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COPYRIGHT

The copyright in this manual and its accompanying software are the property of Softbits Consultants Ltd with all rights reserved. Both this manual and the software have been provided pursuant to a License Agreement containing restrictions on use. Softbits Consultants Ltd reserves the right to make changes to this manual or its accompanying software without obligation to notify any person or organisation. No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system or translated into any other language in any form or by any means, or disclosed to third parties without the prior written consent of Softbits Consultants Ltd.

WARRANTY
Softbits Consultants Ltd or its agents will replace any defective manual, program disks within 90 days or purchase of the product providing that proof of purchase is evident. All warranties on the disks and manual and any implied warranties are limited to 90 days from the date of purchase. Neither Softbits Consultants Ltd nor its agents or dealers make any warranty, implied or otherwise, with respect to the software. The Flaresim software is intended for use by a qualified engineer. The interpretation of the results from this software are the sole responsiblity of the user. Softbits Consultants Ltd shall bear no liability for the loss of revenue or other incidental or consequential damages arising from the use of this software. The governing law of this warranty shall be that of England.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Softbits Consultants Ltd would like to express their gratitude to Mr. John F. Straitz III and the National Airoil Company and GBA Ltd of Slough for assistance in the development of some algorithms within the software. Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Copyright Softbits Consultants Ltd, 1989, 1990, 2002

Table of Contents
1 Introduction.................................................. 1-1
1.1 1.2 1.3 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Program Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 Documentation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

2 Installation.................................................... 2-1
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Installing Flaresim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Installing License File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14 Obtaining A License File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17

3 Getting Started............................................. 3-1


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Simple Flare Stack Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Sonic Tip Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 Two Tip Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 Welltest Burner Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31

4 Interface........................................................ 4-1
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Menu Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 Log Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 File Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 About View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 Chart Control Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16

5 General Setup .............................................. 5-1


5.1 5.2 Case Summary View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Case Description View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

5.3 5.4

Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Component Management View . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13

6 Fluids ............................................................ 6-1


6.1 6.2 Fluid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Assist Fluid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9

7 Environment................................................. 7-1
7.1 Environment View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4

8 Stacks ........................................................... 8-1


8.1 Stack View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4

9 Tips ............................................................... 9-1


9.1 Tip View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4

10 Receptors ................................................... 10-1


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Receptor Point View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4 Receptor Point Summary View . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Receptor Grid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13 Overlay Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-25 Using Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36

11 Calculations ............................................... 11-1


11.1 Calculation Options View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3

12 Printing ....................................................... 12-1


12.1 12.2 12.3 Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Graphic Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7 Print Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11

13 Calculation Methods ................................. 13-1


13.1 13.2
2

Thermal Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Surface Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15

13.3 13.4 13.5

Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25

A Graphic Report Layout............................... A-1


A.1 A.2 Introduction to XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4 Layout File Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6

Introduction

1-1

1 Introduction
Page
1.1 1.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Flaresim Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Object Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Running a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3

1.3

Documentation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1-1

1-2

1-2

Introduction

1-3

Flaresim is a computer program designed to assist professional engineers in the design and evaluation of flare systems. The program calculates the thermal radiation and noise generated by flares and estimates the temperatures of exposed surfaces. Flaresim provides a user friendly interface that follows standard Windowstm conventions. The program actions are by menu and toolbar options. Data entry is through a series of data views controlled from an overall summary view. Context sensitive help is available at all points to assist the user in the use of the program and selection of appropriate design parameters. Output from the Flaresim is highly customisable with the user having the freedom to select summary or detailed output. The reports also include graphical output where appropriate. Experienced flare system engineers should read the remainder of this chapter for an overview of the way that Flaresim does its calculations. They may then find that they will be able to use the program with assistance from the help system without further reference to the manual. However we would recommend study of the manual to become familiar with the full range of options and recommendations for using the program. Engineers new to flare system design should work through the examples in the Getting Started section of the manual after first reading this chapter. The examples provide a step by step guide to using Flaresim for flare system design and highlight some of the critical parameters that must be determined.

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1-4

Features

1.1 Features
The following features highlight the main capabilities of Flaresim. Equally applicable to the design of flare systems for offshore platforms, gas plants, refineries and chemical plants. Data may be entered and reported in the users choice of units and may be converted at any time. Correlations are available for modelling a range of flare tips including sonic tips, pipeflare tips and steam or air assisted tips. For assisted flares the quantity of steam or air required for smokeless operation can be calculated. A number of correlations are provided to predict the fraction of heat radiated from flames of a range of hydrocarbon fluids with different types of flare tip. Liquid flaring systems can be handled. A wide range of algorithms for calculation of thermal radiation. These include integrated multipoint methods in addition to the Hajek/Ludwig and Brzustowski/Sommer methods which are described in the API guidelines for flare system design. Full three dimensional flame shape analysis with complete flexibility in specification of the location and orientation of multiple stacks. A range of options for defining and analysing the noise spectrum generated by flare systems including user defined spectra. Ability to define multiple environmental scenarios to allow rapid evaluation of flare system performance under different wind speeds and directions. Multiple stacks/booms which can each have multiple flare tips.

1-4

Introduction

1-5

Calculation of radiation, noise spectrum and surface temperatures at multiple receptor points. Ability to define multiple receptor grids in multiple planes for calculation of radiation, noise or surface temperatures. Plotting of grid results as isopleth contours for sterile area definition. Receptor point characteristics for calculating surface temperatures include mass, absorbtivity, emissivity, area, specific heat, orientation and initial temperature. Sizing of stack or boom length to meet radiation, noise or surface temperature limits at defined receptor points. Import of files from previous DOS version of Flaresim. Quality Assurance options are included in the reports. Customisable HTML reports Customisable graphic reports The wide range of calculation options available within Flaresim may lead to the possibility of selecting inappropriate correlations for a particular combination of fluid type and flare system configuration. While we have tried to prevent the use of the move obvious problems we have tried to allow flexibility for one off situations. As with all engineering computer software, Flaresim is a tool which should not be expected to replace sound engineering judgement. Softbits Consultants Ltd are always interested in continuing product development to ensure that Flaresim meets the needs of our clients. Should you wish to see any feature incorporated in Flaresim, please feel free to contact us at support@softbits.co.uk. If the request is reasonable we will endeavour to include it in future releases of the program.
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1-6

Program Overview

1.2 Program Overview


The Flaresim program has been developed to provide great flexibility in modelling by breaking down flare systems into a number of objects such as fluids, stacks, tips etc. These individual objects are then linked together to define the flare system. Flaresim provides a Case Summary view, see Figure 1-1, that shows a tree structure of all the objects that have been defined in a given model and provides a rapid overview of which ones are currently complete and in use. Case Summary Icons Required object present Required object missing Optional object Permanent object Object data complete Object data missing Object ignored
Figure 1-1, Case Summary view

1.2.1 Flaresim Objects


The objects that can be defined are:Case Details Each model contains a single Case Details object which defines descriptive information.

1-6

Introduction

1-7

Fluids A model can contain multiple fluid objects. Each object describes the physical properties of a fluid to be flared such as density, lower heating value, lower explosive limit etc. Fluids may be defined either by entering bulk properties or by defining the composition of the fluid to allow calculation of its properties from pure component data. A single fluid can be flared through multiple tips. Environments A model can contain multiple environment objects each of which describes a combination of wind speed, direction, humidity etc. Only one environment object can be active for a set of calculations. Stacks Multiple stack objects can be defined which may be active or ignored in any set of calculations. Stack data includes length, location and orientation. Each stack may support multiple flare tips. Tips Multiple tip objects can be defined and set active or ignored in a set of calculations. Tip data includes tip type and associated calculation methods, dimensions and stack location data and the flow and selection of the fluid being flared. Tip objects provide access to flame shape and other tip specific results. Receptor Points Multiple receptor point objects can be defined and then set active or ignored in a set of calculations. Receptor point data includes location, characteristics for surface temperature calculation and constraints for sizing calculations. Receptor point objects provide access to results calculated for the point. Receptor Grids Multiple receptor grid objects can be defined and then activated or ignored in a set of calculations. Receptor grid data includes orientation, location and coarseness data as well as characteristics for surface temperature calculations. Receptor grid objects provide access to their calculated results including contour plots of radiation, noise and surface temperature.

1-7

1-8

Program Overview

Assist Fluids Multiple assist fluid objects may be defined and used by one or more flare tips. Data includes assist fluid type and calculation method to be used. Calculation Options A single calculation options object defines the correlations to be used in the calculations. It also provides for selection of a stack to be sized if required in design calculations. Component Management A single component library manager object allows maintenance of the pure component database.

1.2.2 Object Definition


Flaresim objects are created by selecting the branch in the Case Summary view and then clicking the Add button. Alternatively the Add menu can be used. Creation of an object automatically opens its view to allow its data to be entered. When all the required data has been entered the Status Text at the bottom of the view will indicate Complete as shown in Figure 1-2. Some objects have more data items than will fit on a single form so their views have been divided into multiple tabs, for example the Tip view as shown in Figure 1-2 has tabs for Details, Location & Dimensions, Fluids, Results, Noise and Flame Shape. Individual tabs are selected by clicking on their name.

1-8

Introduction

1-9

Figure 1-2, Tip View

Existing objects can be updated by double clicking them in the Case Summary view, selecting them in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button or by selecting them through the View menu.

1.2.3 Running a Model


In order to run calculations a Flaresim model must contain at least one of each of the following objects in an active state. Fluid object Environment object Stack object Tip object While this is sufficient to perform calculations this will not calculate any radiation, noise or surface temperature results without addition of at least one active Receptor Point or Receptor Grid.

1-9

1-10

Program Overview

Calculations are started by clicking the icon in the tool bar. The model will then be solved using the current correlations and options selected in the Calculation Options object. Progress of calculations and any problems encountered are reported in the Message window at the bottom right of the Flaresim screen. Results from the calculations may be viewed through the appropriate tabs in the Tip view, Receptor Point view or Receptor Grid view. Results may be viewed in tabular or graphical format where appropriate. Alternatively results can be viewed and printed through the File - Print menu item.

1-10

Introduction

1-11

1.3 Documentation Overview


The remainder of the Flaresim manual is structured as follows:Chapter 2 describes installation of the software and activation with license file. Chapter 3 provides a getting started guide with detailed worked examples. Chapter 4 describes the layout and concepts of the Flaresim interface, Menu structure, Log Panels and File Dialogs. Chapter 5 provides a guide to the general setup views including Case Summary, Case Details, Preferences and Component Management. Chapter 6 describes the Fluid and Assist Fluid object views. Chapter 7 describes the Environment object view. Chapter 8 describes the Stack object view. Chapter 9 describes the Tip object view. Chapter 10 describes the Receptor Point and Receptor Grid object views. Chapter 11 describes the Calculation Options view. Chapter 12 describes the Print Preview/Report Control view. Chapter 13 describes the calculation methods used by Flaresim. Appendix A describes the definition of Graphic Report Layout files

1-11

1-12

Documentation Overview

1-12

Installation

2-1

2 Installation
Page
2.1 Installation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Package Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 2.1.2

2.2 2.3 2.4

Installing Flaresim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Installing License File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Obtaining A License File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


Full License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Demo License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.4.1 2.4.2

2-1

2-2

2-2

Installation

2-3

2.1 Installation Requirements


2.1.1 Package Requirements
Before installation, check that you have the following elements of the Flaresim package. Program CD Rom Computer ID Key License File The License File may be provided either on the CD Rom or sent to you separately by e-mail as an attachment. If the latter, you should save the file to a temporary location so that it is ready when required by the installation process.

2.1.2 System Requirements


The following system requirements must be met to allow installation of Flaresim.
Item Operating system Disk space - program directory Disk space - system directory Security device port Flaresim install files Requirement Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 or Windows XP 15 MB 5 MB 25 pin Parallel port Usually supplied on CD Rom

2-3

2-4

Installing Flaresim

2.2 Installing Flaresim


The installation of Flaresim is similar to the installation of other Windows programs. The steps are:1. Shut down other windows programs. The Windows Explorer program may be left open to start the Flaresim Setup program if required. If you are installing a full licensed copy of Flaresim locate your security device and plug it into the parallel port of your computer. The parallel port is the 25 pin female connector on the back of your computer. The arrows on the security device show which end connects to the computer. If you have a printer already connected to the parallel port, disconnect it, connect the security device and then reconnect the printer to the female connector on the security device. If you do not have a security device skip this step. 3. Insert the Flaresim CD Rom into your CD or DVD drive. If the AutoRun feature is enabled then step 4 will be performed automatically and should be skipped. 4. Start the setup program Setup.exe on the CD Rom. This may be done through Windows Explorer by navigating to your CD or DVD drive, locating the Setup.exe file in the root directory of the CD and then double-clicking it. Alternatively you can click the Windows Start button, select the Run option, type d:\setup.exe in the pop-up dialog and then click the Ok button. Note that your CD or DVD drive letter should be substituted if it is not d:. 5. The Setup program will display the following screen.

2.

2-4

Installation

2-5

Note that if the setup program needs to update your computers version of the Windows Installer component, there may be a delay before this screen appears.
Figure 2-1, Opening Screen

6.

Check that you have closed any other Windows programs running and click the Next button. The following License Agreement screen should then appear. Note that the setup program provides a Cancel button that may be clicked to exit the installation procedure at any point..

2-5

2-6

Installing Flaresim

Figure 2-2, License Agreement

7.

At this point you should read the License Agreement and confirm your acceptance of its terms by clicking the accept option. Once the accept option has been selected the Next button will be activated so click Next to continue. The following screen, Figure 2-3, will appear. If you do not wish to accept the license terms then click the Cancel button to exit the setup program without installing Flaresim. The license terms must be accepted before the program will install.

2-6

Installation

2-7

Figure 2-3, Destination Folder

8.

If you are happy with the proposed installation folder in your Program Files directory then click Next to continue. Otherwise click the Browse button and use the standard windows file browser to select the destination folder for the Flaresim program. Once you are happy with your selection click Next to continue. The installation type screen will appear.

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2-8

Installing Flaresim

Figure 2-4, Installation Options

9.

On this screen select the Typical option and click Next. The other options are included for possible future use but do not provide any useful options at present. The final install screen will appear..

2-8

Installation

2-9

Figure 2-5, Ready to Install Screen

10.

At this point Flaresim is ready to install. Click the Next button to start the installation process. If you wish to change any data entered in an earlier screen the Back button may be used to return to earlier screens. After clicking the Next button the installation will start. If the installer detects a conflict with any other programs running the following screen shown as Figure 2-6 will be shown. If this screen is displayed, close the indicated programs and then click the Retry button. The installation will then start.

2-9

2-10

Installing Flaresim

Figure 2-6, Conflicting Programs

11.

The setup program will show the progress of the installation as files are copied from the CD Rom to your install folder as shown below.

Figure 2-7, Installation Progress

2-10

Installation

2-11

Should you need to halt the installation, the Cancel button may be used to stop the installation. A confirmation dialog will ask you to confirm that you wish to exit without completing the installation of the program. 12. During the installation the following screen may be displayed. This is a warning from the installation of the security device driver and indicates that an existing installation of the device driver has been detected. The Flaresim installation will not automatically upgrade these drivers, if you wish to do so manually run the Setup.exe program from the Drivers sub-folder on the Flaresim CD. Click OK to continue.
Figure 2-8, Existing Driver Warning

13.

When the installation has completed the installer may display the following screen warning that the system will need restarting to complete the installation. Normally this will only happen for systems running under Win98 or WinMe. If this screen is displayed click the Ok button to continue. Note that the restart will not happen immediately.

2-11

2-12

Installing Flaresim

Figure 2-9, Restart Warning

14.

Following the completion of the installation the following screen will be shown. Click the Finish button to complete the installation process.

Figure 2-10, Completion Screen

15.

At this point the following screen may be displayed asking you to restart your system to complete the installation of any components that have been updated. Click the Yes button to restart the system immediately. If you click the No button you should not try to use Flaresim until after the your system has been restarted.

2-12

Installation

2-13

Figure 2-11, Restart Screen

16.

Congratulations, Flaresim has been successfully installed. You are now ready to run the program for the first time and activate it by selecting it through the windows Start menu.

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2-14

Installing License File

2.3 Installing License File


Flaresim requires installation of a license file before it will run. If a license file is not found when Flaresim starts, the Activate License Message will be displayed.
Figure 2-12, Activate License Message

The procedure to install the license file is as follows. If you do not have a license file see the instructions in the following section, 2.4, to obtain one. 1. Click the Yes button in the Activate License Message. The Flaresim Activator application will open as shown below.
Figure 2-13, Flaresim Activator Application

2-14

Installation

2-15

2.

Click the Activate Now button. The following view will be displayed.

Figure 2-14, Activation Screen

3.

Click the button and use the File Open dialog to search for and open your license file. For licensed copies of Flaresim the license file is normally found on your Flaresim CD. It will have a .LIC file extension. Once you have selected it, click the Next button that will now be activated. The following screen will appear to confirm installation of the license file. Click the Finished button to start using Flaresim.

4.

2-15

2-16

Installing License File

Figure 2-15, Activation Complete

2-16

Installation

2-17

2.4 Obtaining A License File


If you have a fully licensed copy of Flaresim your license file will normally be found on the Flaresim CD Rom. It will have a .LIC extension. If a license file was not shipped to you with your copy of Flaresim you will need to supply some information about your installation to Softbits Consultants to allow a license file to be generated and shipped to you. The information required will depend on whether you have a full license for the program or a demo license.

2.4.1 Full License


If you have a full license for Flaresim you will have been supplied with a security key. The security key and its associated license file will allow Flaresim to be used by any PC as long as the security key is installed. The procedure to obtain the license file is as follows: 1. Open the Windows Explorer program and browse to the Support sub-folder in the Flaresim program folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim). Locate the program echoid.exe and double click it to run it. The program will check the security key and report the information required through a message window as shown below.

2.

Figure 2-16, Security Key Information

3.

Report this information by e-mail to support@softbits.co.uk together with your name and contact details. Your license file will be generated and returned to you by e-mail.
2-17

2-18

Obtaining A License File

2.4.2 Demo License


If you have a demo license for Flaresim you will not have a security key. A license file will be supplied to activate Flaresim for the single PC on which it is installed and for a limited period. The procedure to obtain the license file is as follows: 1. Open the Windows Explorer program and browse to the Support sub-folder in the Flaresim program folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim). 2. Locate the program wechoid.exe and double click it to start it. The program will start and display the screen shown below.

Figure 2-17, Wechoid Program

3.

Clear all the Locking Criteria check boxes except that for Disk ID as shown above. Note the Locking Data displayed at the bottom of the screen. If the Locking Criteria check

2-18

Installation

2-19

boxes have been set correctly, the Locking Data selector will be 0x4. 4. Report the Locking Data by e-mail to support@softbits.co.uk together with your name and contact details. Your license file will be generated and sent to you by e-mail.

2-19

2-20

Obtaining A License File

2-20

Getting Started

3-1

3 Getting Started
Page
3.1 Simple Flare Stack Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Objective and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Define Fluid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Define Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Define Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Define Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Save File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Define Receptor Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Define Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Run & Review Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Print Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11

3.2

Sonic Tip Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Objective and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Starting File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create Sonic Tip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Run & Review Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . Compare Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimise Burner Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 19 21 22 23

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

3-1

3-2

3.3

Two Tip Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Objective and Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Open Starting File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Update Tip Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Run & Review Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Update Pipe Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Optimise Burner Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Generate Isopleths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7

3.4

Welltest Burner Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


Objective and Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Open Starting File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Add New Fluid Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Add New Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Add Welltest Burner Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Add New Receptor Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Run & Review Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Add Water Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Evaluate Rate of Temperature Rise . . . . . .37 Check Safety Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10

3-2

Getting Started

3-3

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the use of Flaresim. The examples show how Flaresim may be used to calculate thermal radiation, noise and exposed surfaces temperatures arising from flaring at one or more flare stacks. The examples begin with a simple flare stack design which is then refined and expanded. The examples attempt to highlight some of the critical parameters to be considered when designing a safe flare system. The examples build up in stages. If you wish to skip a particular stage, the Samples sub-folder of the Flaresim program folder has model files saved at each stage.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

3.1 Simple Flare Stack Design


3.1.1 Objective and Data
The objective is to design a flare stack for an offshore platform. It is assumed that an inclined flare boom will be used mounted on the side of the platform which faces the prevailing wind. The design is to be based on thermal radiation limits as follows: 600 btu/hr/ft2 at the helideck located 150 ft from the side of the platform and 30 ft above the base of the flare stack. 1,500 btu/hr/ft2 at the base of the flare stack. The following design data is available Fluid Material Hydrocarbon Vapour Flow 100,000 lb/hr Mol Wt. 46.1 Vapour Temp. 300 F Heat of combustion 21,500 btu/lb Heat Capacity ratio 1.1 Tip Diameter Wind Velocity 18 in 20 mph

3.1.2 Preparation
1. 2. Start the Flaresim program through the windows Start button in the usual way. Since all our data is in field units we will first select this set of units to work in. Select the File - Preferences menu option. The Preferences view shown below will appear.

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Getting Started

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Figure 3-1, Preferences View

3.

Select the unit set to Default Field as shown. If you wish to make this the default for future runs, click the Save Preferences button. Then close the window. Now open the Case Summary view using either the View Case Summary menu option or the icon from the toolbar. The view will show an empty case as shown below.

Case Summary Icon

4.

Figure 3-2, Case Summary

The icons indicate that the there are no objects of that type defined and that the model is incomplete.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

3.1.3 Define Fluid


5. Select the Fluid branch in the Case Summary and click the Add button to create a new fluid. The fluid view will open.

Figure 3-3, Fluid View

6. 7. 8. 9.

Enter a name to describe the fluid, Hot Gas Relief Enter the temperature of the fluid, 300F and reference pressure 14.7psi - i.e. assumed to be atmospheric. Enter the Mole Weight of the fluid, 46.1. Enter the LHV of the fluid, 21,500 btu/lb. Note that Flaresim requires the lower heating value for its calculations. We are assuming that the heat of combustion we have been given is the lower or net heating value rather than the gross heating value. Enter the Cp / Cv ratio of the gas, 1.1. Enter the lower explosive limit (LEL)of the gas, 1.95%. This value was not provided as part of our data but it was estimated from the LEL of hydrocarbon components of similar molecular weight.

10.
LEL is used only by the Brzustowski flare radiation method.

11.

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Getting Started

3-7

The icon indicates that a valid object of that type exists.

12. 13.

Enter the saturation, 100%. For offshore fluids this is a reasonable assumption. At this point the status text at the bottom of the view will show that the data entry is complete. The critical temperature and critical pressure data will be estimated if not provided. Close the Fluid view. Note that the Case Summary view is updated to show the new valid fluid.

3.1.4 Define Environment


14. Select the Environment branch in the Case Summary view and click the Add button to create a new environment object. The environment view below will open. Enter the name Design Environment.

Figure 3-4, Environment View

15.
The humidity value is only used when calculating the transmissivity.

Enter velocity as 29.3 ft/s. Note that we have to convert this value manually at present. Enter wind direction as 0 degrees i.e. due North. We have not been given a prevailing wind direction so it is convenient to set it to due north.

16.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

17. 18. 19. 20.

Leave the default values of Temperature, Humidity and Pressure at 60 F, 10% and 14.7 psi respectively. Leave the background radiation at 0 btu/hr/ft2 and the background noise at 60dB. Ensure that the Transmissivity method is set to User Specified and that the value is set to 1.0. At this point the status text should show that the data is complete. Close the Environment view.

3.1.5 Define Stack


21. Select the Stack branch in the Case Summary view and click the Add button. A new Stack object will be created and its view displayed as shown below.

Figure 3-5, Stack View

22. 23.

Enter a name for the stack, Main Stack. Since we are using the base of the stack as the reference location for all our calculations we leave the Relative to selector set to Origin and leave all the location information set to 0.0.

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Getting Started

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24.

In the Dimensions section of the view set the length to an initial value of 50ft and the Angle to the Horizontal to 60.0. Note we will be sizing the stack i.e. calculating its length, but we should enter a starting value. At this point confirm that the status text is showing that the form is complete and close the Stack view.

25.

3.1.6 Define Tip


26. In the Case Summary view select the Tip branch and click the Add button to add a flare tip. The following view will open. Set the tip name to Pipe Tip.

Figure 3-6, Tip - Details View

27.

In the Details section, set the Tip Type to Pipe, the Number of Burners to 1 and the Seal Type to None. A pipe flare is the simplest and cheapest type of flare so we will use this for our initial design.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

28.

In the Fraction of Heat radiated section, set the Method to High Efficiency to allow this to be calculated by the program. Note the value in the Value field will be cleared. Click the Location & Dimensions tab to move to the next set of Tip input data.

29.

Figure 3-7, Tip - Location & Dimensions View

30. 31.

In the Base Location section, use the On Stack dropdown to select the Main Stack which is the only choice available. In the Dimensions section set the Length to 10ft, the Angle to Horizontal to 90.0 and leave the Angle from North at 0.0. Pipe flares are generally vertical to avoid the potential for differential erosion that could occur if they were angled. Still in the Dimensions section set the Exit Diameter to 18in, the Effective Opening to 100% and the Riser Diameter to 18in. The Contraction Coefficient, Exit Loss Coefficient and Roughness may be left at their default values of 1.0, 1.0 and 9.84e-4in respectively.

32.

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Getting Started

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33.

Next click the Fluids tab to continue setting up the Tip data.

Figure 3-8, Tip - Fluids View

34.

In the Fluid section use the dropdown list to select the Fluid we defined earlier - Hot Gas Relief. Enter the Mass Flow as 100,000lb/hr. At this point the status text should indicate that our Tip definition is complete. Close the Tip view.

35.

3.1.7 Save File


36. If you check the Case Summary view now, it should be as shown below. Note that the icons have disappeared and been replaced by icons indicating that we have created and entered sufficient data for all the major components required to allow Flaresim to calculate.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

Figure 3-9, Case Summary - Major Components Defined

37.

This is a suitable point to save the data we have entered so far. Use the File - Save menu option or the icon. Since we have not yet saved the file, a File Dialog window will appear to allow us to specify the location and name of the file.

38.

At this point we are able to run the calculations if we wish by clicking the calculate icon in the tool bar. If you do this, you will see messages in the Error/Warnings/Info log saying that the tip exit properties and flame shape have been calculated. You can open the view for the Pipe Tip if you wish to see these results on the Results and Flame Shape tabs. However these results do not tell us anything about the radiation at our reference locations.

3.1.8 Define Receptor Points


39. Select the Receptor Point branch in the Case Summary view and click the Add button to create the first of the two receptor points that we will need. The Receptor Point view will open.

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Getting Started

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Figure 3-10, Receptor Point View

40.
As location data is entered in Cartesian coordinates, the Polar coordinates are automatically updated. We could also enter data in Polar coordinates

Enter the name of the first receptor point, Helideck. In the Location section set the following: Relative To as Origin, Northing as -150ft Easting as 0ft and Elevation as 30ft. In the Sizing Constraints section set the Radiation value to 600 btu/hr/ft2. Following this close the view after confirming the status text indicates that it is complete. Repeat steps 39 to 42 to add a second receptor point called Stack Base with Relative To as Origin, Northing as 0ft, Easting as 0ft, Elevation as 0ft and Radiation constraint as 1500 btu/hr/ft2.

41.

42.

43.

3.1.9 Define Calculation Options


44. Select the Case Summary - Calculation Options branch and click the View button to display the following view.
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Simple Flare Stack Design

Figure 3-11, Calculation Options - General View

45.

In the Radiation Calculation section set the Method to Mixed, the Element Position to 50% and the Elements to 20. As discussed in the Methods chapter, the Mixed method is a compromise designed to give the best accuracy for calculating radiation both close to and further away from the flame. Since one of our reference locations is relatively close and the other more distant this is the appropriate method for this case. 20 Elements is usually sufficient to calculate the flame shape with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The default Element Position of 50% indicates that the centre of each flame element is to be taken as the source of the radiation.

46.

The remaining items can be left at their default values namely options for Solar Radiation, Windchill and Background Noise excluded (i.e. checkboxes cleared), Atmospheric Noise Attenuation, Adiabatic Temperature Correction and R-K Z Factor included, Pipe buoyancy 10ft/s, Sonic buoyancy 15ft/s, Welltest buoyancy 0.1ft/s.

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Getting Started

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The Active Environment should show Design Environment and the Noise Calculation should show Spectrum. 47. Click the Sizing tab to display the following view.

Figure 3-12, Calculation Options - Sizing

48.

In the Select Stack to be Sized drop down select the Main Stack. Note that the calculation mode indicator in the toolbar Enter the minimum length as 50ft and the maximum length as 500ft. You can then close the view. At this point the model is ready to calculate. Before doing this it is worth saving the model.

49.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

3.1.10 Run & Review Calculations


50. Click the icon to start the calculation running. As the calculation runs messages will be output to the Error/ Warnings/Info log to show progress as shown below.

Figure 3-13, Error/Warnings/Info log

Note that the scroll bars can be used to review earlier messages. Also the log window can be resized by dragging the separator bar above it. 51. We can now review the results. First click Main Stack in the Case Summary view and click the View button. The view will show that the stack length has been calculated as 165ft. Click the Receptor Point branch of the Case Summary and click View. The summary view shown below will open. This indicates that the radiation limit for the receptor point we defined for the Helideck is the limiting factor in our design since the thermal radiation received at this point exactly meets our limit of 600 btu/hr/ft2. The thermal radiation at the Stack Base is much less than our allowed value of 1500 btu/hr/ft2 at 802 btu/hr/ft2.

52.

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Getting Started

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Figure 3-14, Receptor Point Summary

53.

This completes our initial design. Save the case.

3.1.11 Print Results


54. Select the File - Print menu option. The Report Preview view shown below opens. Note that this is a modal view and you cannot work with any of the other Flaresim views until it is closed.

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Simple Flare Stack Design

Figure 3-15, Report Preview

55.

Select the report elements you wish to see printed. To see what the report will look like with the current set of elements you will need to click the Refresh button to update it. In order to allow us to compare these results with future results you will need to ensure that the Stack Configuration, Tip Results - General and Flame Shape elements and the Receptor Point results are included.

56.

When you are happy with the options you have chosen click the Print button to send the report to your default printer.

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Getting Started

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3.2 Sonic Tip Design


3.2.1 Objective and Data
The design that we produced in Example 1 meets our design radiation limits but requires a long 165ft stack. Since we are designing a flare stack for an offshore platform we wish to minimise the length and hence the weight of the flare stack as much as possible. Therefore we will attempt to reduce the required flare stack length by redesigning the system using a sonic flare tip. The fluid data, environmental data and radiation limits are the same as for Example 1.

3.2.2 Open Starting File


1. If you are continuing from Example 1 you should save your case before continuing using the File - Save menu option or the 2. icon from the toolbar. Skip to step 3.

Otherwise use the File - Open menu option or the icon. In the File Open dialog that appears, browse to the Samples sub-folder in the Flaresim installation folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim) select the file Example 1 Result.fsw and click the Open button.

3.2.3 Create Sonic Tip


3. Create a new tip by selecting the Tip branch in the Case Summary view and then clicking the Add button or by selecting the Add - Tip menu option.

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Sonic Tip Design

4.

On the Details tab of the Tip view that opens enter the following data: Name - Sonic Tip Tip Type - Sonic Number of Tips - 1 Seal Type - None Fraction Heat Radiated Method - High Efficiency Combustion Noise Method - Standard Reference.

5.

Move to the Location & Dimensions tab and enter the following data: On Stack - Main Stack Length - 10ft Angle to Horizontal - 90 Angle to North - 0 Exit Diameter - 18in Burner Opening - 10% Riser Diameter - 18in Contraction Coefficient - 1.0 (default) Exit Loss Coefficient - 1.0 (default) Roughness - 9.843e-4in (default)

6.

Click on the Fluids tab and enter the following: Fluid Name - Hot Gas Relief Fluid Mass Flow - 100,000lb/hr

7. 8.

At this point the Status Text at the bottom of the Tip view should indicate that the tip data is complete. Close the view. In the Case Summary, select the branch labeled Pipe Tip and then click the Ignore button. The icon beside the label should turn to a icon to confirm that the tip will not be included in the calculations.

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Getting Started

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3.2.4 Run & Review Calculations


9. We are now ready to run the calculations. Confirm that the mode indicator in the Tool Bar is still set to Sizing and click the icon to run the model.

Check the Errors/Warnings/Info log panel to confirm that the expected calculations for the two Receptor Points have been completed. Note that if earlier messages in the log panel are causing confusion, you can click the right mouse button over the log panel to access a pop-up menu which provides a Clear option to remove the current log messages. 10. We are now ready to review the results. Open the Stack view for the Main Stack. The new length calculated for the stack is 60ft. Open the Receptor Summary view. As shown below, this indicates that the Stack Base receptor point is nowl the controlling limit since the thermal radiation at this point is still calculated as 1500 btu/hr/ft2. The radiation at the Helideck receptor point is 563 btu/hr/ft2.

11.

Figure 3-16, Sonic Tip, Receptor Summary

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Sonic Tip Design

12. 13.

Save the new design. Generate a report for this new case using the File - Print menu option.

3.2.5 Compare Results


Our new design with the sonic flare tip is clearly better since it leads to a much shorter stack that will save a great amount of weight and hence cost over our initial design using the pipe flare tip. It is worth doing a detailed comparison to understand the difference between the designs. 14. Find the reports you printed for both examples. If you have not done this you can use your Internet browser to view the saved report files Example 1 - Result.html in the Samples\Example 1 - Result sub-folder and Example 2 Result.html in the Samples\Example 2 - Result subfolderin the Flaresim installation folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim). Find the Tip Data - Results section in the reports. The fraction of heat radiated value for the Pipe flare design is 0.21 while that for the Sonic design is 0.1. The fraction of heat radiated by a flare is a critical parameter in the design. Pipe flares exhibit relatively poor mixing of air with the flared fluid and as a result the flame contains many partially combusted luminescent carbon particles that give it an orange colour and a relatively high fraction of heat radiated. Sonic flare tips are designed to maximise the mixing of air and the flared fluid and so burn with a clearer flame with lower heat radiation. By selecting the Flaresim method to calculate the fraction of heat radiated in both our designs we have allowed the program to calculate an appropriate value for the different tips. However since this is such an important factor in the design, the heat radiation factor to be used should be confirmed
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15.

Getting Started

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with your flare system vendor prior to the final design. Should you wish to use a heat radiation factor supplied by a vendor you should set the method to User Specified and enter the value. 16. Still in the Tip Data - Results section of the reports find the flame length. For the Pipe flare design this is 173 ft. while for the Sonic flare design the flame length is 88ft. Note that the flame length calculated by the API method is the same in both cases. Sonic flare tips by their design and by their greater gas exit velocities lead to a flame shape that is shorter and stiffer compared to that of a pipe flare. As a result the flame is less affected by wind and stays closer to the tip and thus further from the platform. This can be seen most clearly by comparing the 3D plot of the Flame Shape in the reports. Finally in the Tip Results section of the reports find the tip backpressure i.e. tip inlet pressure. For Pipe flare this is 14.7 psi while for the Sonic flare it is 54.0 psi. The fact that the sonic tip is operating at choked conditions means that the pressure drop over this type of tip is much higher than for the pipe tip. Thus a sonic tip can only be used if the resulting backpressure on the flare system is not so high as to prevent safe relief of the gas.

3.2.6 Optimise Burner Opening


In specifying our sonic tip we set the burner opening to 10% to ensure that the flow was choked. Since this was an arbitrary value, we should now optimise this to minimise the tip back pressure while ensuring that choked flow is maintained. 17. Open the Sonic tip design case (Samples\Example 2 Result.fsw if you do not have you own version saved.

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Sonic Tip Design

18.

Open the view for the Sonic Tip. On the Location & Dimensions tab change the burner opening to 25% and run the case. Still in the Sonic Tip view, click on the Results tab and check the Mach Number result. It will be around 0.79. Clearly we have increased the burner opening too much. Move back to the Location & Dimensions tab and reduce the burner opening. Run the case and check the Mach Number again. Repeat this until you find the maximum burner opening that still gives an exit Mach Number of 1.0. You should find that a burner opening of 19% is the largest possible. With this value check the tip backpressure. It should be 27.1 psi. Save the case.

19. 20.

21.

22.

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Getting Started

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3.3 Two Tip Design


Comparison of our two designs using the pipe tip and the sonic tip shows that the sonic tip is much the better since it produces a shorter, stiffer and above all lower emissivity flame than the pipe flare. This means that the flare stack can be much shorter while still meeting radiation limits. Given the advantages of the sonic tip it might appear that we should always specify this type of tip. However we have also seen that the sonic flare tip results in higher back pressures on the flare system. In many cases this additional back pressure will be too high to allow safe relief from all the possible relief sources in the process. Therefore it is common to see designs with both high and low pressure flare systems relieving through different tips.

3.3.1 Objective and Data


The relieving sources in our process have been reviewed to confirm that the new back pressure resulting from the sonic tip is acceptable. The review has shown that 10,000 lb/h of the material being flared cannot be relieved safely at the new higher back pressure. As a result we have decided to split our design so this 10,000 lb/h is relieved through a low pressure flare system leading to a pipe tip with the remaining material flowing through a high pressure flare system to a sonic tip.

3.3.2 Open Starting File


1. If you are continuing from Example 2 you should save your case before continuing using the File - Save menu option or the 2. icon from the toolbar. Skip to step 3.

Otherwise use the File - Open menu option or the icon. In the File Open dialog that appears, browse to the Samples sub-folder in the Flaresim installation folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim) select the file Example 2 Final.fsw and click the Open button.
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Two Tip Design

3.3.3 Update Tip Data


3. In the Case Summary view double-click the Sonic Tip branch to open the view for this Tip. On the Location & Dimensions tab change the burner opening to 10%. On the Fluids tab change the flow rate to 90,000 lb/h. Close the view. Open the view for the Pipe Tip by double-clicking this in the Case Summary view or by selecting it and then clicking the View button. On the Fluids tab change the flow rate to 10,000 lb/h. Then clear the tick from the Ignore checkbox to activate this tip again. Close the view.

4.

3.3.4 Run & Review Calculations


5. We are now ready to run the calculations. Confirm that the mode indicator in the Tool Bar is still set to Sizing and click the icon to run the model.

Check the Errors/Warnings/Info log panel to confirm that the expected calculations for the two Receptor Points have been completed. 6. We are now ready to review the results. Open the Stack view for the Main Stack. The new length calculated for the stack is 85ft.

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Getting Started

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Figure 3-17, Stack View

7.

Open the Receptor Summary view. This indicates that the Main Stack receptor point is still the controlling limit since the thermal radiation at this point is still calculated as 1499 btu/hr/ft2.

3.3.5 Update Pipe Tip


In reducing the flow through the Pipe tip we have changed its performance. 8. Open the Tip view for the Pipe tip. You will see that the fraction of heat radiated from this tip has been calculated as 0.33 whereas before it was 0.21. The reason for this is the greatly reduced velocity, 0.02 mach, through the tip which reduces the tips efficiency. For efficient operation the velocity should be 0.2 mach or higher. Reduce the tip diameter for this tip to 5 in and recalculate. The new exit velocity is 0.26 mach and the fraction of heat radiated is now 0.2. The improvement in efficiency of this flare reduces the calculated size of the Main Stack to 72ft.

9.

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Two Tip Design

3.3.6 Optimise Burner Opening


In reducing the flow through the sonic tip we reset the burner opening to 10% to ensure that the flow was choked. Since this was an arbitrary value, we should now re-optimise this to minimise the tip back pressure while ensuring that choked flow is maintained. 10. Open the Tip view for the Sonic Tip and go to the Locations & Dimensions tab. Increase the burner opening from the indicated 10% to 17%. Re-run the case. Check the Results tab of the Sonic Tip view to confirm that the exit velocity is still sonic. If you wish you can re-run the case at a burner opening of 18% to confirm that this leads to a sub-sonic exit velocity.

11.

3.3.7 Generate Isopleths


To see details of the thermal radiation around the flare we will now generate isopleth charts showing lines of constant thermal radiation. 12. In the Case Summary view select the Receptor Grid branch and click the Add button (alternatively select the Add Receptor Grid menu option) to create and open the view for a new Receptor Grid object. Enter the following data to create a Receptor Grid that will plot the thermal radiation across the surface of the helideck; Name - Helideck Plan, Orientation - Northing-Easting, Elevation - 30ft, Northing Min - -500ft, Northing Max - 500ft, Northing Points - 41, Easting Min - -500ft, Easting Max - 500ft, Easting Points - 41.

13.

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Note that the number of points in the grid is not critical - a higher number will generate smoother, more accurate isopleths at a cost of increased calculation time. 14. Add a second receptor grid and enter the following data to create a grid of the vertical cross-section through the axis of the flare. Name - Helideck Elevation, Orientation - Elevation-Northing, Easting - 0ft, Elevation Min - -100ft, Elevation Max - 300ft, Elevation Points - 41, Northing Min - -500ft, Northing Max - 500ft, Northing Points - 41. 15. Re-run the case. When the run is complete you will be able to inspect an isopleth plot by opening the grid view, clicking on the Radiation Tab and then selecting Plot as the Display option - see Figure 3-18.Note that noise plots and surface temperature plots are also available.

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Two Tip Design

Figure 3-18, Helideck Elevation Plot

16.

If you wish you can customise the isopleth lines displayed on the plot by selecting the Isopleth Definition Tab and entering new isopleth limit values. A line can be removed from the plot by clearing an isopleth value. Once you are happy with a plot it can be exported as a standalone graphics file using the Export button on the graph display tab. Our two tip design is now complete. Save the case.

17.

18.

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3.4 Welltest Burner Design


Offshore platforms often include a facility for burning off liquids produced during well tests. Flaresim is capable of modelling this type of burner in addition to the conventional safety release flares.

3.4.1 Objective and Data


A welltest burner capable of burning 30,000 lb/hr of liquid is to be added to our design. The properties of the liquid to be burned are as follows: Fluid Material Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow 30,000 lb/hr Mol Wt. 52.9 Vapour Temp. 100 F Heat of combustion 19,550 btu/lb Tip Diameter 12 in

3.4.2 Open Starting File


1. If you are continuing from Example 3 you should save your case before continuing using the File - Save menu option or the 2. icon from the toolbar. Skip to step 3.

Otherwise use the File - Open menu option or the icon. In the File Open dialog that appears, browse to the Samples sub-folder in the Flaresim installation folder (usually C:\Program Files\Flaresim) select the file Example 3 Final.fsw and click the Open button.

3.4.3 Add New Fluid Data


3. In the Case Summary view select the Fluids branch and then click the Add button to create a new Fluid and open its view.
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Welltest Burner Design

4.

Complete the view with the following entries; Name - Welltest Liquid, Temperature - 100F, Ref Pressure - 14.7psi Mole Weight - 52.9, LHV - 19,550 btu/lb, Cp/Cv - 1.2, LEL - 1.7%, Saturation - 100%. The Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure fields can be left blank. The completed view is shown below. Close the view when the data has been entered.

Figure 3-19, Welltest Fluid View

3.4.4 Add New Stack


5. In the Case Summary view select the Stacks branch and then click the Add button to create a new Stack and open its view.

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6.

Enter data for the new stack as follows, leaving other entries at their default values; Name - Welltest Stack, Northing - -200ft, Easting - 0ft, Elevation - 0ft, Dimensions section Length - 55ft, Angle to Horizontal - 0 deg, Angle to North - 180 deg. These entries define our new stack as a horizontal boom on the opposite side of the platform to our main flare stack. The completed view is shown as Figure 3-20. Close the view when complete.

Figure 3-20, Welltest Stack View

3.4.5 Add Welltest Burner Tip


7. In the Case Summary, select the Tips branch and click the Add button to create and view a new Tip object.

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Welltest Burner Design

8.

On the Details tab of the Tip view enter the following data; Name - Welltest Burner, Tip Type - Welltest, Number of Burners - 3, Fraction Heat Radiated Method - User Specified Specified Fraction Heat Radiated - 0.3 All other values should be left at their defaults.

9.

On the Location & Dimensions tab enter the following, leaving other values at their defaults; On Stack - Welltest Stack, Length - 0ft, Angle to Horizontal - 0 deg, Angle from North - 180 deg. Note the burner length and orientation fields serve to locate the precise location of the flame and the initial flame direction. Even when the burner length is 0ft as here, the orientation fields must still be entered.

10.

On the Fluids tab select the Fluid as Welltest Liquid and enter the flow rate as 30,000 lb/hr. Close the view.

3.4.6 Add New Receptor Point


11. Add a new Receptor point in the usual way. Define the following data to locate the receptor point at the base of the welltest burner stack; Name - Base Welltest Stack, Northing - -200ft, Easting - 0ft, Elevation - 0ft. All other fields may be left at their default values. Close the view.

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3.4.7 Run & Review Calculations


12. In the Case Summary view, select the Main Stack object and click the Ignore button. This will exclude the two tips on the main flare stack from the calculations. Open the Calculation Options view. On the Sizing tab set the stack to be sized to None. Close the view. Save the case. Run the calculations by clicking the icon.Check in the Errors/Warnings/Info log panel that the case has run and calculated correctly. Open the Receptor Summary view. The results, see Figure 3-21, show that the radiation limits for our original two critical locations that we have defined are met. The radiation at the base of the well test burner stack is 1422 btu/hr/ft2.

13. 14. 15.

16.

Figure 3-21, Receptor Summary

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Welltest Burner Design

3.4.8 Add Water Screen


The radiation calculated at the base of the welltest burner stack is acceptable for brief exposure only. Since more extended exposure might be required it is necessary to reduce the radiation. While this could be achieved by extending the length of the stack this would be an expensive option due to the added weight. It is normal to reduce radiation from welltest burners using water screens. The effect of these can be approximated in Flaresim through adjustment of the transmissivity term in the environment object thus. 17. 18. Add a new Environment object using the Case Summary view or the menu option according to your preference. Enter data in the new Environment view as follows; Name - Water Screen, Speed - 29.3 ft/s, Direction 0 deg, Temperature - 60 F, Humidity 10%, Pressure - 14.7 psi, Radiation 0 btu/hr/ft2, Noise 60 dB, Transmissivity Method - User specified, Transmissivity Value - 0.3. Note the transmissivity value used to represent a water screen should be confirmed with the supplier of the system. The value of 0.3 used here is a typical value. 19. Activate the new Environment object. Note that the original Design Envirnoment object will be automatically ignored since calculations can be done for only one environment. Run the new case and inspect the results. The radiation value at the base of the welltest burner stack has been reduced to an acceptable value of 427 btu/hr/ft2.

20.

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3.4.9 Evaluate Rate of Temperature Rise


Since we are relying on the water screen to reduce thermal radiation in normal use, we should check the situation when the water screen fails. Given data on the receiving surface, Flaresim is able to calculate the rate of temperature rise. 21. Open the view for the Base Welltest Stack receptor point. Update the Properties data for the point as follows; On Plane - None, Emissivity - 0.7, Absorbtivity - 0.7, Area Ratio - 2.0, Mass - 10.4 lb/ft2, Mass Cp - 0.1075 btu/lb/ft.1002, Initial Temperature - 60F. This data represents a steel plate, 0.25in thick. The Area Ratio of 2.0 indicates that one side of the plate is exposed to the flare radiation. Selecting None as the On Plane value is a conservative assumption that means that no credit will be taken for radiation striking the plate at an angle. 22. 23. Select the Design Environment object and set it active then run the case. In the Thermal Results tab of the Base Welltest Stack receptor point you can inspect the rate of temperature rise results in tabular or graphical form. The results show that the temperature will rise to 84F after 2 mins on its way to a final temperature of 123F.

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Welltest Burner Design

3.4.10 Check Safety Case


The results with only the welltest burner in use show that the original design radiation limit for the helideck is met. However we still have to consider the situation when a safety release occurs while the welltest burner is in use. 24. Select the Main Stack in the Case Summary view and click the Activate button to restore it to the calculations. Run the model again. Open the Receptor Point summary. The results show that the thermal radiation at the Helideck receptor is 1137 btu/hr/ ft2, significantly exceeding our limit of 600 btu/hr/ft2.

25.

At this point we might consider increasing the length of either the Main Stack or the Welltest Stack in order to ensure that the radiation limits are met again. However it may also be appropriate to consider the circumstances under which the welltest burners would be used at the same time as the main flare. Perhaps procedures could be established to prevent helicopter operations while the welltest burner was in use meaning that this higher radiation value is acceptable. It is appropriate to emphasise at this point that Flaresim is a tool for analysing the performance of flare systems. It cannot replace the engineers judgement in selecting the appropriate conditions to model or determining whether a particular set of results represent an acceptable or a dangerous situation.

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Interface

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4 Interface
Page
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Menu Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tool Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Log Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 File Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
File Save Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 File Open Dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Recent Files Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Update Messages During File Open . . . . . 14

4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4

4.6 4.7

About View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chart Control Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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Interface

4-3

The Flaresim interface has been designed to give you a great deal of flexibility in the way in which you enter, modify and view the data and results which comprise your flare model. This chapter describes the various components of the Flaresim interface. If you need help with any particular task, the on-line help can give you step-by-step instructions.

4.1 Terminology
The following view of the Flaresim screen shows most of the interface components that you will encounter. The terminology used to describe these components is given here.
Figure 4-1, Flaresim Screen

Toolbar

Menu bar Edit box Tabs

Active button

Radio button View

Greyed button Status text Value with Units Popup menu Dropdown List Box Checkbox File Management Log Scrollbars Error/Warnings/ Info Log

Menu Bar The menu bar provides access to the various program functions. The options are described in more detail in section 4.2.
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Terminology

Tool Bar The tool bar is a row of icons that provide quick access to the more commonly used program functions. The options are described in more detail in section 4.3. File Management Log This area of the screen displays a record of file saving and retrieval activity. See section 4.4 for more information. Errors / Warnings / Info Log This area of the screen displays a record of error messages, warning messages and other information generated by Flaresim calculations. See section 4.4 for more information.
Throughout the manual, Clicking a button or other item means using the Left mouse button unless stated otherwise.

Active Button Buttons appear on most forms and may be clicked with the left mouse button to perform the action indicated. Active buttons are those where the label type is black. Greyed Button Buttons which have an action that cannot be performed at a particular time are displayed with the label type in grey. PopUp Menu PopUp menus are used to display additional choices in response to clicking buttons or clicking the right mouse button. View This is the term used to describe a window containing a group of data entry fields for a specific element of the program. Views in Flaresim are generally non-modal which means that multiple views can be open and used at the same time. Views may be resized, minimised, maximised and moved around within the Flaresim application workspace in the same way as standard windows. Status Text Many views have a status field at the bottom to provide a quick indication whether all the necessary entries have been made. The

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Interface

4-5

background to this text indicates the status, green indicates ready to calculate, red indicates missing data, yellow indicates that the object is ignored. Tabs Some views have more data entry items than will fit on a typical size window. Tabs are a way of subdividing the entries into groups within the view. Clicking a tab heading displays the group. Edit Box This type of data entry field allows entry of alpha numeric values. Generally the values entered will be checked for validity on leaving the field. Value With Units Edit Boxes which expect numeric values to be entered display the units that are expected in [] above the edit box. The units used for data entry and display can be set through the Preferences View, see section 5.3. Drop Down List Box This type of edit box provides a downward pointing arrow to the right which may be clicked to allow a choice to be made from a set of options. CheckBox A checkbox is used to select options that can be either on or off. Clicking a checkbox once will display a tick in the box indicating that the option is on, also known as setting the checkbox. Clicking the box again will clear the tick indicating that the option is off. Radio Buttons Radio buttons are used to select one option from a group of mutually exclusive options. Clicking one radio button in a group will select that option and automatically deselect all the other options. Scroll Bars Where a list or a view is not large enough to display all the items required scrollbars will appear. The up and down arrows may be clicked to move through the view to display all the items.
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Menu Bar

4.2 Menu Bar


Figure 4-2, Menu Bar

The Menu Bar provides access to the Flaresim program actions. The row of main menu items at the top of the main Flaresim window provides access to dropdown menus and sub menus as shown in Figure 4-2. Main menu items are selected by clicking on them or by holding down the Alt key and first letter of the menu name. Once the submenu has opened the sub-menu items can be selected by clicking them or by using the up and down arrow keys and then hitting enter. Some sub-menu items may have a right pointing arrow next to them indicating that a further sub-menu may be opened by moving the mouse to the item and then moving the mouse to the right. Alternatively sub-menu items can be opened the right arrow key. Menu items may also have a shortcut key combination displayed against them which can be used to select the action without using the menu. Flaresim provides the following menu items.

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Interface

4-7

Main Menu File

Sub Menu New Open Save Save As Print Print Graphic Reports Print Setup Preferences Exit Recent files

Description Creates a new Flaresim model Loads a Flaresim model from disk Saves the current model to disk Saves the current model to disk using a new name Opens the Print view Opens the Graphic Report Print view Opens the Print Setup view Opens the Preferences view Quits the Flaresim program List of recently opened files that can be reopened directly by selecting the name. Opens the Case Summary view Opens the Case Details view Opens a Fluid view selected by sub-menu Opens an Environment view selected by sub-menu Opens a Stack view selected by sub-menu Opens a Tip view selected by sub-menu Opens an Assist Fluid view selected by sub-menu Opens a Point view selected by sub-menu Opens a Grid view selected by sub-menu Opens Calculation Option view Opens Component Management view

View

Case Summary Case Details Fluid Environment Stack Tip Assist Fluid Receptor Point Receptor Grid Calculation Option Component Management

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Menu Bar

Main Menu Add

Sub Menu Fluid Environment Stack Tip Assist Fluid Receptor Point Receptor Grid

Description Creates a new Fluid and opens view Creates a new Environment and opens view Creates a new Stack and opens view Creates a new Tip and opens view Creates a new Assist Fluid and opens view Creates a new Receptor Point and opens view Creates a new Receptor Grid and opens view Rearranges all open windows Closes all open windows Opens Help file at contents page Opens Help file at index page Displays information on program version

Window

Cascade Close All

Help

Contents Index About

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Interface

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4.3 Tool Bar


The Tool Bar provides a row of icons that may be clicked to provide rapid access to some commonly used actions. Flaresim provides the following options on the Tool Bar. This icon creates a new Flaresim model. This icon retrieves a Flaresim model from disk. This icon saves a Flaresim model to the disk. This icon opens the Case Summary view. This icon adds a new object to the model. A sub-menu allows selection of the type of object added. This icon starts calculations. The Tool Bar also provides a status indicator to show the calculation mode, Rating or Sizing.

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Log Panels

4.4 Log Panels


Figure 4-3, Log Panels

The log panels at the bottom of the Flaresim main window are used to output messages from the program. There are two panels. The left panel is known as the File Management Log and records details of file creation, file retrieval and file saving actions. The right panel is known as the Errors/Warnings/Info Log and records messages generated by Flaresim as it calculates. The size of the log panels can be set by moving the cursor to the top boundary of the panels or the boundary between the panels. At the point where the cursor changes to a pair of resizing arrows, the left mouse button may be clicked and dragged to resize the panel. Both panels provide a popup menu with local options that can be opened by clicking the right mouse button. In the File Management Log this popup menu provides a single option: Clear - clears all messages from the log. In the Errors/Warnings/Info Log, the popup menu provides the following options: Clear - clears all messages from the log. Verbose - sets verbose mode so that all messages will be output. A tick will appear against the menu option to show that verbose mode is selected. Save Messages - displays a standard file dialog to allow the current message list to be saved to an external log file.

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Interface

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4.5 File Dialogs


Flaresim uses standard Windows file dialogs to save and retrieve files.

4.5.1 File Save Dialog


The File Save Dialog appears when you select the File - Save As menu item or the File - Save menu item or Save tool bar icon for an unnamed case. The dialog also appears when you click the Export button to export results data from Receptor Grid or Tip views.
Figure 4-4, File Save Dialog

File List

The main elements on this Dialog are: Filename Combobox Allows you to enter the name of the file to save the Flaresim model to. As you type the name, the dropdown list element of the combobox allows you to select an existing file that matches the name to overwrite if you wish. The file name entered will be given the extension type specified in the Save As Type field unless you enter a different file extension.
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File Dialogs

Save As Type Dropdown List of allowed file types Allows you to select the required file type.
File Description Model Files Allowed Types Flaresim for Windows files .FSW XML data files .XML Table Export Graphics Export Comma separated value files .CSV JPEG files .JPG Portable network graphic files .PNG Windows bitmap files .BMP Windows meta files .WMF Enhance windows meta files .EMF

Save In Dropdown List of available storage locations Allows you to select from the list of available storage locations configured for your computer system. File List List Box Shows the files and folders in the current folder. The list may be used to navigate the folder tree or to select files. Folders can be opened and made the new current folder by double clicking on them. You can move up the folder tree by clicking the Previous Folder icon. New folders can be created by clicking the New Folder icon and entering the new folder name in the File List. Files can be selected for overwriting by clicking on them. Save Button Saves the file once you have entered the name or selected a file to overwrite. If the file selected already exists you will be asked to confirm that it should be overwritten.
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Interface

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Cancel Button Cancels the file save. Previous Folder Icon Moves up the folder tree. The File List will be updated to show the contents of the folder one level up the tree. New Folder Icon Creates a new sub-folder in the current folder. The folder will be created with the default name New Folder and you will then be able to rename as required.

4.5.2 File Open Dialog


The File Open Dialog appears when you select the File - Open menu item or click the Open icon on the tool bar.
Figure 4-5, File Open Dialog

The elements of this dialog are essentially the same as the File Save Dialog with the exception that the Save button is replaced by an Open button.
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File Dialogs

If you wish to open a .FSM file from the previous DOS version of Flaresim use the Files of Type drop down to select the .FSM file type.

4.5.3 Recent Files Menu


The File Menu displays a list of recently used files which can be used to re-open one of these files directly by selecting it from the menu.
Figure 4-6, Recent Files Menu

4.5.4 Update Messages During File Open


When opening a file from earlier versions of Flaresim it is possible that the program will detect parameters that have changed in the current version or detect results that will be changed as a result of changes in the program. When this happens a dialog will be displayed and the user will be asked to acknowledge the information or possibly make a descision between a number of choices. Further information on these dialogs can usually be found in the help system by pressing F1.

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Interface

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4.6 About View


The About View is opened using the Help - About menu option.
Figure 4-7, About View

The purpose of this view is to provide information on the version of the program that may be required when seeking Technical support. Ok Button Closes the About view. System Info Button Opens the System Information program in the operating system. This provides details of the computer hardware and software environment that Flaresim is running under. This information may be of use in resolving technical support issues.

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Chart Control Dialog

4.7 Chart Control Dialog


The Chart Control Dialog provides access to options for customising the appearance of the plots found on the Tip views. It may be accessed by clicking the right mouse button on the chart.
Figure 4-8, Chart Control Dialog

A detailed explanation of the options available through this dialog may be found in the help files 2D Chart Control and 3D Chart Control installed with the Flaresim program. Links to these help files are also available through the Flaresim Help file.

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General Setup

5-1

5 General Setup
Page
5.1 5.2 5.3 Case Summary View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Case Description View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Units Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Files Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

5.3.1 5.3.2

5.4

Component Management View . . . . . . . . . 13

5-1

5-2

5-2

General Setup

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5.1 Case Summary View


The Case Summary view, shown in Figure 5-1, provides a summary view of the Flaresim model, showing the objects that have been added to the model and their status. It also provides quick access to any of the object views and enables objects to be added to and deleted from the model.
Figure 5-1, Case Summary View

The Case Summary view shows the Flaresim model as a tree with the branches showing the different types of object that make up the model. The Case Summary is used by clicking a branch of the tree to select it and then clicking one of the command buttons to perform that action on the selected object. If a branch with sub-branches is selected a popup menu will be displayed to ask which of the subbranches the command will apply to. For example in the case shown as Figure 5-1 clicking on the Tip branch and selecting View will display a popup menu asking which of the two existing tips is to be viewed. A branch can also be double-clicked which will act the same way as the View action.

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Case Summary View

The command buttons have the following functions:View Opens the view for the selected object to allow its data to be viewed or updated. Add Creates a new object of the selected type and opens its view ready for data input. If an existing object is selected in the tree rather than the parent branch, a new object of the same type is created. Delete Deletes the selected object. No confirmation is required. Activate Clears the ignored status for the selected object which restores it to the calculations. Not all objects can be ignored and restored and this button will be greyed out if the action cannot be applied to the selected object. Ignore Sets the ignored status for the selected object which means that it will not be included in the calculations. Not all objects can be ignored and restored and this button will be greyed out if the action cannot be applied to the selected object. The icons displayed against each branch and object in the Case Summary view have the following meanings. This icon identifies a branch of the model tree that contains a single object that is a permanent part of the model and cannot be added or deleted. Examples of this type of object are the Case Description and Calculation Options object. When a branch of this type is selected the Add, Delete, Activate and Ignore buttons are greyed out since they are not applicable. This icon identifies branches of the model that contain objects that are not essential to the running of the model. Examples of this type of object are the Receptor Point and Assist Fluid objects.
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General Setup

5-5

This icon indicates a branch of the model that contains objects that are essential to the calculation of the model where the required objects are either missing or have incomplete data. Examples of this type of object are the Tip and Stack objects. This icon indicates a branch of the model that contains objects that are essential to the calculation of the model where the required objects are complete and ready for calculation. Examples of this type of object are the Tip and Stack objects. This icon indicates an object that has been set to an ignored status. Ignored objects are not included in the calculations. Normally where multiple objects may be defined e.g. Tips and Stacks, multiple objects may be ignored as long as there is at least one left active for calculations. The exception is the Environment object where only one can be active; all the others being set to ignored. This icon indicates an object whose data is incomplete or in error in some way. This icon indicates an object whose data is complete and ready to calculate. This icon indicates a branch that has sub-branch objects defined that are not currently displayed. Clicking this icon will expand the tree to show the sub-branch objects. This icon appears against a branch with displayed subbranch objects. Clicking it will collapse the branch and hide the sub-branch objects.

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5-6

Case Description View

5.2 Case Description View


The Case Description view (see Figure 5-2) allows the user to enter information to describe the Flaresim model. The Case Description view is opened either by using the View - Case Description menu option or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button.
Figure 5-2, Case Description View

Title Text Text entered in this field will be printed as the model title on reports. Author Text Identifies the author of this Flaresim file. Revision Text Identifies the revision of the Flaresim file. Checked By Text Identifies the person responsible for checking the model.

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General Setup

5-7

Case Description Text Descriptive information relevant to the model. For example it is good practice to note sources of environmental data and the contingencies represented by the fluid data. Last Modified Calculated Text Tracks the date that the model was last updated. It is automatically updated each time the model is saved and cannot be manually updated.

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Preferences

5.3 Preferences
The File - Preferences menu item provides access to the Preferences View to allow setup of the preferred units and file locations.
Figure 5-3, Units Tab

Save Preference File Button Saves the current preferences. The file will be automatically saved to the Flaresim program directory.

5.3.1 Units Tab


The Units tab of the Preferences view (see Figure 5-3) is used to define the units of measure used to display and interpret values on the data entry views. Flaresim uses the concept of a Unit Set which defines all of the units to be used for a single case. Two Unit Sets, the Default SI and Default Field sets are provided as basic sets that cannot be changed. New Unit Sets can be created by copying an existing Unit Set and then customising it.

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General Setup

5-9

A default range of units is provided for each type of unit used by Flaresim. The Units tab also allows new units to be defined by defining their name and conversion to the internal unit used by Flaresim. Select Unit Set - List Listbox Shows the Unit Sets that have already been defined in the Preferences file. A Unit Set may be activated by selecting it in this list. Select Unit Set - Unit Set Name Text entry Allows the name of a user defined Unit Set to be updated. The names of the default Unit Sets cannot be changed. Select Unit Set - Copy Unit Set Button Copies the selected Unit Set to create a new one. The new Unit set will be given a default name that can then be updated to describe it. Select Unit Set - Delete Unit Set Button Deletes the selected Unit Set. The default internal Unit Sets cannot be deleted and this button will be inactive when these are selected. Select Units - Table Table Shows a list of the unit types used in Flaresim with the current unit defined for the selected Unit Set. To update the unit used for a particular unit type e.g. Temperature, move to the appropriate row and then select the required unit in the Unit Selector. Select Units - Unit Selector Dropdown List Allows selection of the unit to be used for the currently selected unit type. As the selection is changed the conversion factors for the unit are displayed in the Unit Definition fields at the bottom of the view.

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Preferences

Select Units - Add Unit Button Allows new units to be defined for a particular unit type. Clicking the button activates the Unit Definition fields and the Accept button. Select Units - Delete Unit Button Allows units to be deleted. Clicking the button will delete the currently selected unit. A confirmation dialog will be displayed to confirm the action. Unit Definition - Name Text entry Allows the name of the new unit to be entered. Duplicate unit names are not allowed. Unit Definition - Multiplier Numeric entry Defines the multiplication constant required to convert the new unit to the internal default unit which is displayed. Unit Definition - Offset Numeric entry Defines the offset to be added to convert the new unit to the internal default unit which is displayed. Note the offset is added after multiplication. Unit Definition - Accept Button Accepts the new unit definition and makes the new unit the selected unit for the current unit type.

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General Setup

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5.3.2 Files Tab


The Files tab of the Preferences view allows the location of the units and components files to be specified.
Figure 5-4, Files Tab

Support Files - Units File name entry Defines the location of the unit conversion factors file. Normally this will be the Flaresim program directory. The Browse button allows the file to be located using a standard File Dialog. Support Files - Component Library File name entry Defines the location of the component library file. Normally this will be the Flaresim program directory. The Browse button allows the file to be located using a standard File Dialog. This allows the user to create dedicated component files to be created and used for specialised applications.

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Preferences

Support Files - Report Layout File File name entry Defines the name of the stylesheet file (XSL file) that will be used to layout printed reports. By default this will be Flaresim.xsl. Clients are able to create customised report stylesheets using standard XSL language to change the layout of Flaresim reports. Support Files - Graphic Report Layout File name entry Defines the name of the graphic report layout file to be used by default. Standard graphic report layout files are defined for different paper sizes and for systems with one or more stacks and one or more tips. These files have the extension .lay and are located in the Flaresim program folder. The default layout file selected here can be respecified for individual receptor grids on the Graphic Report tab of the Receptor Grid view. The contents of the .lay files describe the location and formatting of isopleth charts and accompanying data items and descriptive text using XML syntax. The XML elements recognised in these files is described in Appendix A of this manual.

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General Setup

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5.4 Component Management View


The Component Management view (see Figure 5-5) is used to maintain and update the library of component data that may be used to allow fluid properties to be calculated from their component composition. The Component Management view is opened by selecting the View - Component Management menu option or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button.
Figure 5-5, Component Management View

New components can be added to the component library by clicking the Add New Component button. This displays a pop-up window (see Figure 5-6) to allow the entry of the new components name. When this has been entered click the OK button and the component will be added to the list in the Component Manager view and its properties will be displayed ready for entry.

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Component Management View

Figure 5-6, Component Name Popup

Mole Weight Range: 2 to 1000 The molecular weight of the component. LHV Range: 0 to 200MJ/kg The net, or lower heating value of the component. It is a common error in the design of flare systems to use the gross heating value. For most hydrocarbon components this value will be of the order of 46 MJ/kg Cp / Cv Range: 1.01 to 5.0 The ratio of the specific heat capacities of the component. If the value is unknown we would recommend using a value of 1.2. Saturation Range: 0 to 100% The percentage saturation of the component. LEL Range: 0.0 to 100.0% The lower flammability limit of the component as a volume percentage. Critical Temperature Range: 10 to 10,000 K The critical temperature of the component.

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Critical Pressure Range: 0.01 to 1,000 bara The critical pressure of the component. Once the component property data has been defined click the Accept Component Data button to complete definition of the new component. If for any reason you wish to abandon creation of a new component at the property data entry stage then click the Cancel Component Entry button. Components that have been added by the user may be updated by selecting it in the list and clicking the Edit Component Data button. This option is not available for components from the Flaresim database. To remove a component from the library, select it in the list and click the Remove Selected Component button.

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Component Management View

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Fluids

6-1

6 Fluids
Page
6.1 Fluid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Common Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Properties Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Composition Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3

6.2

Assist Fluid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

6-1

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Fluids

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The Fluid object defines the properties of the fluids to be flared through a flare tip. The fluid properties may either be entered directly or calculated from a defined composition. A single set of fluid properties can be assigned to one or more flare tips. Fluid objects may be created using the Add-Fluid menu option or by selecting the Fluid branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Fluid object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Fluid menu option, by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. Fluid objects will be included in the calculations when they are assigned to a flare tip through the Tip view. A Fluid may be assigned to more than one flare tip. Unassigned fluids take no part in the calculations. A Fluid object can be deleted either by clicking the Delete button on its view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Delete button on this view. The Assist Fluid object both identifies the additional fluids that may be fed to a flare tip to improve combustion and also defines the information needed to calculate the flow of the assist fluid required. Like Fluid objects, Assist Fluids are included in the calculations only when assigned to a flare tip. Assist Fluid objects may be created using the Add-Assist Fluid menu option or by selecting the Assist Fluid branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Assist Fluid object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Assist Fluid menu option, by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. Assist Fluid objects may be deleted either through the Case Summary view or by using the Delete button on the Assist Fluid view.

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Fluid View

6.1 Fluid View


The following figure shows the Fluid view for entering and updating fluid data.
Figure 6-1, Fluid View

6.1.1 Common Fields


Name Text Enter text to identify this Fluid object. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this fluid object is complete and ready for calculation.

6.1.2 Properties Tab


The Properties tab of the Fluid view, see Figure 6-1, has the following data entry fields. Note that all of these fields except the temperature will be calculated from the fluid composition if this is entered.

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Temperature Range: 10 to 1000K The temperature of the fluid at the tip exit. Note that this is the temperature of the fluid at the defined reference pressure. If either a Steam or Air assisted flare tip is being used this temperature is the fluid temperature before mixing with the steam or air flow. Ref. Pressure Range: 100 to 2000000 Pa The reference pressure at which the fluid temperature is defined. The fluid temperature will be corrected from this pressure to other pressures assuming adiabatic compression/expansion if the adiabatic temperature correction calculation option is set. Mole Weight Range: 2 to 1000 The molecular weight of the fluid being flared. LHV Range: 0 to 200MJ/kg The net or lower heating value of the fluid. It is a common error in the design of flare systems to use the gross heating value of the fluid. We are interested in the net heat released by the flame. For most hydrocarbon fluids without inerts this value will be of the order of 46 MJ/kg. Cp / Cv Range: 1.0 to 5.0 This field defines the ratio of the specific heat capacities of the fluid. It is only required and used when the fluid is a vapour. If the value is unknown we would recommend using a value of 1.2. Saturation Range: 0 to 100% The percentage of saturated hydrocarbon molecules in the fluid on a mole basis. This is used by the Flaresim method for estimation of the
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Fluid View

fraction of heat radiated by a flame (emissivity). It is not used by any of the other methods in which case any value may be entered. For inert or non-hydrocarbon fluids and components assume 100% saturation since this leads to combustion with a flame of lower luminosity. LEL Range: 0.0 to 100.0% The lower flammability limit of the fluid as a volume percentage. This property is used by the Brzustowski method for calculation of flame shape. It is not used by any of the other methods, in which case any value may be entered. Critical Temperature Range: 10 to 1000K The critical temperature of the fluid. It is used in the calculation of the compressibility factor which in turn is used in the calculation of the fluid density. If a value is not supplied, the fluids critical temperature will be estimated using an internal correlation based on mole weight. Critical Pressure Range: 0.01 to 1000 bara The critical pressure of the fluid. It is used in the calculation of the compressibility factor which in turn is used in the calculation of the fluid density. If a value is not supplied, the fluids critical pressure will be estimated using an internal correlation based on mole weight.

6-6

Fluids

6-7

6.1.3 Composition Tab


Figure 6-2, Composition Tab

Table - Component Name Selected components Shows the list of components selected for use in the model. Components are added to the list by clicking the Add Component button to open the Component List view; see Figure 6-3. Highlight one or more components in the list that you wish to add and click the OK button. The required components will be added to the component list and the Component List view will close. Components are removed from the list by clicking the Remove Component button to open the Component List view; see Figure 6-3. Then select one or more components that you wish to remove and click the OK button. The selected components will be removed from the current component list and the Component List view will close.

6-7

6-8

Fluid View

Figure 6-3, Component List view

Table - Composition Values Range: 0 to 1.0 Specifies the fraction of each component in fluid on either a mole or a mass basis as determined by the radio button selection to the right of the table. Composition Basis Radio Button: Mass/Mole This radio button selects the basis for the composition data. Note that changing it does not convert any existing component fraction data to the new basis. As component fractions are updated, the running total of the fractions is updated. A composition can be completed by clicking either the Normalise button to set remaining fractions to 0.0 and normalise current totals to add to 1.0 or by clicking the Calculate Last Fraction button to set a single unspecified component fraction to the value required to make the overall fraction equal to 1.0.

6-8

Fluids

6-9

6.2 Assist Fluid View


The following figure shows the Assist Fluid view for entering and updating assist fluid data.
Figure 6-4, Assist Fluid View

Name Text Enter a name to identify this assist fluid. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this Assist Fluid object is complete and ready for calculation. Type Dropdown list: Air / Steam/Water Selects the type of assist fluid to be used. Steam/Water indicates that Steam will be used with vapour flares and Water with liquid flares. Apply Correction To Fraction Heat Radiated Checkbox If selected, Flaresim will calculate a correction to the fraction of heat radiated by the flame resulting from the assist fluid.

6-9

6-10

Assist Fluid View

Apply Flame Length Correction Checkbox If selected, Flaresim will calculate a correction to the flame length resulting from the assist fluid. Smokeless Operation Checkbox If selected Flaresim will calculate the flow of assist fluid required for smokeless operation of the flare tip. When cleared, Flaresim will use the defined flow or flow ratio defined on the Tip object to calculate the flow rate of the assist fluid. Checking this option displays additional fields as shown in Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-5, Assist Fluid View for Smokeless Operation

Smokeless Method Dropdown list: Flaresim/API/UserRatio Selects the method to be used by Flaresim to calculate the flow of assist fluid required for smokeless operation. The Flaresim method is a propriatory correlation supplied by National Air Oil. The API method is the method described in API RP521. The UserRatio allows the user to specify the flow ratio of assist fluid required for smokeless operation. The validity of these options varies with the type of assist fluid selected. Air The allowed methods are Flaresim and UserRatio. If the API method is selected an error message will displayed when the model is calculated. Steam/Water Any of the allowed methods may be used.
6-10

Fluids

6-11

Smokeless Flow Ratio Range: 0.001 to 10.0 but see description Specifies the ratio of the mass flow of the assist fluid to the mass flow of the fluid being flared. This field is displayed when the UserRatio smokeless method is selected. When Air is the assist fluid, high ratios of 5.0 or more may be used. When Steam/Water is the assist fluid the mass ratio should not exceed 0.5 since this would lead to flame instability and a potential flameout.

6-11

6-12

Assist Fluid View

6-12

Environment

7-1

7 Environment
Page
7.1 Environment View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

7-1

7-2

7-2

Environment

7-3

The Environment object allows the definition of the data needed to model flares in different environmental conditions. The data allows characterisation of different geographical locations ranging from desert conditions to Arctic conditions or characterisation of different weather conditions at a single location. An individual Flaresim run is always carried out for a single set of environmental data. A Flaresim model file can contain multiple Environment objects to allow rapid recalculation of the model with a different set of environmental data. Environment objects may be created using the Add-Environment menu option or by selecting the Environment branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Environment object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Environment menu option, by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. The Environment object to be used for calculations is set by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Activate button. Since only one set of environmental data can be active at a time, all other Environment objects will be set to Ignored. An Environment object can also be Ignored by selecting the check box on its view. An Environment object can be deleted either by clicking the Delete button on its view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Delete button on this view.

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7-4

Environment View

7.1 Environment View


The figure below shows the Environment view for defining and updating environmental data.
Figure 7-1, Environment view

Name Text A descriptive name to identify this Environment object. Ignored Checkbox Clear to select this Environment object for calculations or set it to ignore this Environment object. Only one Environment can be active for calculations so clearing the ignored check box on an Environment object will automatically check it on all the other Environments in the mode. Wind - Speed Range: 0 to 100 m/s A constant wind speed is assumed. In theory the windspeed varies with elevation. However in order to simplify the calculation of the flame profile this variation is ignored. This is justifiable due to the accuracy limitations inherent in the flame shape calculations.
7-4

Environment

7-5

The following table gives standard wind speed conversions.


knots 0 2 4 8 12 18 24 28 34 40 mph 0.0 2.3 4.6 9.2 13.8 20.7 27.6 32.2 39.1 46.0 ft/s 0.0 3.3 6.6 13.5 20.3 30.5 40.7 47.2 57.4 67.6 m/s 0.0 1.0 2.0 4.1 6.2 9.3 12.4 14.4 17.5 20.6 Beaufort Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Wind - Direction Range: 0 to 360 from North The direction from which the wind blows. Generally the worst or most prevalent wind direction can be determined by examination of the wind rose for the site in question. Atmosphere - Temperature Range: 10 to 500K The ambient temperature of the atmosphere is used in the calculation of the equilibrium surface temperatures of metallic surfaces exposed to the flares thermal radiation. Atmosphere - Humidity Range: 4 to 100% The relative humidity defines the water content of the atmosphere in terms of the partial pressure of water vapour in the air relative to the vapour pressure of water at the same temperature. Standard charts are available relating the wet and dry bulb temperature

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7-6

Environment View

measurements to the relative humidity, an example of which can be found in The Chemical Engineers Handbook. Atmosphere - Pressure Range: 0.01 to 10.0 bara The atmospheric pressure is used to calculate the exit density of the flared gas and hence its exit velocity. Background - Radiation Range: 0 to 100,000 W/m2 The incident solar radiation for the site. Typical values for different geographical locations are given in the following table.
Location North Sea Middle East UK Land Solar Radiation (W/m2) 475-630 945 630-790

Normal design practise uses a value of 0 W/m2 for the solar radiation. This leads to a less conservative design, but is considered by many to be a more realistic analysis. Background - Noise Range: 0 to 150 dB The background noise is used as a reference noise level to which the noise from the flare system is added. The following table gives typical noise levels for everyday situations.

7-6

Environment

7-7

Intensity (dB) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

Situation Threshold of hearing Virtual silence Quiet room Watch ticking at 1m Quiet street Quiet conversation Quiet motor at 1m Loud conversation Door slamming Busy typing room Near loud motor horn Pneumatic drill Near aeroplane engine Threshold of pain

Transmissivity - Method Options: User/Calculated The value for the atmospheric transmissivity may be either specified by the user or estimated as a function of the relative humidity at the site and the distance of the receptor from the flame. The correlation used is valid for distances between 30-60 m and for relative humidities greater than 10%. Outside of these ranges the correlation may still give acceptable results. Calculated atmospheric transmissivities should not be selected if you are modelling hydrogen or hydrogen sulphide flares which burn with little or no luminous radiation. If User is selected the value for the atmospheric transmissivity must be entered.

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7-8

Environment View

If Calculated is selected the value for the relative humidity at the site must be entered. Transmissivity - Value Range: 0.1 to 1.0 Atmospheric transmissivity defines the degree of attenuation of the thermal radiation due to atmospheric conditions. It is expressed as the fraction of the radiation which is received at the receptor point. A value of 1.0 should normally be taken unless exceptional circumstances are deemed applicable. If the location is protected by a water curtain or sprays we would recommend a value of 0.3 to model the reduced transmissivity.

7-8

Stacks

8-1

8 Stacks
Page
8.1 Stack View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

8-1

8-2

8-2

Stacks

8-3

The Stack object allows definition of data to describe each flare Stack. A flare Stack or boom acts as the support for one or more flare tips and its length and orientation is a critical part of the design of a safe flare system. Flaresim offers a sizing calculation option where the length of a single flare stack can be calculated to meet a defined thermal radiation limit at a point in the site. A Flaresim model may contain multiple Stack objects allowing the modelling of sites containing multiple flares. Stack objects may be created using the Add-Stack menu option or by selecting the Stack branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Stack object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Stack menu option; by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. All defined Stack objects will be included in the calculations unless they have been set to Ignored. A Stack may be set to ignored by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Ignore button. An Ignored Stack object can be restored to the calculations by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Activate button. Alternatively a Stack object can be ignored and restored by setting or clearing the Ignored check box on its view. An Stack object can be deleted either by clicking the Delete button on its view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Delete button on this view.

8-3

8-4

Stack View

8.1 Stack View


The following figure show the Stack view for entering and updating stack data.
Figure 8-1, Stack View

Name Text Enter text to identify this stack object. Ignored Checkbox Clear to include this stack in the calculations or set to ignore this stack when calculating. The effect of this will be to ignore all of the tips that are located on this stack. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this stack object is complete and ready for calculation. Location - Relative To Drop down list of existing locations Allows the location of the stack base to be defined relative to another object in the model, for example another stack. If left blank the location is relative to the base point of the model at 0,0,0.

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Stacks

8-5

The following fields then define the location of the stack base relative to this location in either cartesian or polar coordinates. Location - Northing Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the base of the stack North of the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Easting Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the base of the stack East of the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Elevation Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the base of the stack above or below the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Radius Range: 0 to 100,000m The distance to the base of the stack from the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the cartesian coordinate values. Location - Angle to Horizontal Range: 0 to 90 The angle to the horizontal of a line from the base of the stack to the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Angle from North Range: -180 to 180 The angle from North of a line from the base of the stack to the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values.

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8-6

Stack View

Dimensions - Length Range: 0 to 500m The centre line length of the stack from the base to the tip support platform. If the stack is selected for sizing this value will be ignored. Dimensions - Angle to Horizontal Range: 0 to 90 The orientation of the stack relative to the horizontal. Horizontal stacks (0 ) are usually used for liquid flares on offshore platforms. Angled booms (30 , 45 , 60 ) stacks are commonly used for gas flares on offshore platforms. Vertical stacks (90 ) will be used for most onshore installations. Dimensions - Angle from North Range: 0 to 360 The orientation of the stack relative to North. Flaresim works on a 360 compass base thus 90 corresponds to a stack or boom pointing due East, 180 to due South etc. It is important to set the direction of the stack correctly relative to the wind direction since this will have a significant impact on the results. For most design purposes, specifying both the stack angle from North as 0 and wind direction as 0 will give a flame blowing back along the stack axis which will generally give the worst case radiation values for design of the installation.

8-6

Tips

9-1

9 Tips
Page
9.1 Tip View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Common Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Details Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Location & Dimensions Tab . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Fluids Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Results Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Noise Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Flame Shape Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6 9.1.7

9-1

9-2

9-2

Tips

9-3

The Tip object allows definition of data to describe each flare tip. A flare tip acts as the disposal point for a single fluid. Multiple flare tips on one or more stacks may be present in a flare system to dispose separately of fluids due to incompatible properties e.g. warm and cold fluids, high and low pressure fluids, dry and wet fluids. Tip objects may be created using the Add-Tip menu option or by selecting the Tip branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Tip object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Tip menu option, by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. All defined Tip objects will be included in the calculations unless they have been set to Ignored. A Tip may be set to ignored by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Ignore button. An Ignored Tip object can be restored to the calculations by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Activate button. Alternatively a Tip object can be ignored and restored by setting or clearing the check box on its view. A Tip object can be deleted either by clicking the Delete button on its view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Delete button on this view.

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9-4

Tip View

9.1 Tip View


The following figure shows the Tip view for entering and updating tip data.
Figure 9-1, Tip Details View

9.1.1 Common Fields


Name Text Enter text to identify this Tip object. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this tip object is complete and ready for calculation.

9-4

Tips

9-5

Ignored Checkbox Clear to include this tip in the calculations or set to ignore this tip when calculating.

9.1.2 Details Tab


The Details tab of the Tip view, Figure 9-1, has the following data entry fields. Details - Tip Type Drop down list: Pipe / Sonic / Welltest / Combined HP/LP Selects the type of flare tip required. The nature of the fluid being flared through the tip will generally determine the type of tip selected. For gases, either the pipe or sonic tip types may be selected. Pipe flares are the simplest type of tip and may be specified for both high and low pressure gases. If the pressure available is greater than 2 bar (30 psi) at the tip then a sonic tip can be utilised. Sonic flare tips have the advantage of low flame emissivities due to more efficient combustion of the flare gas. For lower pressures a pipe flare is generally used possibly with steam or air assistance (see 6.2). Where a combined HP/LP tips is selected the HP tip is assumed to be a sonic tip and the LP a sub-sonic one. The flow ratio of HP to LP fluids should be 3 or greater. For liquids a Welltest tip type should be selected. Details - Number of Burners Range: 1 to 1000 for certain sonic flares otherwise 1 The number of individual burners which make up the tip assembly. This should be set to 1 for all tips unless the tip being used produces distinct, separate flames for each burner e.g. the Mardair sonic flare tip.

9-5

9-6

Tip View

Details - Seal Type Drop down list: None / Fluidic1 / Fluidic2 / Fluidic3 / Molec.1 / Molec.2 Defines the type of seal. The riser diameter (see Location and Dimensions tab) and seal type are used solely for calculation of the pressure at the base of the stack. The values calculated are to be used for preliminary review purposes only. There are two basic types of seal, Fluidic or Molecular:Figure 9-2 shows the general design concept for the fluidic seal. The type selection is a function of the opening as defined below Fluidic1: 50% of total area Fluidic2: 40% of total area Fluidic3: 35% of total area.
Figure 9-2, Fluidic Seal

Opening

Diameter

9-6

Tips

9-7

Figure 9-3 shows the general design concept for the molecular seal. The type selection is a function of the diameter as defined below:Molec.1: Traditional design. Maximum diameter is 1.7 times the tip diameter. The pressure drop correlation is based on a design which gives a body length of 5.5m (18ft) regardless of the tip diameter. Molec.2: Low pressure drop design. Maximum diameter is 2 times the tip diameter. The pressure drop correlation is based on a design which gives a body length which is a function of the tip diameter.
Figure 9-3, Molecular Seal

Diameter

The fluidic seal has a number of advantages over the traditional molecular seal: Lower purge gas requirements and consequent operating costs. The seal still operates with a high efficiency even if rain water or chunks of refractory material drop into the baffles. In fact the water is quickly dissipated because the fluidic seal is located at a high temperature section of the flare stack. Lower cost due to the simple construction and light weight. A 48" fluidic seal will typically weigh less than half the weight of a 6" molecular seal.
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9-8

Tip View

Fraction Heat Radiated - Method Dropdown list: User specified / Natural Gas / Kent / Tan / High Efficiency / Cook / Generic Pipe Defines the method used to calculate the fraction of the total net heat release from the flame which is radiated. This was labeled emissivity in Flaresim prior to version 1.1. It is also known as the F Factor. The User specified option allows specification of the value by the user. Otherwise it is calculated by the selected correlation as follows:Natural gas: Correlation based on tip exit velocity assuming a natural gas fluid of molecular weight 19. Tan: Correlation based on mole weight

E = 0.048 MW
Kent: Correlation based on mole weight

50 MW + 100 E = 0.2 ----------------------------------900


High Efficiency:Proprietary correlation between tip type, exit velocity, fluid molecular weight and degree of hydrocarbon saturation. Formally known as the Flaresim method in versions prior to 1.2. Cook: Correlation based on exit velocity. Generic Pipe: Correlation based on refitting Kent, Tan, Natural gas and Cook methods across a range of exit velocities and molecular weights. Where flare vendor data is available it should be used in preference to a correlation. In the absence of vendor data, the Generic Pipe method is recommended for a conservative design. For clean burning, smokeless flares from well designed flare tips in good condition the High Efficiency method can be used. In practice this means flares burning paraffinic hydrocarbons of low molecular weight fluid (<60) at reasonable exit velocities (> 0.2 mach). For fluids other than paraffinic hydrocarbons vendor advice should be sought. In the absence of advice, user specified F Factors of 0.3 to 0.4 are generally reasonable.

9-8

Tips

9-9

Fraction Heat Radiated - Value Range 0.01 to 1.0 If the User specified Method is selected then the value for the fraction of heat radiated must be entered here. Typical values for different types of flare tip are given in the following table.
Tip Type Pipeflare Single Burner Sonic Multiple Burner Sonic Fraction Heat Radiated 0.25 to 0.4 0.10 0.05 to 0.1

Unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with higher quantities of luminescent carbon particles leading to values typically 10-20% greater than for saturated hydrocarbons. Fraction Heat Radiated - Max Value Range 0.01 to 1.0 Defines the maximum value of the heat radiation fraction to be used for a combined flame and overrides any higher value calculated by a correlation. This field is only visible when the flare tip is a Combined HP/LP type. Fraction Heat Radiated - Calculated Value Calculated The value for the fraction of heat radiated calculated by the selected method. Combustion Noise - Method Dropdown list: Accoustic Efficiency / Low Noise Reference / Standard Reference / User Reference Selects the noise calculation method to be used. The Accoustic efficiency method is described in section 11.3. The other methods are based on a reference spectrum of noise at a known heat release. When the Accoustic Efficiency method is selected the following additional fields are displayed.
9-9

9-10

Tip View

Figure 9-4, Accoustic Efficiency Data

Peak Frequency Dropdown list: 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 Hz This defines the sound frequency band at which the peak noise is generated. The total sound power calculated at this frequency will be distributed across the other sound frequency bands. Efficiency Range 1.0e-6 to 1.0e-2 % The efficiency at which combustion energy is converted to sound power. The Low Noise Reference and Standard Reference methods use proprietary data supplied by a flare system vendor. Selecting a User Reference method displays the Reference Duty and Sound Power Table fields described below.
Figure 9-5, User Reference Spectrum

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Tips

9-11

Combustion Noise - Ref. Duty Range: 1 to 1,000 MW Defines the reference heat release corresponding to the sound power data defined in the Sound Power Table. Combustion Noise - Sound Power Table Range: 1 to 200 dB Alows the user to define the sound power level at each frequency corresponding to the heat release specified in the Reference Duty field.

9.1.3 Location & Dimensions Tab


Figure 9-6, Location & Dimensions Tab

Tip is located on stack Dropdown list: Defined stack names Defines which stack the tip is located on. The dropdown list shows the currently defined stacks.

9-11

9-12

Tip View

Dimensions - Length Range: 0 to 200m The physical length of the burner tip. The value is used in calculating the true gas exit point for the case of a vertical flare tip on an inclined boom. Dimensions - Angle to Horizontal Range: 0 to 90 The orientation of the tip relative to the horizontal. Vertical installation of flare tips prevents burnback on the tip and consequent reduction in tip life. The use of inclined tips on inclined booms does have the advantage of directing both the flame and any liquid carryover away from the main platform structure. Dimensions - Angle from North Range: 0 to 360 The orientation of the tip relative to the North. It is not unusual in offshore flares for the tip to be oriented along a different axis to the boom. Dimensions - Diameter Range: 0.001 to 10m The internal diameter of the burner assembly. For sonic flares the equivalent diameter is calculated for resolution of the fluid jet vectors when calculating the flame shape. Dimensions - Effective Area Range: 0.0001 to 100% The actual percentage of the area calculated from the tip diameter which is available for flow of the gas or liquid. A value of 100% is generally used for pipe flares. For sonic flares the value should be adjusted to ensure that the exit velocity is just sonic at the design flare rate. For liquid burners the value should be adjusted to calculate the correct exit velocity.

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Tips

9-13

Dimensions - Riser Diameter Range: 0.001 to 10m The internal diameter of the pipe from the base of the stack to the tip. Dimensions - Contraction Coefficient Range: 0.01 to 1.0 The ratio of the diameter of the vena contractor to the diameter of the discharge orifice (tip). If not specified this will be calculated and the result displayed on the Results tab. Dimensions - Exit Loss Coefficient Range: 1 to 1000 The number of velocity heads which defines the exit loss for the tip. For a sonic tip the value should always be 1.0. Note that if the exit loss coefficient is specified the outlet pressure field cannot also be specified. Dimensions - Roughness Range: 0 to 0.001m The roughness of the riser to this tip to be used in calculating the riser pressure drop. Dimensions - Outlet Pressure Range: 10 to 10,000kPa The static pressure at the outlet of the tip, i.e at the point where the fluid emerges from the tip. Normally this will be calculated and displayed on the results tab. If specified the exit loss coefficient must be left unspecified and will be calculated. The tip exit pressure is used to calculate the properties of the gas at the exit and hence the velocity of the fluid.

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9-14

Tip View

9.1.4 Fluids Tab


Figure 9-7, Fluids Tab

Fluid - Name Drop Down List: Defined Fluids Allows one of the defined fluids in your model to be assigned to the flare tip Fluid - Mass Flow Range: 0 to 10,000 kg/s The flowrate of the fluid fed to this tip. Secondary Fluid - Name Drop Down List: Defined Fluids Allows one of the defined fluids in your model to be assigned to LP flare tip of a Combined HP/LP tip. Secondary Fluid - Mass Flow Range: 0 to 10,000 kg/s The flowrate of the fluid fed to the LP tip of a Combined HP/LP tip.
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Tips

9-15

Assist Fluid - Name Drop Down List: Defined Assist Fluids Allows one of the defined assist fluids in your model to be assigned to this flare tip. Assist Fluid - Mass Flow Range: 0 to 10,000 kg/s or Calculated Defines the flow of assist fluid to the tip. When the assist fluid has been set to Smokeless Operation then this value will be calculated. Otherwise either this value must be specified. Assist Fluid - Flow Ratio Calculated Value The calculated ratio of assist fluid to fluid being flared.

9.1.5 Results Tab


Figure 9-8, Results Tab

9-15

9-16

Tip View

End Coordinates - Northing Calculated Value The distance north of the end of this tip from the origin. End Coordinates - Easting Calculated Value The distance east of the end of this tip from the origin. End Coordinates - Elevation Calculated Value The height of the end of this tip relative to the origin. Exit Properties - Velocity Calculated Value The calculated exit velocity from this flare tip. Exit Properties - Mach Number Calculated Value The calculated exit velocity from this flare tip expressed as a Mach number. Exit Properties - Volume Flow Calculated Value The volume flow rate of the fluid leaving the tip at the tip conditions. Heat Release - Heat Release Calculated Value The total heat released by the flame from this flare tip. Heat Release - Flame Length Calculated Value The flame length calculated for the tip and used to determine the flames position for the radiation calculations. For a Pipe flare this will be the same as the API Flame Length. For Sonic flares the flame length will normally be significantly less than the API value. Heat Release - API Flame Length Calculated Value The length of the flame calculated using the method outlined in API RP521. The method assumes a pipe flare.

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Tips

9-17

Pressure Profile - Static Tip Exit Calculated Value The static pressure calculated at the exit of the flare tip. Pressure Profile - Static Tip Inlet Calculated Value The static pressure calculated at the inlet to the flare tip. Pressure Profile - Static Seal Inlet Calculated Value The static pressure calculated at the inlet to the seal. Pressure Profile - Static Riser Inlet Calculated Value The static pressure calculated at the inlet to the riser. Pressure Profile - Total Tip Exit Calculated Value The total pressure including momentum contribution calculated at the exit of the flare tip. Pressure Profile - Total Tip Inlet Calculated Value The total pressure including momentum contribution calculated at the inlet to the flare tip. Pressure Profile - Total Seal Inlet Calculated Value The total pressure including momentum contribution calculated at the inlet to the seal. Pressure Profile - Total Riser Inlet Calculated Value The total pressure including momentum contribution calculated at the inlet to the riser. Pressure Profile - Tip Flow Type Calculated Value Indicates whether the velocity calculated at the flare tip is critical (or sonic) or sub-critical (sub-sonic). Since the calculation performed in the pressure drop algorithm is marginally different to the exit
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Tip View

properties calculation this may indicate critical velocity when the Mach Number is slightly less than 1.0. Pressure Profile - Contraction Coefficient Calculated Value The calculated contraction coefficient.

9.1.6 Noise Tab


Figure 9-9, Noise Tab

Reference Data - SPL Calculated Value The sound power level calculated summing the individual contributions at the different frequencies. Reference Data - Ref Distance Calculated Value Displays the reference distance at which the sound power level is calculated. It is a fixed value and cannot be changed.

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Tips

9-19

Display Dropdown list: Table / Plot Selects whether the noise spectrum results are displayed as a table or as a graph. Noise Spectrum Calculated Values This table or graph shows the noise generated as a function of the sound frequency. The results show the contribution from combustion noise and jet noise as well as the total noise at each defined frequency. The graph option can be customised using the pop-up menu displayed by clicking the Right mouse button. The plot option customisation options are described in a dedicated help file. Export Button Allows the noise spectrum data to be saved. If the noise spectrum is currently displayed as a table, a standard file dialog box will be displayed to allow the data to be saved as a CSV file. If the data is displayed as a plot it may be saved as a graphics file. A standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered. The allowed file types are JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF.

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Tip View

9.1.7 Flame Shape Tab


Figure 9-10, Flame Shape Tab

Display Dropdown list: Table / 3D Plot / 2D Plot - North vs. East / 2D Plot - North vs. Elevation / 2D Plot - East vs. Elevation Allows selection of the display method for the flame shape results. The flame shape is calculated using the calculation method and number of elements specified by the user in the Calculation Options view. The various plot options can be customised using the pop-up menu displayed by clicking the Right mouse button. The plot option customisation options are described in a dedicated help file. Export Button Allows the flame shape data to be saved to an external file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be saved to a CSV file. If it is

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Tips

9-21

displayed as a plot, the data may be saved to a JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

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9-22

Tip View

9-22

Receptors

10-1

10 Receptors
Page
10.1 Receptor Point View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 Common Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Point Definition Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Thermal Results Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Noise Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

10.2 Receptor Point Summary View . . . . . . . . . 12 10.3 Receptor Grid View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


10.3.1 10.3.2 10.3.3 10.3.4 10.3.5 10.3.6 10.3.7 10.3.8 Common Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grid Details Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiation Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isopleth Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plot Overlay Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphic Report Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 21

10.4 Overlay Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.4.5 Overlay Editor Data Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlay Editor Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overlay Editor - Object Styles. . . . . . . . . . Overlay Editor - Draw Mode . . . . . . . . . . . Overlay Editor - Edit Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 27 30 32 34

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10.5 Using Overlays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


10.5.1 10.5.2 10.5.3 10.5.4 Simple Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Import Scaled Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Import Unscaled Bitmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 DXF Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

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Receptors are the points at which Flaresim will calculate the thermal radiation, noise and surface temperatures resulting from the operation of one or more flare tips. Flaresim provides the ability to define Receptor Point objects which define a single point for the calculations and Receptor Grid objects which define a plane of points. Receptor Point objects may be created using the Add-Receptor Point menu option or by selecting the Receptor Points branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the Add button. An existing Receptor Point object may be viewed by selecting it from the View - Receptor Point menu option, by double clicking it in the Case Summary view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button. Receptor Point objects will be calculated unless they have been set to Ignored. A Receptor Point may be set to ignored by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Ignore button.or restored to the calculations clicking the Activate button. Alternatively a Receptor Point object can be ignored and restored by setting or clearing the check box on its view. A Receptor Point object can be deleted either by clicking the Delete button on its view or by selecting it in the Case Summary view and clicking the Delete button on this view. Receptor Grid objects may be created using the Add-Receptor Grid menu option and viewed the through the View-Receptor Grid menu option. A Receptor Grid can be deleted using the Delete button on its view. Alternatively a Receptor Grid can be created, viewed or deleted using the Case Summary view in the usual way. Like receptor points, Receptor Grid objects will be calculated unless they have been set to Ignored. Receptor Grid objects can be ignored and restored though the check box on the Receptor Grid view or through the Case Summary view.

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Receptor Point View

10.1 Receptor Point View


The following figure show the Receptor Point view for entering and updating stack data.
Figure 10-1, Receptor Point View

10.1.1 Common Fields


Name Text Enter text to identify this Receptor Point object. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this Receptor Point object is complete and ready for calculation.

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Ignored Checkbox Clear to calculate the results for this Receptor Point or set to ignore this point when calculating.

10.1.2 Point Definition Tab


The Point Definition tab of the Receptor Point view (see Figure 101) has the following data entry fields. Location - Relative To Drop down list of existing locations Allows the location of the receptor point to be defined relative to another object in the model, for example the base of a stack. If left blank the location is relative to the base point of the model at 0,0,0. The following fields then define the location of the stack base relative to this location in either cartesian or polar coordinates. Location - Northing Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the receptor point North of the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Easting Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the receptor point East of the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Elevation Range: -100,000 to 100,000m The distance of the receptor point above or below the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values.

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Receptor Point View

Location - Radius Range: 0 to 100,000m The distance to the receptor point from the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the cartesian coordinate values. Location - Angle to Horizontal Range: 0 to 90 The angle to the horizontal of a line from the receptor point to the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Location - Angle from North Range: 0 to 360 The angle from North of a line from the receptor point to the selected reference location. Updates made to this value will automatically update the polar coordinate values. Properties - On Plane Dropdown list: None / Northing-Easting / Northing-Elevation / Easting-Elevation Selects the orientation of the receptor point and is used to calculate the angle of incidence of the thermal radiation on the receptor. Setting the On Plane entry to None means that no correction for angle of incidence will be applied. Properties - Emissivity Range: 0.0001 to 1.0 The emissivity of the point which will be used in the heat balance calculations to determine surface temperature. The emissivity is used to calculate the radiative heat loss from the receptor point. A typical value for steel is 0.7. Properties - Absorbtivity Range: 0.0001 to 1.0 The absorbtivity of the point which will be used in the heat balance calculations to determine surface temperature. It is the fraction of the radiation incident on the point that will be absorbed. A typical value for steel is 0.7.
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Incident radiation

Properties - Area Ratio Range: 0.0001 to 10,000 The ratio of the area available to allow the receptor to lose heat to the area of the receptor exposed to the thermal radiation. A plate with one face exposed to a flare would have an Area Ratio of 2.0.

Heat Loss E.g. A plate would have an arearatio of 2.0.

Properties - Mass Range: 0 to 1,000,000 kg The mass at the point to be used in the calculation of the rate of surface temperature rise. Properties - Mass Cp Range: 0.1 to 10,000 J/kg/K The mass specific heat capacity of the material at the point to be used in the calculation of the rate of surface temperature rise. Properties - Initial Temperature Range: 10 to 1000 K The initial temperature of the receptor point. Sizing Constraints - Radiation Range: 0 to 100,000 W/m2 The maximum thermal radiation to be allowed at this point when performing sizing calculations. The following table provides typical values for design levels of radiation at different locations.

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Receptor Point View

Design Radiation W/m2 15,780

Conditions

On structures and in areas where operators are not likely to be performing duties and where shelter from radiant heat is available e.g. behind equipment. At design flare release at any location to which personnel have access e.g. at grade below the flare or on a service platform of a nearby tower. Exposure must be limited to a few seconds, sufficient for escape only. In areas where emergency actions lasting up to 1 minute may be required by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing. In areas where emergency actions lasting several minutes may be require by personnel without shielding but with appropriate clothing. At design flare release on the helideck of an offshore platform. This value is suggested by the Civil Aviation Authority. Above this value the possibility of distortion of the aluminium helicoptor airframe and rotors exists. At design flare release at any location where personnel are continuously exposed.

9,470

6,310

4,730

1,890

1,390

Sizing Constraints - SPL Range: 60 to 200 dB The maximum sound power level to be allowed at this point when performing sizing calculations. Sizing Constraints - SPLA Range: 60 to 200 dBA The maximum A-weighted sound power level to be allowed at this point when performing sizing calculations. Sizing Constraints - Average SPL Range: 60 to 200 dB The maximum average sound power level to be allowed at this point when performing sizing calculations.

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10.1.3 Thermal Results Tab.


Figure 10-2, Thermal Results Tab

Thermal Results - Radiation Calculated Value The calculated thermal radiation received at the point from all of the flares in operation. Thermal Results - Final Temperature Calculated Value The equilibrium surface temperature reached during prolonged flaring. Display Dropdown: Table / Plot Selects whether the calculated change in temperature of the receptor point with time is displayed as a table or as a graph.

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Receptor Point View

When displayed as a graph, the appearance of the graph may be customised using the options from a pop-up menu that is accessed by clicking the Right Mouse button on the plot. Export Button Allows the calculated curve of time vs. point temperature to be exported to a file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be exported to a CSV file. If displayed as a graph it may be exported to a JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

10.1.4 Noise Results


Figure 10-3, Noise Results

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SPL Calculated Value The total sound power level at the receptor point. It is calculated by summing the sound power contributions at each frequency. SPLA Calculated Value The A-weighted sound power level calculated at the receptor point. It is calculated by summing the A-weighted sound power levels at each frequency. Average SPL Calculated Value The sound power level averaged across all the frequencies. Display Dropdown: Table / Plot Selects whether the sound power levels vs. frequency results are displayed as a table or as a graph. When displayed as a graph, the appearance of the graph may be customised using the options from a pop-up menu that is accessed by clicking the Right Mouse button on the plot. Export Button Allows the calculated sound power vs. frequency results to be exported to a file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be exported to a CSV file. If displayed as a graph it may be exported to a JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

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Receptor Point Summary View

10.2 Receptor Point Summary View


The Receptor Point Summary view is shown below. It may be opened by clicking the Receptor Point branch of the Case Summary view and then clicking the View button.
Figure 10-4, Receptor Point Summary View

This view is provided as a summary view for the defined Receptor Points and to allow easy review of the results across all the points. The view is for display only and cannot be used to update values.

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10.3 Receptor Grid View


The Receptor Grid view is shown below.
Figure 10-5, Receptor Grid View

10.3.1 Common Fields


Name Text Enter text to identify this Receptor Grid object. Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the data for this Receptor Grid object is complete and ready for calculation.

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Receptor Grid View

Ignored Checkbox Clear to calculate the results for this Receptor Grid or set to ignore this grid when calculating.

10.3.2 Grid Details Tab


The Grid Details tab of the Receptor Grid view (see Figure 10-5) has the following data entry fields. Orientation Radio buttons: Northing-Easting / Northing - Elevation / Easting - Elevation This set of radio buttons selects the orientation plane of the receptor grid. Receptor grids are set up for one of the three orthogonal planes. In Flaresim terminology, the X-Y plane is Northing-Easting, the XZ plane is Northing-Elevation and the Y-Z plane is EastingElevation. Once selected the other fields are used to define the receptor grids location and extent and the fineness or coarseness of the grid. The names of these fields will be updated appropriately. For example when the orientation is set to Northing-Elevation, the offset field will be titled Easting Offset, the next group of fields will be titled Northing and the next block Elevation. Offset Range: -100,000 to 100,000 m The offset of the receptor grid plane from the model origin. Title Text The name to be used for this axis of the grid. Min Range: -100,000 to 100,000 m The minimum extent of the grid in the labeled direction.

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Max Range: -100,000 to 100,000 m The maximum extent of the grid in the labeled direction. Number of Points Range: 1 to 501 The number of increments that the distance between the minimum and maximum extents will be divided into. Receptor Properties - On Plane Dropdown list: None / Northing-Easting / Northing-Elevation / Easting-Elevation The orientation of the receptor and is used to determine the correction to be applied due to the angle of incidence of the receptor to the flare. If it is set to None, no correction for angle of incidence will be applied. Receptor Properties - Emissivity Range: 0.0001 to 1 The emissivity of each point in the grid which will be used in the heat balance calculations to determine surface temperature. Typical value for steel is 0.7 Receptor Properties - Absorbtivity Range: 0.0001 to 1.0 The absorbtivity of each point in the grid which will be used in the heat balance calculations to determine surface temperature. This is defined as the fraction of thermal radiation striking a surface that will be absorbed. Typical value for steel is 0.7. Receptor Properties - Area Ratio Range: 0.0001 to 10,000 The ratio of the area of the receptor available for losing heat to the area of the receptor exposed to the flare. For a flat plate with one face exposed to the flare the Area Ratio would be 2.0.

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Receptor Grid View

10.3.3 Radiation Tab


The Radiation tab of the Receptor Grid view displays a table or a plot of the calculated thermal radiation at each point in the grid.
Figure 10-6, Radiation Tab

Display Dropdown: Table / Plot Selects whether the thermal radiation results are displayed as a table or as a graph. When displayed as a graph, the appearance of the graph is controlled by settings in the file Preferences.XML. Export Button Allows the calculated thermal radiation results to be exported to a file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be exported to a CSV file. If displayed as a graph it may be exported to a JPG, PNG, BMP,

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WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

10.3.4 Noise Tab


The Noise tab of the Receptor Grid view displays a table or a graph of the calculated total sound power at each point in the grid.
Figure 10-7, Noise Tab

Display Dropdown: Table / Plot Selects whether the sound power results are displayed as a table or as a graph. When displayed as a graph, the appearance of the graph is controlled by settings in the file Preferences.XML.

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Receptor Grid View

Export Button Allows the calculated sound power results to be exported to a file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be exported to a CSV file. If displayed as a graph it may be exported to a JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

10.3.5 Temperature Tab


The Temperature tab of the Receptor Grid view displays a table or a graph of the calculated final surface temperatures at each point in the grid.
Figure 10-8, Temperature Tab

Display Dropdown: Table / Plot Selects whether the temperature results are displayed as a table or as a graph.

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When displayed as a graph, the appearance of the graph is controlled by settings in the file Preferences.XML. Export Button Allows the calculated temperature results to be exported to a file. If the data is displayed as a table it may be exported to a CSV file. If displayed as a graph it may be exported to a JPG, PNG, BMP, WMF or EMF graphics file. In either case a standard file dialog box will appear to allow the name and file type to be entered.

10.3.6 Isopleth Tab


The Isopleth tab of the Receptor Grid view allows the user to define the values and colours of the isopleths of thermal radiation, noise and surface temperature plots on the receptor grid results..
Figure 10-9, Isopleth Tab

Isopleth - Radiation Range: 1 to 10000 W/m2


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Receptor Grid View

Allows the thermal radiation limits for isopleths on the Radiation plot to be defined. Clear the radiation value to remove an isopleth from the list. Isopleth - Noise Range: 1 to 200 dB Allows the noise limits for isopleths on the Noise plot to be defined. Clear the noise value to remove an isopleth from the list. Isopleth - Temperature Range: 10 to 10,000 K Allows the temperature limits for isopleths on the Temperature plot to be defined. Clear the temperature value to remove an isopleth from the list. Isopleth - Line Type Popup selection Selects the line style to be used for the selected isopleth from the popup window shown below. This column appears for each isopleth type: Radiation, Noise and Temperature.
Figure 10-10, Line Type Picker

Isopleth - Line Width Range: 1 to 5 Allows the line width in pixels to be specified for the selected isopleth. This column appears for each isopleth type: Radiation, Noise and Temperature. Reset Defaults Button This resets all of the current isopleth definitions to the current defaults.
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Save As Defaults Button This saves the current set of isopleth definitions to be the defaults that will be used whenever a new Receptor Grid is created or when the Reset Defaults button is clicked. After the defaults have been changed the following dialog box will appear to ask if the current set of isopleth definitions should be saved to the preferences file. Clicking Yes in this dialog will save the current isopleth definitions to be used as the defaults in future Flaresim models. Clicking No will change the defaults for this session only. Note that any other changes made to the preferences file will also be saved.
Figure 10-11, Save Isopleth Definitions

10.3.7 Plot Overlay Tab


The Plot Overlay tab of the Receptor Grid view allows the user to define a background graphic such as a plot plan to be displayed with the radiation, noise or temperature isopleth plots. The background graphic can be created by importing and updating an existing graphics file. Alternatively a set of drawing tools is provided to allow creation of simple plot overlays within Flaresim. The use of the Plot Overlay Editor is described in section 10.4.

10.3.8 Graphic Report Tab


The Graphic Report tab of the Receptor Grid view allows the user to display a graphical report of isopleth results or export the data points for an isopleth curve. Printing of the graphic reports is handled by the File - Print Graphic Reports menu option.
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Receptor Grid View

Figure 10-12, Graphic Report Tab

Variable Dropdown List Selects the variable to be plotted on the graphic report - Radiation, Noise or Temperature. Contour Method Dropdown List: Linear / Cubic / BSpline Selects the method used to generate the isopleth curves from the receptor grid data points. The Linear option uses the least interpolation and as a result the points generated will be in closest agreement to the data values in the grid. However this may result in more jagged looking isopleth curves if a coarse receptor grid is used i.e. fewer points are calculated. The BSpline method offers the smoothest curves if a coarse grid is used but individual points on the curves may not show such good agreement with the original grid results. The Cubic method offers an alternative smoothing method.

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Label Isopleth Curves Checkbox Set this to generate single letter labels for each of the isopleth curves. This allows individual curves to be more easily distinguished on black and white printed output. It is not normally required for colour output. Layout File Filename This defines the name of the graphic report layout file that will be used to generate the graphic report for this receptor grid. Layout files describe the background text, data items and graphics formatting instructions required to define a graphics report in an XML formatted file with the extension .LAY. A number of standard layout files are shipped with Flaresim to provide graphic report definitions for 1 and 2 stack systems with 1 or 2 tips on A4 and Letter paper sizes. Appendix A describes the structure and the elements that make up a layout file. The default layout file used for new receptor grid objects is defined in the Preferences view. Browse Button Clicking this button opens a standard windows file browser to allow a layout file to be selected. Generate Graphic Report Button Clicking this button generates and displays on the screen a graphic report from the selected layout file for the selected variable. The graphic report is displayed in its own window and by default is displayed as a maximised view. The graphic report window can be minimised, resized and closed using standard windows methods.

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Receptor Grid View

Figure 10-13, Sample Graphic Report

Export Isopleth Points Button This button generates a text data file in comma separated value (CSV) format containing a list of the isopleth data points for the selected variable. A standard windows file dialog is displayed to ask for the name of the file to which the data will be saved. This option allows isopleth data to be exported for plotting or other uses in third party programs such as Excel. The File - Print Graphic Reports menu options provides the option to do a batch export of isopleth data.

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10.4 Overlay Editor


The Overlay Editor is contained in the Plot Overlay tab of the Receptor Grid view. The Overlay Editor allows an external graphic to be imported and associated with the receptor grid. The graphic may be imported assuming it matches the underlying receptor grid dimensions or its dimensions may be defined to allow the section covered by the receptor grid to be clipped from it. The editor allows additional elements and comments to be added to the background graphic. The plot overlay editor may also be used to create background graphics from scratch though it should be noted that it is not intended to provide the functionality of a full graphics package. The Overlay Editor view is shown below.
Figure 10-14, Plot Ovelay Editor

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Overlay Editor

10.4.1 Overlay Editor Data Fields


File File Name for Background File This is the name of the background plot file that has been associated with this receptor grid. The file name field cannot be updated directly, instead it is updated automatically by the program in response to use of the Open File and Save File buttons in the Toolbar. Units Drop Down List of Length Units This selects the dimension units used and displayed by the plot editor. Normally this will be selected to be compatible with the units used to define the receptor grid. X Axis Min Length -10000 to 10000 m This is the minimum X coordinate of the overlay graphic. X Axis Max Length -10000 to 10000 m This is the maximum X coordinate of the overlay graphic. X Length - Display only This is the current X coordinate of the cursor in the editor. Y Axis Min Length -10000 to 10000 m This is the minimum Y coordinate of the overlay graphic. Y Axis Max Length -10000 to 10000 m This is the maximum Y coordinate of the overlay graphic. Y Length - Display only This is the current Y coordinate of the cursor in the editor

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Lock To Grid Check Box If this check box is set the dimensions of the plot overlay are automatically set to be the same as those of the receptor grid. The X Axis Min and Max fields and the YAxis Min and Max fields will be automatically set to the correct values and will become read only values. If there is an existing drawing that exceeds the dimensions of the receptor grid it will be effectively clipped to the receptor grid dimensions even though some objects may appear outside the boundaries of the grid. Show Overlay Check Box If this check box is set the overlay graphic currently in the overlay editor will be displayed as the background for the isopleth plots on the Radiation, Noise and Temperature tabs and on any graphic reports displayed or printed. Show Stacks Check Box If this check box is set the overlay graphic will draw the stacks and tips in the overlay graphic to act as guides for other drawing actions. Clearing the check box clears the stack and tip elements. This setting is not saved.

10.4.2 Overlay Editor Toolbar


Figure 10-15, Overlay Editor Toolbar

The icons on this toolbar may be clicked to perform the following functions. Creates a new background file. The current contents of the editor will be cleared along with the overlay file name. If the current contents of the editor have been changed the user will be asked if these should be saved first.
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Overlay Editor

Opens and loads a new background file. A standard windows File Open Dialog will be displayed to allow the file to be selected. The types of file that may be selected are FSG Flaresim graphics files, WMF - windows metafiles, EMF enhanced windows metafiles or DXF - Autocad drawing exchange files. Saves current background file. A standard windows File Save Dialog will be displayed to allow the file to be selected. The file may be saved as a FSG - Flaresim graphics file, WMF - windows metafile, EMF - enhanced windows metafile or DXF - Autocad drawing exchange file. Selects Draw mode for the editor. This acts as a toggle with the Edit mode icon. When this icon is displayed the editor is in Edit mode and the cursor will be shown as a simple pointer. Selects the Edit mode for the editor. This acts as a toggle with the Draw mode icon. When this icon is displayed the editor is in Draw mode and the cursor will show the draw object type currently selected as well as the pointer. Displays a drop down list to allow selection of the object type to add in draw mode as shown below.
Figure 10-16, Object Type Drop Down

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On selecting the object type the cursor will change to show the object type if you are in Draw Mode. Adding different object types is covered below. Displays a drop down list to allow selection of the style for new objects or to change the style of an existing object. The options in the list are shown below and their usage is covered below.
Figure 10-17, Object Style Drop Down

Displays a drop down list to allow the rearrangement of the relative positioning, orientation or grouping of the selected object in Edit Mode. The options in the list are shown below and their usage is covered below.
Figure 10-18, Object Arrange Drop Down

Zooms in on the overlay drawing i.e. displays the drawing at a larger scale. Scroll bars will appear if required and can be used to scroll around the drawing.

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Overlay Editor

Zooms out on the overlay drawing i.e. displays the drawing at a smaller scale. Displays the currently selected zoom size of the drawing as a percentage of the full size. Drop down button can be used to select pre-defined zoom percentages.

10.4.3 Overlay Editor - Object Styles


The Overlay Editor is object based and the colour and drawing style of each object are set using the drop down list. This drop down sets the object properties for new objects added in Draw Mode or changes the properties of objects selected in Edit Mode. The properties in the drop down list that can be set are. Line Colour This displays a standard windows Colour Selection Dialog as shown below. Click the colour required and then the Ok button. The selected colour applies to individual line objects, polyline objects and the outside lines for rectangle, rounded rectangle, ellipse and polygon objects.
Figure 10-19, Colour Selection Dialog

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Line Style This displays the following dialog to allow the line width and line style to be selected. Enter the line width required and select the line style from the dropdown list then click Ok. The selected style applies to individual line objects, polyline objects and the outside lines for rectangle, rounded rectangle, ellipse and polygon objects.
Figure 10-20, Line Style Selection

Fill Colour This displays the standard windows Colour Selection Dialog as shown above. The selected colour applies to the interior of rectangle, rounded rectangle, ellipse and polygon objects. Fill Style This displays the following dialog. Select the Fill style from the drop down list and click Ok. The selected fill style applies to the interior of rectangle, rounded rectangle, ellipse and polygon objects.
Figure 10-21, Fill Style Selection

Background Colour This displays the standard windows Colour Selection Dialog as shown above. The selected colour applies background colour of the plot. Text Colour This displays the standard windows Colour Selection Dialog as shown above. The selected colour applies to the text objects.
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Overlay Editor

Text Font This displays a standard windows Font Properties Dialog as shown below. Select the font name, size and style and click Ok. Note that the font size selected has to be scaled for use on the overlay and so a given point size may not display with the exact height requested.
Figure 10-22, Font Properties Dialog

10.4.4 Overlay Editor - Draw Mode


The Overlay Editor has two modes of use. Draw mode is used to add new objects to the plot overlay. Draw mode is selected by clicking the button in the toolbar. Note if the icon is displayed the editor is already in Draw Mode. Once the editor is in draw mode the cursor will change to show an arrow with a representation of the current selected object type. The selected object type can be changed by clicking the icon in the toolbar and then clicking the required object type in the drop down list. Once selected a new object of the selected type can be added to the drawing as follows. The properties of the new objects added with use the current object style.

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Add Line Click and hold the left mouse button at the starting point of the line then drag to the end point of the line and release the mouse button. Add Rectangle Click and hold the left mouse button at the first corner of the rectangle then drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle and release the mouse button. Add Rounded Rectangle Click and hold the left mouse button at the first corner of the rectangle then drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle and release the mouse button. Add Ellipse Click and hold the left mouse button at the first corner of the bounding rectangle for the ellipse then drag to the opposite corner of the bounding rectangle and release the mouse button. Add Polyline Click the left mouse button to define the first point. Create additional points by clicking the left mouse button again. Create the end point by double clicking the left mouse button. Add Polygon Click the left mouse button to define the first corner. Create additional corners by clicking the left mouse button again. Close the polygon by double clicking the left mouse button at the final corner. Add Text Click the left mouse button at the point where the text is to start - a vertical blinking line will be displayed. Type the text and finish by hitting the enter key. The currently selected text size can be overriden by holding the left mouse button down after the initial click and dragging downwards. Add Image When Image is selected as the object type from the drop down, a File Open dialog will be displayed to allow selection of the image to

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Overlay Editor

be added. Allowed image types are FSG (Flaresim graphics), BMP, PNG, JPG, WMF, EMF, DXF. Once selected the image is added by clicking and holding the left mouse button to define the first corner then dragging to the opposite corner and releasing the mouse button. A new copy of the image file will be inserted into the plot each time this action is repeated. Adding an image in this way is the only mechanism for using a bitmap file (BMP, PNG or JPG) as the background overlay.

10.4.5 Overlay Editor - Edit Mode


The Overlay Editor has two modes of use. Edit mode is used to modify existing objects in the plot overlay. Edit mode is selected by clicking the button in the toolbar. Note if the icon is displayed the editor is already in Edit Mode. Once the editor is in edit mode the cursor will change to show a simple arrow. Edit mode can be used to move, resize, change the properties or change the arrangement of the objects that make up a plot overlay. Selecting Objects A single object can be selected by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Once selected the object will display white boxes at the corners and sides of its bounding rectangle as shown below.
Figure 10-23, Selected Object

Multiple objects can be selecting by clicking and holding the left mouse button to draw a rectangle around multiple objects. In this case grey boxes are displayed at the corners and sides of the rectangles bounding each selected object.

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Receptors

10-35

Resizing Objects A selected object can be resized by moving the cursor over one of the white boxes in the bounding rectangle. When the cursor changes to a two headed arrow, click and hold the left mouse button then drag to resize the object. Moving Objects An object can be moved by clicking and holding the left mouse button on the object and dragging the object to the new position. The cursor will show a four arrowed icon. To move multiple objects first select them then click and drag one of the them. Changing Object Properties The properties of an object can be changed by selecting it then using the drop down to select the property to be changed. Rotating and Flipping Objects Objects can be rotated or flipped by selecting it then using the drop down to select the angle of rotation or horizontal or vertical flip. Changing Object Stacking Order The stacking order of objects, i.e. whether one object is displayed in front or behind another object, is set by selecting it then using the drop down to bring the object forward or in front of other objects or send it backwards or behind other objects. Grouping or Ungrouping Objects Multiple objects may be grouped together by selecting them and then using the group option from the drop down. The group of objects can then be treated as a single object for other transformations. A grouped object can be broken into individual objects again by selecting it and using the ungroup from the same drop down menu.

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Using Overlays

10.5 Using Overlays


There are a number of ways of using the overlay editor depending on the type of drawing file that you wish to use. The following sections provide simple worked examples of the main ways of using the overlay facility.

10.5.1 Simple Drawing


In the absence of any existing background graphic file, the overlay editor can be used to create one. In this example we will create a simple plan view. 1. Open the file example 4 - welltest safety case.fsw from the samples directory. Open the view for the Receptor Grid Helideck Plan and select the Plot Overlay tab. Click the check box Show Stacks to draw the stacks on the overlay to act as guides for us as we do the drawing. Click the the draw. 4. button to put the editor in draw mode. Note symbol. Then click drop down and select Rectangle as the object to

2. 3.

the button will then change to the

Finally check the units drop down at the top right of the view and ensure that this is set to ft. The dimensions of the overlay which should still be locked to that of the underlying grid should be shown as X min -500, max 500 and Y min -500, max 500 as shown in the following figure.

10-36

Receptors

10-37

Figure 10-24, Overlay Editor Prior To Drawing

5.

Now draw a rectangle to represent the platform outline from the point -200,0 to 50,-200. This is done by moving to the first point using the displayed X,Y coordinates at the bottom right of the view as a guide, clicking and holding the left mouse button then dragging to the second point. Add a second rectangle to represent the helideck from the points -50,-100 to 30, -180. Click the drop down and select the ellipse object. Now draw a circle within the helideck rectangle by moving to the point -50, -100, clicking and holding the left mouse button and dragging to the point 30, -180.
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6.

7.

10-38

Using Overlays

8.

Add a letter H to the middle of the helideck circle as follows. Click the drop down and select the text object. Click the drawing in the middle of the helideck circle and a vertical flashing bar will appear to indicate the text insertion point. Type the letter H and then hit the enter key to complete the text entry. If the text entered in step 8 is not quite central, click the button to go to Edit Mode. Then click on the text - four white squares will appear round the text to indicate it has been selected. It can now be moved by clicking on the text inside the squares and dragging it to the required position.

9.

Figure 10-25, Completed Drawing

10-38

Receptors

10-39

10.

Finally click the button to save the drawing. A standard file save dialog will appear to ask you to name the file to be saved. By default the file will be saved as a Flaresim Graphics file with a .FSG but you may also save it as a Windows Metafile (.WMF), Enhanced Metafile (.EMF) or Autocad DXF file (.DXF). It is suggested that you save background graphics files in the report subfolder for the case i.e. in this case the subfolder example 4 - welltest safety. To see the overlay drawing on the Radiation, Noise and Temperature isopleth plots, ensure that the Show Overlay checkbox is set.

11.

10.5.2 Import Scaled Drawing


The best type of background drawing to import is a scaled vector drawing i.e. a Windows metafile (.wmf) or enhanced metafile (.emf). Given that the locations of the stacks etc. in your Flaresim model are matched to the drawing on import the isopleths will be correctly positioned in relation to the drawing. The following example shows how this is done. 1. Open the file example 4 - welltest safety case.fsw from the samples directory. Open the view for the Receptor Grid Helideck Elevation and select the Plot Overlay tab. 2. 3. Ensure that the dimensions of the overlay are set to ft using the dropdown at the top right of the view. We know that the drawing we are going to import has dimensions of 1050 ft wide by 750 ft high. The point corresponding to the base of the main stack (0,0) in the model is located at the point 500, 350 in the drawing. Clear the checkbox labeled Lock To Grid. Enter the dimensions of our drawing as follows:X Axis Min -500ft, X Axis Max 550ft Y Axis Min -350ft, Y Axis Max 400ft.

4.

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10-40

Using Overlays

Note the blue box shows the dimensions of our receptor grid. 5. Click the open background file button to import the background graphics file. The file to import is called elevation.wmf and is located in the Samples\example 4 welltest safety case folder. You will need to select Windows Metafiles (.wmf) in the Files of Type drop down in the File Open view to select this. Click Ok. You should now see the imported graphic as shown below. Check the Show Overlay checkbox to enable display of the background graphic on the isopleth plots.

6.

Figure 10-26, Background Graphic Imported

10-40

Receptors

10-41

10.5.3 Import Unscaled Bitmap


If the the background graphic you have to import is a bitmap then the procedure is different. Bitmap graphic files such as Windows bitmap (.bmp) or JPEG files (.jpg) are not as useful as vector format files since they do not necessarily scale well. However they can still be used as follows:1. Open the file example 4 - welltest safety case.fsw from the samples directory. Open the view for the Receptor Grid Helideck Elevation and select the Plot Overlay tab. 2. Click the button to put the Overlay Editor into draw mode. Set the checkbox Show Stacks to draw the position of the stacks onto the drawing as a guide. Set the drawing dimensions to ft using the units dropdown. Clear the checkbox Lock to Grid and extend the bottom of the drawing area by entering a Y Axis Min value of -250ft. Click the object type dropdown button and select Image from the bottom of the list. A File Open dialog will appear to allow you to load the file that you wish to import. Select the file elevation.jpg from the folder Samples\example 4 - welltest safety case. Note you will need to select JPEG Files (.jpg) in the Files of Type dropdown in order to browse for this file. Click Ok. You are now ready to draw the box onto the drawing in which the file will appear. Draw a box encompassing the two stacks by clicking and holding the left mouse button at the top left corner and dragging to the bottom right corner. The platform elevation image will be drawn into this box. It is likely the the size of the image will need adjusting. Set the Overlay Editor to edit mode by clicking the button. Now click the image and it will be surrounded by eight white rectangles or handles. Resize the image as required by

3.

4.

5.

6.

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10-42

Using Overlays

clicking and dragging the handles. The image can also be repositioned by clicking and dragging inside the handles.
Figure 10-27, JPEG Image Imported and Positioned

7.

Finally set the Show Overlay checkbox. The background graphic will now be displayed on the isopleth plots. Note that having checked the isopleth plots you may need to go back to the Overlay Editor to adjust the size or position of the background image.

10.5.4 DXF Files


Autocad drawing exchange files or DXF files can also be imported. This is a precise vector format that allows automatic positioning of the drawing within the isopleth plot as long as the dimensions used in the drawing and the receptor grid definition are consistent. Unlike the other vector formats (.wmf and .emf) used above the dimensions of the drawing can be read from the DXF file automatically.
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Receptors

10-43

The following provides an example as to how DXF files can be imported. 1. Open the file example 4 - welltest safety case.fsw from the samples directory. Open the view for the Receptor Grid Helideck Plan and select the Plot Overlay tab. 2. 3. 4. Set the drawing dimensions to ft using the units dropdown. Clear the checkbox Lock to Grid. Click the button to load the background DXF file. In the File Open dialog that appears, browse for the file plan.dxf from the folder Samples\example 4 - welltest safety case and click Open. The minimum and maximum X and Y dimensions will be set to -750 and 750 feet automatically and the drawing will be imported as shown below. Note the blue rectangle shows the extent of the receptor grid isopleth plot. Set the Show Overlay check box to display the background graphic on the isopleth plots.

5.

6.

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10-44

Using Overlays

Figure 10-28, Imported DXF File

Since the extent of a background graphic file must include the full extent of the receptor grid, the dimensions of the DXF file must exceed those of the grid. This will be checked during the import process and if the drawing is not large enough, the import process will fail. There are also practical limits on the size of DXF file that can be imported or the memory usage of the overlay editor will be excessive and performance will become very sluggish. If it is desired to view isopleth plots on a full detailed plan or elevation drawing it is better to generate an isopleth graphic and export it as a DXF file for overlay onto the drawing in a third party package.

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Calculations

11-1

11 Calculations
Page
11.1 Calculation Options View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 General Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sizing Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Heat Transfer Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

11-1

11-2

11-2

Calculations

11-3

Calculate Button

Flaresim calculations are started by clicking the Calculate button on the tool bar. Once started Flaresim will calculate the active objects using the settings defined in the Calculation Options view. The Calculation Options view is accessed using the View Calculation Options menu option or by selecting the Calculation Options branch in the Case Summary view and clicking the View button.

11.1 Calculation Options View


The Calculation Options view is shown below.
Figure 11-1, Calculation Options View

Status Text Status message The message displayed in this field and its colour indicates whether the calculation options are complete and the model is ready for calculation.

11-3

11-4

Calculation Options View

11.1.1 General Tab


The following data entry fields are found on the General tab of the Calculation Options view (see Figure 11-1). Method Dropdown list: API / Point / Diffuse / Mixed / Brzustowski / M.Point Brz Selects the method to be used to model the thermal radiation from the flame. The API method models the single point source method of Hajek and Ludwig given in API RP-521. This may be generally applied to most flare systems. The Point source method is a multiple point extension of the API method in which the flame is assumed to be completely transparent such that radiation from one point does not either interfere with or occlude another. The flame is divided into a series of smaller point source elements whose contributions are summed to derive the total radiation from the flame. In practice this method generally gives more realistic and less conservative values than the API method. It does however tend to overpredict thermal radiation in the near field. The Diffuse source method assumes that the flame is completely opaque such that radiation is emitted entirely from the surface of the flame envelope. This method tends to underpredict the thermal radiation in the near field. The Mixed source method is an empirical combination of both the Point and Diffuse source methods. This has been found to give more realistic results in both the near and far fields. The Brzustowski method is a single point method in which the flame centre is determined from jet dispersion theory. The method as described in API RP-521 is subject to a number of limitations in its implementation in Flaresim: Only vertical tips may be modeled. Air assisted flares may not be modeled. Liquid burners may not be modeled.
11-4

Calculations

11-5

The M.Point Brz method is a Flaresim extension to the standard Brzustowski method to allow the number of flame elements and the element position to be specified by the user. In versions of Flaresim prior to 1.2 these options could be set for the Brzustowski method. In Flaresim 1.2 the Brzustowski method is forced to be a single flame element with fixed element position. Old cases that specify the Brzustowski method will be updated automatically to M.Point Brz if they have more than one flame element or the element position is not 50%. Element Position Range: 0 to 100 % The element position indicates the source point within a flame element that is used for calculations. Typically this is 50% i.e. the middle of the flame element is taken to be the point source. 0% indicates the source is the start of the element, 100% is the end. For compatibility with Flaresim for DOS, 50% should be used. No of Elements Range: 1 to 50 The number of elements that the flame is divided into for the Point, Diffuse and Mixed methods. Larger values will generally give more realistic values for the thermal radiation at the expense of calculation time. Unless you are modelling a system with a highly distorted flame shap, 25 elements should be more than adequate. The combination of a high flaring rate and an inclined tip flaring into a high wind may require 50 elements to adequately model the flame shape. Include Options - Solar Radiation Checkbox When set the solar radiation defined for the active Environment will be included in the radiation calculations. Include Options - Windchill Checkbox When set an empirical correlation is used to correct the incident thermal radiation at any receptor point by taking into account the heat losses due to passage of wind over the point. Use of this option
11-5

11-6

Calculation Options View

will generally be a matter of individual judgement or your company standards. It is recommended that you do not use this option if you are interested in the surface temperature calculations. Note that effective of wind on convective heat transfer in the surface temperature calculations is independent of the setting of this option. Include Options - Background Noise Checkbox When set the background noise defined for the active Environment will be included in the noise calculations. Include Options - Atm. Noise Attenuation Checkbox When set a correction will be applied to the noise calculations to allow for the attenuation in noise due to atmospheric absorbtion. This option should normally be set. In Flaresim for DOS this correction was always included. Include Options - Adiabatic Temp. Corr. Checkbox When set the temperature of the fluid in the tip or stack riser will be corrected for the calculated pressure at each point. The correction will assume adiabatic compression or expansion from the defined fluid reference pressure to the calculation pressure. This correction allows more accurate calculation of fluid properties such as density and sonic velocity at different points. The DOS version of Flaresim did not apply this correction so it is automatically disabled when importing DOS cases for closer comparison with results from the DOS version. This option was automatically set for versions of Flaresim earlier than Version1.1 even when importing cases from the DOS version.

11-6

Calculations

11-7

Include Options - R-K Z Factor Checkbox When set the fluid compressibility factor or Z factor is calculated using the Redlich Kwong method. If cleared the method used is the Berthelot equation. The results of the two methods will be similar at low pressures (< 5 bar). At higher pressures the Redlich-Kwong method is more accurate so it is set to be the default method for all new cases from Version 1.1 onwards. Buoyancy For all methods except the Brzustowski method, the flame shape is calculated by resolving the velocity vectors in three dimensions. The main components are the tip exit velocity and the wind velocity. There is however an additional velocity component which is due to the density differences between the hot combustion gases and the surrounding air. This is referred to as the flame buoyancy term. Buoyancy - Pipe Range: 0 to 100 m/s The flame buoyancy which should be used for Pipe flares. A value of 3.0 m/s is recommended unless specific vendor information suggests otherwise. Buoyancy - Sonic Range: 0 to 100 m/s The flame buoyancy to be used for Sonic flare tips. A value of 4.6 m/s is suggested unless specific vendor information suggests otherwise. Buoyancy - Welltest Range: 0 to 100 m/s The flame buoyancy to be used for Liquid flare tips. A value of 0.03 m/s is suggested unless specific vendor information suggests otherwise.

11-7

11-8

Calculation Options View

Environment - Active Environment Dropdown list: All defined environments Allows selection of the set of environmental data to be used for the calculations. This can also be set through activating a specific Environment object. Noise Calculations - Method Dropdown list: API/Spectrum Selects the method to be used for the noise calculations. The API method taken from RP521 is a simple single value method and considers jet noise only. The Spectrum method uses multiple frequency values and includes combustion noise.

11.1.2 Sizing Tab


The following figure shows the Sizing tab of the Calculation Options view.
Figure 11-2, Sizing Tab

11-8

Calculations

11-9

Sizing Information - Select Stack Dropdown list of defined stacks Allows one of the existing stacks to selected for sizing calculations i.e. calculation of the stack length to meet the sizing constraints defined on the active receptor points. Sizing Information - Minimum Length Range: 0 to 500 m The minimum length allowed for the stack being sized. Sizing Information - Maximum Length Range: 0 to 500 m The maximum length allowed for the stack being sized.

11.1.3 Heat Transfer Tab


The following figure shows the Heat Transfer tab of the Calculation Options view.
Figure 11-3, Heat Transfer Tab

This view allows definition of coefficients for calculating the heat transfer coefficient as a function of windspeed. Two sets of

11-9

11-10

Calculation Options View

parameters may be defined to apply above and below a limiting windspeed. The equation is:-

HTC = A Windspeed + C
HTC Calculation - Windspeed Constant A Range: 0.01 to 100 The constant factor to be multiplied by the windspeed. HTC Calculation - Windspeed Power B Range: 0 to 10 The power to which the windspeed is raised. HTC Calculation - HTC Constant C Range: 0.01 to 100 The constant factor to be added to the heat transfer coefficient.

(1)

Windspeed Up To Range: 0.01 to 100 m/s The transition windspeed at which the heat transfer coefficient calculation switches from the first set of defined constants to the second. Windspeed Units Dropdown List: Speed Units This dropdown selects the windspeed units that are appropriate for the A and C constants entered. Temperature Rise Calculation - Exposure Time Range: 1 to 1,000,000 s The time over which the rise in surface temperatures is to be calculated. Time Steps Range: 1 to 1,000 The number of calculations to be made between the starting point and the final exposure time. A higher number will track the rise in surface temperature more accurately but it will not normally be necessary to use more than 10 points.
11-10

Printing

12-1

12 Printing
Page
12.1 Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
12.1.1 Report File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

12.2 Graphic Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


12.2.1 Graphic Report Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

12.3 Print Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

12-1

12-2

12-2

Printing

12-3

Output of Flaresim results is through the File - Print and File - Print Graphic Reports menu options. The File - Print option first opens the Print Preview view where the report can be customised and then printed. The File - Print Graphic Reports menu option opens the Graphic Report view which allows selection of the reports to be output and the output method. These views are described below. The File - Print Setup menu item provides access to the standard Printer Setup Dialog to allow the printer type and paper size and orientation to be selected. Flaresim produces its standard reports through an HTML file which is created by using a stylesheet file, by default Flaresim.xsl, to format the contents of the Flaresim model file. The Preferences view allows the user to specify the name of the stylesheet file to be used. Both the Flaresim XML data files and the XSL stylesheet file comply with the appropriate W3C.org standards. This provides the capability to reformat the output of Flaresim through definition of an alternate stylesheet file. Third party documentation on the use of XSL files should be consulted since this is beyond the scope of this documentation. Flaresims graphic reports are produced through a layout file which is an XML formatted file that describes the text, data and graphical elements to be included in the report and their layout. The default layout file to be used may be selected in the Preferences view or for each receptor grid individually.

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12-4

Print Preview

12.1 Print Preview


When the File - Print menu option is selected the Print Preview view shown below is opened. This is a modal view which closes all open views and does not allow any other part of the Flaresim program to be used until the Print Preview is closed.
Figure 12-1, Print Preview View

Report Topic Structure

Include topic checkbox

Report Preview

Report Topic Tree View This section of the view lists the topics that can be included in a report as a tree structure in a similar way to the Case Summary view. As in the case summary, the and icons can be used to expand and collapse branches of the tree as required. Include Topic Checkbox Each topic available for the report has a checkbox against it. The checkbox should be set to include the topic or cleared to exclude it.

12-4

Printing

12-5

Refresh Button Updates the report preview to reflect any changes that have been made to the included or excluded topics. Print Button Prints the report using the current selection of included and excluded topics. Clicking this button starts the printing process by displaying the view below to allow the user to select the printer to be used and to control the setup of the print options.
Figure 12-2, Print Control View

Once the printer options have been set the Print button on this view should be clicked to send the output to the printer. Reset Print Options Button Resets the print topics selection to the set defined in the startup file Default.fsw.

12-5

12-6

Print Preview

Report Preview Display region Displays the current view of the report. If the report does not fit within the available areas the scroll bars may be used to move around the report. Note that the view being displayed is of the HTML report file generated by Flaresim. Some elements of this report file will float and be reformatted to try and fit into the area availble for display. It may be necessary to expand the view to see the report as it will be printed.

12.1.1 Report File


When a case is saved, the HTML report file and the associated graphic files will be automatically saved at the same time. These files will be saved to a sub-folder in the folder to which the case is being saved. The sub-folder name will be the same as the saved file name. This HTML file can be viewed at any time using an internet browser, independently of Flaresim.

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Printing

12-7

12.2 Graphic Report


The File - Print Graphic Reports menu option displays the Graphic Report view to allow selection of the graphic reports to be output and whether these are to be output to printer or graphics file. The Graphic Report view is shown below. This is a modal view that does not allow use of other parts of the Flaresim program until it is closed.
Figure 12-3, Graphic Report

Select Grids List Box This list box allows selection of the Receptor Grids for which the graphic report is to be output. The list allows selection of individual grids by clicking on the name in the list. Multiple items may be selected using Shift-Click and Ctrl-Click in the usual way. For convenience an All option is provided at the top of the list which can be selected to output graphic reports for all the receptor grids in the model.

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12-8

Graphic Report

Select Plots Checkboxes Each receptor grid can generate three separate graphic reports, one for each of the radiation, noise and temperature isopleths. These checkboxes allow selection of which reports will be output. Set a checkbox to output the associated report and clear a checkbox to suppress the report. Save File Type Dropdown List This allows selection of the graphic file type that will be generated if the reports are output to file using the Save Graphic Reports button. The options are JPG or BMP bitmap files, WMF or EMF metafiles and PNG or DXF files. Save Graphic Reports Button This creates the selected graphic reports and saves them as files of the type selected by the Save File Type item. Each file will be automatically named with the type of the isopleth and the name of the receptor grid e.g. Radiation-Helideck. The files will be stored in a sub-folder of the folder in which the Flaresim data file is located, with other report files. Confirmation of each file saved is output to the information log. Save Isopleth Points Button This saves a list of the isopleth data points for each selected report to a text file in Comma Separated Value or CSV format. This allows the isopleths to be plotted using third party applications such as Excel. The files will be stored in a sub-folder of the folder in which the Flaresim data file is located, with other report files. Confirmation of each file saved is output to the information log. Print Graphic Reports Button This button prints the selected graphic reports to the currently selected printer.

12-8

Printing

12-9

Page Setup Button This button displays the Graphic Report Page Setup view described in the next section to allow setting of the paper size, page orientation, margins and printer to be used for the graphic reports. Close Button This button closes the Print Graphic Report view and returns to the main Flaresim views.

12.2.1 Graphic Report Page Setup


The Graphic Report Page Setup view is shown below.
Figure 12-4, Graphic Report Page Setup

Paper - Size Dropdown list This selects the paper size to be used for the graphic reports. The list will show the pre-defined paper sizes available for the currently selected printer.

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12-10

Graphic Report

Paper - Source Dropdown List This selects the source of the paper to be used for the graphic reports. The choices available will depend on the currently selected printer. Orientation Portrait / Landscape These radio buttons allow the paper orientation to be selected. The selected orientation should correspond to the expected orientation in the graphic report layout file. Note all the standard Flaresim graphical layouts assume a Landscape orientation. Margins - Left Spacing in mm This defines the left margin of each graphic report page. Margins - Right Spacing in mm This defines the right margin of each graphic report page. Margins - Top Spacing in mm This defines the top margin of each graphic report page. Margins - Bottom Spacing in mm This defines the bottom margin of each graphic report page. Ok Button This closes the view, accepting any changes made. Cancel Button This closes the view, losing any changes made. Printer Button This displays a standard windows printer selection dialog to allow the graphic report printer to be selected.

12-10

Printing

12-11

12.3 Print Setup


The File - Print Setup menu option allows the selection of the printer type and paper size and orientation to be used for printing the Flaresim report. Selecting this option opens the view shown below.
Figure 12-5, Print Setup View

Printer - Name Dropdown list of configured printers Allows selection of the printer to be used to output the Flaresim report. The list shows the printers that have been configured for the computer that is running Flaresim. Printer - Properties Button Opens the Properties view for the current selected printer to allow selection of printer specific options. The options available through this view will vary will the type of printer installed and are beyond the scope of this documentation. Paper - Size Dropdown list of available paper sizes Allows selection of the paper size. The list of paper sizes available for selection will depend on the type of printer selected.

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12-12

Print Setup

Paper - Source Dropdown list of available paper sources Allows selection of the paper source on the printer to be used. The choices available will depend on the printer selected. Orientation Radio button: Portrait / Landscape This pair of radio buttons selects the paper orientation to be used. The standard Flaresim reports are formatted for portrait orientation. Network Button Opens a window that allows browsing of the network to search for additional printers. Ok Button Confirms the current selections and closes the Print Setup view. Cancel Button Closes the Print Setup view without saving changes.

12-12

Calculation Methods

13-1

13 Calculation Methods
Page
13.1 Thermal Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
13.1.1 13.1.2 13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.5 13.1.6 13.1.7 13.1.8 API Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integrated Point Source Method. . . . . . . . . Integrated Diffuse Source Method . . . . . . . Integrated Mixed Source Method . . . . . . . . Brzustowski and Sommer Method . . . . . . . Atmospheric Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Windchill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flame Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9

13.2 Surface Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13.3 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


13.3.1 13.3.2 13.3.3 Combustion Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Jet Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Atmospheric Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

13.4 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.4.1 13.4.2 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Subscripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

13.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

13-1

Calculation Methods

13-2

13-2

Calculation Methods

13-3

This chapter contains a summary of the mathematical models used for the calculation of incident thermal radiation, noise and surface temperatures. It is not intended to be a detailed treatise on combustion theory, but rather a summary of the models available in the program to assist the engineer in making his own judgement as to the applicability of the models to his particular system.

13-3

13-4

Thermal Radiation

13.1 Thermal Radiation


5 options are available for calculating the incident thermal radiation at a point receptor. These are: API Method Integrated Point Source Integrated Diffuse Source Integrated Mixed Source Brzustowski and Sommer These methods primarily differ in the approach to the calculation of the contributions of individual elements within the flame to the total incident heat flux and the method for calculation of the flame shape. Each of these methods can be used for most applications either as preferred by the program user or as required by client preference and specifications. The predicted thermal radiation values may be corrected for a range of environmental conditions. These corrections are available for: Windchill Atmospheric attenuation The inclusion of the attenuation effects due to windchill or atmospheric attenuation must be either a matter of sound engineering judgement or as required by client specifications. All thermal radiation values calculated by any of these methods are to point receptors and do not take account the relative orientation of the receptor to the flame.

13.1.1 API Method


This is based upon the simple heat release method outlined in API RP-521, "Guide For Pressure Relieving and Depressuring Systems",

13-4

Calculation Methods

13-5

1997 [1]. This method uses Equation 1 proposed by Hajek and Ludwig [2] to evaluate the flux at a given distance from the flame.

FQ K = ------------2 4D

(1)

It is assumed that the flame can be treated as a single point source located at the centre of the flame which radiates in all directions from this centre. The distance between the point source and the receptor is calculated from a flame shape calculated from the resolution of the velocity vectors for the flared fluid, wind and flame buoyancy.

13.1.2 Integrated Point Source Method


The integrated point source method is an extension to the API method in which the flame is divided into a series of smaller point source elements whose contributions are summed to derive the total thermal radiation from the flame. The centre of each of the elements is used for the calculation of the distance between the flame element and the target receptor. Two major assumptions are made: The flame radiates uniformly along its entire length. The flame is long in comparison to its width. As such it may be considered to be a line source. In making these assumptions, it is accepted that the flame itself is completely transparent to thermal radiation and that one point source does not either interfere with or occlude another. This occlusion effect would generally be negligible to the side of the flame but could be significant at locations directly below the flame where there is a shallower angle of view.

13-5

13-6

Thermal Radiation

These assumptions lead to Equation 2 as proposed by McMurray[4].

FQ L 1 - ------ dl K ips = --------4 L 0 D2

(2)

The distance between the point source and the receptor is calculated from a flame shape derived from the resolution of the velocity vectors for the flared fluid, wind and flame buoyancy.

13.1.3 Integrated Diffuse Source Method


The diffuse source model assumes that the flame itself is completely opaque such that the thermal radiation is emitted entirely from the surface of the flame. This model is represented by Equation 3.

FQ L ---------sin - dl K ids = --------2 2 L 0 D

(3)

The distance between the point source and the receptor is calculated from a flame shape derived from the resolution of the velocity vectors for the flared fluid, wind and flame buoyancy.

13.1.4 Integrated Mixed Source Method


The mixed source model is basically a combination of the point and diffuse source models. This was developed as a result of observations during field tests [4] that showed: The Integrated Point Source (IPS) model tends to over predict the thermal radiation close to the flare. The Integrated Diffuse Source (IDS) model tends to under predict the thermal radiation close to the flare.

13-6

Calculation Methods

13-7

Both models predict similar values for thermal radiation in the far field. The thermal radiation for the mixed source model is calculated by Equation 4 which is a linear combination of the IPS and IDS models.

K ims = aK ips + ( 1 a ) K ids 13.1.5 Brzustowski and Sommer Method

(4)

The equation for the calculation of the heat flux at a given distance is identical to that given for the API method as Equation 1. Both this method and the API method are based upon the flame being considered as a single point heat source. The distance between the point source and the receptor is calculation from a flame shape which is based upon the diffusion of a turbulent jet to the to the lean flammability concentration limit [3]. Flaresim allows an extension to the standard Brzustowski method by allowing the user to specify multiple flame elements or an element position that is not 50%. In versions of Flaresim prior to 1.2 these options could be set for the Brzustowski method. In Flaresim 1.2 and following these options can only be set if the extended M.Point Brzustowski method is selected.

13.1.6 Atmospheric Attenuation


Brzustowski and Sommer[3] recommend the use of the atmospheric transmissivity, as the fraction of the heat intensity which is transmitted to a point, in order to correct the calculated values for thermal radiation. This correction is given by Equation 5.

K = K

(5)

13-7

13-8

Thermal Radiation

In all cases, atmospheric absorption attenuates the incipient radiation at a point. This will typically be 10 to 20 % over distances of up to 500 ft. The empirical Equation 6 given below was obtained by cross plotting absorptivities calculated from Hottel charts. It is strictly applicable only under the following conditions of: A luminous hydrocarbon flame radiating at 2240 F Dry bulb temperature of 80 F Relative humidity greater than 10% Distances from flame between 100 and 500 ft

It is generally used to estimate the order of magnitude of the atmospheric transmissivity under a wider range of conditions. 0.0625 100 0.0625 100 ------- = 0.79 -------D H

(6)

Equation 6 should prove adequate for most situations. However, for cases in which the design conditions are significantly different from those under which the equation was derived, the designer should revert to the Hottel charts.

13.1.7 Windchill
The design of offshore flare systems often takes into account the effect of heat loss from the target surface due to windchill. Equation 7 gives the simple correction to the calculated value for thermal radiation.

K w = K Kf

(7)

The correction K f is taken from Figure 13-1 below. For conditions beyond the range of this figure, the following constraints are applied: If the windspeed is greater than 35 knots, the 35 knot value is used.
13-8

Calculation Methods

13-9

If the ambient temperature is less that 30 F, the 30 F value is used. If the ambient temperature is greater than 80 F, the correction is taken to be zero regardless of the windspeed.
Figure 13-1, Windchill Correction

13.1.8 Flame Shape


The calculation of the distance between any point on the flame and the target receptor requires a knowledge of the flame length and shape. This is a function of: Flare exit velocity Wind speed and direction Orientation of the tip

13-9

13-10

Thermal Radiation

The flare exit velocity is calculated by simply dividing the volumetric flare rate by the cross sectional area of the flare tip according to Equation 8.

4 WZRT u j = -----------------2 PM d

(8)

The gas mach number is calculated from the sonic velocity which is calculated from Equation 9.

us =

gkRT -----------M

(9)

The method for calculation of the flame length and deflection is dependent upon the method selected for calculation of the thermal radiation. If the API, IPS, IDS or IMS method is selected then the flame length is calculated from the heat released by the flame, then the deflection is calculated by resolving the vectors for the jet, flame buoyancy and wind. The flame length is calculated from an empirical equation relating the flame length to the heat release. The heat release is the total heat produced by the combustion of the fluid. This is given by Equation 10.

Q = W LHV

(10)

The flame length is calculated from Equation 11. The constants l1 and l2 are a function of the type of tip I2 Q L = I 1 --N

(11)

13-10

Calculation Methods

13-11

Tip Type Pipeflare Single Burner Sonic Multiple Burner Sonic 0.00604 0.00442 0.00231

l1 0.4776 0.4600 0.5000

l2

Steam and air assisted flares will generally have shorter flames than those calculated by these equations. The program contains proprietary algorithms for prediction of the shortening of the flame as a function of the rate of injection of the assist fluid. Due to the proprietary nature of these algorithms, they are not presented here. In windy conditions the flame will be distorted from the straight vertical. This distortion may be calculated by the resolution of the velocity vectors for the exit jet, wind and flame buoyancy. The jet velocity as a function of the curvelinear distance along the flame is modelled according to the formula proposed by McMurray[4].

1 1 - -u l = 5.0 u j d -l A

(12)

Equations 13, 14 and 15 are resolved according to the Cartesian coordinate system shown by Figure 13-2.

dx ----- = u l sin cos + u cos dt dy ----- = u l sin cos + u sin dt dz ---- = u l cos + u b dt

(13)

(14)

(15)

13-11

13-12

Thermal Radiation

Figure 13-2, Coordinate System

If the Brzustowski method is selected then the flame length and deflection are calculated from a method based upon the distance required for the dilution of the flared gas to the lean flammability limit concentration. Dimensionless parameters are defined which relate the lean flammability limit concentration and the following parameters to the deflection of the end point of the flame: Tip exit velocity Wind velocity Gas molecular weight Air molecular weight Tip diameter The following dimensionless parameters are defined:

uj Mj ------------cl = cl u M
13-12

(16)

Calculation Methods

13-13

xl x l = ------------------------dj uj j -------- -----u zl ------------------------zl = djuj j -------- -----u

(17)

(18)

Figure 13-3 gives the values for the horizontal and vertical distance factors for a range of values for the dimensionless concentration parameter..
Figure 13-3, Dimensionless Distance Parameters

13-13

13-14

Thermal Radiation

This procedure cannot strictly be used for calculation of the flame deflection in cases where there is no wind. The limiting case is a ratio of gas exit velocity to wind velocity of 110. This value corresponds to a sonic discharge of methane at 400 F into a 10 mph wind. When analysing any calculation results this ratio should be checked if you are evaluating the effect of low wind speeds.

13-14

Calculation Methods

13-15

13.2 Surface Temperature


The equilibrium surface temperature of metal surfaces exposed to the thermal radiation is calculated from a heat balance between the thermal radiation from the flame incident at the specified point and the heat losses from the same point.

K = ( hc + hr ) ( Tm T )

(19)

This heat balance equation assumes that heat losses by convection and radiation occur only from the surface exposed to the radiation. The overall heat loss from the point is the sum of the radiation from the point and the forced/free convection from the point. The radiative heat transfer coefficient is given by:

( Tm T ) h r = E -----------------------------( Tm T )

(20)

Convective heat transfer coefficients are calculated from a series of empirical correlations that are a function of air velocity. 0 u 15

h c = 0.80 + 0.22 u
u > 15

(21)

h c = 0.56 u

0.75

(22)

A value of 0.70 is used for both the absorbtivity and emissivity of the surface. This is a typical value for steels.

13-15

13-16

Noise

13.3 Noise
The noise generated by a flare may be broken down into 3 basic components: Combustion noise Jet noise Although the noise may be expressed in terms of an average value, it is frequency dependant. The shape of this noise spectrum is dependant upon whether the major contribution is due to combustion noise as in the case of pipeflares, or jet noise as in the case of sonic flares. The noise spectrum is generally given in 7 octave bands from 63 Hz to 8000 Hz. Attenuation of the noise occurs due to atmospheric absorption. This absorption is a function of the frequency of the noise with higher frequencies being more readily absorbed. Noise is expressed either in terms of the Sound Power Level (PWL) or the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) where these terms are defined by Equations 23 and 24.

W PWL = 10 log ------- W


0

(23)

P2 - SPL = 10 log ------- P 2 0

(24)

The international standard reference conditions are 10-12 Watts (W0) and 2 x 10-6 N/m2 (P0). In the case of a flare stack where the acoustic source may be considered to be in a free field with directivity factor of unity then

13-16

Calculation Methods

13-17

the Sound Pressure Level is related to the Sound Power Level by Equation 25.

SPL = PWL 20 log D 0.49 SPL A

(25)

Noise data predicted by the program refer to the Sound Power Level in all cases.

13.3.1 Combustion Noise


Combustion noise is a function of the heat release from the flame and the design of the flare tip. The calculation of the noise spectrum due to combustion is based upon a typical characteristic curve for the type of tip under consideration (pipe, sonic etc). An example of the shape is given by Figure 13-4 which gives the noise levels at a distance of 20 ft from a combustion source of power 81 MM btu/hr. The noise level at each frequency is then corrected for the actual combustion duty and distance from Equation 26.

Q - + SPL = SPL 20 + 10 log ------------------- 6 81 10 20 ----- 20log D SPL A

(26)

13-17

13-18

Noise

Figure 13-4, Typical Noise Combustion Spectrum

13.3.2 Jet Noise


The expansion of an unchoked gas stream will produce noise whose sound power at the peak frequency is determined from the kinetic energy and acoustic efficiency of the expanded jet according to Equation 27 [6].

juj PWL = V ----------2

2 (27)

The acoustic efficiency of the expanded jet is related to the jet velocity and whether or not the flow is choked.

13-18

Calculation Methods

13-19

If the flow is not choked, then the acoustic efficiency may be obtained from Figure 13-5. In this figure the dimensionless factor B is given by the equation:

j Tj 2 - ------ B = ----- T

(28)

Figure 13-5, Acoustic Efficiency For Normal Flow

If the flow is choked, then the acoustic efficiency may be obtained from Figure 13-6.

13-19

13-20

Noise

Figure 13-6, Acoustic Efficiency For Choked Flow

The expansion of a gas stream will produce noise which has a spectrum which peaks with a frequency calculated by a method due to MacKinnon [6].

0.2 mu s f max = ---------------dj

(29)

At frequencies other than the peak frequency the noise is calculated using Equation 30.

13-20

Calculation Methods

13-21

SPL i = SPL tot 10 f i 2 f max 4 - 1 + ---------- 5.3 log 1 + ------------ 2 f max 2 fi 13.3.3 Atmospheric Attenuation
At distances greater than approximately 100 ft, the noise becomes attenuated due to absorption by the atmosphere. The attenuation is a function of the frequency of the noise, with higher frequencies being more readily attenuated than lower ones. Figure 13-7 gives the attenuation of noise for a range of frequencies. This figure is strictly applicable only to still air at a temperature of 70 F and a relative humidity greater than 60%. Extension to temperatures in the range 40 F to 100 F may be made by increasing the attenuation by 10% for each 10 F below 70 F. (30)

13-21

13-22

Noise

Figure 13-7, Atmospheric Attenuation Of Noise

13-22

Calculation Methods

13-23

13.4 Nomenclature
13.4.1 Symbols
A a B c D d E F f H h L LHV l l1 l2 M m N K k P API flame length (ft) Empirical constant used in IMS method Dimensionless scaling parameter Flammability lean limit concentration Distance from flame midpoint to receptor (ft) Tip diameter (ft) Metal surface emissivity Fraction of heat radiated Frequency (Hz) Relative humidity (%) Heat transfer coefficient (btu/hr/ft2/(R) Flame length (ft) Lower heating value (btu/lb) Curvelinear flame length (ft) Constant in flame length equation Constant in flame length equation Molecular weight Mach number Number of burners in tip assembly Thermal radiation at receptor (btu/hr/ft2) Heat capacity ratio Pressure (psia) PWL Sound Power Level (W) Heat release based upon LHV (btu/hr) Q Universal gas constant R SPL Sound Pressure Level (dB) Temperature ((R) T Velocity (ft/s) u Volumetric flow (ft3/s) V W Flowrate (lb/hr) x Distance north of tip (ft) x' Horizontal plume distance factor y Distance east of tip (ft)
13-23

13-24

Nomenclature

Z z' z

Compressibility factor (-) Vertical plume distance factor Distance above tip (ft) Metal surface absorbtivity Angle between flame tangent and line of sight to receptor (degrees) Efficiency Rotation of flare from x axis (degrees) Angle of tip from vertical (degrees) Rotation of wind from x axis (degrees) Fluid density (lb/ft3) Stephan Boltzman constant (0.171 x 10-8 btu/hr/ft2/(R4) Transmissivity

13.4.2 Subscripts
A b c f Atmospheric attenuation Buoyancy Convective Correction Frequency band Integrated diffuse source Integrated mixed source Intergrated point source Jet exit Curvelinear length Metal Radiative Sonic Corrected for windchill Wind/atmospheric Corrected for transmissivity Reference condition At 20 ft from source

i
ids ims ips j l m r s w 0 20

13-24

Calculation Methods

13-25

13.5 References
1. API RP521, Guide For Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems, 4th ed, American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, 1997. Hajek, J.D. and Ludwig, E.E., How To Design Safe Flare Stacks, Part 1, Petro/Chem Engineer, 1960, Vol 32, No. 6, pp.C31-C38; Part2, Petro/Chem Engineer, 1960, Vol 32, No. 7, pp.C44-C51. Bruztowski, T.A. and Sommer, E.C. Jr., Predicting Radiant Heating From Flares, Proceedings - Division of Refining, Vol. 53, pp. 865-893, American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC, 1973. McMurray, R., Flare Radiation Estimated, Hydrocarbon Processing, Nov. 1982, pp. 175-181. Narasimhan, N.D., Predict Flare Noise, Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1986, pp. 133-136. MacKinnon, J.G., Recent Advances in Standardizing Valve Noise Prediction, Society of Instrument & Control Engineers, Tokyo, Sept. 1984.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

13-25

13-26

References

13-26

Graphic Report Layout

A-1

A Graphic Report Layout


Page
A.1 Introduction to XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3

A.2

Layout File Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Allowed Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 PageSize Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Text Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Unit Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Logo Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CaseData Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Line Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PlotArea Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 LegendArea Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ContourSet Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

A.2.1 A.2.2 A.2.3 A.2.4 A.2.5 A.2.6 A.2.7 A.2.8 A.2.9 A.2.10 A.2.11

A-1

A-2

A-2

Graphic Report Layout

A-3

The appearance of graphic reports produced by Flaresim is controlled by layout files. These files contain a list of instructions in a XML format that describe how data items, graphic items, background text, background lines and background graphics will appear on the report. This appendix describes the format of the layout files.

A-3

A-4

Introduction to XML

A.1 Introduction to XML


XML is a standardised markup language for describing structured data. The following description of the language is intended to introduce the terms used in this appendix. For a full description of the XML standard see http://www.w3.org/xml. The figure below shows a fragment of the XML language taken from one of the Flaresim layout files.
Figure A-1, XML File Fragment

The basic building block of a XML file is the element. An element is a data fragment that has a tag, attributes and data.

A.1.1 Tags
An elements tag can be thought of as its name. A tag enclosed in a pair of < > brackets starts the description of an element and the same tag preceded by a / character and enclosed in a pair of < > brackets ends the description of the element. For example, an element containing text data might be given the tag Description and would appear as follows <Description>The descriptive text</Description>. A XML file can contain more than one element with the same tag describing repeating data items. Tags are case sensitive, i.e. <description> is different to <Description>. Taking the XML fragment shown in Figure A-1 as an example, there are six elements in total with four unique tags namely <Text>, <Logo>, <CaseData> and <Var>. There are three <Text> elements.
A-4

Graphic Report Layout

A-5

A.1.2 Attributes
The attributes of an element can be thought of as data parameters or additional descriptions of the element. Attributes are defined within the < > brackets of the elements opening tag. A single attribute is introduced by a name followed by an = sign followed by the value of the attribute enclosed in quotes. For example our Description tag might be extended to have an attribute called Font to define the typeface to be used to print it thus. <Description Font=Arial>The descriptive text</Description> An element may have no attributes or multiple attributes. Attribute names are case sensitive i.e. Font is different to font. Taking the XML fragment shown in Figure A-1 as a further example, the <Text> elements there each have four attributes name X, Y, Font and Size.

A.1.3 Data
The data part of an element is contained between the opening tag and the closing tag. The data can be either text or another element. In our <Description> element example the data is the text The descriptive text. The data part of an element does not have to contain data, it can be empty if for example all of the data contained in an element is described through attributes. When the data part of an element is empty the closing / character can be included in the opening tag and the closing tag omitted thus. <Description Font=Arial/> Looking at our example XML fragment shown in Figure A-1 again, we can see that the data sections of the <Text> elements contain descriptive text, the data section of the <Logo> element contains a file name and the data section of the <CaseData> element contains another element introduced by the <Var> tag.

A-5

A-6

Layout File Structure

A.2 Layout File Structure


A Flaresim graphic report layout file must contain the following top level data elements in order to be recognised as a valid graphic report layout file <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?> This defines the version of the XML standard used to encode the file and the unicode character set used. This is a standard element that must appear as the first element in the file. <FlaresimLayout> This element is the top level data element that contains all other elements that define the layout of the graphic report.

A.2.1 Allowed Elements


The following element tags are recognised within the main <FlaresimLayout> element within the layout file. Each of these elements is described in more detail below.
Element Tag PageSize Text Unit Data Logo CaseData Line PlotArea LegendArea ContourSet Description Defines the overall dimensions Defines background text Defines units of measurement Defines data items Defines background graphics items Defines case description items Defines background lines Defines plot area and style Defines plot legend area and style Defines contour list and styles Number Single Multiple Multiple Multiple Multiple Multiple Multiple Single Single Single

A-6

Graphic Report Layout

A-7

A.2.2 PageSize Element


Description Defines the overall size of the plot to be produced. Attributes X Y Data Value None. Size of plot in X dimension in mm. Size of plot in Y dimension in mm.

A.2.3 Text Element


Description Defines individual items of background text to appear on the plot such as titles and headings. Attributes X Y Font Required - X position in mm of the left edge of the text Required - Y position in mm of the centre line of the text Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining text height as % of plot page height Optional - Text describing style of text Bold Italic BoldItalic

Size Style

Data Value The background text to be added to the plot.

A-7

A-8

Layout File Structure

A.2.4 Unit Element


Description Defines individual items of unit of measurement text to appear on the plot. Attributes X Y Font Required - X position in mm of the left edge of the unit text Required - Y position in mm of the centre line of the unit text Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining unit text height as % of plot page height Optional - Text describing style of unit text Bold Italic BoldItalic

Size Style

Data Value The name of the unit of measurement type to be output e.g. length, temperature. The full list of recognised type names is the same as the list of quantity names defined in the units.xml file as followstime, length, mass, temperature, sound, frequency, surface_area, volume, force, small_length, energy, pressure, velocity, plane_angle, fraction, percentage, power, mass_flow, mass_heat_capacity, mass_energy, heat_flux_density, heat_transfer_coefficient, mass_per_area, mass_density, volume_flow.

A.2.5 Data
Description Defines individual data items that will appear on the plot.

A-8

Graphic Report Layout

A-9

Attributes X Y Font

Size Style

Required - X position in mm of the left edge of the data value Required - Y position in mm of the centre line of the value Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining data value height as % of plot page height Optional - Text describing style of data value Bold Italic BoldItalic

Data Value A <Var> data element defining the data item to be output as follows.

A.2.5.1 Var Element


Description Identifies individual data item. Attributes Stack Tip Optional - index of stack which variable is associated with. Optional - index of tip which variable is associated with. Note this is the index of the tip on the specified stack i.e. a Tip index value of 1 denotes the first tip on the specified stack regardless of whether the tip is the first listed in the model.

A-9

A-10

Layout File Structure

Data Value A text string identifying the data item to be output. The list of data identifiers recognised is as follows.
Identifier WindSpeed WindDirection SolarRadiation Transmissivity Name Length AngleToHorizontal AngleToNorth Name Type NbrOfBurners Length Diameter AngleToHorizontal AngleToNorth MassFlow LHV MW CpCv Emissivity Temperature Stack Id Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Tip Id Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required

A-10

Graphic Report Layout

A-11

A.2.6 Logo Element


Description Defines individual graphic files to be output on the plot. This is usually used to include company logos etc in the plot. Attributes X1 Y1 X2 Y2 Required - X position in mm of the top left corner of the graphic item. Required - Y position in mm of the top left corner of the graphic item. Required - X position in mm of the bottom right corner of the graphic item. Required - Y position in mm of the bottom right corner of the graphic item.

Data Value A text string naming the graphic file to be included.

A.2.7 CaseData Element


Description Defines items of case description data that will appear on the plot. Attributes X1 Y1 X2 Y2 Font Required - X position in mm of the top left corner of the area for output of the data item. Required - Y position in mm of the top left corner of the area for output of the data item. Required - X position in mm of the bottom right corner of the area for output of the data item. Required - Y position in mm of the bottom right corner of the area for output of the data item. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining data item text height as % of plot height
A-11

Size

A-12

Layout File Structure

Style

Optional - Text describing style of data value Bold Italic BoldItalic

Data Value A text string defining the data item to be output. Recognised values are. Title DataFile Description LastModified Author Revision CheckedBy FSWVersion

A.2.8 Line Element


Description Defines background lines to be drawn on the plot. Typically these are used to frame areas of the report. Attributes X1 Y1 X2 Y2 LineWidth Data Value None Required - X position in mm of the first end of the line. Required - Y position in mm of the first end of the line. Required - X position in mm of the second end of the line. Required - Y position in mm of the second end of the line. Required - Line width in pixels.

A-12

Graphic Report Layout

A-13

A.2.9 PlotArea Element


Description Defines the area used to output the isopleth graph on the plot and sets the options used when drawing it. Attributes X1 Y1 X2 Y2 Required - X position in mm of the top left corner of the graph area. Required - Y position in mm of the top left corner of the graph area. Required - X position in mm of the bottom right corner of the graph area. Required - Y position in mm of the bottom right corner of the graph area.

Data Value Elements defining the options used to draw the isopleth graph as follows. Note one instance of each of these elements is required in the <PlotArea> data. None of these elements has any data value, all the required information is contained as attributes.

A.2.9.2 Grid Element


Description Describes how the background grid for the isopleth graph is to be drawn. Attributes Display Lines BackColour Required - defines whether grid is drawn. Allowed values are Yes or No. Required - defines number of grid lines within graph on each axid. Integer Required - defines colour of graph background. Value can be Transparent or one of the colours from Table A.1 below.

A-13

A-14

Layout File Structure

Table A.1, Allowed Colours Yellow Red Green Cyan Orange Lemon PaleGreen BlueGreen PaleBlue LightGrey MidGrey DarkGrey White Black Other colours may be defined using a hex code to define the RGB contributions as follows 0xRRGGBB where RR is red value, GG is green value and BB blue value in hex. For example 0xFF0000 is pure red.

A.2.9.3 Title Element


Description Defines how the isopleth graph title will be output. The title is the name of the receptor grid that the isopleth applies to. Attributes Display Space Font Required - defines whether title is included. Allowed values are Yes or No. Required - Vertical spacing allowed for title as a percentage of the Y range of the graph. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman

A-14

Graphic Report Layout

A-15

Size Style

Required - Value defining title text height as % of graph height. Optional - Text describing style of title text Bold Italic BoldItalic

A.2.9.4 Desc Element


Description Defines how the graph description will be output. The description identifies whether the graph is a radiation, noise or temperature isopleth and the current units of measurement. Attributes Display Space Font Required - defines whether description is included. Allowed values are Yes or No. Required - Vertical spacing allowed for description as a percentage of the Y range of the graph. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining description text height as % of graph height. Optional - Text describing style of description text Bold Italic BoldItalic

Size Style

A.2.9.5 XAxis Element


Description Defines how the isopleth X axis label will be output. Attributes Display Required - defines whether X axis label is included. Allowed values are Yes or No.
A-15

A-16

Layout File Structure

Space Font

Size Style

Required - Vertical spacing allowed for X axis label as a percentage of the Y range of the graph. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining title X axis label height as % of graph height. Optional - Text describing style of X axis label text Bold Italic BoldItalic

A.2.9.6 YAxis Element


Description Defines how the isopleth Y axis label will be output. Attributes Display Space Font Required - defines whether Y axis label is included. Allowed values are Yes or No. Required - Horizontal spacing allowed for Y axis label as a percentage of the X range of the graph. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining Y axis label height as % of graph height. Optional - Text describing style of Y axis label text Bold Italic BoldItalic

Size Style

A.2.9.7 Scale Element


Description Defines how the scale labels will be output.
A-16

Graphic Report Layout

A-17

Attributes Font

Size

Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining scale label height as % of graph height.

A.2.9.8 Flare Element


Description Defines how the stack, tip and flare will be drawn on the isopleth graph. Attributes Display Required - defines whether the flare will be drawn. Allowed values are Yes or No. FlameThick Required - defines thickness of line used to draw flame in pixels. FlameColour Required - defines colour of line used to draw flame. Allowed values are given in Table A.1. StackThick Required - defines thickness of line used to draw stack in pixels. StackColour Required - defines colour of line used to draw stack. Allowed values are given in Table A.1. TipThick Required - defines thickness of line used to draw tip in pixels. TipColour Required - defines colour of line used to draw tip. Allowed values are given in Table A.1.

A.2.10 LegendArea Element


Description Defines the area used to output the legend for the isopleth graph on the plot and sets the options used when drawing it.

A-17

A-18

Layout File Structure

Attributes X1 Y1 X2 Y2

Required - X position in mm of the top left corner of the legend data area. Required - Y position in mm of the top left corner of the legend data area. Required - X position in mm of the bottom right corner of the legend data area. Required - Y position in mm of the bottom right corner of the legend data area.

Data Value Elements defining the options used to draw the legend data on the isopleth graph as follows. Note one instance of each of these elements is required in the <LegendArea> data. None of these elements has any data value, all the required information is contained as attributes.

A.2.10.9 Layout Element


Description This defines the number of columns used to output the legend and the characteristics of the text part of the legend. Attributes NumCols Font Required - Integer defining number of colums to be used for drawing the legend. Required - Integer denoting font to be used for legend label 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining legend label height as % of legend data area height.

Size

A-18

Graphic Report Layout

A-19

A.2.10.10 Desc Element


Description Defines how the legend description will be output. The description identifies whether the graph is a radiation, noise or temperature isopleth as well as the units used. Attributes Display Font Required - defines whether description is included. Allowed values are Yes or No. Required - Integer denoting font to be used 0 = Arial 1 = Courier 2 = Times Roman Required - Value defining description text height as % of legend data area height. Optional - Text describing style of description text Bold Italic BoldItalic

Size Style

A.2.11 ContourSet Element


Description Defines the details of the contours to be output on the isopleth graph. Attributes UseLayout Required - Specifies whether the contour data from the layout file is to be used. Allowed values Yes or No. If set to Yes the contour data will be taken from the layout file. If not, the contour data will be taken from the current isopleth definition for the receptor grid.

Data Value Multiple elements defining the individual contour lines to be output. Up to 10 instances of <RadiationContour>, <NoiseContour> and <TemperatureContour> can be specified.

A-19

A-20

Layout File Structure

A.2.11.11 RadiationContour Element


Description Defines the details of a single radiation contour to be output on the isopleth graph. Attributes IsoValue Colour LineWidth Style Required - Specifies the radiation value of the isopleth contour in internal program units of W/m2. Required - Specifies the colour used to draw the contour. Allowed values are given in Table A.1. Required - Integer specifying the width of the line used to draw the contour in pixels. Required - Specifies the style of the line used to draw the contour. Allow values are. Solid Dashed Dotted DashDot DashDotDot

A.2.11.12 NoiseContour Element


Description Defines the details of a single noise contour to be output on the isopleth graph. Attributes IsoValue Colour LineWidth Style Required - Specifies the noise value of the isopleth contour in internal program units of dB. Required - Specifies the colour used to draw the contour. Allowed values are given in Table A.1. Required - Integer specifying the width of the line used to draw the contour in pixels. Required - Specifies the style of the line used to draw the contour. Allow values are. Solid Dashed Dotted

A-20

Graphic Report Layout

A-21

DashDot DashDotDot

A.2.11.13 TemperatureContour Element


Description Defines the details of a single temperature contour to be output on the isopleth graph. Attributes IsoValue Colour LineWidth Style Required - Specifies the temperature value of the isopleth contour in internal program units of K. Required - Specifies the colour used to draw the contour. Allowed values are given in Table A.1. Required - Integer specifying the width of the line used to draw the contour in pixels. Required - Specifies the style of the line used to draw the contour. Allow values are. Solid Dashed Dotted DashDot DashDotDot

A-21

A-22

Layout File Structure

A-22