downs of the Earth’s surface—the shape of the land. The height of land above sea level can be shown on a map by:

• a spot height—a dot with the height in metres next to it (see 1.15)

• a contour line—a line with the height marked on it. All places on a contour line are the same height above sea level (see 1.15)

• shading—from lighter to darker for each different layer of height from lower to higher.

1.15 Map of Gem Island 60 N 59 C r The a Scout 58 W
1.15 Map of Gem Island
60
N
59
C
r
The
a
Scout
58
W
E
Knoll
Island
The
k
135
Narrows
L
i
57
n
Coniston
S
e
56
River
55
200
54
53
High Way
River
Nab
Point
100
52
Kendal
Hill
225
Smugglers
Lindale
51
Cave
Easter
Fisherman’s
Bay
50
50
150
Beach
Lookout
49
Hill
165
Hagg
Wood
48
al
st
Herries
47
Hidden
oa
Sandy
C
Reef
Cove
Bay
46
45 21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
y
a
W

Contour interval: 50 metres

225 Trig point

165

Spot height

Contour line

LEGEND

River

Sand dunes; beach

Cave; jetty

Dense woodland Scattered trees Track; bridge Building Lighthouse; submerged rock

Scale 1: 100 000

01234

kilometres

Activities Knowledge 1 Why are maps important? 2 What are the five essential features of

Activities

Knowledge

1 Why are maps important?

2 What are the five essential features of a good map?

3 How many figures do the following have:

i an area reference

ii a grid reference?

Skills

All the following questions will help you build map-reading skills. They are based on the map of Gem Island in 1.15.

Using the legend

4 Write the scale of the map in words.

5 Draw the symbol used for sand dunes.

6 Draw the symbol used for a lighthouse.

7 What colour is used for dense woodland?

8 How many submerged rocks are there on the map?

9 How many rivers are there on the map?

10 Record three ways in which height can be shown on a map.

11 Name one of the tracks found on the island.

12 Is there a bridge in Lindale?

13 Name an area of dense woodland.

Direction

14 What is the correct term for the symbol on the map showing direction?

15 What is the direction from Lindale to Coniston?

16 What is the direction from Coniston to Smugglers Cave?

17 What is the direction from The Knoll on Scout Island to Herries Reef?

18 What is the direction from Kendal Hill to the jetty?

19 What is the direction from the lighthouse to Hidden Cove?

20 On which side of the island is Easter Bay?

21 On which side of the island is Sandy Beach?

22 Which point on the map is the furthest west?

23 If you walked north from Kendal Hill to the coast would you pass through trees?

Locating features

24 What human feature would you find in the grid square at these area references:

a 2350

b

2853

c

3451

d

2556?

25 What physical features would you find in the grid square with these area references:

a 3545

b

3051

c

2256

d

2347?

26 What is the area reference for:

a Smugglers Cave

b the top of Lookout Hill

c the trig point on Kendal Hill

d the highest point on Scout Island

e Nab Point?

27 What feature is found at each of these grid references:

a

340470

b

270565

c

259565

d

326501

e

213597?

28 What is the grid reference of each of the following features:

a the trig point on Kendal Hill

b the spot height on The Knoll

c the submerged rock nearest to Scout Island

d the building nearest the bridge in Coniston

e the building nearest the jetty in Lindale?

Distance

29 Give the distance in a straight line from the triangulation point on Kendal Hill to each of the following:

a the spot height on Lookout Hill

b the spot height on Scout Island

c the building at Fisherman’s Beach

d the lighthouse

e the southern end of the jetty.

30 What is the shortest distance across The Narrows?

31 What is the distance along the Coastal Way from Smugglers Cave to the bridge in Coniston?

32 How far is it along the coast from Smugglers Cave to Hidden Cove?

33 How far is it around the coast of Scout Island?

Relief

34 What is the height of the trig Point on Kendal Hill?

35 What is the height of the summit of Lookout Hill?

36 What is the height of the summit of The Knoll on Scout Island?

37 How high is the High Way at 320535?

38 How high is the Coastal Way at 252550?

Treasure trail

39 Start at the lighthouse, travel north-west for 6 kilometres, then north for 5.5 kilometres. Follow the track heading north-west until you reach a human feature. From there travel directly west for three kilometres and then dig for the treasure. Where did you dig?

40 Draw your own treasure map. (Remember BOLTS.)

Physical elements of the environment Geographers classify features of the environment as either physical elements
Physical elements
of the environment
Geographers classify features of the environment as
either physical elements or human elements. The
relationships between them can be simple or very
complex and are always changing, which is why
Geography is a dynamic subject.