Sie sind auf Seite 1von 362

Revelation and Falsication

Texts and Studies on n the Qur"a


Editorial Board

Gerhard Bwering (Yale University) Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Bryn Mawr College)

VOLUME 4

Revelation and Falsication


The Kit ab al-qir a" at of Ahmad b. . r Muhammad al-Sayya .

Critical Edition with an Introduction and Notes by

Etan Kohlberg and Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

LEIDEN BOSTON 2009

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Arabic Typesetting: Thomas Milo and Titus Nemeth Typeset with DecoType Emiri and DecoType Naskh in WinSoft Tasmeem Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sayyari, Ahmad ibn Muhammad, 9th cent. [Qiraat] Revelation and falsication : the Kitab al-qiraat of Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyari / critical edition with an introduction and notes by Etan Kohlberg and Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi. p. cm. (Texts and studies on the Quran) Text in Arabic; introd. and apparatus in English. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 978-90-04-16782-7 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. KoranReadingsEarly works to 1800. 2. ShiahDoctrinesEarly works to 1800 I. Kohlberg, Etan. II. Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. III. Title. IV. Series. BP131.5.S39 2009 297.1224042dc22 2008047448

ISSN: 1567-2808 ISBN: 978 90 04 16782 7 Copyright 2009 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. printed in the netherlands

CONTENTS

Preface and Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Issues Raised by Western Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Information, Doubts and Contradictions in Islamic Sources. 3. Im am Views on the Question of the Falsication of the n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qur"a 4. Life and Works of al-Sayy ar ................................... 5. Structure and Contents of the Kit ab al-qir a" at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. The Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1. The Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3. Further Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4. Principles of the Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1.Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2.Technical Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 12 24 30 38 46 46 50 51 51 51 53

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 List of Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 nic Quotations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Index of Qur"a

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the early #Abb asid period a number of Muslim scholars, both Sunn and Sh # , composed works specically devoted to variant readings of n. Most of these works are now known to us only by name or the Qur"a from citations in later sources. One of the earliest to have survived in its entirety is the work presented in this volume, the Kit ab al-qir a" at (= KQ ) by the Sh # author Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayy ar (3rd/9th century). . . This composition, also known as Kit ab al-tanz l wa-l-tah f (The Book of . r n]) or al-Tafs Revelation and Falsication [of the Qur"a r (Commentary n), is among the oldest Im on the Qur"a am Sh # texts to have reached us. For some Sh # s the subject of qir a" at has an even greater signicance than for the Sunn s. These are Sh # s who believe that the text of the n was intentionally corrupted in order to delete all reference Qur"a to the rights of #Al and his successors. Such views, though not often expressed in recent decades, were widely held in the rst centuries of Islam. In the work presented here, al-Sayy ar quotes many passages n where the text is alleged to have been altered. For from the Qur"a this reason, KQ is of major importance both for the doctrinal history of Sh #ism and, more generally, for the history of the redaction of the n. Qur"a Copies of the rst two manuscripts of KQ which we saw (mss. M and T) were obtained by Amir-Moezzi, and it was as a result of his initiative that, in 2002, we began the preparation of an edition. Working jointly, we produced a rst draft of the Arabic text, and tracked down a few of the Sh # sources in which similar material appears. At this stage, we gained access to copies of two further manuscripts (mss. B and L), which necessitated a major revision of the text. This work, together with the composition of the Notes, was carried out by Kohlberg. We divided up the writing of the Introduction: sections 1 to 3 are by AmirMoezzi, and 4 to 6 are by Kohlberg. It is our pleasant duty to thank those who have contributed to the making of this book (although it goes without saying that we alone are responsible for all errors and oversights). Photocopies of the manuscripts were supplied to us both by the ocials of various Iranian

viii

preface and acknowledgements

libraries and by some of our Iranian colleagues. We would like to express to all these our heartfelt gratitude for their generosity, and to salute here their devotion to the spirit of disinterested scholarship and international cooperation. Frank Stewart gave the entire text written by Kohlberg a close reading and, as so often in the past, made numerous suggestions that have improved both its style and content. Simon Hopkins and Wilferd Madelung willingly responded to questions relating to the Arabic text. Others who have helped us in various ways include Meir M. Bar-Asher, Rmy Boucharlat, Rainer Brunner, Michael Cook, Patricia Crone, Hassan Farhang Ansari, Gerd Graho, Fariborz Hakami, Isaac Hasson, Bernard Haykel, Philippe Homann, Judith Loebenstein-Witztum, Sabine Schmidtke, and the stas of the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London. We are grateful to our editors Jane Dammen McAulie and Gerhard Bwering for their helpful advice. Special thanks go to our families for their patient support throughout the years in which work on this project was in progress.

INTRODUCTION*

The prophet M an , presenting himself as a successor of Buddha, Zoroaster and Jesus, put forward in Sh ab urg anthe only Iranian text attributed to himtwo main reasons for the decadence and corruption of past religions. The rst is that each messenger preached only in his own country and his own language. The second reason is that these messengers did not write down their teachings in a book ne varietur, as a result of which these teachings remained intact only as long as the messengers were alive; upon their death the community, having split into sects, falsied these sacred texts and led religion into decadence.1 M an thus shares with the modern scholar certain fundamental notions regarding scriptures: these are that scriptures are subject to changes due to social, geographic and linguistic factors, historical events, the vagaries of reception and of the writing of transmission; in short, that they have a history and that the alteration of the prophetic message, its falsication according to M an , is an integral part of this history. The concept of alteration also lies at the heart of the text of al-Sayy ar , and will be addressed in the following pages. The aim is to place the text of al-Sayy ar within the broader context of early discussions and polemical nic text held between Muslim scholars of various debates on the Qur"a political-religious persuasions. These fruitful exchanges, revealing an unexpected plurality of views, were passed over in silence by later orthodoxy, for obvious ideological reasons.

* An earlier version of the Introduction was published in French (Amir-MoezziKohlberg, Rvlation et falsication). 1 See Schmidt, Kephalaia, pp. 78; Asmussen, Manichaean Literature, p. 12; Puech, ar, p. 207 (cf. pp. 23 and Manichisme, pp. 8889. See also the accounts in B r un , Ath 27) = B r un , Chronology, p. 190.

introduction 1. Issues Raised by Western Studies

The notion of the falsication of sacred scriptures of the past is known n itself (e.g. Q 2:59, 2:75, 2:159, 2:174, 4:46, 6:91 and from the Qur"a n may, other verses which are often interpreted in this sense). The Qur"a either directly or indirectly, have inherited it from the Manichaeans, or perhaps from the pagans (Celsus, Porphyry, Emperor Julian), the Christians (Tatian, Marcion), the Samaritans and the Ebionites, all of whom used this notion to discredit their adversaries and their adversaries scriptures.2 The issue of falsication of the revelations received by the Prophet Muhammad is of course closely linked to the history . n and the date at which it was put into writing. Evidently, of the Qur"a the nearer the denitive redaction of the text is to the time of revelation, the lesser the risk of alteration. This is the main reason why the most widespread orthodox traditions maintain that the decision to n was made during the time of Ab collect the Qur"a u Bakr, just after the Prophets death in 11/632, and that the ocial version, completely faithful to the revelations received by Muhammad, was produced dur. ing the caliphate of #Uthm an, barely thirty years after the death of the Prophet. Against this background it is important to investigate when n was put into writing in the and under what circumstances the Qur"a form conventionally known as the #Uthm anic codex. It would be natural to turn rst to the manuscript tradition of the n, but thus far this has not proved very helpful. There is no autoQur"a 3 or his scribes. The oldest complete manuscripts graph of Muhammad . n probably go back to the 3rd/9th century; there are some of the Qur"a n, but their fragmentary rare older manuscripts of parts of the Qur"a nature makes precise dating dicult. The few fragments which have come down to us on papyrus or parchment have been dated by some scholars to the end of the rst or beginning of the second century hijra, but this dating is not accepted by all. For over a century now, no particular theory about the date of the earliest manuscripts has gained unanimous scholarly approval.4
2 See Andrae, Origines, pp. 203204; Caspar, Textes; Baarda, Harmonization; Stroumsa, Savoir, pp. 238242; Petersen, Diatessaron, pp. 7576; Simon, M an , pp. 134 138; Hengel, Gospels, pp. 24.; EI 2, art. Tahr f (H. Lazarus-Yafeh). . 3 The meaning illiterate given to the term umm and hence the dogma of the illiteracy of the Prophet are almost certainly late. See Goldfeld, Prophet; Calder, Umm ; Rubin, Beholder, pp. 2330 and index, s.v. umm . 4 E.g. GdQ, III, pp. 249274 (chapter 3: Die Koranhandschriften); Grohmann,

introduction

In looking for an answer, we therefore have to turn to other sources of information, beginning with studies of the historical philology of the nic text, which in turn form part of the critical study of the hisQur"a tory of writing in Islam. Already in the 19th century, Alois Sprenger, in his famous biography of Muhammad, opted for the late dating of . book production strictly speaking, distinguishing between notes or aidemmoires, which are very old, and actual books, which he dated to the 2nd3rd/8th9th centuries.5 This thesis was taken up and elaborated by Ignaz Goldziher in his masterly study on the formation and development of the corpus of Had th.6 It was subjected to criticism, some of . 7 it justied; yet it remained predominant among scholars until the mid20th century.8 A turning point was reached in the 1960s, when serious doubts arose concerning the theory of the late book. One reason for these doubts was the publication of two monumental works arguing that Muslim scholars systematically wrote down texts from a very early period. The rst of these works was Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri by Nabia Abbott,9 the second Fuat Sezgins Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. The authors of both works maintained that Arabs wrote down poetry as early as the pre-Islamic period, and that a written corpus began to develop from the advent of Islam and particularly during the Umayyad period, i.e. approximately between 40/660 and 132/750. This view regarding the antiquity of the book was subjected to lengthy and learned discussions, particularly in Germany. Among its critics one may cite Rudolf Sellheim and Stefan Leder.10 Others, including Manfred Fleischhammer, Walter Werkmeister and Sebastian Gnther, opted for the antiquity of certain forms of systematic writing, without going so far as to defend the theses of Abbott and Sezgin.11 Gregor Schoeler, a

Dating; Droche, Manuscrits, introduction; idem, Sicle, particularly pp. 343365; idem, Livre, pp. 1318; Neuwirth, Koran, p. 112; Puin, Observations; Motzki, Collection, p. 2. 5 Sprenger, Mohammad, III, pp. xciiiciv. See also idem, Traditionswesen, pp. 56. . 6 Goldziher, Muslim Studies, II, pp. 15251 (On the Development of the Had . th). 7 As implicitly in the case of Martin Hartmann; see his Handschriften, pp. 240. 8 The most important studies defending the thesis of the late dating of books include Schacht, Revaluation; idem, Origins, passim; idem, Magh az , pp. 290293; Sauvaget, Introduction, pp. 2931; Blachre, Histoire, I, pp. 100105, 136140. 9 Abbott, Studies ; see also idem, Rise. 10 Sellheim, Materialien, I, pp. 3343; idem, Oenbarungserlebnis; Leder, Korpus. 11 Fleischhammer, Quellen (a revised version of the authors Quellenuntersuchungen zum . Kit ab al-ag an , Habilitationsschrift, Halle, 1965); Werkmeister, Quellenuntersuchungen, pp. 348, 465 .; Gnther, Maq atil ; idem, Results.

introduction

specialist on the transmission of texts in Islam, has considerably rened the approach to the problem in numerous articles published mainly in the journal Der Islam. Introducing the pair syngramma-hypomn ema borrowed from the Greek, Schoeler makes (inter alia) an apt distinction between the act of writing, which does not always imply a written publication, and the later act of publishing, which for a long period only occurs orally.12 The second reason for doubting the theory of the late book was the discovery and publication, in the past few decades, of a large number of early sources, some of them of considerable size and dating mainly from the second half of the 2nd/8th century, such as al-Ridda wa-l-fut uh . annaf by #Abd . by Sayf b. #Umar (d. ca. 180/796),13 al-Mus n al-Razz aq al-San (d. 211/827) and al-Mus annaf f l-a h ad th wa-l- ath ar . #a . . by Ibn Ab Shayba (d. 235/849).14 The existence of such large-scale systematic works seems to indicate that the literary tradition of writing is very old and goes back at least to the beginning of the second or even to the late rst century hijra. Similar questions are faced by specialists of the text and history of n. One of the main problems here is the the redaction of the Qur"a gap between the date traditionally given for the denitive recording n in writing (during #Uthm of the Qur"a ans caliphate, 2335/644656) and the earliest sources in which this date is mentioned. Attempts to come to grips with this problem gave rise to two main methodological approaches: the hypercritical and the critical, to use Schoelers terminology.15 The following is a very brief survey of some key arguments and important gures associated with these two approaches. The hypercritical method is used by scholars who either totally or almost totally reject the Muslim textual tradition. The points raised by these scholars include the following: the transmission of a written text is subject to the wear and tear of time, and contradictions exist in the transmission of works by even a single author; there is no independent

12 Schoeler, Frage; idem, Weiteres; idem, Thora; idem, Schreiben; idem, Charakter, index, s.vv. hypomn emata, syngramma; idem, Ecrire, passim and especially the Introduction. 13 For the debate regarding the attribution of this work to Sayf see Landau-Tasseron, Sayf ; S amarr a" , Reappraisal. 14 Al-Sh ah ns edition of Ibn Ab Shaybas work, which is the one used here, comprises nine volumes; so does the edition of S.M. al-Lah . h . am, Beirut, 1409/1989. The Hyderabad, 13861403/19661983 edition comprises 15 volumes. 15 Schoeler, Ecrire, pp. 1012; cf. idem, Charakter, pp. 925.

introduction

authority guaranteeing the authenticity of the transmission; there are historically implausible reports, accounts that are clearly legendary, and so on. As early as the beginning of the 20th century, Leone Caetani in his now classic Annali and Henri Lammens in a famous, rather polemical study on the S ra of the Prophet, adopted this approach.16 They were followed by the Arabist and Syriacist Alphonse Mingana, n.17 Taking beginning with his study on the transmission of the Qur"a up and considerably elaborating on the theories of Paul Casanova concerning the fundamental role played by the Umayyad caliph #Abd al-Malik b. Marw an (r. 6586/685705) and his governor al-Hajj . aj 18 b. Y usuf in establishing the nal recension of the Qur"an, Mingana emphasized the unreliable character of Islamic sources regarding the n. In his view, a gap of almost history of the redaction of the Qur"a two centuries separates the time of the Prophet from the oldest sources n, namely which provide accounts of the writing down of the Qur"a the Tabaq at by Ibn Sa#d (d. 230/845) and the S h ar . . ah . . by al-Bukh (d. 256/870).19 Mingana meticulously examined a number of Syriac sources of oriental Christian provenance composed during the rst two n centuries of Islam, concluding that an ocial version of the Qur"a could not have existed before the end of the seventh century C.E. and that this version, called the #Uthm anic codex, must be dated to the reign of #Abd al-Malik. The hypercritical approach was shared by other renowned scholars such as Joseph Schacht20 and Rgis Blachre,21 culminating in the two celebrated books by John Wansbrough: Quranic Studies and The Sectarian Milieu. Like his predecessors, Wansbrough rejects outright the historic n and ity of traditional Muslim accounts on the recension of the Qur"a assumes that the Qur"an could not have reached its denitive shape before the end of the 2nd/8th or beginning of the 3rd/9th century. For reasons which will be mentioned below, this very late dating was subsequently dismissed not only by opponents of the hypercritical method,
Caetani, Annali, I, pp. 28., 57; Lammens, Qoran. Mingana, Transmission. 18 Casanova, Mohammed, pp. 103142. 19 Mingana could not of course have known that after his time much older sources (such as those referred to above) would be discovered. 20 See above, note 8. Schacht, to be precise, applied this method to the study of n may go back Had th. Curiously enough, he did not challenge the view that the Qur"a . to Muhammad or that it could constitute the best source for studying Muhammads . . life. 21 Especially in Mahomet.
16 17

introduction

but also by Wansbroughs continuators on the methodological level, Patricia Crone and Michael Cook. Basing themselves on the inscriptions at the Dome of the Rock and in particular on non-Islamic works, they arrived in eect at the same conclusion as Mingana regarding the n, namely the period of dating of the nal ocial version of the Qur"a #Abd al-Malik.22 For their part, upholders of the critical method consider it possible, on the basis of scientic examination, to make judicious distinctions, within the Islamic textual tradition, between accounts that are more or less credible and those that are not. Here the main problem is of course nding adequate criteria for making such distinctions. Determining the political-religious orientation of a particular author or the environment in which a particular text emerged could serve as one such criterion. The critical method was adopted by most great scholars of the 19th and 20th centuries. They include, rst of all, Theodor Nldeke who, in his renowned Geschichte des Qor ans (published in 1860), accepted the tra n; in this he was folditional Muslim account of the history of the Qur"a lowed by the continuators of his work, Gotthelf Bergstrsser and Otto Pretzl. However, Friedrich Schwally, author of the revised edition of the book (19091938), following the methods which Goldziher applied to the study of Had th, rejected a good number of traditional accounts . (such as the one about the rst collection being made by Ab u Bakr, or n). He only retained the account about the Qurash dialect of the Qur"a n was given its nal form the theses that a substantial part of the Qur"a during the days of the Prophet himself and that the denitive collec n took place during #Uthm tion of the Qur"a ans caliphate.23 The critical approach was to nd some distinguished defenders in Great Britain. Thus Richard Bell considered the verses as the original units of revelation and advocated the theory that there were numerous revisions n at a very early period, for the most part immediately of the Qur"a

Crone-Cook, Hagarism, pp. 1718 and especially the relevant notes; cf. also Cook, Koran, chapters 11 and 13. For the application of the hypercritical method to the study of the history of early Islam see Crone, Slaves; eadem, Trade; Cook, Dogma; idem, Muhammad ; see also Hawting, Origins; idem, Dynasty; Chabbi, Seigneur. For the n see Lling, Ur-Qur" application of this method to the history and text of the Qur"a an (earlier than Wansbrough); Rippin, Qur" an. 23 GdQ, II (= F. Schwally, Die Sammlung des Qor ans), pp. 1121; Schwally, Betrachtungen. Schwallys analyses were at least partially taken up by Angelika Neuwirth, for example in her Mekkanische Suren. See also the critical approach of Weil, Einleitung, pp. 55 .
22

introduction

24 after the death of Muhammad. Bell was followed by Montgomery . Watt25 and Robert B. Serjeant.26 Another British scholar, John Burton, adopted the critical approach in one of his books, The Collection of the Qur" an, published in 1977, the same year as Wansbroughs Quranic Studies. Although both scholars base themselves on the methods of Goldziher and Schacht in questioning the credibility of the Islamic tradition con n, Burton reaches cerning the dating and nal redaction of the Qur"a entirely dierent conclusions from Wansbrough. Accounts according to which the codex was rst collected during Ab u Bakrs time and then during the time of #Uthm an are rejected by Burton as ideologically motivated inventions of later jurists; instead he makes a distinction n document and a later Qur"a n source,27 between a very old Qur"a nic text as we know it was put together in the concluding that the Qur"a time of Muhammad himself. . Among the many proponents of the critical method one may also mention Alford T. Welch,28 Rudi Paret29 and Gregor Schoeler, who in this eld clearly sees himself as a continuator of Nldeke.30 Schoeler rejects Wansbroughs hypotheses on the denitive recension of the n with reference to a famous Qur"a n fragment from San " and Qur"a . #a the ndings of the study group led by Gerd-R. Puin. This group, using " manuscript the carbon-14 dating technique, suggested that this San . #a was written between 37/657 and 71/690, thus not long after the time of #Uthm an.31 The problem is that, for want of a scientic edition, it is still not known whether the numerous fragments of this manuscript repre n. Remarkably, several decades after the sent the entire text of the Qur"a n Puin and his colleagues have only published a discovery of this Qur"a few brief articles on this subject.32

Bell, Qur" an, especially the introduction. Watt, Dating; idem, Bells Introduction; idem, Mecca, introduction. 26 Serjeant, Prose. 27 Burton, Collection, pp. 187, 225240. 28 EI 2, art. Kur"a . n (V, pp. 400429); idem, Understanding. 29 Paret, bersetzung ; idem, Kommentar. 30 Schoeler, Ecrire, pp. 1214. See also his other works cited above, note 12. 31 E.g. Schoeler, Ecrire, p. 12. 32 Notably Puin, Methods; idem, Observations; von Bothmer, Wege. The reason given for the paucity of studies on this manuscript is the reserved attitude of the Yemeni authorities and the many obstacles they place before scholars. Is it not because this manuscript contains signicant variants in relation to the ocial version of n? The studies mentioned earlier in this note gingerly point out a few: apart the Qur"a from some minor orthographic and lexicographical variants, 22 % of the 926 groups of fragments studied present a sequence of S uras completely dierent from that known
24 25

introduction

The method of those upholding the critical approach may be summarized as follows: an early source or tradition should be considered authentic and its contents trustworthy as long as no specic reason for rejecting it has been found. Michael Cook, the well-known representative of the hypercritical method, states that this may be the right approach, but notes that it may equally be the case that we are nearer the mark in rejecting whatever we do not have specic reason to accept.33 Harald Motzki, representing the critical approach, nicely illustrates the major dierences among Western scholars concerning n by reporting, in chronologthe dating of the nal version of the Qur"a ical order, the conclusions which four leading scholars reached in their studies: Schwally dates this version to the time of the caliph #Uthm an; Mingana, to the caliphate of #Abd al-Malik; Wansbrough, to the beginning of the 3rd/9th century; and Burton, to the lifetime of the prophet 34 Muhammad. . Apart from issues raised by the Islamic textual tradition, other ele nic text itself, have also proved problemments, pertaining to the Qur"a atic for Arabists. Such is the case with words and expressions whose meaning is obscure, not only for modern specialists but also for medieval Muslim scholars. The numerous commentaries composed by these nic scholars record a wide variety of dierent interpretations of Qur"a words and phrases, revealing uncertainty if not downright ignorance of the meaning. This is the case for example with the expression jizya #an yad (Q 9:29), whose critical analysis ranges from the pioneering study by Franz Rosenthal35 to the recent detailed examination by Uri Rubin.36 The journal Arabica served for years as a forum for learned discussions about this expression, with contributions by Claude Cahen, Meir M. Bravmann and Meir J. Kister.37 Similarly, the various ways in which the exegetes explain the word l af in S ura 106 (Quraysh)

today; the division into verses corresponds to none of the twenty-one known systems. It is striking that the sequence of S uras is very similar to that of the codices of Ubayy and d, both of which were held in particularly high esteem by the #Alids. See also Ibn Mas#u the comments in Cook, Koran, p. 120; Fedeli, Manuscripts. 33 Cook, Muhammad, p. 67. 34 Motzki, Collection, p. 12. See also the overview by Fck, Qur"a ntext. 35 Rosenthal, Problems, pp. 6872. 36 Rubin, #An yadin; see now idem, Qur"a n and Poetry. 37 Cahen, Coran IX-29; Bravmann, Qur"a n IX-29; idem, Background (these two articles were revised and updated in idem, Islam); Kister, #An yadin.

introduction

have been discussed by Birkeland, Cook, Crone and Rubin.38 The exegetical uncertainty over the term kal ala (Q 4:12) was subjected to a detailed examination by David Powers in several articles,39 and the problematic character of the term al-s ura 112 (al-Ikhl as .) was . amad in S noted by Rosenthal, Paret, Schedl, Rubin, Ambros and others.40 One could add to the list the word h f, the famous opening letters (al. an 41 ab l, sijj l and al-q ari #a, and many faw atih uras, the terms ab . ) of some S more.42 The kind of problems faced by Muslim commentators and modern philologists alike can be demonstrated by a particularly signicant case: the word kawthar, which appears in the very short S ura 108, of which it is also the title. In a recent suggestive article, Claude n commentator Gilliot has shown that the great theologian and Qur"a al-M atur d (d. 333/944) was unsure of its meaning, putting forward four hypotheses in his Ta"w l at al-qur" an: (1) abundance (as a metaphor for Muhammads prophetic mission); (2) a river in paradise; (3) some. thing mysterious which God gave Muhammad and about which oth. ers have no knowledge; (4) a word borrowed from ancient books (alatur d , the theologian Ab u Bakr alkutub al-mutaqaddima).43 Before al-M As amm (d. 200 / 816 or 201 / 817 ), cited by al-Tha # lab in his al-Kashf . wa-l-bay an, considered kawthar to be a word originating in (the books of) ancient prophecy and meaning preference/election (huwa kalima min al-nubuwwa al- ul a wa-ma #n ah a al- th ar ).44 As Gilliot notes, the term is a crux interpretum which Muslim scholars, as well as Western experts n, have had diculty understanding. He and translators of the Qur"a believes that the view attributed to al-As .amm, as well as the last hypothesis put forward by al-M atur d , support the theory advanced by ChrisBirkeland, pp. 102121; Cook, Muhammad, pp. 7173; Crone, Trade, pp. 205211 af . and index; Rubin, Il 39 Powers, Law; idem, Will; idem, Abrogation (articles revised and updated in idem, Studies). 40 Rosenthal, Problems, pp. 7283; Kbert, Gottesepitheton; Newby, Ikhl as .; Paret, Ausdruck; Schedl, Probleme; Rubin, Samad; Ambros, Analyse; Cuypers, . Lecture. 41 For han yya. For the . . f, see e.g. Gil, Opposition; idem, Creed; Rubin, Han opening letters, see e.g. Bellamy, Letters. 42 Cook, Koran, pp. 136138. See also Torrey, Passages; Bellamy, Emendations. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur" an is an excellent reference work for these words and expressions, as well as for the questions which they raise. See further Puin, Leuke Kome. 43 M atur d , X, p. 627. 44 Gilliot, Embarras, pp. 5254. Gilliot explains that th ar refers to the choice or election of the Biblical prophets (Embarras, p. 53, note 127).
38

10

introduction

toph Luxenberg about the Syriac provenance of kawthar. According to Luxenberg, this word has remained incomprehensible because it is an Arabicized deformation of a Syriac term (kutt ar a/kut ar a) meaning stabil ity, persistence, perseverance. In general, all of S ura 108, highly enigmatic if not unintelligible, is a deformation of a Syriac liturgy in his view.45 Without necessarily accepting all of these points of view, one can appreciate how this example illustrates the scope of the problem and the numerous possible avenues of investigation. n, the funAs concerns the evolution of the redaction of the Qur"a damental question is this: why is it that Muslim scholars from a very early period, namely a few decades after the Prophets death, did not know (or no longer knew) the meaning of these words, expressions and n, Michael Cook puts foropening letters? In his book on the Qur"a ward two possible answers: either the materials which make up the n did not become available as a scripture until several decades Qur"a n after the Prophets death; or else, much of what appears in the Qur"a was already old by the time of the Prophet.46 The precise reasons for this phenomenon remain far from clear, though it can be assumed that n proceeded by successive waves. This will be the redaction of the Qur"a discussed further below. nic text concerns the legal eld. In Another break with the Qur"a his pathbreaking work, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, Joseph Schacht notes that Islamic law from the second century hijra onwards nic.47 Subsequent studies have argued that less is surprisingly non-Qur"a than a century after the days of the Prophet, important aspects of the nic (as maintained by Schacht) law had become not only non-Qur"a nic. These studies include John Burton but at times squarely anti-Qur"a on the laws of inheritance, the rights of widows and the stoning of adulterers;48 David Powers on the laws of inheritance;49 Harald Motzki on the muh at/muh at of Q 4:24;50 Gerald Hawting on the rights of a .s . an .s . in divorced woman during her waiting period ( #idda);51 Patricia Crone
Luxenberg, Lesart, pp. 269. For a critical review of this book see Hopkins, Review. For an anthropological and historical interpretation of S ura 108 see Chabbi, Seigneur, pp. 240246 and notes (pp. 555556, 572). See also Saleh, Formation, pp. 119 124; van Reeth, Vignoble; the Notes to KQ, no. 702. 46 Cook, Koran, pp. 137138. 47 Schacht, Origins, p. 5 and passim. 48 Burton, Collection, pp. 55, 61, 7285. 49 See above, note 39. 50 Motzki, Muhsan . . at. 51 Hawting, Role.
45

introduction

11

on the word kit ab in Q 24:33, here meaning marriage contract.52 nic In all the cases studied, the overall impression is that the Qur"a injunctions or those attributed to Muhammad were disregarded or . never implemented. Possible reasons may include the late and non n and the extensive use of ra"y consensual nal redaction of the Qur"a (the personal opinion of the jurist which is not directly based on the n). The question remains open. Qur"a Problems of this nature underlie the hypercritical approach. It will be useful to summarize here the theses of its most radical and best known n originated proponent, John Wansbrough.53 In his view, the Qur"a neither in Arabia nor in Islam. The Arabs had not established a new religious community of their own when they left their homeland to conquer other territories. It was outside Arabia that they found, after the conquests, a sectarian milieu in the Middle East, more precisely in #Ir aq, and began gradually to adopt this milieu and adapt it to themselves by rewriting its history and Arabicizing its evolution. In n emerged from a variety of sources in a process this manner, the Qur"a in which the popular preachers (q as as .s . , pl. qus .s . . ) played a major role. Indeed, the popular sermon is said to have been the means both for transmitting and explicating the so-called prophetic sayings, which n, which owed its largely derived from this sectarian milieu. The Qur"a origin to this composite material, only very gradually detached itself from it. It took shape at such a slow pace that the date of its denitive version cannot be earlier than ca. 184/800, during the early #Abb asid period. Although Wansbroughs arguments are often convincing and his theories pertinent and evocative, his dating of the nal version of the n no longer seems tenable. The reasons, in addition to those Qur"a given above, have to do with certain discoveries in the elds of codi " manuscript, cology, archaeology and epigraphy: apart from the San . #a there is the fragment from Khirbet el-Mird described by Grohmann and identied by Kister as comprising a citation of Q 3:102103; the fragment thus seems to prove that a xed text already existed towards the end of the Umayyad period.54 Another pointer in this direction is the Nubian papyrus datable to 141/758, analysed and translated by nic citations preceded Hinds and Sakkout, which contains two Qur"a
52 53 54

Crone, Problems. In his two above-mentioned works, Quranic Studies and Sectarian Milieu. Grohmann, Papyri, especially pp. xixii; Kister, Fragment.

12

introduction

by the formula And God, may He be gloried and exalted, says in His book.55 Furthermore, coins dating from the Umayyad period and studied by Crone and Hinds identify Muhammad as Messenger of God . nic quotations.56 To this there may be added the literor include Qur"a ary tradition and some textual evidence. Reports about the systematic n, especially during the caliphates of Ab collection of the Qur"a u Bakr and #Uthm an, are found in sources as early as the above-mentioned ami # by #Abdall ah b. al-Ridda wa-l-fut uh . by Sayf b. #Umar,57 the al-J (d. 204/820),59 and Kit ab Wahb (d. 197/812),58 the Musnad by al-Tay . alis 60 fad a " il al-qur " a n by Ab u # Ubayd al-Q a sim b. al-Sall a m (d. 224 / 838 ). . In The Collection of the Qur"an, Motzki convincingly demonstrates that almost all of these reports go back to the scholar and traditionist Ibn Shih ab al-Zuhr (d. 124/742).61 This again takes us back to the time of the rst Marw anid Umayyads, as Mingana had maintained.62 Though this is quite an early date, it is nevertheless many decades later than the time of the third caliph. These decades witnessed rapid changes which under other conditions would have taken centuries, given the enormous consequences of the civil wars and the great and brilliant conquests that transformed the face of history and deeply inuenced the mentality of early Muslims. 2. Information, Doubts and Contradictions in Islamic Sources Not unlike Western research, the Islamic textual tradition also exhibits much disagreement. The conicting views seem to indicate that the n in writing was much later than denitive recording of the Qur"a Muslim orthodoxy was eventually to claim.
Hinds-Sakkout, Letter, especially p. 218. Crone-Hinds, Gods Caliph, pp. 2426. See also Cook, Dogma, pp. 1618 and, more recently, Droche, Colonnes, pp. 227230. 57 For reports about the collection of the Qur"a n, see Sayf, Ridda, pp. 48., especially nos. 50, 52. 58 Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, pp. 274279 (fol 5b6b). 59 Tay , Musnad, p. 3. . alis 60 There are three editions of this work: ed. W.S. Gh awij , Beirut, 1411/1991 (in two volumes); ed. A. al-Khayy at , al-Muhammadiyya (Morocco), 1415/1995 (used in the . . Notes); ed. M. al-#At .iyya et al., Damascus, 1415/1995. For the question discussed here, see the rst two chapters of Ab u #Ubayds work. 61 Motzki, Collection, pp. 2229. 62 See above, p. 5.
55 56

introduction

13

Let us rst briey examine the most widespread account in Islamic n.63 According tradition on the collection and writing down of the Qur"a to the predominant version of this account, at the time of the Prophets n, let alone one which death there was no complete codex of the Qur"a had been authorized by him. Extracts of diering length and written on various materials were kept by his Companions. On the advice of the future second caliph #Umar a rst recension was initiated by the rst caliph Ab u Bakr and, after initial reluctance, was compiled by the Prophets scribe Zayd b. Th abit. The resulting exemplar was what tradition often refers to as the codex between the two boards (al-mus m a bayn al-daatayn). After #Umars death this copy .h . af alladh remained in the possession of his family as his daughter Haf . s .a, one of the Prophets wives, inherited it. Besides this codex other corpora were produced, due to initiatives taken by some major gures, the bestknown among them being #Al b. Ab T ah . alib, Ubayy b. Ka#b, #Abdall d and Ab b. Mas#u u M us a al-Ash#ar . The third caliph #Uthm an, acting on the advice of his famous general Hudhayfa b. al-Yam an, ordered . n, known as the the establishment of an ocial recension of the Qur"a model codex (al-mus h af al-im a m ) or the # Uthm a nic codex (al-mus . af al.. .h #uthm an ). The task again fell to Zayd b. Th abit, aided this time by a commission composed of men from Quraysh (curiously, the sources agree on neither their number nor their identity). This group based its work on Haf . s .as codex. The caliph gave this recension an ocial and exclusive character. On his orders copies were sent out to dierent provincial capitals of the empire, where they were to serve as a standard reference. He then ordered all other recensions to be destroyed. As will be mentioned below, it took centuries for this ocial recension to be accepted by all Muslims as the textus receptus. We can now briey look at some problems arising from this description of events. First, at the philological level, some key terms appear n, to be ambiguous. Thus the distinction between Had th and Qur"a . the rst designating sayings of the Prophet, the second the word of God, seems to be late.64 Alfred Louis de Prmare studied a pertinent example of an initial indecision between the two terms by consider63 For the countless sources providing this information, see e.g. R amy ar, T ar kh, pp. 320335; Qadd ur , Rasm, pp. 91152 and more specically pp. 100128. See also n (A. Welch), especially at V, pp. 404409. EI 2, art. al-Kur . "a 64 This subject is discussed in Graham, Divine Word, pp. 948 (part one: Revelation in Early Islam); see also idem, Scripture; Schoeler, Schreiben, pp. 2425; Droche, Livre, pp. 2122.

14

introduction

ing the famous so-called farewell sermon (khu. tbat al-wad a #) which the Prophet is said to have delivered shortly before his death. Some phrases from this sermon, particulary those relating to women and the sacred n, with only minor variations.65 months, are in fact found in the Qur"a Another example is the enigmatic h th quds , comprising words which . ad were uttered by God and transmitted by Muhammad, but which none . 66 the less were not recorded in the Qur"an. De Prmare has also emphasized the problematic nature of the root jm # in the recurring expression jam # al-qur" an.67 The root obviously carries the meaning to collect, assemble, gather; yet many Muslim lexicographers maintain that it can also mean to memorize, retain and learn by heart, despite the fact that there is a specic verb for the latter meaning, namely h . aza . . Thus, there are quite a few accounts n was rst gathered in the hearts of according to which the Qur"a meni.e. memorizedand then collectedi.e. assembledby one or another of Muhammads Companions. This may well reect the . dialectic between oral and written; yet it seems that the marked ambiguity in the verb jama #a is deliberate and originated in the wish to avoid the most glaring inconsistencies that existed in accounts about n. Alternatively, the intention was to conthe redaction of the Qur"a ceal the conicts on this subject that raged among representatives of the dierent political-religious tendencies. Thus #Al is said to have col n in the form of a codex immediately after lected a complete Qur"a Muhammads death. Now Ibn Ab D aw ud, who cites this tradition in . his Mas ah an kul. . if, species at once that here the expression jama #tu l-qur" n by heart.68 To add further lahu means I learned the entire Qur"a n itself says: inna #alayn to this diculty, the Qur"a a jam #ahu wa-qur" anahu (Q 75:17), literally incumbent upon us is the collection/memorization n. Who is speaking and what do the terms jam # and qur" and its qur"a an mean in this case? The question is controversial. Another enigmatic point: numerous accounts report that when Ab u Bakr and #Umar summoned Zayd b. Th abit to commission him to n, Zayd is said to have been angered at rst, crying collect the Qur"a
65 For the Qur"a nic phrases concerning women (Q 4:15, 4:19, 4:34) and the holy months (Q 9:3637) which are incorporated in the Prophets sermon see Ibn Hish am, S ra, IV, pp. 10221023. See de Prmare, Histoire; idem, Discours. 66 Graham, Divine Word, pp. 948. 67 De Prmare, Fondations, pp. 283285; further information on the history of the n is now provided in idem, Origines. redaction of the Qur"a 68 Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 10.

introduction

15

out: How can you do what the Messenger of God did not do?69 Did n as a single version, or in Muhammad thus wish to preserve the Qur"a . a state of oral recitation, as was the case with poetry?70 If so, the studies by Father Edmund Beck again become relevant. Beck was the rst to have recognized the striking similarity between the rst reciters of the n (qurr Qur"a a", sing. q ari" ) and the ancient ruw at (sing. r aw ), mostly 71 at oral transmitters of ancient pre-Islamic Arabic poetry. Now the ruw did not consider the existence of dierent versions of a single poem to be a aw. Quite the contrary: these versions, discernible mainly through recitation, were desirable since they facilitated an improvement of the poem. In a similar vein, Karl Vollers, who maintained that n was the Meccan version of the the original language of the Qur"a n was subsequently re-written dialect of Hij . az, argued that the Qur"a in the common language (koine) of pre-Islamic poetry in order to improve its language and style.72 Still according to Beck, it is altogether possible that the rst qurr a", who were active at least until the mid2nd/8th century, considered the variants of the dierent recitations, n, as recorded after a fashion in the various recensions of the Qur"a an opportunity to improve the linguistic level of the latter. Whence perhaps the h th attributed to the Prophet and particularly valued by . ad the early qurr a" : In the mus .h . af there are dialectal expressions (lah . n) but the Arabs are going to standardize them.73 The sources at times refer to these reciters/readers, who were experts in Arabic, as the people of the Arabic language (as ab al- #arabiyya); according to al-Tabar , . .h . they are the ones who violently reproached #Uthm an for making his n used to be (preserved in a number codex the ocial text: The Qur"a of dierent) written versions (kutub), and you have abandoned all but ar s text the as ab al- #arabiyya one.74 It is noteworthy that in al-Sayy .h .
69 Tay , Musnad, p. 3; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, I, p. 10, no. 58, p. 13, no. 77, V, . alis . pp. 188189, no. 21700; Bukh ar , S h ab fad a"il al-qur" an); Ibn Ab . ah . . , III, pp. 392393 (Kit . D aw ud, pp. 78. 70 On the opposition in early Islam to the writing of Had . th as scripture see the . substantial article by Cook, Opponents; see also Kister, L a taqra"u 71 Beck, Kodex; idem, #Arabiyya, especially pp. 209.; idem, Kodizesvarianten. On this issue see also Blau, Bedouins. For the qurr a" see also Juynboll, Qurr a". 72 Vollers, Volkssprache, pp. 175185 and passim. See also Kahle, Readers; Rabin, Arabic; and now Larcher, Arabe prislamique. 73 See Farr a", II, p. 183. 74 Tabar , Ta"r kh, rst series, p. 2952, tr. Tabar , Crisis, p. 156. See also Juynboll, . . Reciter.

16

introduction

are depicted, among others, as responsible for the alteration of the nic text.75 An echo of the complaint levelled against the third Qur"a caliph is also heard in a statement attributed to #Abdall ah, the pious b and a person admired by the qurr son of #Umar b. al-Khat a". In one .t .a of many versions of this statement, #Abdall ah tells #Uthm an: Let no n in his possession. one tell you that he has the entire text of the Qur"a How is one to know what the entire Qur"an is? Many things from the n have disappeared forever (qad dhahaba minhu qur" Qur"a anun kath run).76 n as well as Other accounts mention the omission of parts of the Qur"a additions to the text. First, the omissions: in his Fad a " il al-qur " an, Ab u . #Ubayd al-Q asim b. Sall am notes that certain passages of the Qur"an, some predating #Uthm ans caliphate, were censored out.77 The two short S uras al-Hafd and al-Khal#, included in the recension of . Ubayy b. Ka#b, as well as other short texts attributed to the codex of #Al or #Umar, were not in the end incorporated into the nal version n.78 The same is said to be true of some verses, including of the Qur"a the stoning verse ( ayat al-rajm) and the maxim: If the son of Adam possessed two valleys of gold, he would wish for a third / only the earth satises the appetite of the son of Adam / God turns towards those who turn (towards Him).79 Other texts missing from the denitive version take up many pages in Geschichte des Qor ans, to cite only one work.80 As for the additions: certain Kh arij s, namely the #Aj arida (or a
75 See KQ, no. 312; cf. nos. 311, 460 (however, such criticism of the experts of the Arabic language or the grammarians is not very common in Sh # literature). 76 E.g. Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 146, no. 699 > Suy ut , Itq an, III, pp. 8182 . . (chapter 47); cf. Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 283 (fol. 3b, no. 17). 77 These deleted passages are brought together in Jeery, Ab u #Ubaid. 78 Jeery, pp. 180181. See also Suy ut , Itq an, I, p. 226 (chapter 19); Blachre, Intro. duction, pp. 188189. 79 These verses, which do not appear in the #Uthm anic codex, are cited by al-Sayy ar (see KQ, nos. 421, 430 respectively and the sources referred to in the Notes). See also Tirmidh , Awliy a", p. 351, where the author calmly acknowledges that these verses, as well as the term muh a arsaln a min qablika min . addath at the beginning of Q 22:52 (wa-m n, ras ul wa-l a nab wa-l a muh . addath), which had originally formed part of the Qur"a were omitted (for this latter term see Kohlberg, Muhaddath; see further KQ, no. 350). . 80 GdQ, I, pp. 234261. The classical reason given by Sunn authors for the suppression of these passages has to do with the notion of the abrogation of the wording (naskh or mans ukh al-til awa); see the learned, though apologetic analysis by Mu#arrafa, S ana, pp. 125136; on this subject see also Burton, Cranes, which deals mainly with . iy the alleged omission of the famous Satanic verses. Casanova likewise maintains that n, mainly those regarding the gure numerous eschatological passages of the Qur"a of the Saviour, were suppressed in the ocial version because, among other reasons, they would have demonstrated that primitive Sh #ism is the true Muslim orthodoxy

introduction

17

group among them called the Maym uniyya), regarded S ura 12 (Y usuf) as apocryphal and as a later addition to the genuine revelations made d is said to have regarded the rst to the Prophet;81 and Ibn Mas#u and the last two S uras of the #Uthm anic codex (i.e. the F atiha . and nic revelations.82 In a well the mu #awwidhat an) as prayers, not as Qur"a documented article, Hossein Modarressi shows that in the rst two or three centuries of the hijra a number of persons of standing in later Sunnism vehemently criticized the #Uthm anic codex.83 nic text was associated That the denitive codication of the Qur"a with political-religious tensions is illustrated by an account cited in numerous sources, beginning with al-Bukh ar in his S h . . ah . . : Hudhayfa, the general who took part in the conquest of Armenia in 2526/645 646, was alarmed by the disagreements regarding the recitation of the n. He therefore implored the caliph #Uthm Qur"a an to establish a writ n: Unite this community before it ten and unied version of the Qur"a diers about its Book just as the Jews and Christians diered (about their own books).84 As de Prmare has aptly noted, an account of this kind seems to have symbolic value rather than reecting historical reality.85 Shortly after the Prophets death the Arabs, who were skillful traders, had become great conquerors and within a few years had accumulated immense power and riches. Among these wealthy and powerful men,
(Casanova, Mohammed, p. 55; cf. pp. 9, 59; for this issue cf. also Madelung, Succession, pp. 56, 40., 52, 270. Casanovas arguments have recently been further developed in van Reeth, Muhammad). . 81 See Shahrast an , Religions, pp. 394, 397; Modarressi, Debates, p. 23. 82 Jeery, p. 21; R amy ar, T ar kh, pp. 362366; see also Cuypers, Analyse. For the problems raised by the F atiha . see also Jeery, Variant Text. (The rst variant text of the F atiha . is cited there according to the Tadhkirat al-a"imma, p. 18. This was published as a work of al-Majlis , but its author is in fact his contemporary Muhammad B aqir . al-L ah j ; see Brunner, Koranflschung, pp. 1618.) 83 Modarressi, Debates. 84 See Bukh ar , S h ab fad a"il al-qur" an). According to this account, . ah . . , III, p. 393 (Kit . Hudhayfas troops were made up of #Ir aq soldiers who wished to ght the Syrians . with the aim of conquering Armenia and Adharbayjan. The general was disturbed by the dierence between the readings of the Syrians, probably as compared with the readings which were then current in #Ir aq and thus among his own men. If this is the case, could one assume that there was a dierence between the readings of partisans of #Al and the Ban u H ashim (#Ir aq) on the one hand and the Umayyads (Syria) on the other? For Hudhayfas role in the establishment of a single #Uthm anic codex and the . suppression of rival codices see also Ibn Shabba, Ta"r kh, III, pp. 998999. Cf. Sayed, Revolte, pp. 43 . 85 De Prmare, Fondations, pp. 288289.

18

introduction

some appear to have united in their persons qualities that were to play a n. Continuing determining role in the denitive recension of the Qur"a the methods of Casanova, Mingana and Crone-Cook, de Prmare paints the portraits of three principal gures:86 1. First, #Ubaydall ah b. Ziy ad, the famous and ruthless Umayyad governor of #Ir aq (5667/675686). A grandson of Ab u Sufy an and thus a member of the powerful ruling family, he was one of those rich traders who became powerful conquerors. After the conquest of Transoxania he held the strategic post of governor wiya and Yaz of #Ir aq during the caliphate of Mu#a d I. He brutally stamped out Kh arij and #Alid revolts and was responsible for the death of Imam al-Husayn b. #Al at Karbal a". An astute . politician, he encouraged Marw an b. al-Hakam to stand as a . candidate for the caliphate in Damascus in the face of the rival caliphate of #Abdall ah b. al-Zubayr in Mecca; Marw an subsequently became the rst caliph of the second Umayyad period. #Ubaydall ah b. Ziy ad was also a man of letters and one of the experts of Arabic (as ab al- #arabiyya). Ab u l-Faraj al-Is an in .fah .h . aq ut in the Udab a" 88 devote each a few lines the Agh an 87 and Y to him. Ibn Ab D aw ud writes that #Ubaydall ah b. Ziy ad inter nic text, instructing his vened in the establishment of the Qur"a Persian secretary, Yaz d b. Hurmuz al-F aris , to enter numerous additions: #Ubaydall ah added (z ada) two thousand h . arf (words, letters, expressions?) to the codex, Yaz d reports.89 Of course, the secretary does not provide any details on the identity of the codex in question nor on the nature of the additions which he mentions. Moreover, the doubtless deliberate ambiguity of the word h . arf leaves room for all manner of speculation. 2. The second gure is the no less famous al-Hajj usuf, who . aj b. Y was also governor of Umayyad #Ir aq. He was appointed to this position during the reign of #Abd al-Malik b. Marw an, the second and undoubtedly the most important caliph of the Marw anid branch of the Umayyad dynasty. It was during this period that there appeared the rst currents of dogmatic reection following the conquests; these currents were deeply concerned with the
86 87 88 89

Ibid., pp. 292301. Is an , Agh an , XVIII, pp. 262263. .fah Y aq ut, Udab a", V, pp. 639640. Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 117.

introduction

19

issue of political-religious legitimacy. During this period of incessant civil wars, the issue of scriptures must have assumed a major importance. Al-Hajj . aj defeated the rival caliph Ibn al-Zubayr, thus restoring unity to the caliphate after a split lasting over ten years (6273/681692). Al-Hajj . aj, too, was a man of letters and one of the nest experts of the Arabic language. Al-Tabar in his . 90 91 ahi an provide some examples of his Ta"r kh and al-J .z . in his Bay amboyant prose. Ibn Ab D aw ud and Ibn Khallik an92 state that nic text. Occasional-Hajj . aj was deeply involved with the Qur"a ally contradictory accounts mention that he corrected divergent readings, arranged the order of certain chapters or verses, and improved the orthography by introducing diacritical marks and vowels. According to al-Samh ud (d. 911/1506), an historian of the city of Medina, in an account admirably analysed by Mingana,93 n, copies of al-Hajj . aj established his own recension of the Qur"a which he dispatched to each of the capitals of the major provinces of the Islamic empire. These copies were to become the ocial text, supplanting earlier recensions which, wherever in #Ir aq they were found, he ordered to be destroyed.94 According to some accounts, al-Hajj . aj was the rst to have ordered the destruction of competing codices. Other accounts report that he followed the example set by #Uthm an. Some sources maintain that the recensions banned by al-Hajj . aj continued to circulate, and that his own codex was discarded under the #Abb asids.95 Al-Hajj . aj is mentioned in a polemical text by the Christian Arab apologist #Abd alMas h , written perhaps at the beginning of the 3rd/9th . al-Kind (or the person who wrote century.96 In one of his epistles, al-Kind using this name) states: Then there was the intervention (i.e. in nic text) by al-Hajj the Qur"a usuf. He seized all codices, . aj b. Y
Tabar , Ta"r kh, second series, pp. 823824. . J ahi an, I, pp. 393394, II, pp. 137140. . z, . Bay 92 Ibn Ab D aw ud, pp. 119120; Ibn Khallik an, Wafay at, II, p. 32. 93 Samh ud , Waf a", II, p. 667; Mingana, Transmission, passim. 94 See in general Beck, Kodizesvarianten, especially pp. 371376. 95 Blachre, Introduction, pp. 7578; de Prmare, Fondations, p. 296. See Samh ud , Waf a", II, pp. 667668 (from Ibn Shabba). 96 Al-Kind s identity and dates are problematic. Paul Kraus believed that the name al-Kind was a cover for a scholar seeking to spread Ibn al-R awand s ideas. For n is a distorted mixture others, al-Kind s account regarding the collection of the Qur"a of various Muslim accounts put together by a polemicist; see EI 2, art. al-Kind , #Abd al-Mas h . (G. Troupeau).
90 91

20

introduction omitting and adding a great deal. It is said that they (i.e. some of the omitted verses) were revealed concerning the Umayyads and #Abb asids and included the names of some (Umayyad and #Abb asid) personages.97 Six copies of the recension conforming to the wishes of al-Hajj . aj were made and distributed: one to Egypt, another to Damascus, a third to Medina, a fourth to Mecca, a fth to K ufa and a sixth to Bas .ra. As for the earlier collections, he threw them into boiling oil and destroyed them, thus imitating #Uthm ans action.98 3. The third gure is the caliph #Abd al-Malik himself. The historiographical investigation by de Prmare, like earlier studies by Gerald Hawting on Umayyad history and Yehuda Nevo on the epigraphy of the period, demonstrate that #Abd al-Maliks reign witnessed major developments in Islamic doctrine.99 As concerns nic text, there is rst this the denitive establishment of the Qur"a statement by the caliph, reported in numerous sources: I am afraid to die in the month of Ramad . an because I was born in it, I n.100 Of was weaned in it, and in it I collected (jama #tu) the Qur"a course, the meaning of the root jm # may again be said to be open to discussion; however, what we already know about the involvement of the two above-mentioned governors of #Ir aq in the shap nic text seems to indicate that here the term does ing of the Qur"a not mean to memorize, to learn by heart but rather to collect, to put in order.

Other noteworthy aspects of #Abd al-Maliks reign are probably directly related to the issue at hand. The inscriptions at the Dome of the Rock, ably analysed by Christel Kessler and Oleg Grabar, were carried out on the orders of this caliph.101 They seem to be the rst real dated example of an Islamic denition of Gods unicity: qul huwa ll ahu ah ahu . ad all
97 A constant theme of early Sh # literature is that the authentic version of the n had included pejorative references to specic Umayyads and #Abb Qur"a asids, but that these references had been suppressed (cf. below, p. 41). 98 Tartar, Hiw . ar, p. 117, tr. idem, Dialogue, p. 190. See also Muir, Apology, p. 77 (English tr.). Cf. Blachre, Introduction, pp. 7677; Grith, Muhammad, p. 144; Platti, Arabes. . 99 Hawting, Dynasty, index, s.v. #Abd al-Malik; Nevo, Prehistory; de Prmare, Fondations, pp. 193, 297301; idem, #Abd al-Malik. 100 See Bal lib adhur , Ans ab, IV/2, p. 586; Ibn al-#Ibr , Ta"r kh, p. 194; Tha#a , La. t a"if, p. 109; Sharon, Umayyads, p. 131; de Prmare, #Abd al-Malik, p. 193. 101 Kessler, #Abd al-Malik; Grabar, Formation, pp. 6167; EI 2, art. Kubbat al. s akhra (O. Grabar). .

introduction

21

l-s ulad wa-lam yakun lahu kufuwan ah . amad lam yalid wa-lam y . ad. Inside the Dome, on the outer face of the south side of the octagonal arcade, the text is preceded by the basmala and the unitarian statement there is no God but All ah; He has no associate. Other than this last formula, the text as a whole consists of S ura 112 (al-Ikhl as .). But why this diver nic text? Why is the formula which immediately gence from the Qur"a follows the basmala missing from the S ura? In a rened work such as this, undertaken over an extended period, such divergence cannot be nic text had not yet been ascribed to negligence. Is it because the Qur"a given its denitive form?102 In general, the inscriptions at the Dome of the Rock consist not only of declarative texts but also of polemical messages specically directed against trinitarian Christianity. One example is Q 9:33: huwa lladh arsala ras ulahu bi-l-hud a wa-d n al-h . aqq li-yuzhirahu . #al a l-d n kullihi wa-law kariha l-mushrik un. Solange Ory, among others, has n, the term associaargued that here, as almost always in the Qur"a tors (mushrik un) refers to Christians and Jews; the former are accused of deifying Jesus and the latter, of deifying #Uzayr/Ezra (Q 9:30).103 The text of these two inscriptions is found, with slight variations, not only in n (S the Qur"a ura 112 and Q 9:33) but also on coins of the period and in many h ths. As de Prmare puts it: those that appear at the Dome of . ad the Rock are in some way the rst datable manuscripts: 72/691692.104 Moreover, according to studies by Amikam Elad and Yehuda Nevo, the rst real glorication of Muhammad as a prophet of a religion inde. pendent of Judaism and Christianity also dates from #Abd al-Maliks time.105 Perhaps the latter sought to make Jerusalem a place of pilgrimage as important as Mecca, which had been conquered ten years previously by the rival caliph Ibn al-Zubayr;106 yet #Abd al-Malik may have
102 Blachre notes another problem related to this S ura, namely that the recension by d records al-w Ibn Mas#u ah . id instead of al-s . amad (Blachre, Coran, II, p. 124, note 2). See also the studies mentioned above, note 40. For the minor dierences between inscriptions of the Dome of the Rock reproduced on coins from the period of #Abd nic verses see de Prmare, Fondations, pp. 298 al-Malik and the corresponding Qur"a 299. For a dierent perspective on the inscriptions see Whelan, Forgotten Witness; this study usefully complements van Berchem, Matriaux, pp. 228246. 103 Ory, Aspects, especially pp. 3537; see also Lazarus-Yafeh, Intertwined Worlds, chapter 3 and, more recently, Comerro, Esdras. 104 De Prmare, Fondations, p. 299. See also the remarks of Luxenberg, Neudeutung. 105 Elad, #Abd al-Malik; Nevo, Prehistory, pp. 110, 114, 122. 106 This old theory of Goldziher (Muslim Studies, II, pp. 4452) has had its supporters (e.g. Schrieke, Himmelsreise) and opponents (e.g. Horovitz, Himmelfahrt; Goitein, Background; Busse, Islam). For this debate see Elad, #Abd al-Malik, pp. 4041; idem, Jerusalem, chapter 4, pp. 147163.

22

introduction

aimed much higher and may have had larger objectives. The history of early Islam is in fact indebted to him for some major decisions: 1. The Arabization of the language of administration, which had until then been managed by the old Byzantine and/or Iranian ocials in their respective languages. 2. Rendering ocial the status of the the protected (dhimm ) Jews, Christians and probably also Zoroastrians, by implementing the poll tax (jizya) as a sign of their inferior status in the Islamic state and in return for the protection which this state oered them. 3. Issuing an Islamic gold coinage devoid of any gurative representation and minted exclusively with religious formulae in Arabic.107 In this context, the caliph and other powerful men in his entourage must have been aware that control of belief was a fundamental aspect of power, and that this could only be achieved by controlling and codifying scripture, especially in a society with numerous dissident politicalreligious movements. A single Book, independent of previous sacred scripturesin this case those of the Jews and Christiansand codied according to state dogma was the best guarantee of doctrinal and thus nic political stability. Thus, the initiative to produce an ocial Qur"a codex, apparently begun during #Uthm ans caliphate,108 seems to have been concluded during #Abd al-Maliks reign or slightly later.109 In the intervening period, which witnessed further conquests and an increasing desire on the part of Muslim leaders clearly to distinguish their religion from Judaism and Christianity, continuous work on the redaction of the text was taking place, consisting of arrangement, rewriting, stylth, ization, redaction, correction etc.110 It is interesting to note that Had .
107 EI 2, art. #Abd al-Malik b. Marw an (H.A.R. Gibb); Hawting, Dynasty, pp. 6366; de Prmare, Fondations, pp. 194, 301, 424. 108 Accounts on the attempt to produce a denitive corpus of the Qur"a n during #Uthm ans rule cannot be rejected outright. In fact, far from praising the action of the third caliph, some reports seem to be directed against this initiative, referring to nic codices (see e.g. #Uthm an as the tearer or burner (kharr aq/h aq) of the Qur"a . arr Sayf, Ridda, p. 51, no. 52); other reports reproduce the protest of the insurgents against #Uthm an (see above, note 74 and the corresponding text). 109 The latter possibility may be inferred for example from a text of John of Damascus. After leaving the Umayyads, whom he served between 700 and 705 (i.e. towards the end of #Abd al-Maliks reign), this author wrote a treatise against Islam in which he n was not yet completely stabilized (Jean gives the impression that the text of the Qur"a Damascne, Ecrits, pp. 210227). 110 See now Gilliot, Travail. The paleographical arguments of Grohmann (in Dat nic text also support ing, passim) concerning the rst written transmissions of the Qur"a

introduction

23

the second scriptural source in Islam, also seems to have begun acquiring its systematic form from the time of #Abd al-Malik. One knows, thanks to Goldziher, that a tentative writing down of Had th had taken . 111 place before this date, but studies by Michael Lecker and Harald Motzki have shown that the rst to have systematically recorded Had th . in writing was Ibn Shih ab al-Zuhr , who was attached to the caliph Hish am (r. 105127/724743) but was already a learned courtier during the period of Hish ams father, #Abd al-Malik.112 Islamic tradition, for the most part, insists that the ocial version of n is of a very early date (initiated by Ab the Qur"a u Bakr and #Umar and nalized by #Uthm an). This insistence may derive from an awareness that the later the date, the greater the risk of tah f. And yet, despite all . r attempts by orthodox authors to conceal dierences, an examination of the uncertainties and divergences found in the sources clearly shows n that a great protest movement against the ocial version of the Qur"a took shape from the very beginning. Given that the dierent recensions would have served as means of legitimation for various politicalreligious groups, it is not surprising that it took many centuries for the version called #Uthm anic to be accepted by all Muslims. Undoubtedly, the most signicant example for the survival of non-#Uthm anic readings is the double condemnation of Ibn Miqsam and Ibn Shanab udh in the early 4th/10th century for having adopted non-canonical readings. At the end of that century, in 398/1007, a debate broke out between Sunn s and Sh # s in Baghd ad regarding the licit or illicit character d. A Sunn of the codex of Ibn Mas#u tribunal eventually ordered its m, copies of the recension of destruction.113 According to Ibn al-Nad Ubayy still existed in the region of Bas ra adh an, . in the time of Ibn Sh 114 i.e. in the mid-3rd/9th century.

the second half of the rst century hijra, that is, the period which included the reign of #Abd al-Malik. 111 Goldziher, Muslim Studies, II, pp. 15251 (On the Development of the Had . th), especially the rst part. 112 Lecker, Notes; Motzki, Zuhr ; idem, Collection, pp. 2229; idem, Dating, pp. 249250. 113 R amy ar, T ar kh, p. 362. 114 Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist, p. 29; cited in Jeery, p. 115.

24

introduction 3. Im am Views on the Question of the Falsication of the Qur" an

As we have seen, there were many who held that the #Uthm anic version was not a faithful reproduction of the revelations made to the Prophet. Yet the most explicit, forceful and numerous accusations that the ocial n did not conform to the revelations made to Muhammad Qur"a are . found in Im am sources, especially of the pre-Buwayhid period, and are directed against the rst three caliphs and their followers, all of whom are depicted as adversaries of #Al .115 Briey put, these sources maintain that #Al , Muhammads only true initiate and legitimate successor, was . the sole possessor of the complete version of the revelation made to the Prophet. After Muhammads death and the assumption of power . by #Al s enemies this version, which was much longer than the ocial one, was rejected by those in authority mainly because it contained explicit tributes to the rst Imam, his descendants and supporters, and equally explicit attacks on their adversaries. Once rejected, this recension was concealed by #Al in order to be secretly transmitted to future Imams of his lineage. At least since the 4th/10th century, these beliefs have been under constant attack by Sunn and Mu#tazil authors and heresiographers, who regard them as among the most agrant elements of Sh # heresy. There are quite a few studies on tah f in Sh #ism. They may be . r divided into three groups, depending on the conclusions drawn in them: 1. Writers belonging to the rst group maintain that the doubts raised concerning the authenticity of the #Uthm anic codex have no historical basis and are founded solely on dogmatic and political-theological views. Once #Al was removed from power, it was only natural that sooner or later his supporters would declare his recension to be the most complete, in order not only to demonstrate his superiority over other Companions of the Prophet but also to underline their betrayal of him.116 The weakness of this thesis lies in that it reduces Im am Sh #ism to an exclusively political movement in search of temporal power. It does not take into

115 On the doctrinal turning point in Im am Sh #ism during the Buwayhid period see Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 1548 = Divine Guide, pp. 619; idem, Rexions. 116 Garcin de Tassy, Chapitre; Kazem-Beg, Observations; GdQ, II, pp. 93100; Sell, Studies, pp. 246252; Blachre, Introduction, pp. 184186.

introduction

25

consideration the numerous and complex doctrinal and historical accounts which are found in various sources and support the notion of falsication. 2. According to a second group of studies, the Im am s did not claim that the ocial version as a whole was unreliable and did not doubt the authenticity of its content; rather, they argued that certain words or expressions had been omitted and that the order of some verses or S uras had been changed. They held the #Uthm anic codex to contain virtually the entire revelation; #Uthm ans fault lay above all in his rejection of other recensions and especially of #Al s commentary, which appeared in the margin of #Als own copy and nic text.117 is indispensable for a proper understanding of the Qur"a According to some of the studies which belong in this group, views n are of non-Sh on the falsication of the Qur"a # provenance, originating particularly among extremist groups (ghul at ) or various heterodox and heretic movements, and aiming to contaminate the corpus of Sh # Had th.118 These studies reect the posi. tion taken by the Im am s, or more precisely most of them, after the Buwayhid period, to the exclusion of the earlier views, which are passed over in silence for apologetic reasons. The studies thus attempt to present Im am Sh #ism, despite rich textual evidence to the contrary, as having beenalways and everywherea moderate movement respectful of Islamic orthodoxy. 3. There are nally those who maintain that the Im am s, basing themselves on utterances of their Imams as reported in the vast corpus of early Sh # Had th, openly questioned the integrity of . the #Uthm anic codex and accused non-Sh # s of having falsied the Qur"an. That this was in fact the early Im am position is conrmed by numerous historical accounts and by Im am tenets, mainly of the pre-Buwayhid period. In the Buwayhid period (i.e. starting in the mid-4th/10th century), specic historical and doctrinal circumstances led the majority of Twelver scholars, begin-

117 Jeery, Zaid; Hollister, India, pp. 2829; Rahbar, Theology; Eliash, Sh #ite n; Jafri, Origins, pp. 311312. Qur"a 118 Falaturi, Schia; Modarressi, Debates; Sander, Koran; Bayhom-Daou, Knowledge; Marcinkowski, Reections (an article that fails to meet proper scientic standards). For the articial nature of the distinction between moderate and extremist Im am Sh #ism during the early period see Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. r, passim. 310317 = Divine Guide, pp. 128131; idem, Sa . a

26

introduction ning with Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh (d. 381/991), to . abandon this thesis and adopt the Sunn viewpoint.119

In fact, practically all pre-Buwayhid Im am works that have come down to usoften written by well-known religious authoritiesraise in greater or lesser detail, directly or indirectly, the issue of the falsied n. Apart from character of the so-called #Uthm anic version of the Qur"a al-Sayy ar , mention may be made of works by al-Fadl b. Sh adh an al. N s ab ur (d. 260/873), Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barq (d. 274/887 . . r al-Qumm 888 or 280/893894), Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Sa . . . a (d. 290/902903), Sa#d b. #Abdall ah al-Ash#ar al-Qumm (d. 299/912 n (d. 329/941), Muhammad or 301/914), Muhammad b. Ya#q ub al-Kul . . b. Ibr ahm Ibn Ab Zaynab al-Nu#m an (d. ca. 345/956 or 360/971), #Al b. Ahmad al-K uf (d. 352/963, author of al-Istigh atha f bida # al. n commentaries such as thal atha) and authors of the rst Im am Qur"a Fur at b. Ibr ah m al-K uf (d. ca. 300/912), #Al b. Ibr ah m al-Qumm (d. d al-#Ayy after 307/919) or Muhammad b. Mas#u ash (d. early 4th/10th . century).120 The Buwayhid era signalled the marginalization of the original esoteric suprarational tradition, whose main doctrines are set out in the above-mentioned sources. With the end of the period of historical Imams, the ourishing of a kind of rationalism in almost all religious environments, and especially the Sh # rise to power at the centre of the Sunn #Abb asid caliphate, Im am jurists, particulary those in the capital Baghd ad, seem to have felt constrained to break at certain points with the original tradition in order to develop the new rational theological-legal method. For these jurists, who were seeking a rapprochement with the Sunn orthodoxy which had become ever more n was rmly established, belief in the falsication of the ocial Qur"a n was being increasingly no longer tenable, particularly as this Qur"a regarded as sacred and belief in its integrity as inseparable from faith.121
Goldziher, Richtungen, especially pp. 263309; in general idem, Vorlesungen, pp. 201 278 = Introduction, pp. 167229 (masterly studies which contain however somewhat n; Lawson, Note; Amirunwarranted value judgments); Tisdall; Kohlberg, Qur"a Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 200227 = Divine Guide, pp. 7991; idem, Wal aya; Bar-Asher, Readings; idem, Scripture, pp. 8893; Brunner, Koranflschung ; idem, Falsication. 120 For the numerous relevant passages from these works see the studies cited above, notes 117, 118 and especially 119. 121 For this turning point in Im am Sh #ism and the early history of the esoteric suprarational and rational theological-legal traditions see the references above, note 115; see also Amir-Moezzi-Jambet, Sh #isme, third part (the historical evolution of Sh #ism).
119

introduction

27

The leading Im am scholars of this period declared that the #Uthm anic codex faithfully reproduces the text of the revelation; at the same time they remained very circumspect about earlier religious authorities who had maintained the contrary. Ibn B abawayh seems to have been the rst major Twelver author to adopt a position identical to that of n, which God the Sunn s: Our (i.e. Twelver) belief is that the Qur"a revealed to His Prophet Muhammad, is (the same as) the one between . the two boards (m a bayn al-daatayn, i.e. the ocial #Uthm anic version) And he who asserts that it is greater in extent than this (the present text) is a liar.122 He passes in silence over the many traditions which mention falsication, erasure or alteration (tah f, mah l/taghy r ). . r . w, tabd His disciple and commentator al-Shaykh al-Muf d (d. 413/1022), at least in some of his writings, goes in the same direction and limits himself to speaking of a change which occurred in the order (ta"l f ) of some verses or S uras, or the elimination by certain Companions of n which appeared in the margins of #Al s commentary on the Qur"a his recension and which is also called qur" an. This, apparently, is how al-Muf d tries to explain away the existence of traditions which speak n.123 Other opponents of the suppression of some passages of the Qur"a of the theory of falsication take the same position while developing it further; they include for example al-Shar f al-Murtad . a (d. 436/1044) in u Ja#far al-T (d. 460/1067) al-Mas a"il al-. tar abulusiyy at al- ul a 124 and Ab . us in al-Tiby an.125 n, which tallies with that of the This position regarding the Qur"a rest of the Muslims, became the prevailing view, held by the majority of Twelver Sh # s, who were dominated by the rationalist school later liyya. It was also held by some well-known to be known as the Us .u scholars who did not all belong to the rationalist tendency (see further below); among them are al-Fadl al-Tabris (d. 548/1154), . . . b. al-Hasan Rad al-D n # Al b. M u s a Ibn T a w u s (d. 664 / 1266 ), al# All ama al-Hill . . . (d. 726/1325), #Al b. Muhammad al-Bay a d al# Amil (d. 877 / 1472 . . b. al1473), Muhsin al-Fayd ash an (d. 1091/1680), Muhammad . . . al-K

n, p. 214. Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at, p. 98 = Fyzee, p. 85; cited in Kohlberg, Qur"a Muf d, Aw a"il, p. 55. It should be noted, however, that in his Jaw ab al-mas a"il alsarawiyya al-Muf d implies that the Sh # readings may have formed part of the orig n, inal text (see Kohlberg, Scriptures, pp. 296297). See further Kohlberg, Qur"a pp. 215216; Sourdel, Imamisme, pp. 234, 285287; McDermott, Theology, pp. 9299. 124 Apud Tabris , I, p. 31. . 125 T , I, pp. 34. . us
122 123

28

introduction

Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil (d. 1104/1693) and others.126 According to the . . rationalists, traditions maintaining that the #Uthm anic codex had been altered were invented in heterodox circles, are totally unreliable and in no way reect genuine Sh # beliefs. Despite their prominence in the transmission of doctrine, the compilers and scholars who transmitted these traditions without examining their reliability lacked clarity and a critical sense. However, there were always thinkers who, out of respect for Had th, . upheld the theory of tah r f . They are associated to a greater or lesser . degree with the rival traditionalist school, the Akhb ariyya, a minority group which is nevertheless quite important in the history of Sh # 127 thought. Well-known representatives of this school include, in the 6th/12th century, Ahmad b. #Al al-Tabris in his Ih aj and Ibn Shahr a. . . tij sh ub in his Math alib al-naw as ib ; in the Safawid period, Mu hammad . . . B aqir al-L ah j in his Tadhkirat al-a"imma, Muhammad S azan. . al-M . alih dar an in his commentary on al-Kul n s Us ul min al-k af , H ashim al. in al-Anw ar al-nu #m aniyBahr in al-Burh an and Ni#mat All ah al-Jaz a"ir . an ya and Manba # al-h ay a t ; in the 12 th/ 18 th and 13 th/ 19 th centuries, #Ab. dall ah al-Husayn al-Shubbar in Ma s a b h al-anw a r and Y u suf b. A hmad . . . . al-Bahr in al-Had ad . an . a"iq al-n . ira. Three particularly important works nic also belong here: Diy alam n/ # alamayn f l-im ama and the Qur"a . a" al- # u l-Hasan b. Mu hammad T commentary Mir" at al-anw ar, both by Ab . . . a hir al-#Amil al-Is fah a n (d. after 1140 / 1727 1728 ), and the Fa s l al-khi t ab . . . 128 by Mrz a Husayn al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris (d. 1320/1902). . . . At the same time, a careful reading of the texts seems to indicate that the attitude of Im am scholars regarding the #Uthm anic codex is at times extremely complex, surely due to some embarrassment; and n was falsied went well that the issue of whether or not the Qur"a beyond the rationalist/traditionalist divide. We have already chosen to classify some major gures associated with the traditionalist tendency, namely Ibn T us, Muhsin al-Fayd al-#Amil , as oppo. aw . . . and al-Hurr
Tabris , I, pp. 3031; Ibn T us, Sa #d, pp. 144, 192 (a rather ambiguous position); . . aw Hill , Ajwiba, p. 121; Bay ad , S a. t, I, pp. 45, 259 (see also the Notes to KQ, no. 165); . . . ir S af , I, pp. 3649; al-Hurr al-#Amil , Fus ul, p. 144 (the positions of Muhsin al-Fayd . . . . and . al-Hurr al# Amil are rather ambiguous). For more recent sources as well as fatw as by . several Ayatollahs against the theory of falsication see M l an , Tah q, pp. 18.; #Askar , . q Madrasatayn, III, passim; Khurramsh ah , Qur" an, pp. 119122. 127 On the opposition between Usu ariyya see EIr, art. Akb ar ya . liyya and Akhb (E. Kohlberg); Kohlberg, Thought; Cole, Clerics; Lawson, Approaches. 128 For these sources see especially the studies cited above, note 119. For the most recent among them, see particularly the two works by Brunner which are cited there.
126

introduction

29

nents of tah f, although their positions are not always clear. Conversely, . r some renowned gures associated with the rationalist tendency also display an ambiguous attitude towards this particularly delicate matter: they include, from the Buwayhid period, al-Shaykh al-Muf d;129 from the Safawid period, the renowned al-Majlis (d. 1110/1699);130 in the . 19th and 20th centuries, as Brunner has shown, celebrated mujtahid s such as Ahmad b. Muhammad Mahd al-Nar aq (d. 1244/18281829), . . r Shaykh Murtad (d. 1281/1864), Akh und Muhammad K azim . . . a al-Ans .a al-Khur as an (d. 1329/1911) and Ayatollah Khumayn (d. 1409/1989).131 Among the works we have cited, the Fas t ab by al-N ur al. l al-khi. Tabars /Tabris undoubtedly constitutes the most systematic attempt . . to uphold the theory of the falsication of the #Uthm anic codex.132 If al-Sayy ar s work, used and extensively cited by al-N ur ,133 can be considered the oldest monograph upholding the Sh # notion of the n, al-N falsication of the Qur"a ur s book is the last. It also seems to complete another circle: the rst of the twelve arguments in the Fas t ab in favour of the theory of tah f, constituting the rst of . l al-khi. . r the books twelve chapters, is based on the famous h th according . ad to which all that happened to the Jews and Christians will some day also befall the Muslims.134 And since the sacred books of the Jews and Christians had been falsied (according to Q 2:75, 4:46, 6:91), our author concludes that the book of the Muslims, in its ocial version (not the true recension, that of #Al , kept by the Hidden Imam and
See the references given above, note 123. Bih ar, XCII, pp. 4077; cf. XXIV, pp. 153157, 195196, 400. On al-Majlis s . ambiguous position see Khurramsh ah , Qur" an, p. 88. 131 Brunner, Koranflschung, index, s.vv.; idem, Falsication, pp. 1920, 37. 132 The importance of this book and the plethora of both Sunn and Sh # reactions that it provoked are all the more noteworthy as the author was one of the greatest Sh # religious authorities of his time (see e.g. Brunner, Koranflschung, pp. 3969; idem, Falsication, pp. 2229; Khurramsh ah , Qur" an, pp. 89122). Since the Islamic revolution in Iran (19781979), Sunn , more specically Wahh ab attacks against Sh #ism have focused on this work to prove the heresy of the Sh # s. In reaction, many Im am scholars who were hostile to the theory of falsication sought to refute the book systematically in order to demonstrate the orthodoxy of Sh #ism as concerns the o n. Among the latest Im cial Qur"a am refutations: Ja#fariy an, Ukdh uba; M l an , Tah q; . q Mu#arrafa, S ana. See also above, note 80. . iy 133 See further below, pp. 38, 47, 51. 134 Sunn sources ascribe this h th (beginning: kullu m a waqa #a f ban isr a" l wa-f l. ad nas ar a) to the Prophet or to Ibn #Abb as; Sh # sources often attribute it to Ja#far al-S . adiq. . For its dierent versions see Wensinck, Concordance; Fah aris Bih ar al-anw ar, s.vv. Ban u . r Isr a" l, Nas a, as well as the sources cited by Kister, Haddith u, p. 232; see in . .a particular the analysis in Rubin, Bible, pp. 168189.
129 130

30

introduction

protected by God; cf. Q 15:9, 41:4142) had been falsied as well.135 In this lengthy rst chapter, al-N ur attempts to demonstrate the key role which falsication of scriptures played in the history of all religions. Here one can hear an echo of the warnings sounded by the ancient prophet M an , mentioned at the beginning of this Introduction, about the fate which awaits scriptures and the religious communities which depend on them when these scriptures were not written down by the prophets who brought them. 4. Life and Works of al-Sayy ar Although al-Sayy ar was a prominent gure in the early history of Im am exegetical literature, the biographical information about him is meagre. His full name was Ab u #Abdall ah Ahmad b. Muhammad b. . . Sayy ar. He is referred to not only as al-Sayy ar (after his grandfa,137 though there are no ther), but also as Is an 136 or (al)-Bas .r .fah accounts linking him to either Is an or Bas .fah .ra.138 During the imamate of al-Hasan al-#Askar (254260/868873) al-Sayy ar is said to . have served as secretary to the T ab al T . ahirids (min kutt . ahir ),139 whence 140 the title al-k atib by which he was sometimes known. The T . ahirids ruled over Khur as an on behalf of the #Abb asids;141 al-Sayy ar may
135 Fasl, pp. 3573. Regarding the ambiguity of this Sh # position which supports . the theory of the falsication of the #Uthm anic codex while basing its arguments on this very codex, see Goldziher, Richtungen, pp. 280281. This ambiguity is criticized by many Sh # scholars who are opposed to the theory of tah f ; for a summary of #All ama . r Tab a" s criticism see Tihr , Mihr (conversations of Ayatollah Husayn Tihr . at . an . . an .ab with #All ama Tab a" ), pp. 206210. . at .ab 136 Kishsh , p. 505 > Quhp a" , I, p. 149. 137 Barq , Rij al, p. 61; Kishsh , p. 505 > Quhp a" , I, p. 149; Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190; T , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70; idem, Rij al, p. 427, no. 3 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150; . us Ibn Shahr ash ub, Ma # alim, p. 13, no. 60. 138 Al-Sayy ar is recorded as maintaining that it is only in Bas .ra that the practice is followed of waiting for twenty-four hours before consuming the meat of dung-eating sh (Kul n , VI, p. 252, no. 9; T , Tahdh b, IX, p. 13, no. 48). This does not, however, . us prove that he had connections to that city. 139 Kishsh , p. 505 (the reading min kib ar al-z d . ahiriyya is erroneous) > Ibn al-Shah al-Th an , Tah r, p. 46, Quhp a" , I, p. 149; Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190, T , Fihrist, . us . r p. 51, no. 70, both > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. Al-Kishsh s source is Ab u l-Q asim Nas .r b. (al)-Sabb ah , who is credited with a Kit ab ma #rifat al-n aqil n (see Naj ash , II, . al-Balkh . pp. 385387, no. 1150; T , Rij al, p. 515, no. 1; Ardab l , II, pp. 290291). . us 140 Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190, T , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70, both > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. . us 141 See EI 2, art. T . ahirids (C.E. Bosworth).

introduction

31

therefore have lived for a time in that regions capital, N s ab ur (N sh ap ur). Ibn al-Ghad a " ir (. rst half of 5 th/ 11 th century) is alone . among the early Im am experts on Rij al to refer to al-Sayy ar as al142 ar s connection to Qumm is in fact borne out by Qumm . Al-Sayy the names of some of his authorities and students; he is thus likely to have belonged to the circles of Sh # scholars who were active in that 143 city. None of the early Im am sources available to us provides a precise birth or death date for al-Sayy ar . The Sunn author Ibn Hajar al. #Asqal an (d. 852/1449) states that al-Sayy ar lived in the late 3rd/9th source may well have been the H f rij al alcentury.144 Ibn Hajars . . aw sh #a al-im amiyya by the Sh # author Ibn Ab Tayy al-Halab (d. ca. 630/ . . 12321233), since it is from there that he culled most of his informa a Buzurg al-Tihr (d. 1389/1970) tends tion on Sh # scholars.145 Agh . an to conclude that al-Sayy ar did not reach the 4th/10th century, though he does not entirely rule out this possibility. He bases his view on Ibn Hajar (fa-yazhar min qawl Ibn Hajar wa-min . tabaqatihi ayd . . . an annahu laysa . 146 and also on a pasmin a #l am al-qarn al-r abi # wa-la #allahu was ala ilayhi ), . sage in the Kit ab al-ghayba by Muhammad b. Ibr a h m Ibn Ab Zaynab . al-Nu#m an (d. ca. 345/956 or 360/971); this passage, in the version available to al-Tihr , contained an error which misled him into think. an ing that al-Sayy ar was one generation younger than he really was.147 A death-date given for al-Sayy ar in a late source is 368/978979, but 148 this is patently wrong. A dierent date, cited by the contemporary
142 Ibn al-Ghad , p. 40, no. 11 > Quhp a" , I, p. 149. See in general EI 2, art. #Ilm . a"ir al-ridj al (B. Scarcia Amoretti). 143 For these circles see Newman, Formative Period, passim. 144 K ana f aw akhir al-mi"a al-th alitha (Ibn Hajar, Lis an, I, p. 275, no. 793). . 145 See Ja#fariy an, H , p. 131. . aw 146 Tihr , Tabaq at, I, pp. 4748. The subtitle of this volume is Naw abigh al-ruw at f . an . r abi #at al-mi" at, indicating that it deals with transmitters who were alive in the 4th/10th century. 147 The correct version is found in the 1383 sh./1985 edition of al-Nu#m an s Ghayba, p. 131; here there appears the isn ad al-Nu#m an < Sal ama b. Muhammad (d. 339/950 . 951) < al-Hasan b. #Al b. Mahziy ar < al-Sayy ar . According to the version cited by . al-Tihr (Tabaq at, I, p. 47), the isn ad is al-Nu#m an < Sal ama b. Muhammad b. al. an . . Husayn b. #Al b. Mahziy ar < al-Sayy ar . Judging by this isn ad, al-Sayy ar was only . two generations older than al-Nu#m an and could thus conceivably have reached the 4th/10th century. The name as cited by al-Tihr is evidently the result of a conation . an between the two names found in the correct version of the passage (al-Husayn is . probably an error for al-Hasan; see Kh u" , VI, pp. 6061, no. 3002, VII, p. 54, . no. 3552). 148 This date is cited by Muhammad b. #Al al-Astar ab ad (d. 1026/1617) in his Manhaj .

32

introduction

Iranian scholar Ja#far Sobhani, is 286/899.149 Since the source for this statement is not provided, its reliability cannot be assessed. There are in fact several indications that al-Sayy ar lived in the mid-3rd/9th century. One of his most frequently cited authorities is Muhammad b. . s Kh alid al-Barq , who lived in the early 3rd/9th century;150 al-Barq son, Ahmad b. Muhammad (d. 274/887888 or 280/893894),151 trans. . mitted from al-Sayy ar in his Kit ab al-mah asin.152 Ab u Ja#far al-T . us . (d. 460/1067) lists al-Sayy ar among the disciples of both the tenth and eleventh Imams, #Al al-H ad (d. 254/868) and al-Hasan al-#Askar . (d. 260/873) respectively.153 From an epistle (ruq #a) ascribed to the ninth Imam Muhammad al-Jaw ad (d. 220/835) it would appear that this . Imam knew al-Sayy ar ; but the Sh # scholar Muhammad Taq al. Tustar (d. 1415/1995) maintains that the epistle was composed by alHasan al-#Askar , and that the available version contains an error in the . may well be right: this text is reminiscent of Imams name.154 Al-Tustar others written by the eleventh Imam.155 In the epistle, sent in response to a query, the Imam declares that al-Sayy ar does not have the position
al-maq al (p. 44). Al-Astar ab ad cites as his source the Fihrist of al-T ; in the available . us versions of al-T s work, this date is missing. Muhsin al-Am n provides the same . us . information, also from al-T s Fihrist (A #y an, III, p. 116). Others who give this death. us date (but without indicating the source of this information) are al-Tihr in the Dhar #a . an (XVI, p. 1, no. 2, p. 262, no. 1070), as well as Kah h a la (I, p. 268 ) and Sezgin (GAS, .. IX, p. 114) in their respective entries on al-Sayy ar . It is unlikely that the error was committed by al-T ; more probably, it was introduced by a scribe at some stage . us in the transmission of the Fihrist. The following may have happened: rst, the scribe confused al-Sayy ar with his namesake Ahmad b. Sayy ar, i.e. the Sunn traditionist Ab u . l-Hasan Ahmad b. Sayy ar b. Ayy ub al-Marwaz , who died in mid-Rab # I 268/Oct. . . n 881 (Sam#a , Ans ab, VII, p. 330) or mid-Rab # II 268/Nov. 881 (Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, I, . pp. 3536; other sources also record the date 268, e.g. al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , Ta"r kh . Baghd ad, IV, p. 189); second, he (or a later scribe) copied 268 as 368. 149 Sobhani, Doctrines, p. 94. 150 He appears in over seventy traditions in KQ ; see the Notes to KQ, no. 1. 151 For whom see EI 2, Suppl., art. al-Bark . [Ch. Pellat]; Newman, Formative Period, index. 152 See Barq , I, p. 134, no. 12, II, p. 471, no. 464, p. 474, nos. 473, 476, p. 475, nos. 477, 478, p. 478, no. 499, p. 488, no. 558, p. 493, no. 585, p. 507, no. 653, p. 511, no. 684, p. 515, no. 708, p. 517, no. 714, p. 521, no. 736, p. 522, no. 738, p. 524, no. 749, p. 525, no. 754, p. 526, nos. 756, 758, 759, p. 550, nos. 887, 888, p. 590, no. 94. 153 T , Rij al, p. 411, no. 23, p. 427, no. 3 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. Al-Barq (Rij al, p. 61) . us only mentions him as a disciple of al-#Askar . In KQ al-Sayy ar transmits from al-H ad (both directly and indirectly; see nos. 40, 88, 224, 342, 344, 517), but not from al-#Askar . For another example of al-Sayy ar s transmission from al-H ad see Bas a"ir, p. 517, no. 47 . > Bih ar, XXV, p. 372, no. 23. . 154 Tustar , Rij al, I, p. 609. 155 For these epistles see Modarressi, Crisis, pp. 1617.

introduction

33

which he claims for himself, and orders that nothing be handed over to him (l a tadfa # u ilayhi shay"an).156 This somewhat cryptic statement may refer to an attempt by al-Sayy ar to present himself as a nancial agent (wak l ) of the Imam, and as such entitled to collect money on his behalf. (Such money would include the khums, a 20 % levy on the income of the believers.)157 Al-Sayy ar is an early authority for a miraculous event connected with the Twelfth Imam: he reportedly declared having heard from Nas m and M ariya, two slave girls of al-Hasan al-#Askar , that when . the Twelfth Imam was born he kneeled down, raised his index nger towards heaven, praised God and said: The evil-doers have claimed that Gods argument is not valid (h ah d ah . ujjat all . id . a; cf. Q 42:16); had we been given permission to speak, all doubt would have been removed.158 Al-Sayy ar was severely criticized by some Rij al experts. Two main charges were levelled against him. The rst was that he espoused ar s contemporary Muhammad extremist beliefs.159 In this vein, al-Sayy . b. #Al Ibn Mahb in his Kit ab (naw adir) al-mus . ub al-Ash#ar . annaf accuses him of belief in metempsychosis (tan asukh).160 The second charge was that al-Sayy ar habitually transmitted traditions with incomplete isn ad s (kath r al-mar as l ) and was in general an unreliable transmitter (d f al. a # scholars refused to relate trah th).161 Consequently, some Qumm . ad ditions in which he appeared as a transmitter. Thus Muhammad b. . Hasan Ibn al-Wal d al-Qumm (d. 343 / 954 955 ) and Mu hammad b. . .
Kishsh , p. 505 > Ibn al-Shah d al-Th an , Tah r, p. 46, Quhp a" , I, p. 149. . r For the role of the wukal a" see Modarressi, Crisis, pp. 1316. 158 See Mas#u d , Ithb at, p. 251 > Mustadrak, VIII, pp. 388389, no. 9759; Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 406 > Bih ar, LI, p. 4, no. 6 (in Bih ar, read al-Sayy ar for al. . Sh ar ); T , Ghayba, p. 147; anon., Alq ab, p. 287; Ibn Hamza, Th aqib, p. 584, no. 532 . us . (beginning: #an al-Sayy ar q al ); R awand , Khar a"ij, I, p. 457, no. 2 (beginning: m a ruwiya #an al-Sayy ar ) > Bih ar, LXXVI, p. 53, no. 5; Irbil , Kashf, III, p. 302. In most of . these sources, the story is transmitted from al-Sayy ar by Ibr ah m b. Muhammad b. . #Abdall ah, a great-grandson of M us a al-K azim. Elsewhere it is Ibr ah m himself who . quotes Nas m and M ariya (see Khas b , Hid aya, pp. 357358; Tabris , I #l am, p. 420). . . The birth date of the Twelfth Imam is often given as 256/870, though other dates are also mentioned; see Hussain, Occultation, pp. 7071. 159 Ibn al-Ghad , p. 40, no. 11 > Quhp a" , I, p. 149; Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190, . a"ir T u , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70 (f asid al-madhhab, holding to a corrupt doctrine), both > . s Quhp a" , I, p. 150, Modarressi, Crisis, p. 22, note 26; Hill , Khul as . . a, p. 97. 160 Cited in Ibn al-Ghad , p. 40, no. 11 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150, Modarressi, Crisis, . a"ir p. 22, note 26. For Ibn Mahb . ubs work see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 288, no. 448. For a discussion of metempsychosis among the Sh #a (particularly the ghul at ) see Freitag, Seelenwanderung, pp. 1112. 161 Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190, T , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70, both > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. . us
156 157

34

introduction

#Al Ibn B abawayh (d. 381/991) are said to have dropped all traditions found in the Kit ab naw adir al-h u Ja#far Muhammad b. . . ikma by Ab Ahmad b. Yahy . . a al-Ash#ar al-Qumm (. late 3rd/9th century) that ar had been transmitted by al-Sayy ar .162 Others related from al-Sayy conditionally: Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Ya hy a al# A t t a r al-Qumm , . . .. who was one generation younger than al-Sayy ar and is described by al-Naj ash (d. 450/1058) as a leading scholar of his time (shaykh as abin a .h . f zam anihi ), is reported to have transmitted on his authority only those of his traditions that did not contain elements of ghuluww (extremism).163 At the same time, a number of prominent Qumm authors transmitted from him directly and without restrictions; they include Muhammad . r al-Qumm b. al-Hasan al-Sa (d. 290/902903)164 and #Abdall ah b. . . a Ja#far al-Himyar (d. after 297/909910),165 in addition to the above. mentioned Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barq . Al-Sayy ar appears as a . . transmitter in two of the Four Books of Im am Sh #ism: the K af of al166 Kul n and the Tahdh b al-ah am of al-T . . us . k Al-T credits al-Sayy ar with numerous works (wa-s . us . annafa kutuban kath ra), and provides the titles of four of them: (1) Kit ab thaw ab al-qur" an n); (2) Kit (The Book on the Reward for [Reciting] the Qur"a ab al-. tibb (The Book of Medicine); (3) Kit ab al-qir a"a (The Book of Recitation [of n]); (4) Kit the Qur"a ab al-naw adir (The Book of Strange/Entertaining ash gives the same titles, but with Kit ab al-qir a" at Anecdotes).167 Al-Naj n]) for Kit (The Book of Variant Readings [of the Qur"a ab al-qir a"a.168
Naj ash , II, pp. 242244, no. 940 > Quhp a" , V, pp. 144145; T , Fihrist, p. 175, . us no. 623 > Quhp a" , V, p. 144. For al-Ash#ar and his Naw adir al-h . ikma see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 299, no. 469. 163 Naj ash , II, pp. 250251, no. 947 > Quhp a" , VI, pp. 7071. For his transmission from al-Sayy ar see Naj ash , I, p. 212, no. 190, T , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70, both > . us Quhp a" , I, p. 150. 164 See Amir-Moezzi, Saa r cites from al-Sayy ar both directly . r, p. 234. Al-Sa . a (as in Bas a"ir, p. 125, no. 4) and via one or two intermediaries (as in Bas a"ir, p. 14, no. 2, . . p. 69, no. 2, p. 517, no. 47). 165 See e.g. Ibn T us, Fal ah . aw . , p. 283. 166 See the examples in Ardab l , I, p. 67. Al-Sayy ar also appears as a transmitter in two traditions in al-T s Istibs ar (I, p. 237, no. 846, p. 483, no. 1871). In his comment . us . following the rst of these traditions al-T cites Ibn B abawayhs negative assessment . us of al-Sayy ar . Al-Sayy ar s own views are cited in Kul n , IV, p. 81, no. 3, VI, p. 252, no. 9, p. 307, no. 13. A partial list of al-Sayy ar s authorities and those who transmitted from him is given in Kh u" , III, pp. 7173, no. 874, XXIV, pp. 122124, no. 15375. 167 T , Fihrist, p. 51, no. 70 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. See also Ibn Shahr ash ub, Ma # alim, . us p. 13, no. 60. 168 Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150; also Ibn Shahr ash ub, Ma # alim, p. 13, no. 60 (al-Qir a" at ). Muhsin al-Am n (A #y an, III, p. 117) maintains that the title .
162

introduction

35

He also mentions another work: (5) Kit ab al-gh ar at (The Book of Raids). All of these, he says, were available to him.169 Fragments of a work by al-Sayy ar are cited in the concluding section (entitled Musta. traf at ) of the Kit ab al-sar a"ir by Ibn Idr s al-Hill (d. 598/1202);170 judging by their . contents, these fragments may have formed part of the Kit ab al-naw adir. Other than that, only the Kit ab al-qir a" at has survived. The rst author to have cited from this work is in all likelihood Ab u #Abdall ah Muhammad b. al-#Abb as Ibn M ahy ar, known as Ibn . al-Juh . am (d. after 328/939940). Ibn al-Juh . am was the author of a n known (inter alia) as Ta"w massive commentary on the Qur"a l m a nazala min al-qur" an al-kar m f l-nab wa- alihi, and now lost. The second of its two volumes, comprising exegetical traditions on S urat al-isr a" n, was still available to the 10th/16th-century to the end of the Qur"a ab ad al-Najaf , who cites scholar Sharaf al-D n #Al al-Husayn al-Astar . extensively from it in his Ta"w l al- ay at al-z a hira f fa d a " il al# itra al-. t ahira.171 . . These citations include a fairly large number of traditions taken from al-Sayy ar s work. Ibn al-Juh ar via one transmit. am cites from al-Sayy ter, Ahmad b. al-Q a sim al-Hamd a n (or Hamad(h) a n ).172 . During the four centuries that followed Ibn al-Juh ab al. am, the Kit qir a" at seems to have gone unnoticed, except perhaps by Rad n . al-D
Kit ab al-qir a"a appears in the Fihrist of Ibn al-Nad m; this, however, is an error, probably caused by a confusion with the Fihrist of al-T . According to al-N ur (Fas . us . l, p. 29) and al-Tihr (Dhar #a, IV, p. 454, XVII, p. 52, no. 284), Kit ab al-qir a" at is the title given by . an both al-Naj ash and al-T . That the same work may be known as both Kit ab al-qir a"a . us and Kit ab al-qir a" at is attested elsewhere, for example in the case of Ab an b. Taghlib (d. 141/758759; see GdQ, III, p. 206, note 5; Modarressi, TS, p. 111) or the grammarian Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Sa#d an al-Dar r (d. 231/845846; see Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist, . . p. 76, with note 6). Cf. in general EI 2, art. Kir ab al-qir a" at . a"a (R. Paret). The title Kit reects more accurately the contents of al-Sayy ar s work. 169 Naj ash , I, p. 211, no. 190 > Quhp a" , I, p. 150. Al-Tihr (Dhar #a, XVI, p. 262, . an no. 1070) mentions a work of al-Sayy ar entitled Fad a"il al-qur" an, without however . providing the source of this information. This may be an alternative title to Kit ab thaw ab al-qur" an. 170 See Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir, III, pp. 568572. Ibn Idr s mistakenly refers to al-Sayy ar as a disciple of the Imams M us a al-K azim al-Rid a"ir, III, p. 568). . and #Al . a (Sar 171 See Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, pp. 369371, no. 623. 172 The nisba al-Hamd an is attested once, at Najaf , p. 432 > Mustadrak, XVII, p. 338, no. 21491. In the classical Rij al works, the name Ahmad b. al-Q asim (without . an Ab al-Hamd an ) occurs twice: rst, as the author of a work entitled Im T . alib (Naj ash , I, p. 242, no. 232 > Dhar #a, II, p. 512, no. 2008); second, as someone who, in 328/939940 and later, transmitted traditions to al-Husayn b. #Ubaydall ah al. Talla#ukbar (T , Rij al, pp. 444445, no. 40 > Ardab l , I, p. 58). Here his name is . us given as Ab u Ja#far Ahmad b. al-Q asim b. Ubayy b. Ka#b. .

36

introduction

#Al b. M us a Ibn T us (d. 664/1266), a scholar famed for his large . aw collection of Sh # and other texts. In two of his works, Ibn T us refers . aw to an anonymous work entitled Kit ab tafs r al-qur" an #an al-s adiq n/al. S adiqayn or Kit ab tafs r al-qur" an wa-ta"w lihi wa-tanz lihi wa-n asikhihi wa. mans ukhihi wa-muh abihihi wa-ziy ad at h uhi wa-fad a"ilihi . kamihi wa-mutash . ur . a diq n/alS a diqayn min a l ras u l all ah. wa-thaw abihi bi-riw ay at al-thiq at #an al-s . . The manuscript of this work, which was in his possession, is described n by him as a beautiful old copy and an old bound book of Qur"a exegesis.173 He cites one tradition from it (an exegesis of Q 5:1)174 and states that the work contains four traditions relating to Q 2:238 plus two other traditions (presumably also on this verse).175 All of these traditions are in fact found in the text of al-Sayy ar .176 Furthermore, the title given by Ibn T us ts the contents of Kit ab al-qir a" at. It is tempting . aw to conclude that this was the work in Ibn T a w u ss possession. . The next author after Ibn al-Juh . am known to have cited from alSayy ar is al-Hasan b. Sulaym an al-Hill (d. after 802/13991400), a . . disciple of al-Shah d al-Awwal Muhammad b. Makk al-#Amil (d. 786/ . 177 contains 1384). Al-Hill s Mukhta s ar (or Muntakhab ) ba s a " ir al-daraj a t . . . three exegetical traditions (on Q 102:8) taken from al-Sayy ar .178 Al Hill ars work as Kit ab al-tanz l wa-l-tah f (The Book . refers to al-Sayy . r n]). In classical Arabic of Revelation and Falsication [of the Qur"a literature, it is quite common for a particular work to be known by various names;179 and the fact that in the available sources this title is rst mentioned by al-Hill should not be taken as evidence against its . antiquity. It may in fact be assumed that al-Hill took the title Kit ab al. tanz l wa-l-tah r f from Ibn al-Ju h a m, the second volume of whose Ta "w l . . m a nazala min al-qur" an was available to him, as it was later available to

See Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, pp. 349350, no. 579. See Ibn T us, Sa #d, p. 121 > Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 191. . aw . 175 Arba #at ah th bi- #iddat . turuq #an al-B aqir wa-l-S adiq anna l-s at al-wus. t as at al-zuhr . . ad . al . al . wa-anna ras ul all ah k ana qara"a: h az a l-s at wa-l-s at al-wus. t a wa-s at al- #as . . alaw . al . al . r wa. u #al f hi h th an akhar an ba #d dhikr ah ad th (sic). See Ibn T us, Fal ah ar, . aw . ad . . , pp. 9495 > Bih . LXXXII, pp. 290291. The words wa-s at al- #as . al . r are missing from the printed edition of the Fal ah ar. . but appear in the Bih . 176 KQ, nos. 6771, 7980, 162. 177 In the Najaf 1370/1950 edition, the work is called Mukhtasar bas at. . . a"ir al-daraj According to Crow (Husayn, p. 94, note 56), the correct title is Muntakhab bas a"ir . . al-daraj at. 178 Hill . , Mukhtas . ar, p. 204. See KQ, nos. 689691. 179 See EI 2, art. #Unw an (A.A. Ambros).
173 174

introduction

37

al-Najaf .180 If this assumption is correct, it would mean that this title was in use shortly after al-Sayy ar s death. Direct citations from al-Sayy ar s work are not found in the major Im am compilations of exegetical Had th composed in the late Safawid . . period, such as the Tafs r al-s a f of Mu hsin al-Fay d al-K a sh a n (d. 1091/ . . . 1680), the Burh an f tafs r al-qur" an of H ashim b. Sulaym an al-Bahr . an (d. 1107/16951696 or 1109/16971698) and the Tafs r n ur al-thaqalayn of #Abd #Al al-Huwayz (d. 1112/17001701). The leading author and . traditionist Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil (d. 1104/1693) . . . does not cite from it in two of his major works, the (Tafs l ) was a"il al. sh #a and the Ithb at al-hud at, and it is doubtful whether citations are to be found in any other of his writings. Al-Sayy ar s work is never cited directly in the monumental Bih a r al-anw a r of Mu hammad B aqir al . . Majlis (d. 1110/1699)181 and is not included in its list of sources. While working on the Bih ar al-Majlis , aided by some of his students, contin. ued searching for additional Im am sources, with the aim of compiling did not live a supplement to be entitled Mustadrak al-bih ar.182 Al-Majlis . to write this supplement, but a list of the sources which he had discov ered and planned to use was published by al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris . . (d. 1320/1902) in his biography of al-Majlis, al-Fayd f tarjamat . al-quds al- #all ama al-Majlis . The tenth of the forty-eight works which appear in that list is al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f li-Ah ar wa. r . mad b. Muh . ammad al-Sayy yuq al lahu Kit ab al-qir a" at ayd an (The Revelation and Falsication [of . n] by Ahmad the Qur"a b. Muhammad al-Sayy ar, also known as The . . Book of Variant Readings).183 There are sporadic citations from the text of al-Sayy ar in works from the 18th and early 19th century. These include the H a shiyat al-mad arik . by Muhammad B aqir al-Bihbih an (d. 1206/17911792 or 1208/1793 . a"im al-ayy am f mas a"il al-h al wa-l-h am by Ab u l1794);184 the Ghan . al . ar Q asim al-J l an known as al-F adil al-Qumm (d. 1231 / 1815 1816 or . #a by Ahmad b. Mu hammad 1233/18171818);185 the Mustanad al-sh . .
See Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, pp. 81, 370371. Indirect quotations are occasionally found, such as the tradition cited via al-Hill s . Mukhtas ar, LIII, p. 107, no. 135. See the Notes to KQ, no. 689. . ar in Bih . 182 See Bih . ar, I, p. 46. 183 N ur , Fayd . , p. 65. 184 Thus according to N ur , Kh atima, I, p. 114; Dhar #a, XVII, p. 52, no. 284. AlBihbih an s H arik al-ah am of Muhammad b. #Al . . ashiya is a commentary on the Mad . k al-#Amil known as Sibt d al-Th an (d. 1009/1600) (see Dhar #a, VI, p. 196, . al-Shah no. 1079; Modarressi, Introduction, p. 84 [no. 6]). It was not available to us. 185 J l an , Ghan a"im, II, p. 513.
180 181

38

introduction

Mahd al-Nar aq (d. 1244/18281829);186 and the Jaw ahir al-kal am by Muhammad Hasan b. Mu hammad B a qir al-Najaf (d. 1266 / 1850 ).187 In . . . 188 the last three sources al-Sayy ars work is referred to as Kit ab al-qir a"a or Kit ab al-qir a" at, and the same traditions are cited.189 It is thanks to al-N ur that this text was brought to the attention of a larger audience by being extensively quoted in two of his major works, the Mustadrak al-was a"il (completed 10 Rab # II 1319/27 July 1901) and particularly the earlier Fas t ab (completed 12 Shaww al 1298/7 Sept. 1881).190 . l al-khi. 5. Structure and Contents of the Kit ab al-qir a" at Broadly speaking, the Kit ab al-qir a" at belongs within the pre-Buwayhid Im am school of exegesis.191 At the same time, it has some distinctive features of its own. Like other texts of the pre-Buwayhid school, al-Sayy ar s work is made up entirely of traditions. Most of these are cited with a complete isn ad. In others, the isn ad is abbreviated or is missing altogether. In some isn ad s, al-Sayy ar s immediate authority is an unnamed scholar ah ah abin a).193 As (ba #d abin a)192 or scholars (ghayr w . id/ghayr w . id min as .h . . as .h . a rule, traditions go back to an Imam (usually Muhammad al-B aqir or . 194 Ja#far al-S a diq), though some Prophetic h ad th s are also included. . . The work opens with a number of traditions (KQ, nos. 117) main n was revealed according to one reading (qir taining that the Qur"a a"a) n as we have it contains omissions. This is folonly, and that the Qur"a lowed by a chapter entitled b ab m a j a"a f bi-sm all ah al-rah an al-rah m . m . (KQ, nos. 1831) which deals with various aspects of the basmala, such as the duty to recite it audibly. The rest of the work is divided into
Nar aq , Mustanad, V, p. 128. Najaf , Jaw ahir, X, pp. 21, 22. 188 All written by pupils or followers of al-Bihbih an ; see Modarressi, Introduction, p. 57. 189 KQ, nos. 661, 699, 700. It is not clear which (if any) of these authors cited directly from a manuscript of the Kit ab al-qir a" at. 190 For al-N ur s citations from al-Sayy ar see Brunner, Koranflschung, pp. 5859. 191 For the characteristics of this school see Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 7186. 192 KQ, nos. 105, 107, 184, 202, 314, 326, 337, 339, 402, 436, 441, 442, 444, 460, 468, 474, 476, 508, 596, 614, 617, 666, 669, 674, 684, 712, 723. 193 KQ, nos. 49, 285, 465, 587, 656, 662, 665. 194 Two traditions (KQ, nos. 71, 626) are recorded on the authority of Ibn #Abb as, one (KQ, no. 663) is cited from a son of the Companion Samura b. Jundab, and one (KQ, no. 90) is cited from an unnamed Sunn (ba #d amma). . al- #
186 187

introduction

39

chapters arranged in accordance with the order of the S uras. At times (particularly in the case of the shorter S uras) material relating to two or more S uras is combined in a single chapter. On several occasions the title of a chapter does not accurately reect its contents: the chapter entitled S urat Saba" wa-l-mal a"ika (i.e. S uras 3435) has no citations from S urat al-mal a"ika; the chapter entitled S urat al-h d wa-l-muj adala . ad wa-l-h uras 5760) has no citations from S urat . ashr wa-l-mumtah . ana (i.e. S al-mumtahana. Within each chapter, the verses are not always cited in . n. Thus the accordance with the order of their appearance in the Qur"a #Imr verses from S ura 3 (Al an) appear in the following order: 18, 7, 123, 110, 128, 33, 85, 140, 180, 183, 185, 110 (again), 81, 103, 92, 102, 97 etc. In addition, verses which properly belong in a particular chapter are at times cited in the previous or the following chapter, or even in a completely dierent chapter. Thus Q 2:85 appears in the chapter on S ura 3 (KQ, no. 109); Q 5:95 appears in the chapter on S ura 2 (KQ, no. 84); Q 7:54 appears in the chapter on S ura 6 (KQ, no. 175); Q 22:52 appears in the chapter on S ura 21 (KQ, no. 350); Q 35:2 and 35:41 appear in the chapter on S ura 36 (KQ, nos. 452, 441 respectively); Q 47:31 appears in the chapter on S ura 3 (KQ, no. 130). Whether this reects the original order of the text remains an open question. The Im am character of the work comes to the fore in over one hundred exegetical traditions. In many of these traditions, #Al plays a central role: he alone is Commander of the Faithful (am r al-mu"min n) (KQ, nos. 160, 440), and is more excellent than Moses and Jesus (KQ, no. 270); he is the guide of mankind (al-h ad ) (KQ, nos. 233, 270) and the path (sab l ) (KQ, no. 378) and gate (b ab) leading to God (KQ, nos. 92, 472), with Whom he enjoys a privileged position (KQ, no. 481); he oered charity (KQ, no. 570) and performed miracles (KQ, no. 684); his jih ad is the Prophets jih ad (KQ, nos. 225, 585); he is the sole legitimate successor to the Prophet (KQ, nos. 162, 665, 666, 668), and it is incumbent on the believers to show him loyalty and love (wal aya, h . ubb) (KQ, nos. 51, 76, 88, 139, 428, 491493, 539); on the Day of Judgment he, together with the Prophet, will cast Gods enemies into the Fire (KQ, no. 525). #Al s sons Hasan and Husayn are the descendants of Abra. . ham (KQ, nos. 272, 278); they, like their father before them, fell victim to K ufan deceit (KQ, no. 450). Several verses are interpreted metaphorically as referring to F at Husayn (KQ, no. 52) and #Al (KQ, . . .ima, Hasan, no. 672). The Imams are those who possess authority (ul u l-amr ) (KQ, no. 132); they warn mankind (KQ, no. 191) and are their saviours (KQ, no. 118) and ambassadors to God (KQ, no. 233); they have complete

40

introduction

n (KQ, no. 451), and their knowledge constantly mastery of the Qur"a increases (KQ, no. 527). They carry out the order of God (q a"im bi-amr all ah) (KQ, no. 406) pending the arrival of the eschatological Q a"im (i.e. the Mahd ) (KQ, nos. 44, 98, 154, 406, 409, 558, 610, 681). The followers (sh #a) of #Al and the other Imams enjoy a special position: they are the best of mankind (KQ, no. 679) and those possessed of understanding (ul u l-alb ab) (KQ, nos. 92, 472); their sins will be forgiven (KQ, nos. 473, 518) and they are assured of a place in heaven (KQ, nos. 200, 468). #Al s enemies are often mentioned, sometimes by name but more usually through the use of nicknames or circumlocutions. Thus Ab u Bakr is the rst (al-awwal ) (KQ, nos. 359, 383, 474, 522, 616, 617, 621, 660, 672, 684, 698), #Umar is the second (al-th an ) (KQ, nos. 197, 276, 286, 359, 383, 522, 598, 616, 617, 698) and #Uthm an is the third (al-th alith) (KQ, nos. 522, 599, 600, 616, 617); Ab u Bakr and #Umar are so-and-so (ful an wa-ful an) (KQ, no. 299), and #Umar is referred to as al-adlam (KQ, no. 380), Ruma# (KQ, no. 380) and Zufar (KQ, nos. 380, 382, 688, 725).195 "isha is al-Humayr #A a" (KQ, nos. 294, 408, 600);196 her participation in . the Battle of the Camel is recalled (KQ, nos. 294, 600), and there are veiled references to the role which she and Haf . s .a played in bringing about the Prophets death (KQ, nos. 128, 590). The Umayyads appear throughout in a negative light (KQ, nos. 184, 299, 410, 511, 592, 598, 616, 677, 715, 716). There are allusions to a number of Im am doctrines, including bad a" (KQ, nos. 351, 550, 619), #is ma ( KQ , nos. 214 , 508, 517) . and raj #a (KQ, nos. 113, 295, 303, 490), though the terms themselves are not employed.197 A considerable number of traditions are not concerned with specically Im am issues. Rather, they deal with such topics as abrogating or nic words,199 the signicance of abrogated verses,198 explication of Qur"a 200 particular verses or the merits (fad a"il ) of particular S uras.201 Numer.
195 For these appellations see Kohlberg, Sah . . aba, pp. 162163; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 115119. 196 See the Notes to KQ, no. 294. 197 For these doctrines, see the relevant articles in EI 2. Karra (return), a term used synonymously with raj #a, occurs twice, at KQ, nos. 116, 691. 198 KQ, nos. 96, 97, 157, 158, 172, 308, 335, 401, 531, 533; cf. nos. 171, 189. 199 E.g. KQ, nos. 50, 250, 336, 337, 470, 632, 649. 200 The ending (usually understood as the nal two verses) of S urat al-baqara (KQ, m (KQ, no. 189); the verse of the throne ( no. 95); verses 151153 of S urat al-an#a ayat al-kurs , i.e. Q 2:255) (KQ, no. 86). This verse, and the nal verse of S urat al-f atiha, . are nic passage. each cited in seven traditions, more than any other Qur"a 201 S urat al-hajj urat al-k ar un (KQ, no. 712) and S urat al-ikhl as . (KQ, no. 358), S . (KQ, no. 722).

introduction

41

ous traditions deal with the prophets, but only some of these have an Im am colouring.202 n gures prominently. It is The issue of the integrity of the Qur"a maintained for example that S urat al-ahz urat lam yakun (= al. ab, S bayyina) and S urat al-tak athur were originally longer than what we possess of them today (KQ, nos. 418422, 427, 680, 692), and that the above-mentioned passage on the two valleys of gold formed part of n (KQ, no. 430). Most claims of this type refer to the the original Qur"a Im am belief according to which words or sentences dealing with the rights or merits of the Prophet, the Imams, the ahl al-bayt or the sh #a and with the sins of their enemies have been altered or omitted (KQ, nos. 9, 14, 15, 17, 105, 106, 115, 221, 381, 551, 588, 593, 605, 680). As the title Kit ab al-qir a" at indicates, variant readings are a central component of the work. In this respect, it diers from other exegetical at occupy a relatively works of the pre-Buwayhid school, where qir a" minor position. Roughly two thirds of the traditions in the Kit ab alqir a" at deal with readings. Over forty of these readings do not appear to be attested in any other source.203 Structurally, the readings may be divided into a number of categories, according to the dierences between them and the #Uthm anic codex: (1) a change in vocalization; (2) a substitution of one or more words by another word or words; (3) a change in the order of the words; (4) an addition of one or more words; (5) a combination of elements from categories (1) to (4). As regards their content, the readings may be divided into two main categories: a" at, which may (1) readings carrying an Im am message.204 These qir be termed pro-Im am , are further divided into two kinds (though the dierence between them is not always clear-cut): (a) explicitly proIm am readings. These are readings in which one of the following is

Prophets mentioned by name include Adam (KQ, nos. 65, 104, 106, 339, 344, 384, 604), Noah (KQ, nos. 104, 106, 116, 151, 237, 238, 240242, 244, 245, 311, 454, 457, 492, 493, 592, 602), Abraham (KQ, nos. 187, 188, 278281, 334, 492, 493), Isaac (KQ, nos. 271, 278, 492, 493), Ishmael (KQ, nos. 273, 278, 493), Jacob (KQ, nos. 255, 271, 492, 493), Moses (KQ, nos. 115, 201, 202, 231, 270, 286, 319, 345, 390, 391, 402, 404, 405, 429, 493, 507), Aaron (KQ, nos. 286, 429), Shu#ayb (KQ, no. 404), David (KQ, nos. 188, 398), Solomon (KQ, nos. 188, 398, 471) and Jesus (KQ, nos. 115, 123, 168, 188, 270, 493). 203 See KQ, nos. 60, 62, 89 (four readings), 94, 108, 143, 168 (repeated in 169), 196, 236, 239, 276, 277, 302, 306, 308, 314, 354, 362, 365, 374, 387, 391, 398, 407, 414, 435, 436, 445, 446, 448, 464, 488, 502, 514, 577, 602605, 615, 646, 669, 701. 204 For a list of such readings in other pre-Buwayhid Im am works see Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 5172.
202

42

introduction

mentioned: #Al (by his name or by one of his epithets: wal , was etc.); . the Imams; the Prophets family; the wal aya; enemies of the Prophets family (by their name or by a pejorative appellation); terms of Im am law, doctrine etc. (b) implicitly pro-Im am readings. These are readings whose Im am character appears only in the interpretation given to them by the Sh # exegetes. (2) neutral readings. These are readings with no explicit or implicit Im am message. Readings from category (1a) are almost never cited outside Im am literature (except for polemical purposes); readings from category (2) and sometimes also from category (1b) are also found in non-Im am works. When, in a medieval commentary, we nd that some word or words n or that some other have been added to a passage from the Qur"a change has taken place, it may not be obvious what the author intends: is he merely glossing the text, or is this a reading? In pre-Buwayhid Im am literature, this problem is addressed by means of various formulas that are used to make it clear when a reading is intended.205 Of them the following are found in KQ : kadh alika nazalat 206 or h akadh a nazalat 207 (thus [the verse] was revealed); wa-l akinnah a nazalat ;208 m a nazalat ill a h akadh a ([the verse] was only revealed thus);209 h akadh a nazala bihi/bih a Jabra" l (thus it [the text/the verse] was revealed by [the archangel] a Jabra" l #al a Muh akadh a;211 nazala Jabra" l Gabriel);210 nazala bih . ammad h 212 bi-h adhihi l- aya #al a Muh ammad/ras u l all a h h a kadh a ; nazala Jabra " l bi. adhihi l- aya) h akadh a;214 h adhihi l- aya h akadh a ( #al a ras ul all ah);213 nazalat (h 215 h akadh a nazalat h adhihi l- aya (thus the verse was revealed); h akadh a nazala bihi Jabra" l #al a Muh akinnahu h m a h . ammad s . wa-l . urrifa f . urrifa min kit ab all ah (thus it [the text] was revealed by [the archangel] Gabriel to n which were Muhammad but it was among [the verses] of the Qur"a . 216 akadh a l-tanz l/tanz luh a (thus [it was found in] the [origaltered); h
205 See Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 4445. In the Fasl, al-N ur indicates a qir a"a by . placing a line above it. 206 KQ, no. 415. 207 KQ, nos. 124, 221, 455, 508, 669671, 706. 208 KQ, no. 596. 209 KQ, no. 473. 210 KQ, nos. 147, 339, 601. 211 KQ, no. 113. 212 KQ, nos. 81, 135, 150, 301, 378; cf. no. 380. 213 KQ, nos. 61, 63, 87, 300. 214 KQ, nos. 138, 552, 659. 215 KQ, no. 209. 216 KQ, no. 505.

introduction

43

inal] revelation);217 innam a hiya (it [the correct reading of the verse] a huwa (it [the correct reading of the text] is);219 innam a is);218 innam 220 nazalat/unzilat (it [the verse] was revealed [as follows]); innam a q al (He [God] said);221 innam a tanz luh a (it [the verse] was revealed [as nic verse is preceded by a particular verb or follows]).222 When a Qur"a expression and is not accompanied by exegetical material, it can often be taken that the verse cited contains a qir a"a. Examples are qara"a,223 224 225 226 k ana/sami #tuhu etc. yaqra"u, iqra", tal a, q ala,227 f qawl all ah ta # al a, f 228 qawlihi etc. Finally, the Imam may emphasize that a particular reading was revealed to the Prophet,229 was recited by the Prophet230 or by n.232 #Al ,231 or is found in #Al s codex of the Qur"a A favourite method of pointing out an Im am reading is to reproduce a dialogue between an Imam and his disciple. For example, the disciple recites (or refers to) a verse according to a non-Im am reading; the Imam corrects this reading,233 at times pointing out that it is the result of am tah f.234 In other cases, the Imam recites a verse according to the Im . r reading, and when the disciplewho has never heard this reading

KQ, nos. 146, 372; cf. no. 603. KQ, nos. 120, 180, 208, 211, 231, 254, 290, 348, 349, 362, 379, 405, 456, 475, 547, 576, 655. 219 KQ, nos. 326, 540, 663. 220 KQ, nos. 101, 436. 221 KQ, no. 605. 222 KQ, no. 413. 223 KQ, nos. 40, 102, 167, 220, 223, 243, 246, 275, 297, 311, 332, 338, 363, 370, 372, 373, 387, 423, 434, 490, 502, 509, 514, 545, 573, 581, 604, 606, 607, 631, 642, 646, 657, 659, 682, 717. 224 KQ, nos. 35, 79, 104, 248, 252, 271, 287, 304, 309, 327, 340, 354, 414, 439, 455, 463, 467, 571, 572, 586, 588, 589, 598, 613, 636, 637, 644, 652, 653, 696, 705, 706. 225 KQ, nos. 219, 718, 719. 226 KQ, nos. 251, 512. 227 KQ, nos. 234, 503, 574, 581, 712. 228 KQ, nos. 5355, 58, 77, 93, 94, 110, 140, 156, 164, 165, 177, 195, 199, 210, 222, 269, 302, 306, 313, 321323, 328, 347, 386, 392, 398, 417, 424, 425, 428, 429, 432, 435, 445, 454, 503, 507, 515, 516, 535, 541, 554, 567, 627. 229 KQ, nos. 65, 120, 479. 230 KQ, nos. 67, 79. 231 KQ, nos. 236, 293, 316, 319, 325. 232 KQ, nos. 380, 382. 233 KQ, nos. 72, 101, 106, 169, 181, 217, 267, 274, 343, 349, 399, 436, 457, 479, 576, 669. 234 KQ, nos. 505, 593, 605; cf. nos. 623, 663.
217 218

44

introduction

beforewonders about it, the Imam rearms its correctness.235 The Imam may recite a verse according to the Im am reading and then tell 236 the disciple to recite it in this manner; or he may forbid his disciple to recite a verse according to the non-Im am reading.237 Often the disciple reports that he heard the Imam recite a verse according to the Im am reading.238 Many readings which in KQ are ascribed to an Imam are ascribed d.239 This is hardly surprising, given that the elsewhere to Ibn Mas#u d and the early Sh readings of both Ibn Mas#u #a were propagated in a single location (namely K ufa) at about the same time by people who had contacts to each other.240 Remarkably, eleven readings are cited in ds authoritysignicantly more than the number of KQ on Ibn Mas#u such readings in any other Im am work of the pre-Buwayhid period.241 In medieval sources there is considerable overlap between readings on d and those on the authority of Ubayy b. the authority of Ibn Mas#u 242 Ka#b. No readings in KQ are ascribed to Ubayy243 but, as in the case d, various readings elsewhere given on his authority are in of Ibn Mas#u KQ ascribed to an Imam.244

KQ, nos. 182, 220, 331, 348, 473, 479, 551, 639. KQ, nos. 119, 168, 353, 361. 237 KQ, nos. 346, 353, 540. 238 KQ, nos. 37, 38, 104, 248, 252, 264, 289, 296, 348, 407, 414, 467, 509, 566, 586, 589, 608, 613, 636, 637, 644, 653. 239 See the Notes to KQ, nos. 34, 57, 93, 105, 126, 140, 146, 148, 153, 207, 210, 219, 232, 241, 248, 254, 264, 265, 271, 291, 296, 313, 316, 317, 336, 338, 343, 367, 371, 386, 406, 424, 426, 434, 439, 455, 463, 474, 503, 523, 554, 560, 574, 586, 609, 627, 664, 670, 685, 705, 714. 240 Cf. Jeery, pp. 2021; Burton, Collection, pp. 193196; Shnizer, pp. 7984. For Ibn ds mus Mas#u # predilection for Ibn .h . af see in general Fas . l, pp. 135144. For the Sh ds codex see Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 272; Jeery, p. 184. Mas#u 241 A search has yielded two citations in Qumm (I, p. 366 [to Q 13:36], p. 391 [to Q 16:108109]), one in Fur at (I, p. 302, no. 407 [to Q 26:214]) and none in al-#Ayy ash s Tafs r. Ibn Shahr ash ub (d. 588/1192) maintains that he saw #Al s name in eight places d; but he does not cite from it (Ibn Shahr in the codex of Ibn Mas#u ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 > Bay ad , S a. t, I, p. 279). . . ir 242 It has been suggested that readings of the one have been attributed to the other (Jeery, p. 116). 243 And hardly any in other pre-Buwayhid texts; for a rare example see Fur at, II, p. 404, no. 540 (to Q 43:57). 244 See the Notes to KQ, nos. 35, 37, 46, 67, 100, 110, 112, 140, 148, 179, 192, 207, 210, 219, 243, 267, 268, 271, 287, 288, 311, 316, 317, 323, 328, 330, 338, 367, 369, 370, 386, 397, 412, 417, 423, 424, 439, 445, 456, 462, 519, 523, 540, 541, 565, 573, 574, 579, 591, 618, 623, 642, 652, 655, 714, 716.
235 236

introduction

45

It is doubtful whether al-Sayy ar s aim was to encourage his readers n in accordance with the qir to recite the Qur"a a" at which he cited.245 Instead, he must have seen his task as that of recording and preserving those readings which the Im am community regarded as reliable.246 KQ shows a marked anity with the Tafs r of Ab u l-Nadr . . Muham d al-#Ayy ash s work mad b. Mas#u ash .247 Only the rst half of al-#Ayy (covering S uras 118) is known to have survived. This half has some eighty traditions in common with KQ, and it can reasonably be assumed that the total number of common traditions was about double. The extant text of al-#Ayy ash is only available in a version in which the isn ad s have been abridged, usually leaving only the name of the rst (and occasionally also the second) transmitter of each tradition.248 Where al-Sayy ar and al-#Ayy ash cite the same tradition, and where alSayy ar cites this tradition with a complete isn ad, it can be assumed that this was also the isn ad in the original text of al-#Ayy ash . KQ can thus be used to reconstruct some of al-#Ayy ash s chains of transmission. Al#Ayy ash lived in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th century,249 making him a generation younger than al-Sayy ar . He may thus have drawn some of his material from al-Sayy ar , though it is just as likely that both authors depend on a common source. Another relevant source is the Kit ab al-tanz l wa-l-tah f by al-Sayy ar s . r teacher Muhammad b. Kh a lid al-Barq . This work, also known as Kit a b . al-tanz l wa-l-taghy r,250 is lost. Thirteen traditions from it are, however, preserved in al- #Iqd al-tham n f ah am al-a"imma al-h ad n by the Zayd . k r bi-ll Imam al-Mans ah #Abdall ah b. Hamza b. Sulaym an (d. 614/ . .u 1217). This Imam is known to have ordered the collection or copying of s may well have been among a large number of works,251 and al-Barq 252 them. Most of the traditions from al-Barq preserved in al- #Iqd al245 In fact, he cites on occasion several readings of the same verse; see KQ, nos. 100/ 101, 102/114, 195/196, 313/314, 316/317, 464/466, 655/659, 665/666/667/668. 246 Cf. Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 4547. 247 For al-#Ayy n commentary see Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 5663. ash and his Qur"a 248 See #Ayy ash , I, p. 2; cf. Modarressi, TS, p. 185. 249 His exact dates are not known (see Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 59). 250 See Naj ash , II, p. 221, no. 899 > Quhp a" , V, p. 206, Dhar #a, IV, p. 455, no. 2023. In these sources the title appears as Kit ab al-tanz l wa-l-ta #b r, which is an error. The correct title is given in Fas . l, p. 29, l. 8. 251 See Madelung, al-Q asim, p. 216; Schmidtke, Encounter, p. 110. 252 In the printed edition of al- #Iqd al-tham n the title appears once as al-Tah f wa. r r, #Iqd, pp. 312, 313). The authors l-tanz l and once as al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f (see Mans .u . r name appears both as al-Barq (at p. 313) and erroneously as al-T-r-i-q-i (at p. 312).

46

introduction

tham n are found in KQ, usually with the same isn ad.253 It is not clear, however, whether al-Sayy ar used al-Barq s work. To sum up: each of the titles by which al-Sayy ar s work is known underlines one of its distinctive features. The title al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f . r n had been tamreects the belief that the text of the original Qur"a pered with. A number of works with similar titles are mentioned in the a" at points more gensources,254 but none have survived. The title al-Qir erally to the central role of readings in it. Works bearing such a title r are known in both Sunn and Im am literature.255 The title al-Tafs found only in some late manuscripts (see below)256identies the work nic exegesis. as belonging to the genre of Qur"a 6. The Edition 6.1. The Manuscripts The edition of KQ is based on the following manuscripts: (1) Mar#ash no. 1455 (= ms. M), comprising 73 folios, 15 lines per page. At the upper left-hand corner of the rst page there appears the title Tafs r-i Ab u #Abdall ah Sayy ar , which was added by a later hand. The copyist is Muhammad S a li h b. m al-Yazd (d. 1076/1666), . . . . #Abd al-Rah 257 The date given in the a disciple of Muhammad B a qir al-Majlis . . colophon is 23 Sha#b an 1076/28 February 1666. Since al-Yazd spent

KQ, nos. 279, 286, 305, 311, 333, 390, 533. These are, in addition to al-Barq s work, Kit ab al-tanz l min al-qur" an wa-l-tah f by . r Ab u l-Hasan #Al b. al-Hasan b. #Al b. Fad uf (. mid-3rd/9th century) (see . . . d . al al-K Naj ash , II, p. 84, no. 674 > Quhp a" , IV, p. 182, Dhar #a, IV, p. 454, no. 2022); al-Tah f . r wa-l-tabd l by Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Sayraf (see T , Fihrist, p. 183, no. 661 > . . . us . a" , V, p. 190, Dhar #a, III, pp. 394395, no. 1417; Kh u" [XVI, p. 277, no. 10556] Quhp identies the author with a K ufan disciple of Ja#far al-S , Rij al, . us . adiq mentioned in T p. 284, no. 58); al-Tabd l wa-l-tah f by the above-mentioned #Al b. Ahmad al-K uf . . r (d. 352/963) (see Naj ash , II, p. 96, no. 689 > Quhp a" , IV, p. 162, Dhar #a, III, p. 311, no. 1151), also known as al-Radd #al a ahl al-tabd l (see Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 110, cf. the Notes to KQ, no. 620) or al-Radd #al a ahl al-tabd l wa-l-tah f f m a waqa #a min . r ahl al-ta"l f (see Ibn Shahr ash ub, Ma # alim, p. 64, no. 436, Dhar #a, X, pp. 186187). Cf. n, p. 213; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 225 = Divine Guide, p. 90. Kohlberg, Qur"a 255 For some examples see GAS, I, index; Dhar #a, XVII, pp. 5253, nos. 285287. 256 And as part of the title given by Ibn T us to what may be the text of al-Sayy ar . aw (see above, p. 36). 257 See Majlis , Ij az at, p. 219. For his death date see Tihr , Tabaq at, V, p. 290. . an .
253 254

introduction

47

the last year of his life in Mashhad,258 it is there that the manuscript is likely to have been copied. The manuscript was collated with its exemplar (as ad a II 453/25 June 1061, which in turn had . l ), dated 3 Jum been copied from a manuscript dated Dh u l-Qa#da 328/Aug.Sept. 940. The collation was undertaken by #Abd al-Husayn al-Husayn al. . Kh at un ab ad 259 and completed between the 20th and 30th (al- #ashr alth alith) of Ramad . an 1076/26 March to 5 April 1666. In the manuscript, traditions are often separated by a full stop. Corrections usually appear in the text, and at times are indicated by z . a" (for al-z . ahir ). Ibn is as a rule written without the initial alif even at the beginning of a sentence, and mimman is consistently written as min man. In several places there are errors which may indicate that at some stage in the transmission the text was read out to the copyist. These errors include m a k an for mak an (KQ, no. 91), # adaka l- #urj un for # ada ka-l- #urj un (KQ, no. 442) and innah a ul a" for inna h a"ul a" (KQ, no. 500). (2) Tehran University Mishk at no. 842 (= ms. L), comprising 54 folios, 16 lines per page. Neither the name of the copyist nor the date is provided. At the upper left-hand corner of the rst page there appears the title Kit ab al-tanz l wa-l-tah f li-Ah ar . r . mad b. Muh . ammad al-Sayy min al-qudam a". This was written by the manuscripts owner, al-N ur ur noted that he had al-Tabars /Tabris .260 Underneath the title al-N . . made a copy of this manuscript in 1282/18651866 (istaktabtuhu li-nafs wa-an a al-mudhnib al-mus " Husayn b. Mu h ammad Taq alTabris f 1282 ). . . . Ms. L is the one from which he cites in his Fas t ab and Mus. l al-khi. ur , who describes this manuscript as defective,262 tadrak al-was a"il.261 Al-N added some marginal notes comprising emendations, references to par nic verse is not cited allel texts or comments on places where a Qur"a in the appropriate chapter. The beginning of each tradition is indicated by a line above the rst words. The last word (or several words) of each folio are copied at the beginning of the following folio. This is not
See Tihr , Tabaq at, V, p. 290. . an . I.e. #Abd al-Husayn b. Muhammad B aqir al-Husayn al-Kh at un ab ad (d. 1105/ . . . 16931694), author of (Ta"r kh) waq a"i # al-ayy am wa-l-sin n wa-l-a #w am (see Dhar #a, III, p. 295, no. 1093, XXV, p. 128, no. 738; Tihr , Tabaq at, VI, pp. 419420; Pampus, . an . p. 21). 260 In the catalogue which al-N ur prepared of his library, the title likewise appears as al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f ; see Modarressi, Fihrist, p. 136. . r 261 Cf. Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 226, note 470 = Divine Guide, p. 205. 262 Kadh a f nuskhat wa-hiya saq ma (Fas a f l-nuskha wa. l, p. 235, l. 3, p. 307, l. 7); kadh l a takhl u min saq. t (Fas a f l-nuskha wa-hiya saq ma jiddan (Fas . l, p. 308, l. 17); kadh . l, p. 350, ll. 12).
258 259

48

introduction

indicated in the apparatus. In the photocopy at our disposal, fol 38 is missing. This covers KQ, no. 483 (from wa-l a tah u) to the end of KQ, . zan no. 494. Some passages at the beginning of the manuscript are misplaced. The correct order is: (a) fol 1a2a l. 15 (= nos. 110); (b) fol 7a l. 28b l. 12 (= nos. 1031); (c) fol 2a l. 155a l. 13 (= nos. 3176); (d) fol 8b l. 1211b l. 12 (= nos. 76115); (e) fol 5a l. 137a l. 2 (= nos. 115 131); (f) fol 11b l. 12 . (= nos. 131 .). Presumably, the copyist (of ms. L or of an antecedent copy) used an exemplar in which the folios were misbound in the following sequence: 1; 78; 24; 912; 56; 13 . The copyist was either unaware of the problem or unable (or unwilling) to set it right. Judging by the misplaced passages, in the misbound copy (as later in ms. L) the last word (or several words) of each folio were copied at the beginning of the following folio. (3) Mar#ash no. 12341 (= ms. T), comprising 66 folios, between 15 and 19 (mostly 17 or 18) lines per page. The title of the work is not recorded on the rst page; instead, this page contains biographical notices on al-Sayy ar . At the beginning of the text a later hand added: Kit ab al-tafs r li-Ah mad b. Muh ar #al a m a wajadn ahu. In the . . ammad al-Sayy colophon the work is called Kit ab al-tafs r. The manuscript was copied in 1311/18931894. The copyist is Muhammad B aqir al-Hamad an .263 His . name is immediately preceded by that of Muhammad al-M usaw al. Khw ans ar ,264 but the latter name is crossed out. This indicates that alHamad an used a copy written by al-Khw ans ar . The copy in question is probably the Faydiyya-Qumm manuscript copied in Najaf in Rab # . II 1282/AugustSept. 1865 (unavailable to us; see below, p. 51). A peculiarity of ms. T is that the th a" in mithluhu, mathalan etc. often has two, or even three, teeth. Also, the nal h a" is occasionally written with two dots above it, making it indistinguishable from a t a" marb u. ta. This
263 I.e. Muhammad B aqir b. Muhammad Ja#far al-Bah ar al-Hamad an , who in . . 1302/18841885 received an ij aza from al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris and died in Hama. . d an (Hamadh an) at the end of Sha#b an 1333/July 1915 (see Dhar #a, I, pp. 7980, no. 379; Tihr , Mus a, pp. 8788; Kah . an . h . ala, III, pp. 155156). He is the author of . a a number of works, including Abh a al-durar f takmilat #iqd al-durar, al-Ijtin ab (in Persian, completed in 1307/18891890), al-Durra al-najayya f l-us ul al-d niyya and al-Da #wa al. h #a, I, pp. 7980, no. 379, p. 269, no. 1414, VIII, p. 113, no. 414, . usayniyya (see Dhar p. 207, no. 850). 264 He is presumably Muhammad B aqir b. Zayn al-#Abid n al-M usaw al-Khw ans ar . (d. 1313/1895), author of Rawd at al-jann at (see Tihr , Mus a, p. 89). The editor of . an . . a al-Hurr al-#Amil s Was a"il quotes a number of traditions (= KQ, nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7) which . Muhammad al-M usaw al-Khw ans ar cited from KQ in the year 1287/18701871 (see . Was a"il, II/2, p. 822, note).

introduction

49

manuscript was collated with one or more other manuscripts. Variants are indicated (in the margin or in the text) by the letters kh a" /n un kh a" (for nuskha) or kh a" l am (for nuskha badal ) and corrections, by the letter z a " . Some corrections are accompanied by the word Muhammad, . . evidently the name of the copyist (e.g. at KQ, nos. 101, 128, 155, 160, 297, 421). The manuscript has the same misplacements as those of ms. L. (4) Markaz Ihy ath al-isl am (Qumm) no. 3889 (= ms. B), . a" al-tur comprising 46 folios, mostly 18 lines per page. This is a xerox copy of a manuscript in a private collection in Najaf. The rst page contains the following text: Kit ab al-qir a" at li-l-Sayy ar min mas adir Mustadrak al. f f kh atimat al-Mustadrak s was a"il wa-yuq al lahu al-Tanz l wa-l-tah . 309. The . r name of the copyist is not recorded. The date given in the colophon is 3 Jum ad a II 1319/17 Sept. 1901, i.e. less than two months after the completion of al-N ur s Mustadrak al-was a"il referred to on the rst page. The rst word of each tradition is written in a larger script. The misplacements in mss. L and T are also found here. In addition, comments in the margins of ms. L are occasionally incorporated in the text of ms. B (see e.g. KQ, nos. 81, 87, 478, 494, 505, 592), making the latter a (direct?) descendant of ms. L. Names such as Ab Ja #far or Ab Hamza are at times written as one word, and several abbreviations are . employed, e.g. kk for kadh alika. These are not noted in the apparatus. The fact that ms. M preserves the correct sequence of folios indicates that it does not derive from the misbound exemplar to which mss. L, T and B go back. At the same time, the four manuscripts have many errors in common.265 In addition, the authors name appears in all four manuscripts in the same places and in the same form: at the beginning of the text (KQ, no. 1: Ab u #Abdall ah Ah ar ), and . mad b. Muh . ammad al-Sayy at the opening of the chapters on S urat al-m a"ida (KQ, no. 162: q ala Ab u #Abdall ah), S urat al-tawba (KQ, no. 213: al-Sayy ar q al ) and S urat T a . ah ala, presumably added by (KQ, no. 337: q al Ab u #Abdall ah).266 The word q a scribe and referring to al-Sayy ar, likewise often appears in the same
265 E.g. wa- at uhunna for wa- at uhu at KQ, no. 176; yaq ul for taq ul u at KQ, no. 193; yaj uz for tah at KQ, no. 298 and of M us a at KQ, . zan at KQ, no. 221; the addition of al-Umaw no. 391; the omission of the latter half of KQ, no. 379; the omission of basharan fa-ja #alahu at KQ, no. 384 and the beginning of KQ no. 568; H-w-y-za for Juwayriya at KQ, no. 460; . akh hi for al-janna at KQ, no. 532; qawl for fu" ad at KQ, no. 543; far ash for far ashan at KQ, no. 547; the misplacement of f isn adihi at KQ, no. 651; wa-khil ahim for wa-h alafahum at . KQ, no. 715. 266 The Ab u #Abdall ah at KQ, no. 52 may also refer to him; see the Notes.

50

introduction

places.267 All of this points to a common ancestor, of a later date than the archetype. The transmission of the text may provisionally be given as follows:

6.2. Other Sources In addition to the manuscripts, this edition is also based on quotations from KQ found in later sources. As already noted, these sources are: (1) Ibn al-Juh , Ta"w l al- ay at al-z . am, as cited in al-Najaf . ahira (= N) (see KQ, nos. 305, 321, 333, 347, 378, 406, 428, 461, 482, 483, 490, 494, 497, 498, 505, 513, 542, 592, 595, 601, 605, 617, 651, 665, 668, 677, 678, 689, 693). There are two traditions which Ibn al-Juh . am cites but which are not found in any of the manuscripts.268 from al-Sayy ar
267 E.g. KQ, nos. 175, 200, 225, 227, 232, 242, 253, 275, 279, 313, 345, 402, 409, 410, 465, 537, 549, 558, 588, 641, 664, 692, 725; cf. nos. 197, 651. 268 See KQ, apparatus to nos. 383, 572 = Najaf , p. 373, no. 5, p. 693, no. 4.

introduction

51

Some errors found in all four manuscripts269 do not appear in Ibn alJuh . am. Also, a number of traditions for which the manuscripts provide partial isn ad s are cited in Ibn al-Juh ad s. Ibn al-Juh . am with full isn . am evidently used a very early exemplar; he may even have had access to the archetype. (2) Hasan b. Sulaym an al-Hill , Mukhtas a"ir al. . . ar (or Muntakhab) bas . daraj at (= H) . (see KQ, nos. 689691). (3) Al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris , Fas t ab (= F) (see KQ, passim). . . . l al-khi. a"il (= K) (see KQ, (4) Al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris , Mustadrak al-was . . nos. 3, 1827, 30, 31, 33, 37, 43, 67, 68, 86, 91, 97, 121, 122, 127, 148, 157, 158, 160, 166, 172, 173, 176, 228, 310312, 331, 360, 366368, 372, 376, 390, 393, 444, 452, 460, 506, 518, 530, 555, 556, 559, 602, 614, 643, 650, 654, 660, 661, 699, 700, 705712, 717, 719722). 6.3. Further Manuscripts We were unable to consult the following manuscripts: (1) Madrasa-i c un, majm u #a 296, copied probably in the 11th/17th ihil sut or 12th/18th century. (2) Tehran markaz (University of Tehran Central Library), no. 7165, copied in the 12th/18th century. (3) Fayd as r 36, no. 68, copied in Najaf in Rab # II 1282/ . iyya-Qumm, taf 270 a r . AugustSept. 1865 by Muhammad al-M u saw al-Khw a ns . All (4) Maktabat Ayat ah al-Hak amma in Najaf, no. 462m, compris. m al- # ing 35 folios, copied in 1346/19271928.271 6.4. Principles of the Edition 6.4.1. Text The text incorporates material from all four manuscripts, as well as conjectural emendations and emendations based on other sources. Material from F, K, N and H . is usually noted only when it is not found in any of the manuscripts.272 Ms. M has been followed throughout as
E.g at KQ, no. 542. For these three manuscripts see Hujjat , Kashsh af, pp. 277278. . 271 See GAS, IX, p. 114. This may be the manuscript which was in the possession of the scholar and poet Muhammad b. T aw (d. 1370/1950); see Dhar #a, XVII, . . ahir al-Sam p. 52, no. 284. 272 As already mentioned, al-N ur was the owner of ms. L, and it is from there that
269 270

52

introduction

regards the blessing formulas after the name of God, the archangel Gabriel, the prophets (including Muhammad), F at . .ima and the Imams. Where no such formula appears in ms. M, none appears in the edition. Blessing formulas in the other manuscripts have not been noted. Where nic text are recorded, the readtwo dierent readings of the same Qur"a ing of ms. M has been preferred,273 except where this reading appears to be erroneous.274 n are vocalized in accordance As a rule, quotations from the Qur"a s with the standard Egyptian text (which reproduces the reading of #A .im in the recension of Haf s ). Where it is unclear whether the text cited . . conforms to the Egyptian text, it has not been vocalized.275 When a nic verse that has an initial w Qur"a aw or f a" is quoted without it, the n is given in the apparatus.276 When form as it appears in the Qur"a n appears to be the result the deviation from the text of the Qur"a of an error, the correct form is provided in the text of KQ, and the form as it appears in the manuscripts is given in the apparatus.277 Qir a" at are printed in colour. Where a qir a"a occurs, rst the text of the #Uthm anic codex and then the qir a"a are cited within square brackets. This practice is not followed when the qir a"a consists of an addition, or when both the #Uthm anic codex and the variant reading appear in the

all his quotations from KQ are taken. Yet F and K at times have independent value, mainly because they include emendations to the text of ms. L. These are of two kinds: rst, emendations which al-N ur wrote down in the margin (or over a particular word) of ms. L and later incorporated in the text of F or K (see e.g. KQ, nos. 57, 77, 87, 123, 136, 164, 173, 307, 328, 371); such emendations are always noted in the edition. Second, silent emendations which do not appear in the margin of ms. L (see e.g. KQ, nos. 2, 17, 103, 119, 198, 282, 289, 311, 349, 380, 413, 464, 512, 559, 572, 584, 588, 602, 613, 653, 657). Such emendations are only noted in the edition when they do not conform to the text of any of the other three manuscripts. 273 E.g. at KQ, nos. 91, 132, 165, 166, 174, 434, 435. 274 E.g. at KQ, nos. 111, 277, 344, 379, 425, 511, 522. 275 E.g. yattawwafa / yat un / yaz un at KQ, no. 566. .. .ufa at KQ, no. 50, yuz . ahir . z . ahar 276 For the omission of w aw al- #a. tf see KQ, nos. 99, 101, 122, 123, 125, 186, 204, 235, 245, 248, 258, 263, 319, 343, 440, 482, 487, 496, 589, 592, 600, 603; for the omission of w aw al-qasam see KQ, no. 672, cf. no. 641; for the omission of f a" al- #a. tf see KQ, nos. 274, 320, 367, 371, 388, 666, 682. 277 The following deviations appear in the manuscripts: (a) addition of w aw al- #a. tf (KQ, nos. 93, 168, 374, 478, 592, 635); (b) addition of f a" al- #a. tf (KQ, nos. 567, 635); (c) substitution of w aw al- #a. tf by f a" al- #a. tf (KQ, nos. 123, 165, 407, 469, 499, 514); (d) substitution of f a" al- #a. tf by w aw al- #a. tf (KQ, nos. 137, 475, 622); (e) substitution of qad by w aw al- #a. tf (KQ, no. 582); (f) substitution of w aw al- #a. tf by qad (KQ, no. 277); (g) omission of w aw al- #a. tf in mid-sentence (KQ, no. 471); (h) omission of f a" al- #a. tf in mid-sentence (KQ, no. 344).

introduction

53

text of KQ. Shaddas are provided throughout, except after sun letters. In the apparatus, shaddas are only given when they also appear in the manuscripts. The following signs are used: <> <> enclose an emendation or addition based either on sources other than the manuscripts or on conjecture. indicates that something seems to be missing from the text. n has been indicates that a word or a passage from the Qur"a omitted.

6.4.2. Technical Apparatus The manuscripts and other sources on which the edition is based are cited in the following order: ms. M, ms. L, ms. T, ms. B, F, K, N, H. . Unless otherwise indicated, a note in the apparatus refers to a single word in the text. When this is not so, the relevant passage from the text is given between square brackets (or, in the case of emendations or additions, between angle brackets). Additions to the text are indicated by a plus sign (+); omissions, by the words saqa. ta min. An obscure or unclear passage in the manuscripts is indicated by a question mark within parentheses (?). When an emendation is based on another text, an abbreviated title of this text is given in the apparatus, the full reference being provided in the Notes.

NOTES

Each note consists of one or more of the following elements, in the following order: A number in bold which refers to a paragraph in the Arabic text. References to works in which the tradition that appears in the Arabic text is cited from al-Sayy ar s Kit ab al-qir a" at (= KQ ) (i.e. Fas . , Mukhtas . l ; Hill . ar ; Mustadrak ; Najaf). These references are not preceded by see or cf.. References to other sources in which the tradition in question appears. Such references are preceded by see or cf.. Where no such references are given, this indicates that the tradition does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. Explication of the text. Cross-references to paragraphs in the Arabic text are indicated by a number in bold. Cross-references to entries in the Notes are indicated by a number in bold followed by an asterisk. Brief biographical details of persons named in the isn ad. These details are provided when a name rst appears in the text. References to Im am biographical works are for the most part restricted to Quhp a" and Ardab l . 1 Fas n , II, p. 630, no. 12 > . l, p. 212, ll. 811. For this tradition see Kul abawayh, I #tiq ad at, S af , I, p. 53, Huwayz , I, pp. 167168, no. 572; Ibn B . . p. 100 (wa-q al al-S a diq # alayhi l-sal a m al-qur " a n w a h id nazala min # ind w a h . . . id #al a nab w ah id wa-innam a l-ikhtil a f min jihat al-ruw a t ) = Fyzee, p. 87 ; Bar. Asher, Readings, p. 48. Cf. the statement ascribed to the third caliph #Uthm an: a-l a wa-inna l-qur" an w ah a"a min #ind w ah , Ta"r kh, . . id j . id (Tabar rst series, p. 2952). See 7, 10. Isn ad : al-Barq : Ab u #Abdall ah Muhammad b. Kh alid al-Barq (. . early 3rd/9th century), a transmitter from al-Rid a and al-Jaw a d ( EI 2, . Suppl., art. al-Bark [Ch. Pellat]; Newman, Formative Period, index). . In the manuscripts of KQ, al-Barq appears as a direct authority of alSayy ar in over seventy traditions (see Introduction, p. 32). The number rises to over eighty traditions if isn ad s cited via Ibn al-Juh . am are also

56

notes

counted (see 347, 378, 406, 461, 490, 494, 513, 542, 595, 665, 677).Ibn Ab #Umayr: Ab u Ahmad Muhammad b. Ab #Umayr Ziy ad . . b. #Is a al-Azd (d. 217/832), a transmitter from al-K azim and al-Rid . .a n b. Yahy : Ab (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 384386).S u Muhammad . a . . afwa abur (d. Medina 210/825826), Safw an b. Yahy Bayy a# al-S . a al-Bajal . a transmitter from al-K azim, al-Ri d a and al-Jaw ad (Quhp a" , III, pp. . . 216222; Ardabl, I, pp. 413417). A number of Im am transmitters were known as bayy a # al-s abur (seller of Sh ap ur cloth) (see e.g. 72*, b. Muhammad b. 130*, 503*, 650*, Modarressi, TS, p. 388).Ahmad . . Ab Nas r : Ab u Ja # far A hmad b. Mu hammad b. # Amr b. Ab Na s r Zayd . . . . al-Bazant (d. 221/836837), a transmitter from al-K azim . and al-Rid . .a j: Jam (van Ess, TG, I, p. 384).Jam l b. Darra l b. Darr aj b. #Abdall ah (d. late 2nd/8th century), a transmitter from al-S azim . . adiq and al-K TS , (Kohlberg, Us u l, p. 145 ; van Ess, TG , I, pp. 335 336 ; Modarressi, . ra: Ab pp. 307308).Zura u l-Hasan (or Ab u # Al ) Zur a ra b. A # yan . b. Sunsun (d. 148/765 or 149/766), the most distinguished member A#yan family and a transmitter from al-B of the Al aqir and al-S . adiq (Kohlberg, Bar a"a, pp. 158161; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 321330 and index, s.v.; Modarressi, TS, pp. 404405). 2 Fas n , II, p. 630, no. 13 > S af , I, p. . . l, p. 212, ll. 1113. See Kul 573 ; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 48 . For the 53, Huwayz , I, p. 168 , no. . term ah ruf as referring to Qur " a nic readings see Goldziher, Richtungen , . p. 37; Gilliot, Exgse, pp. 112133; Shnizer, Qur" an, pp. 9699 and the references given there. For early Im am opposition to the notion of seven readings see Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 4748; for the Sunn material see Shnizer, Qur" an, p. 131. Contrast Ibn B abawayh, Khis a l , pp. . 327328, no. 44 > S af , I, p. 53, al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, p. 822, . . no. 7638, Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 65, no. 55, XCII, pp. 4950, no. 11. Cf. 5, . 6. a al-Juhan sa d b. #I : Hamm Isn ad : H ad b. #Is al-Bas (d. 209/ . amma . .r 824825), a transmitter from al-S azim a" , . and al-Rid . adiq, al-K . a (Quhp bir b. Yaz II, pp. 228231; Ardab l , I, pp. 273276).Ja d: Ab u #Ababir b. Yaz d b. al-H (d. 128/ dall ah (or Ab u Muhammad) J . arith al-Ju#f . 2 , Suppl., 745746), a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq ( EI . art. Dj abir al-Dju#f [W. Madelung]; Halm, Gnosis, pp. 96112; Kohl l, pp. 145, 151, 154, 157; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 294298 and berg, Us .u index; Modarressi, TS, pp. 86102).

notes

57

3 Fas . l, p. 239, ll. 1821, Mustadrak, XVII, p. 335, no. 21515. For the ending cf. Kul n , VIII, pp. 311312, no. 485 > S af , I, p. 21, Burh an, . III, p. 347, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 237238, no. 6, XLVI, pp. 349350, . no. 2, Huwayz , IV, p. 332, no. 50; 186. . n: Muhammad Isn ad : Muhammad b. Sulayma b. Sulaym an al-Bas . . .r al-Ri d a and al-Jaw a d (Quhal-Daylam , a transmitter from al-K azim, . . p a" , V, pp. 219220; Ardab l , II, pp. 120122; for Sulaym an [Muham. ru n b. al-Jahm: mads father] see Modarressi, TS, pp. 373374).Ha H ar un b. al-Jahm b. Thuwayr b. Ab F akhita (d. late 2nd/8th century), a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 248249). . Muhammad b. Muslim: Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Muslim b. Rab ah . . . ufan transmitter from al-Thaqaf al-Ta . h . h . an (d. 150/767), a prolic K al-B aqir and al-S a"a, pp. 159160; Modarressi, . adiq (Kohlberg, Bar TS, pp. 344345). For the isn ad Muhammad b. Sulaym an < H ar un b. . al-Jahm < Muhammad b. Muslim see e.g. Kul n , I, p. 302 , no. 3 > . Tabris , I #l am, p. 215; Kul n , VII, p. 266, no. 31. . 4 See #Ayy ash , I, p. 16, no. 9 (al-Hakam b. #Uyayna < al-S . . adiq) > Burh an, I, p. 17, no. 21, Bih a r , XCII, p. 96 , no. 57 ; cf. Ba s a " ir , pp. 11 . . 12, nos. 13; Kuln, I, pp. 398399, no. 2 > Bih ar, XLV, pp. 9394, . no. 34; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 11 ( inna l-Hasan b. #Al kallama . rajulan fa-q al: min ayy balad anta? q al min al-K ufa q al law kunta bi-l-Mad na la-araytuka man azil Jabra" l min diy arin a). a b. #Abdall sa : probably Muhammad ah Isn ad : Muhammad b. #I b. #Is . . b. Sa#d b. M alik al-Ash#ar al-Qumm , chief of the Ash#ar clan in Qumm and a transmitter from al-Rid ad (Quhp a" , VI, . a and al-Jaw pp. 1516; Ardab l , II, pp. 165166; Newman, Formative Period, p. 41 h b. Ibra h and index).#Abdalla m al-Madan : probably #Abdall ah r b. Ibr ah m b. Ab #Amr al-Ghif ar al-Muzan al-Ans , a transmitter .a ab which was transmitted by from al-S . adiq and the author of a kit al-Hasan b. # Al b. Fa d d a l (Quhp a " , III, pp. 255256; Ardab l , I, p. . .. 465). Like other members of the Muzayna, he resided in Medina. The nisba al-Madan is however not attested elsewhere; it may be a corruption of al-Muzan .al-H u Muhammad . akam b. #Utayba: Ab . al-Hakam b. # Utayba/ # Uyayna al-Kind al-K u f (d. 114 / 732 or 115 /733), . a transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , II, . pp. 219221; Ardab l , I, p. 266). He is variously reported to have been a Sunn , a Murji" or a Batr Zayd (Kohlberg, Muhaddath, pp. 4546). . His fathers name was probably #Utayba (not #Uyayna). This is how it appears in Ibn Hajars Tahdh b (II, p. 433) and in other Sunn sources; .

58

notes

cf. also the editors note at Bih ar, XIV, p. 192. Al-Tustar , however (Rij al, . III, p. 620), maintains that the correct form of the name cannot be established. Fas . l, p. 212, ll. 1315. Cf. 2, 6. Isn ad : al-Khaybar : Ab u Sa# d (al-) Khaybar b. #Al al-Ta . h . h . an, a K ufan follower of Mufad . dal . al-Ju#f (Modarressi, TS, pp. 314315). There are a number of examples for the corruption of al-Khaybar to al-Himyar ; see e.g. Kul n , IV, p. 582, no. 9, note 1, p. 583, note 1 . (the latter cited in Modarressi, TS, p. 314); 107.al-H . usayn b. Sayf b. #Amra: Ab u #Abdall ah al-Husayn b. Sayf b. #Amra al-Nakha# , author . of two kit abs, one of which he transmitted from his older brother #Al , who was a transmitter from al-Rid a" , II, p. 180; Ardab l , I, . a (Quhp pp. 242244).Sayf b. #Am ra al-Nakha# : a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim (Modarressi, TS , p. 371 ). The string Ibn Sayf #an . . b. S lih hi occurs some forty times in KQ.Yahy akh hi #an ab . a . : uniden.a tied. He may be the person who appears in the isn ad Muhammad . b. Jumh ur < Yahy a b. S a li h < # Al b. Asb a t (Najaf , p. 868 , no. 6 > . . . . Bih a r , XXXIX, p. 289 , no. 84 ). Alternatively, Ya hy a may be a cor . . ruption of Jaml; Jaml b. S u . was a frequent transmitter from Ab . alih Bas Bas r.Abu r: the two best known scholars bearing this laqab are . . u Muhammad Yahy asim al-Asad (d. 149150/766767), a Ab . . a b. al-Q K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS, p. 395); . and Ab u Muhammad Layth b. al-Bakhtar al-Mur ad , a K ufan trans. mitter from al-S . adiq (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 331332; Modarressi, TS, pp. 315316). 6 7 Fas . l, p. 212, ll. 1517. Cf. 2, 5. Fas . l, p. 212, ll. 1718. See 1, 10. 5

, II, p. 451 (the Prophet: law anna 8 Fas . l, p. 246, ll. 1112. Cf. Qumm l-n as qara" u l-qur" an kam a anzala ll ah m a khtalafa thn an). Bakr b. Muhammad Isn ad : Abu : there is some doubt as to whether . the correct form of the name is Bakr b. Muhammad (for whom see . u Bakr b. Muhammad (see Kul n , VIII, p. 290 , note 2; Fas 237*) or Ab . . l, p. 257, ll. 1617). If the latter, then the person in question may be Ab u Bakr #Abdall ah b. Muhammad al-Ha , a transmitter from al-B aqir . . dram . and al-S a" , IV, p. 45; Ardab l , I, pp. 501503, II, p. 369). . adiq (Quhp

notes

59

9 Fas ash , I, p. 13, no. 4 > S af , I, p. 37 . . l, p. 239, ll. 2123. See #Ayy (whence Lawson, Approaches, p. 183), al-Hurr al# Amil , Ithb at, III, . p. 43, no. 686, Bih ar, XCII, p. 55, no. 24, Huwayz , IV, p. 12, no. 43; . . Muf d, Sarawiyya, p. 79 > Bih ar, XCII, p. 74, Fas . adiq: . . l, p. 27, ll. 12 (al-S an kam a unzila la-alfaytum un a f hi musammayna a-m a wa-ll ahi law quri"a l-qur" kam a summiya man k ana qablan a); cf. GdQ, II, p. 98. 10 Fas . l, p. 212, ll. 1822. See 1, 7. Bakr b. al-Rab Isn ad : Abu # al-Asad : Ab u Bakr Muhammad b. al. Rab # Ibn Ab al-Samm al al-Asad , whose sons Ibr ah m and Ism a# l transmitted from al-K azim and joined the W aqifa after the Imams . u ldeath (Modarressi, TS, pp. 283285).al-H . asan al-S . ayqal: Ab Wal d al-Hasan b. Ziy ad al-Sayqal al-K uf , a transmitter from al-B aqir . . and al-S a" , II, p. 110; Ardab l , I, pp. 199200). . adiq (Quhp 11 Fas , Tafs r, p. 233; Fur at, I, pp. 4647, . . l, p. 247, ll. 810. See Hibar no. 2; #Ayy ash , I, p. 9, no. 1 (Ab u l-J ar ud < al-B aqir) > S af , I, pp. 22 . 23 (whence Lawson, Approaches, p. 182), Burh an, I, p. 21, no. 4, Bih ar, . XCII, p. 114, no. 1; Nu#m an, Sharh , III, p. 11 , no. 937 ; Irbil , I, p. 321 ; . Najaf, p. 18, no. 1; Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 288. Cf. Kuln, II, p. 628, no. 4; Muf d, Sarawiyya, p. 80 > Bih ar, XCII, p. 74, Fas . . l, p. 27, ll. 23; ; Bay ad , I, p. 249; Hask a n , I, pp. 43 45 , nos. 57 60 ; Irbil , I, p. 321 . . #Amil , Mir" at, p. 7; 227. H l Isn ad : Abu : Ab u Hamza Th abit b. D n ar al. amza al-Thuma . Thum al (d. between 148/765 and 150/767), a K ufan transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S . adiq and the author of a commen n (Kohlberg, Us l, p. 147; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 302 tary on the Qur"a .u 304; Modarressi, TS, pp. 377379). ura 47 is known are Muhammad and 12 Two of the titles by which S . Alladh na kafar u (see Paret, Kommentar, p. 552). In the manuscripts of KQ, these titles appear consecutively; one is probably an interpolation. The tradition emphasizes that in this S ura passages dealing with believers alternate with passages dealing with unbelievers. This presumably refers to the rst twelve verses, not to the entire S ura. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 301 (the Prophet declares concerning S urat Muhammad: a ya f n a wa . aya f a #d a"in a) > Najaf , p. 583, no. 5 ( aya f n a wa- aya f #aduwwin a), S af , . V, p. 21, Huwayz , V, pp. 2728, no. 12; Tabris , XXVI, p. 27 > S af , . . . V, p. 32, Huwayz , V, p. 25 , no. 2 ; Suy u t , Durr , VI, p. 19 ( # Al : s u rat . . Muh aya f n a wa- aya f ban Umayya); Najaf , p. 582, no. 1 (> Burh an, . ammad

60

notes

IV, p. 180, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 384, no. 84, XXXI, p. 643, no. 166), . pp. 582583, no. 2 (> Burh an, IV, p. 180, no. 5, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 385, . no. 85), p. 583, no. 3 (> Burh an, IV, p. 180, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 385, . no. 86). r: Ab Isn ad : Muhammad b. Jumhu u #Abdall ah Muhammad (b. al. . Hasan) b. Jumh u r al# Amm al-Ba s r (. rst half of 3 rd/ 9 th century), . . described as an extremist (gh al ) supporter of al-Rid . a (Halm, Schatten, p. 242; Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, pp. 379380, no. 642; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 23 and note 26; Newman, Formative Period, p. 56 and index). Ibn Jumh ur appears in a number of traditions as a direct authority of al-Sayy ar (see e.g. Barq , II, p. 471, no. 464, p. 478, no. 499; Kul n , II, p. 190, no. 9, VII, p. 404, no. 8; Rad , Khas a"is . . . , p. 34; T , Tahdh b, VI, p. 278, no. 763). In KQ he is one of the most fre. us quently cited authorities, appearing in the isn ad s of over thirty traditions. There are two noteworthy features about these traditions. First, all have incomplete isn ad s that do not contain the name of any transmitter between Ibn Jumh ur and the Imam. Second, most of these traditions are not attested in any other source. s 13 See As , p. 40; Fur at, I, pp. 187188, no. 238, pp. . . l #A . im b. Humayd 189190, no. 242 (to Q 11:17) > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 391, no. 11. Cf. Hibar , . . Tafs r, p. 278; Bas a " ir , pp. 132 133 , no. 2 , p. 139 , no. 1 > Bi h a r , XXXV, . . at, I, pp. pp. 387388, no. 5, XCII, p. 87, no. 22, p. 88, no. 25; Fur 187188, no. 238 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 391, no. 11; Rad a"is . , Khas . . . , p. 23; Hask an , I, pp. 281282, no. 386; Ibn Ab l-Had d, Sharh . . . , II, p. 287, VI, p. 137 (#Al : m a ah as ill a wa-qad anzala ll ah f hi . ad jarat #alayhi l-maw qur" anan). In these sources (all on the authority of #Al ) the word maw as (razors) appears in the plural. (For the expression jarat #alayhi l-maw as [he reached puberty] see Ibn al-Ath r, Nih aya, IV, p. 372, Bih ar, XIX, . p. 167 [bay an].) The reading m us a which appears in the manuscripts of KQ is also possible, since this word is regarded by some grammarians as feminine (see Lis an, s.v. mws). 14 Fas a"ir, pp. 195196, no. 6 (Ibr ah m b. . l, p. 240, ll. 23. See Bas . #Umar < al-S a diq) > alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , IX/ 1 , p. 145 , no. 33556 ; . . ash , I, p. 12, no. 10 (Ibr ah m b. #Umar < al-S a diq) > S a f , I, p. #Ayy . . 37, Burh an, I, p. 20, no. 14, Bih ar, XCII, p. 55, no. 23, p. 95, no. 50, . Huwayz , IV, pp. 1213, no. 44 (the latter in connection with Q 25:28 . 29), #Amil , Mir" at, p. 37; cited in Modarressi, Debates, p. 26. h n al-Yam an , a Isn ad : Ibra m b. #Umar: Ibr ah m b. #Umar al-San . #a

notes

61

transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq. Virtually all quotations from a this author in Sh # works of Had th are through Hamm ad b. #Is . . (Modarressi, TS, pp. 291293). The form Ibr ahm b. #Umayr al-Nakha# found in the manuscripts is incorrect. #Umayr is a corruption of #Umar. As for al-Nakha# , this may have been inserted by a copyist who mistook the person in the isn ad for the well-known K ufan Ibr ah m al-Nakha# (d. 96/714715). The problem is that al-Nakha#s name is Ibr ah m b. Yaz d, not b. #Umayr. Alternatively, al-Nakha# may be a corruption of al-Yaman ; here the problem is that Ibr ah m b. #Umar . is consistently referred to as al-Yam an , not al-Yaman 15 Fas ash , I, p. 13, no. 6 (Muyassir < al. l, p. 240, ll. 35. See #Ayy B aqir) > S af , I, p. 37 (whence Lawson, Approaches, p. 183), al-Hurr . . al-#Amil , Ithb at, III, p. 43, no. 687, Burh an, I, p. 22, no. 5, Bih a r , XCII, . p. 55, no. 25, p. 115, no. 9, #Amil , Mir" at, p. 37. n: Ab u l-Hasan #Al b. al-Nu#m an al-A#lam Isn ad : #Al b. al-Nu#ma . al-Nakha# , a K ufan transmitter from al-Rid . a and younger brother of D aw ud b. al-Nu#m an (for whom see 27*) (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 231232; Ardab l , I, pp. 606607). #Al b. al-Nu#m an transmitted from #Abdall ah b. Musk an directly (see e.g. 467; Kuln, IV, p. 555, no. 6, VIII, p. 189, no. 216) and not via his father (who is unknown to the biographers). The words #an ab hi found in the manuscripts are proba h b. Muska n: Ab bly an error.#Abdalla u Muhammad #Abdall ah b. . Musk an, a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim; predeceased . . adiq and al-K al-K azim an . (Modarressi, TS, pp. 150155). In one tradition, Ibn Musk aqir (T u s , Tahdh b , VII, p. 250 , no. 1080 ; transmits directly from al-B . idem, Istibs a r , III, p. 141 , no. 508 ); but as noted by al-Kh u " (XI, p. 351 ), . the isn ad is incomplete and should in fact be Ibn Musk an < #Abdall ah b. Sulaym an < al-B aqir, as attested in a parallel tradition (Kul n , V, p. 448, no. 2). It may be assumed that in KQ, too, the name of the person from whom Ibn Musk an transmitted is missing. 16 Fas . l, p. 235, ll. 13. The expression #asharat alf found in mss. M, L and T is grammatically wrong. Al-N ur points to two ways in which it may be emended: (i) sab #ata #ashara alf. This is in conformity with < the parallel tradition in Kul n , II, p. 634, no. 28 (#Al b. al-Hakam . Hish am b. S alim) > Fas . l, p. 234, ll. 1921, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 206 = Divine Guide, p. 82; cf. Modarressi, Debates, p. 31; (ii) tham aniyata #ashara alf. This is in conformity with a passage from Kit ab Sulaym b. Qays cited in M azandar an , XI, p. 87 > Fas l , p. 234 , l. 21 .

62

notes

p. 235, l. 1. (In the 1424/2003 edition of Sulayms Kit ab the passage appears [on p. 146] without the reference to the number of verses.) Al-N ur prefers to emend the text of KQ in accordance with Kul n , since the isn ad and the matn are identical in the two sources (see Fas . l, p. 235, ll. 35). He notes the two numbers in the margin of ms. L; in ms. B the number 18000 (presumably copied from ms. L) appears in the body of the text. According to Ibn B abawayh (d. 381/991), if all n (altraditions of divine origin that are not embodied in the Qur"a wah y alladh laysa bi-qur " a n ; often called h ad th quds ) were to be collected, . . they would equal in length 17000 verses (I #tiq ad at, p. 99 = Fyzee, p. 86). Ibn B abawayh does not reveal the source of this statement, yet it is probably related to the tradition in Kul n . It may well have been Ibn abawayhs intention to interpret this tradition in a way that would B conform to his view about the integrity of the #Uthm anic codex (see Brunner, Koranflschung, p. 7; idem, Falsication, p. 10; cf. Kohlberg, n, p. 214; McDermott, Theology, p. 355). The Qur"a n consists Qur"a of between 6000 and 6600 verses, depending on how it is divided into verses (cf. Suy ut , Itq an, I, pp. 231232). According to the K ufans, it . comprises 6236 verses; according to the Bas rans, it comprises 6204 . verses (Shahrast an, Maf at h . , p. 160; cf. Cook, Koran, p. 117). Ibn alNad m (Fihrist, p. 40) has preserved the titles of some twenty books n. which dealt with the number of verses in the Qur"a : Ab u lHasan # Al b. alHakam b. al-Zubayr Isn ad : #Al b. al-H akam . . . al-Nakha# al-K uf al-Dar ad . r, a transmitter from al-Rid . a and al-Jaw m b. Sa lim: (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 192193; Ardab l , I, pp. 575577).Hisha Ab u Muhammad Hish am b. S alim al-Jaw al q al-Ju#f , a mutakallim and . transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim (van Ess, TG , I, pp. 342348 . . and index; Modarressi, TS, pp. 269271). , p. 247 > Bih ar, XCII, p. 54, no. 21 17 Fas . . l, p. 240, ll. 56. Cf. Kishsh (Ibn Fad d a l < Y u nus b. Ya # q u b < Burayd al# Ijl < al-S an , .. . adiq); Nu#m Ghayba, p. 452, no. 5, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 209, note 423 = Divine Guide, p. 200. l: Ab Isn ad : Ibn Fad u Muhammad al-Hasan b. #Al b. Fad .d .a . . . d . al alazim and K uf al-Taymul (d. 224/838839), a transmitter from al-K . d al-Rid a (Quhp a " , II, pp. 131 137 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 214 217 ).D a w u . r, a transb. Ab Yaz d: D aw ud b. Ab Yaz d Farqad al-K uf al-#At .t .a mitter from al-S azim (Modarressi, TS, p. 214). In the . . adiq and al-K manuscripts of KQ the name appears as D aw ud b. Zayd. A person of , I, p. 304) as this name is listed by al-T u s ( Rij a l , p. 120 , no. 2 > Ardab l .

notes

63

a disciple of al-B aqir; yet it is D aw ud b. Ab Yaz d who both transmitted from Burayd (see Ardab l , I, p. 117) and transmitted to Ibn Fad . d . al wiya (see Ardabl, I, p. 306).Burayd: Ab u l-Q asim Burayd b. Mu#a al-#Ijl (d. 150/767), a transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (van Ess, TG, I, p. 331; Modarressi, TS, pp. 213214). 18 Mustadrak, IV, p. 166, no. 4393. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 19, no. 5 (Safw an . af , I, p. 70, Burh an, al-Jamm al < al-S a"an li-l-ukhr a) > S . adiq) (ending: ibtid . I, p. 42, no. 16, Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 20, no. 10, XCII, p. 236, no. 29, . Huwayz , I, p. 6 , no. 13. Cf. the statement (on the authority of Sa# d b. . Jubayr) that during the Prophets lifetime the Companions only knew that one S ura had ended and another had begun when the basmala was revealed (see #Abd al-Razz aq, Mus u . annaf, II, p. 92, no. 2617; Ab #Ubayd, Fad a " il , II, p. 19 , no. 381 ; Shahrast a n , Maf a t h , p. 209 ; Sprenger, . . d]). Cf. Barq Moh , I, pp. 4041, . ammad, III, p. xxv [citing Ibn Mas#u no. 49 > Bih ar, XCII, p. 234, no. 17; Kul n , III, p. 313, no. 3 (awwal . kull kit ab nazala min al-sam a" bi-sm all ah al-rah an al-rah m ) > S af , I, p. . . m . 70; Suy ut , Durr , I, pp. 26 27 . The Hanaf s and M a lik s hold that the . . n but only serves as a mark basmala does not form a part of the Qur"a of separation between consecutive S uras. This view was rejected by the Im am s (see Haider, Sectarian Identity, pp. 37, 42, 59; EQ, art. Basmala [William H. Graham]; DC, art. Basmala [Franois Droche]; cf. Zamakhshar , I, pp. 2425). Cf. 19. Isn ad : Muhammad b. Khalaf: judging by the names of those from . whom and to whom he transmitted (see Kh u" , XVII, p. 79, no. 10734), he lived in the early 3rd/9th century. Al-Ardab l (II, p. 111) identies him with the Im am mutakallim Ab u Bakr Muhammad b. Khalaf al-R a. z (for whom see Naj ash, II, p. 298, no. 1035); but al-Kh u" (XVII, p. 80, n al-Jamma l: no. 10735) regards al-R az as a dierent person.S . afwa a l, a K u fan Ab u Muhammad Safw a n b. Mihr a n b. al-Mugh ra al-Jamm . . transmitter from al-S azim . (Modarressi, TS, p. 365). . adiq and al-K 19 Mustadrak, IV, pp. 166167, no. 4394. The words ill a wa-l-rah an . m mamd uda hark back to the following Prophetic tradition (on the authority of Anas b. M alik): idh a kataba ah ah al-rah an al-rah m . adukum bi-sm all . m . fa-l-yamudda l-rah m a n (whenever any of you writes the words bi-sm all ah . al-rah an al-rah m he should lengthen al-rah an) (see Sahm , Ta"r kh . m . . m ami #, I, p. 267; Sh rawayh, FirJurj an, p. 397; al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , J . daws, I, p. 296, no. 1168; Qalqashand , S a, VI, p. 213; Suy ut , . . ubh . al-a #sh Durr, I, p. 32; al-Shah d al-Th an , Munya, p. 180 > Bih a r , XCII, pp. .

64

notes

3435, Mustadrak, VIII, p. 433, no. 9914; al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, X, p. 244, no. 29299). The same instruction is said to have been given by #Umar b. #Abd al-#Az z to his governors (Qalqashand , S a, . ubh . al-a #sh VI, p. 213; Suy ut , Itq an, IV, p. 182). What this means is that the scribe . should draw a long stroke between two of the letters which make up the word al-rah an, thus increasing the distance between them. Accord. m ing to al-Mun aw (Fayd . , I, p. 554, no. 834), the letters in question are m m and n un. Al-Qalqashand , in contrast (VI, p. 213), identies , adding that this convention was only followed them as h a " and m m . by Maghrib scribes. This Maghrib feature is quite common; see for n from example Thomas, Scribes, pp. 94, 95 (photos of a Maghrib Qur"a Valencia dated 596/11991200); Schimmel, Calligraphy, p. 33 (photo of a n from Spain); Cook, Koran, p. 72 (photo of a Moroc14th-century Qur"a n in the British Library [ms. Or. 1405]); see also an 8th/14th can Qur"a n on display in the Muse dart islamique at or 9th/15th century Qur"a the Jardin Majorelle in Marrakesh. In contrast, the prevalent practice outside the Maghreb is to introduce the elongation between the s n and m m of bi-sm (see DC, art. Basmala [Franois Droche]). Since the tradition cited in KQ does not deal with calligraphic matters, the nal three words in it may be an interpolation. Cf. 18. h b. Ab h: all that seems to be known Isn ad : #Ubaydalla #Abdalla , II, about him is that he was a direct authority of al-Sayy ar ; see Barq p. 493, no. 585, Bas a " ir , p. 69 , no. 2 (for # Ubayd read # Ubaydall a h, cf. . * 202 ), Kuln, VI, p. 307, no. 13, p. 336, no. 4. In these sources (except Kul n , VI, p. 307) he is called al-F aris . See also Ardab l , I, p. 527; Kh u" , XII, p. 70, nos. 7448, 7449. 20 Mustadrak, IV, p. 157, no. 4362. See Ibn T us, Muhaj, p. 379 (al. aw S ah al-rah an al-rah m ism all ah al-akbar aw q al al-a #zam . adiq: bi-sm all . m . . ). Ibn T uss source is Kit ab fad l al-du # a " of alSa a r al-Qumm (d. 290 /902 . aw . . 903) (cf. Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 159, no. 136). The claim that the basmala is the Greatest Name of God was also made by the poet J am (see Schimmel, Culture, p. 194, note 128). Similarly, #Al is said to have stated that the basmala is closer to the Greatest Name of God than the black of the eye is to the white of the eye (aqrabu il a sm all ah al-a #zam . min saw ad al- #ayn il a bay ad ih a ) ( A s l # A s im b. Humayd , p. 28 ). This statement . . . . is also ascribed to al-Rid ash , I, p. 21, no. 13; Ibn B abawayh, . a (#Ayy ar, X, p. 395; Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, II, p. 5; Tabris , Am al , p. 573 > Bih . . I, pp. 3839) and to al-Hasan al# Askar (Ibn Shu # ba, Tu h af , p. 361 > . . Bih ar, LXXVIII, p. 371, no. 6; Irbil , III, p. 216). See also 395 (al-ism .

notes

65

al-a #zam an or sab #an min al-math an as referring to S urat al. ). For al-math f atiha see Rubin, Exegesis, especially pp. 141 145 ; 30 , 32 , 33 . . 21 Mustadrak, IV, p. 167, no. 4395. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 19, no. 4 (Ab u Hamza < al-B a qir: saraq u akram a ya f kit a b all a h ) > S a f , I, p. 70 , Burh a n , . . , no. 28 , I, p. 42, no. 15, Bih a r , LXXXV, p. 20 , no. 10 , XCII, p. 236 . Huwayz , I, p. 6, no. 12. See also Ab u H na, II, p. 2 (Ibn . . atim, Z #Abb as: bi-sm all ah al-rah an al-rah m aya min kit ab all ah saraqah a l-shay. t an); . m . Bayhaq , Sunan, II, p. 50 (Ibn #Abb as: inna l-shay. t an istaraqa min ahl alqur" an a #zam aya f l-qur" an: bi-sm all ah al-rah an al-rah m); Shahrast an , . m . . u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 19, no. 382; Ibn Maf at h . , I, p. 211. Cf. Ab . Muhakkam, I, p. 76 (dhakar u #an Ibn #Abb as annahu k ana yajharu bi-bi-sm . all ah al-rah m a n al-ra h m f ls al a t wa-yaq u l: man tarakah a fa-qad taraka ayatan . . . min kit ab all ah); Tha#lab , I, p. 104. Cf. the account according to which wiya, during his visit to Medina, omitted the basmala while leading Mu#a r called out to him: You have the prayer; the Muh ajir un and Ans .a stolen (i.e. suppressed the recitation of) your prayer (saraqta s ataka)! . al a n al-ra h m ? (Bayhaq , Sunan , II, pp. 49 50; Where is bi-sm all ah al-rah m . . see also #Abd al-Razz aq, Mus annaf , II, p. 92 , no. 2618 ; Sh a # , Umm , I, . p. 212; Haider, Sectarian Identity, p. 49). All traditions in KQ dealing with jahr (2127) endorse the position that the basmala should be recited audibly. For a comprehensive discussion of this and related issues see Haider, Sectarian Identity, chapter 2 (pp. 3581); see also Lalani, Thought, pp. 122123. Isn ad : Muhammad b. #Al : he is probably Ab u Sumayna Muhammad . . u f (. mid3 rd/ 9 th cenb. #Al b. Ibr ah m al-Qurash al-Sayraf al-K . tury), who came from K ufa to Qumm, whence he was expelled by a al-Ash#ar the Im am leader Ahmad b. Muhammad b. #Is after being . . accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , V, pp. 263264; Ardab l , II, pp. 150151; Halm, Schatten, pp. 241242; Kohlberg, Bar a"a, p. l, p. 151, note 133; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 23, note 26). 165; idem, Us .u There are two arguments in favour of this identication: rst, Ab u Sumayna is known to have transmitted from Muhammad b. Sin an . (Ardab l , II, p. 125); and the isn ad Muhammad b. #Al < Ibn Sin an is . attested ve times in KQ. Second, at two places (378, 490) the name as preserved in Najaf is Muhammad b. #Al al-Sayraf . Some uncertainty . . remains, however: in a tradition which is cited in a number of sources, al-Sayy ar transmits from Muhammad b. #Al al-Hamd an /Ham ad(h) a. n (Kul n , IV, p. 106, no. 5; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 388, no. 1 > Bih ar, XCVI, p. 290, no. 6; T , Tahdh b, IV, p. 263, no. 789). While . us .

66

notes

the Qumm traditionist Muhammad b. Ja#far b. Ahmad b. Bat . . .t .a (. late 3rd/9thearly 4th/10th century) identies this person with Ab u Sumayna (T al experts regard . us, Fihrist, p. 173, no. 609), other Rij them as two dierent persons (see Kh u" , XVII, p. 323, no. 11285; cf. Naj ash , II, pp. 216217, no. 895, pp. 236237, no. 929, p. 243, no. 940).Muhammad b. al-Fudayl al-Azd : Ab u Ja#far Muhammad . . . al-K uf al-Azd al-Azraq, a transmitb. (al-) Fudayl b. Kathr al-Sayraf . . ter from al-S azim a" , VI, p. 23; Ardab l , . and al-Rid . adiq, al-K . a (Quhp II, pp. 174175). In KQ, the isn ad Muhammad b. #Al < (Muhammad) b. . . (al-) Fudayl < Ab u Hamza occurs eleven times. . . 22 Mustadrak, IV, p. 167, no. 4396 and partially IV, pp. 185186, no. 4447. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 20, no. 6 (Ab u Hamza < al-B aqir) > . 82 , no. 24 , XCII, p. 236, Burh an, I, p. 42, no. 17, Bih a r , LXXXV, p. . no. 30; Kutub Ab #Abdall ah Muh ammad b. Sall a m b. Sayy a r al-K u f (for which . see Madelung, Sources, p. 35) > Nu#m an, Id ah u Hamza . . . , fol 124b (Ab < al-B aqir). Cf. al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, pp. 757758, no. 7387; . 24, 27. 23 Mustadrak, IV, p. 167, no. 4397. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 20, no. 7 (alan, I, p. 42, Bih ar, Hasan b. Khurz ad/Khurraz ad < al-S . . adiq) > Burh . LXXXV, p. 20, no. 10. d: Ab Isn ad : Sahl b. Ziya u Sa# d Sahl b. Ziy ad al-Adam al-R az , a transmitter from al-Jaw ad, al-H ad and al-#Askar, expelled from a al-Ash#ar Qumm by Ahmad b. Muhammad b. #Is after being accused . . of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , III, pp. 179180; Ardab l , I, pp. 393 394; Kohlberg, Bar a"a, p. 166; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 23, note 26; Newman, Formative Period, pp. 101102 and index). In KQ he appears twelve times as a direct authority of al-Sayy ar . 24 Mustadrak, IV, p. 186, no. 4448. See Qumm , I, p. 28 > S af , I, . p. 70, Huwayz , I, p. 10, no. 34; #Ayy ash, II, p. 295, no. 86 (Zur ara . < ah a [i.e. al-B aqir or al-S u wa-dhahab u for yanr un . adiq]; nafar . aduhum wa-yadhhab un) > Burh an, II, p. 423, no. 4, Bih a r , LXXXV, p. 74 , no. 3; . b. # Al b. Ibr a h m, Kit a b al# ilal (for which see Dhar # a , XV, Muhammad . pp. 312313, no. 1997) > Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 51, no. 43. Cf. 22, 27, 33. . Isn ad : Ibn Udhayna: #Umar b. Udhayna, a transmitter from al-S . adiq and al-K azim : Ab u l-Q asim Fudayl . (Modarressi, TS, p. 387).Fudayl . . b. Yas ar al-Nahd , a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq; . predeceased al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 225226).

notes

67

25 Mustadrak, IV, pp. 167168, no. 4398. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 21, no. 12 a b. #Abdall (#Is ah < his father < his grandfather < #Al ) > Burh an, I, p. 42, no. 23, Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 21, no. 10, XCII, pp. 237238, no. 36; . d Kutub Ab #Abdall ah Muh am b. Sayy ar al-K uf > Nu#m an, I ah . ammad b. Sall . ., ). fol 125a (#Is a b. #Abdall ah < his father < his grandfather < #Al a b. #Abdall sa b. #Abdalla h: Ab Isn a d : #I u Bakr #Is ah b. Muhammad . b. #Umar b. #Al b. Ab T arak, a great-nephew . alib, known as Mub of al-S . adiq, transmitted mostly from him and from his own father #Abdall ah, known as D an (Modarressi, TS, pp. 294298). Both here a; and at 76, Muhammad b. #Al (i.e. Ab u Sumayna) transmits from #Is . cf. Modarressi, TS, p. 295. ar, I, pp. 310311, 26 Mustadrak, IV, p. 186, no. 4449. See T , Istibs . us . no. 1154; idem, Tahdh b, II, p. 68, no. 246 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, . II/2, p. 745, no. 7338, Bih a r , LXXXV, p. 35 ; cf. Kul n , III, p. 315 , . no. 20. For the view that during silent prayers (i.e. the zuhr and the #as .r) . it is recommended (mustah , . us . abb) to recite the basmala audibly see T I, p. 25; Tabris , I, p. 38 ; R a wand , Fiqh , I, p. 119 ( fa-in k a nat als al a . . t mimm a l a yujhar f h a stuh ibba l-jahr bi-bi-sm all a h al-ra h m a n al-ra h m ); Ibn . . . Idrs, Sar a"ir, I, pp. 218220. See also the discussion in Haider, Sectarian Identity, pp. 5965. 27 Mustadrak, IV, p. 186, no. 4450. See #Ayy ash , II, p. 295, no. 87 r b. H (Mans af , . azim < al-S .u . adiq; for fa-yakhlufu read fa-takhallafa) > S . ar, III, p. 196 (fa-takhallafa), Burh an, II, p. 423, no. 5 (fa-yakhlufu), Bih . LXXXV, p. 74, no. 3 (fa-takhallafa). Cf. 22, 24. wu d b. al-Nu#ma n: D Isn a d : Da aw ud b. al-Nu#m an al-Anb ar , a transmitter from al-S azim . and elder brother of #Al b. al. adiq and al-K a" , II, pp. 293294; Ardab l , I, pp. Nu#m an (for whom see 15*) (Quhp 309310).Mans u r b . H a zim : Ab u Ayy u b Man s u r b. H a zim al-Bajal , . . . . a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS , pp. 317 318 ). . 28 See Barq , I, p. 238, no. 213 ( wa-l-m m majd all ah wa-q ala ba #d . uhum mulk all ah); Qumm , I, pp. 2728 > Burh an, I, pp. 4344, no. 1, Bih ar, . , I, p. 19 , no. 75 ; # Ayy a sh , I, p. 22 , XCII, pp. 228229, no. 8, Huwayz . nos. 1819 (#Abdall ah b. Sin an < al-S a diq) ( wa-l-m m majd all a h wa. rawaw [sic] ghayruhu #anhu mulk all ah) > S af , I, p. 69, Burh an, I, p. 45, . no. 9; Muhammad b. #Al b. Ibr ah m, Kit ab al- #ilal > Bih ar, LXXXV, p. . . na, II, p. 3 (Ibn #Abb as); Ibn Ab H 51, no. 43; Ab u H . atim, I, p. . atim, Z 25, no. 2; Kul n , I, p. 114, no. 1 > Burh an, I, p. 44, no. 2; Samarqand ,

68

notes

I, p. 14; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 3, no. 1, idem, Tawh d, p. 230, no. 2 . (> Huwayz , I, p. 12 , no. 47 ), both > S a f , I, p. 69 , Bih ar, XCII, p. . . . 231, no. 12. Similarly in the S r, p. 6 (as . uf tradition; see Tustar, Tafs a saying of al-Tustar ); Sulam , Haq th: . a"iq, I, p. 25 (as a Prophetic h . ad m majduhu); cf. Nwyia, Tafs r, p. al-b a" bah a"uhu wa-l-s n san a"uhu wa-l-m 188, no. 4; Qushayr , La. t a"if, I, p. 44; Schimmel, Culture, p. 83 (where the three letters are said to represent the words bah a" all ah, san a" all ah and mamlakat all ah respectively). Cf. also the interpretation ascribed to Jesus (Tabar , I, p. 53; Shahrast an , Maf at h , Mawd u # at, I, . . , p. 213; Ibn al-Jawz . p. 204; Suy ut , Durr , I, p. 29 ). For the ending see Tabar , I, p. 55 (al. . an bi-jam # al-khalq al-rah al bi-l-mu"min n); Ibn Ab H rah . atim, I, p. 28, . m q . m no. 20; T , I, p. 29; 485. See 29. . us nus: Ab Isn ad : Yu u #Al Y unus b. Ya#q ub al-Duhn , a transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim (Modarressi, TS , pp. 399 400).#Al b. . . a al-Qamm sa : #Al at , a transmitter from disciples of alS a #I b. #Is . . diq (Ardab l , I, p. 595). An isn ad similar to the one recorded here is Y unus a al-Qamm b. Ya#q ub < #Al b. #Is at . < his paternal uncle < al-S . adiq (see Kul n , IV, p. 159, no. 10 > Bih ar, XXVIII, p. 77, no. 36, Huwayz , IV, . . p. 65, no. 87, V, p. 621, no. 42). 29 See 28. sim b. Yahy : al-Q ashid Isn ad : al-Qa asim b. Yahy b. R . a . a b. al-Hasan . al-R ashid , transmitted exclusively from his grandfather al-Hasan . (Quhp a" , V, p. 53; Ardab l , II, p. 22; Kh u" , XV, pp. 6770, no. 9589). shid: Ab al-H u Muhammad al-Hasan b. R ashid, a K ufan . asan b. Ra . . transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim who resided in Baghd a d and . . was a client (mawl a) of the #Abb asid al-Mans u r and an aide to his . successors down to H ar un al-Rashd (Modarressi, TS, pp. 255256). h b. Sina n: a transmitter from al-S #Abdalla . adiq and a treasury ocial under a number of #Abb asid caliphs (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 334335; Modarressi, TS, pp. 157161). The name #Al b. Sin an appearing in ms. T is probably an error, since no-one of this name is attested elsewhere as a transmitter from al-S . adiq. 30 Mustadrak, IV, p. 168, no. 4399. Cf. Kul n , III, pp. 312313, no. 1; 20, 32, 33. b: for this form of the name see Kh Isn ad : Sa#d b. #Umar al-Jalla u" , IX, p. 91, no. 5061. He is more usually known as Sa# d Ab u #Amr or ab. He was a transmitter from Sa#d b. Ab #Amr (or Ab #Umar) al-Jall al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , III, p. 100 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 352353). .

notes

69

31 Mustadrak, VIII, p. 434, no. 9918. For the latter part of this tradition cf. Barq , I, p. 204, no. 50; Ahw az , Zuhd, p. 52, no. 37; #Ayy ash , I, p. 194, no. 120 (Ab u Bas af , I, p. 337, Burh an, I, p. .r < al-S . adiq) > S . 305, no. 5, Bih ar, LXVIII, p. 232; Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh . . af, p. 266 (as a saying of al-S ar, LXXVIII, p. 244, no. 108 (item no. 52); Ibn . adiq) > Bih . an , p. 228 > S af , I, p. 337, Burh an, I, p. 304, no. 1, Bih ar, B abawayh, Ma # . . LXX, pp. 291292, no. 31, Huwayz , I, p. 376, no. 299; T . . us, II, p. 544; Tabris , IV, pp. 156157; Warr am, Tanb h, II, p. 224; Tabris , Mishk at, . . p. 50; Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 39. In all these sources the tradition is related to Q 3:102 (ittaq u ll aha h atihi ), which al-S . adiq (in Ibn . aqqa tuq al-#At a"iq: the Prophet) glosses as He should be obeyed and not disobeyed, remembered and not forgotten, thanked and not treated with ingratitude (yu. t a # fa-l a yu #s a wa-yudhkar fa-l a yuns a wa-yushkar fa-l a yukfar, . d (see or a variant thereof). This sentence is also ascribed to Ibn Mas#u Thawr , Tafs r, p. 79, no. 156, Ibn Muhakkam, I, p. 303 , M a tur d , II, . p. 443, all to Q 3:102), or is cited without attribution (see Muq atil, I, p. 184). It is quoted further in connection with Q 4:1 (ittaq u rabbakum); see Shayb an , Nahj, II, p. 107 > Burh an, I, p. 335, no. 1. Title F atih ab is an alternative name for al-f atih . at al-kit . a. 32 See #Ayy ash , I, p. 21, no. 11 (Ab u Bakr al-Ha < al-S . dram . . adiq; ending: q al f atih at al-kit a b bi-sm all a h al-ra h m a n al-ra h m alh amd li-ll a h rabb . . . . al- # alam n) > Burh an, I, p. 42, no. 22, Bih ar, LXXXV, pp. 2021, no. 10, . XCI, p. 348, no. 10, XCII, p. 236, no. 25. Cf. 20, 30, 33. Bakr al-H Isn ad : Abu : two persons are known by this name, . adram . both K ufan transmitters from al-B aqir and al-S u #Abdall ah . adiq: (i) Ab Muhammad b. Shurayh a", V, p. 234; Ardabl, II, p. 130); (ii) . . (Quhp #Abdall ah b. Muhammad (Quhp a" , IV, p. 45; Ardab l , I, pp. 501503, . II, p. 369). As Muhammad b. Shurayh ra, . . transmitted to Sayf b. #Am he may be the person referred to here. ash , 33 Fas . l, p. 253, ll. 23, Mustadrak, IV, p. 168, no. 4400. See #Ayy I, p. 22, no. 17 (Muhammad b. Muslim < al-S , I, p. 65, . . . adiq) > Tabris Burh an, I, p. 51, no. 29, Bih ar, XCII, pp. 238239, no. 40. In all these . sources (except Tabris ), the reading of Q 1:7 is wa-ghayr al-d all n, for . . * which see 35. Cf. 20, 24, 30, 32, 36 . ": #Al Isn ad : #Ala a" b. Raz n al-Qall a", a K ufan transmitter from alS a diq (Modarressi, TS , pp. 180 181 ). .

70

notes

34 Fas . l, p. 252, ll. 1012. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 25, 220, d, Ibn al-Zubayr, al-Aswad [i.e. Ab 227, 240, 269 (Ibn Mas#u u #Amr d (d. 75/694 al-Aswad b. Yazd al-Nakha#, a disciple of Ibn Mas#u 695); see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 171, no. 796], #Ikrima, #Umar, Zayd b. #Al ); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a " il , II, p. 106 , no. 567 (Ibn al-Zubayr); Qumm , I, p. . 29 > Bih a r , XXIV, p. 20 , no. 34 , XCII, p. 230 , no. 6 , Huwayz , I, p. . . aw ud, pp. 5051, 83 (#Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr); 24, no. 106; Ibn Ab D Tha#lab , I, p. 122 (#Al , al-S . adiq, #Amr b. al-Zubayr [the brother and opponent of #Abdall ah b. al-Zubayr; see Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel, II, p. ah b. al-Zubayr (H.A.R. Gibb)]); M award , 189; EI 2, art. #Abd All I, p. 60 (#Umar, #Abdall ah b. al-Zubayr); T . us, I, p. 43 (#Umar b. al b, #Abdall Khat ah b. al-Zubayr, the ahl al-bayt ); Zamakhshar , I, p. 69 .t .a d) > Fas (Ibn Mas#u l , p. 138 , ll. 18 19 ; Tabris , I, p. 60 ( # Umar b. al. . Khat t a b, # Amr b. # Abdall a h [sic; the writer must have intended to refer .. either to #Amr b. al-Zubayr or to #Abdall ah b. al-Zubayr] al-Zubayr , , Durr, the ahl al-bayt ); Qurt , I, p. 149 (#Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr); Suy ut . .ub I, p. 42 (#Umar); 35, 3840. b. Khunays: Ab Isn ad : Mu#alla u #Abdall ah Mu#all a b. Khunays, a K ufan condant of al-S a diq, executed in 133 / 750 by order of the . #Abb asid governor of Medina D aw ud b. #Al (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 320 321; Kohlberg, Taqiyya, pp. 355357; Modarressi, TS, p. 326). 35 Fas ah, N asikh, . l, p. 252, ll. 1314. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall anic codex alp. 62 (when someone recites the version of the #Uthm S a. t man an #amta #alayhim ghayr al-maghd ub #alayhim . adiq tells him to read s . ir . wa-ghayr al-d a ll n ); Ibn Ab D a w u d, p. 90 ( # Alqama b. Qays [i.e. Ab u . Shibl #Alqama b. Qays al-Nakha# , d. 62/681682; see Ibn al-Kalb Caskel, II, p. 154; Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq at, VI, pp. 8692, Ibn al-Jazar , . I, p. 516, no. 2135] and al-Aswad b. Yaz d); Suy ut , Durr, I, p. 42 . (Ibn al-Zubayr, #Ikrima, al-Aswad); 3840. For the reading man an #amta all n see Jeery, pp. 117, #alayhim see 34. For the reading wa-ghayr al-d . 185, 220, 227, 240, 269, 332 (Ubayy, #Al, al-Aswad, Ibn al-Zubayr, #Ikrima, al-S u . adiq, #Umar); idem, Variant Text, pp. 161162; Ab #Ubayd, Fad a " il , II, p. 105 , no. 566 , Ibn Ab D a w u d, p. 51 , M a ward , . I, p. 61, Qurt ub , I, p. 84 ( # Umar); Qumm , I, p. 29 (alS a diq) > . . ash (see 33*); Tha#lab , I, p. 123, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 20, no. 35; #Ayy . Zamakhshar , I, p. 73, Tabris , I, p. 60 (#Umar, #Al ); Ibn T us, Sa #d, p. . . aw 146; 36. Isn ad : H z: Ab u Muhammad (or Ab u #Abdall ah) Har z/Hurayz . ar . . . b. #Abdall ah al-Azd al-Sijist an (. rst half of 2nd/8th century), a

notes

71

l, pp. 144, 149150; K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq (Kohlberg, Us .u Modarressi, TS, pp. 244247). Occasionally he is also reported to have transmitted from al-B aqir (Ardab l , I, p. 183; Kh u" , V, pp. 441, 442; 432, 695). The main transmitter of Har zs works was Hamm ad b. . . a (Modarressi, TS, pp. 245246). In twenty-four traditions of KQ #Is Hamm ad transmits from Har z. . . 36 Fas , . l, p. 253, ll. 12. For this reading see 35, 3840; cf. Qumm a diq) ( f qawlihi ghayr I, p. 29 (Ibn Ab #Umayr < Ibn Udhayna < al-S . al-maghd ub #alayhim wa-ghayr al-d all n q al al-maghd ub #alayhim al-nus ab wa. . . .s . l-d all n al-shukk ak [printed erroneously as al-shukk ak wa-l-d all n] alladh n l a . . ya #rif un al-im am) > Burh an, I, p. 47, no. 8, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 20, no. 35. For . ash , I, p. 24, no. 28 al-shukk ak as alladh n l a ya #rif un al-im am see also #Ayy > Burh an, I, p. 52, no. 37, Bih a r , LXXXV, p. 23 , no. 12 (ending); cf. Ibn . Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 73; Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 109. In mss. L, T and B the d all un are the Jews; cf. Qumm , I, p. 29 (al-maghd ub #alayhim . . al-nus ab wa-l-d all n al-yah ud wa-l-nas ar a) > Burh an, I, p. 47, no. 7, Bih ar, .s . . . . XXIV, p. 20, no. 34, XCII, p. 230, no. 6. More usually, it is the Jews who are said to be the maghd ub #alayhim, while the Christians are the . d all un (see e.g. 33; Tabar , I, pp. 7980, 8284; Ibn Ab H . . atim, I, p. 31, . no. 40; Sijist an , Ghar b, p. 173; Qurt , I, p. 149; Suy ut , Mufh at, pp. .ub . . am 3839 and the sources cited therein). 37 Mustadrak, IV, p. 220, no. 4541. For the reading s a. ta (for al. ir , s a. ta) see Jeery, pp. 117, 332 (Ibn #Umar, al-S . . adiq, Ubayy); Tabris . ir Jaw ami #, I, p. 18 (al-S a diq); 42 . These authorities must have vocalized . the following word as al-mustaq mi ; cf. Hopkins, Studies, p. 90, no. 20, p. 182. In #Ayy ash (I, p. 24, no. 25 [D aw ud b. Farqad < al-S . adiq] > Burh an, I, p. 52, no. 34, Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 23, no. 12, XCII, p. 24, . no. 45), D aw ud b. Farqad cites al-S a l-s a. t al. adiq as follows: ihdin . ir mustaq m ya #n am r al-mu"min n s alaw a t all a h # alayhi . . 38 Fas . l, p. 252, ll. 1213. For this reading see 35, 39, 40. Isn ad : al-Nadr , a K ufan . b. Suwayd: al-Nadr . b. Suwayd al-Sayraf . transmitter from al-K azim (Quhp a " , VI, pp. 179 180 ; Ardab l , II, pp. . Al b. Ab Shu #ba 292293).Yahy a al H alab : Ya hy a b. # Imr a n b. # . . . al-Halab , a nephew of both Muhammad al-Halab and #Ubaydall ah . . . al-Halab . He was a K ufan transmitter from al-S . . adiq and his dis " ciples (Modarressi, TS, pp. 394395).#Abd al-H d al-T : #Abd . am .a al-Ham d b. Ghaw a d/Ghaww a d/ # Aww a d alT a " , a K u fan transmit. . . . .

72

notes

ter from al-B aqir and al-S a" , IV, p. 69; Ardab l , I, p. 440; . adiq (Quhp M amaq an , III, p. 136, no. 6307); executed by order of H ar un al-Rash d (Naj ash, II, p. 377, s.v. Mur azim b. Hak . m). 39 See Qumm , I, p. 29 > Burh an, I, p. 47, no. 7. See 35, 36, 38, 40. Isn ad : Rib# : Ab u Nu#aym Rib# b. #Abdall ah b. al-J ar ud b. Ab Sabra aqir and al-S al-Hudhal, a Bas .ran transmitter from al-B . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 361362). According to the manuscripts of KQ at 320 and 695, Har z transmits from Rib# . This is probably an error: such . a transmission is not mentioned by al-Kh u" (V, p. 235); and the single such isn ad adduced by al-Ardabl (I, p. 316, from Kul n ) is in all likelihood an error (in the printed edition of Kul n [II, p. 182, no. 16], it is Hamm ad, not Har z, who transmits from Rib# ). It is therefore likely . . that Har z # an Rib # is an error for Har z wa-Rib # . For another example . . z and Rib # see Barq , I, p. 272, no. 371 > of the isn ad Hamm a d < Har . . * Bih ar, II, p. 170, no. 6; cf. 100 . . 40 See 35, 38, 39. For the reading wa-ghayr al-d all n see 36. .

41 Cf. 43. r: he is perhaps Ab r b. al-#Abb Isn ad : Mans u l-Husayn Mans as . .u .u rin: he is probably al-Hasan al-R az (see 121).Ibn Qa b. Q a rin, a . transmitter from al-Rid a (Ardab l , I, pp. 219 220 ).J a # far b . B ash r : . Ab u Muhammad Ja#far b. Bashr al-Bajal al-Washsh a" (d. 208/ . a" , II, pp. 2425; Ardab l , 823824), a transmitter from al-Rid . a (Quhp n b. #Uthma n: Ab I, pp. 150151).Aba u #Abdall ah Ab an b. #Uthm an al-Ahmar, a transmitter from al-S . . adiq and his disciples and the author l, p. 143; Jarof a work on the life of the Prophet (Kohlberg, Us .u rar, Sources, pp. 102112; Modarressi, TS, pp. 129131).Bukayr b. A#yan: Ab u l-Jahm (or Ab u #Abdall ah) Bukayr b. A#yan b. Sunsun al-Shayb an al-K uf , a transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq; predeceased al-S a", I, pp. 279280; Ardabl, I, pp. 129 . adiq (Quhp 130). 42 For this reading see 37. Translation: I recited (Q 1:6 in the version of the #Uthm anic codex) to the man (i.e. the Imam) and he faulted me for it (and recited): ihdin as a. t al-mustaq m. . ir #Al shid: Ab Isn ad : Abu b. Ra u #Al al-Hasan b. R ashid, a Baghd ad . transmitter from al-Rid a , al-Jaw a d and al-H a d . He was a nancial . a" , II, pp. 107108, VII, p. 74; Ardab l , agent (wak l ) of al-H ad (Quhp

notes

73

I, p. 197, II, pp. 403405; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 15, note 73). Al-Sayy ar cites from him directly (Kul n , VI, p. 303, no. 9). 43 Mustadrak, IV, p. 175, no. 4415. Sh # jurists reject the Sunn practice (which they attribute to #Umar; see K uf , Istigh atha, p. 61) of pronouncing am n after the leader of the prayer has nished reciting S urat al-f atiha. ah rabb al- # alam n (see . They prefer the formula al-h . amdu li-ll Kul n , III, p. 313, no. 5 [idh a kunta khalfa im am fa-qara"a l-h . amd wa-faragha a fa-qul anta l-h ah rabb al- # alam n wa-l a taqul am n ] > min qir a"atih . amdu li-ll Huwayz , I, p. 25 , no. 113 ; T u s , Istib s a r , I, pp. 318 319 , nos. 1185 1188; . . . idem, Tahdh b, II, p. 74, no. 275; Tabris , I, p. 65 > Bih ar, LXXXVIII, . . p. 93, no. 60; al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, pp. 752753, nos. 7364 . 7369). Al-h urat al-f atiha . (see e.g. Tabri. . amd is an alternative name for S s , I, p. 35; Paret, Kommentar, p. 556). Cf. 41. 44 The interpretation of the kit ab of Q 2:2 as the period of (the rising of) the Q a"im seems to be based on an understanding of kit ab as an appointed term (cf. WKAS, I, p. 42a). Cf. accounts in which the ghayb of Q 2:3 is taken to refer to the rising of the Q a"im (Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 17; Tabris , I, p. 82). . s h b. #A Isn ad : #Abdalla l , I, .im: a transmitter from al-S . adiq (Ardab p. 494) who also transmitted from a contemporary of al-Rid a , . the a# l al-M tham /Maytham (Kul n , VI, p. 436, mutakallim #Al b. Ism no. 9; cited in Ardab l , I, p. 559, Kh u" , XI, p. 244, no. 6948; for #Al b. * ar transmitted from Ism a# l see 244 ). It is not clear whether al-Sayy lih him directly or via an intermediary.Bakr b. S . : Bakr b. S . .a . alih al-R az al-Dabb , a transmitter from al-K a zim, al-Ri d a and al-Jaw ad . . . (Quhp a" , I, pp. 274275; Ardab l , I, p. 127). 45 Fas . l, p. 138, ll. 1920. For this reading see Jeery, p. 25 (Ibn d); Zamakhshar d) > Fas Mas#u , I, p. 112 (Ibn Mas#u . l, p. 138, ll. 1920; R az, II, p. 18. Cf. Q 32:12. This is the rst of eleven readings from d attested in KQ (see Introduction, p. 44). Ibn Mas#u 46 Fas . l, p. 261, ll. 1921. This is the rst of seven traditions providing readings of ayat al-kurs (Q 2:255). Sh # scholars refer to the original version of this verse as ayat al-kurs #al a l-tanz l, the verse of the throne as it was revealed (see Ahmad b. #Al al-Qumm , Kit ab al- #ar us [for . which see Dhar #a, XV, pp. 253254, no. 1633] > Bih a r , LXXXIX, p. . Tabris , Mak a rim , p. 402 > Bi h a 355, no. 33, Fas l , p. 260 , ll. 17 21 ; . . r, .

74

notes

XCV, p. 29, no. 12 [in the printed edition of Tabris , erroneously: #al a . l-tart b; in Bih a r : # al a l-tanz l ]; Tabris , Mak a rim , p. 417 > Bi h a r , XCIV, . . . p. 194, no. 3; Ibn T us, Muhaj, p. 52 > Fas . aw . l, p. 261, l. 6; the sources cited in Fas a tah a see Q 20:6. For the . l, p. 261, ll. 715). For wa-m . ta l-thar a n al-ra h m reading # alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada al-rah m . see 47, 82, 85. Cf. . the readings # alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada man dh a lladh (see Jeery, p. 122 [Ubayy]) and lahu m a f l-samaw at wa-m a f l-ard a baynahum a wa-m a . wa-m tah a # alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada fa-l a yuzhiru # al a ghaybihi a h adan man . ta l-thar . . dh a lladh yashfa #u etc. (Ahmad b. #Al al-Qumm , Kit ab al- #ar us > Fas . . l, p. 260, ll. 1517). Cf. 48, 49, 83. Isn ad : H . amza b. #Ubayd: he is mentioned twice in KQ, but otherwise only in a single tradition in Kul n (see 48*; Kh u" , VII, p. 286, # d al-Qas no. 4050).Isma l b. #Abba : a transmitter from al-K azim . .r and al-Rid a (Quhp a " , I, p. 214 ; Ardab l , I, p. 97 ). . 47 Fas . l, p. 261, ll. 2122. For this reading (with the addition of wa m a baynahum a after wa-m a f l-ard , I, p. 84 (> Huwayz , I, . . ) see Qumm b. Ibr ah m p. 261, no. 1043), Kul n , VIII, pp. 289290, no. 437 (#Al < Ahmad b. Mu hammad [i.e. al-Sayy a r ?] < Mu hammad b. Kh a lid . . . < Muhammad b. Sin an < Ab u Jarr al-Qumm wa-huwa Muh . . ammad b. #Ubaydall ah wa-f nuskha #Abdall ah < al-Rid ar, XCII, p. 57, . a) (> Bih . no. 36), both > S af , I, p. 259. For the reading # alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada . al-rah m a n al-ra h m see 46 , 82 , 85 . Cf. 48 , 49 , 83 . . . n: Muhammad b. Sin an al-Z ahir (d. 220/835), a Isn ad : Ibn Sina . K ufan transmitter from al-K azim and al-Rid . . a who was accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , V, pp. 222231; Ardab l , II, pp. 123 128; Halm, Schatten, pp. 236241; idem, Gnosis, pp. 242243). Jar Abu r al-Qumm : three transmitters from al-Rid . a are referred to by this name: (i) Zakariyy a b. Idr s b. #Abdall ah b. Sa#d al-Ash#ar l , I, p. 332); (ii) Zakariyy a b. #Abd (Quhp a" , III, pp. 5859; Ardab al-Samad (Quhp a" , III, p. 61; Ardab l , I, p. 332); (iii) Muhammad . . b. #Ubaydall ah/#Abdall ah. This last name appears only in the abovementioned tradition in Kul n (where the name may have been added by a copyist). According to al-Tustar (Rij al, IV, pp. 465466, no. 2935), when the name appears as Ab u Jar r al-Qumm , the reference is throughout to Zakariyy a b. Idr s. See also Quhp a" , VII, p. 14; Ardab l , II, pp. 371372. . t un min #ilmihi min 48 Fas a yuh . l, p. 262, ll. 56. The readings wa-m . shay" and wa-s all a ll a h # al a Mu h ammad wa# al a ahl baytihi do not appear to . .

notes

75

be recorded elsewhere. For wa-l-h ah rabb al- # alam n see Kul n , . amdu li-ll VIII, p. 290, no. 438 (isn ad : Muhammad b. Kh a lid < Hamza b. # Ubayd . . < Ism a# l b. #Abb ad < al-S ar, XCII, pp. 5758, no. 37, . adiq) > Bih . Huwayz , I, p. 262, no. 1049. For various interpretations of wa- ayatayn . ba #dah a in KQ and Kul n see Fas l , p. 262 , l. 10 p. 263 , l. 5 . Cf. 46 , 47, . 49, 82, 83, 85. Isn ad : in the parallel tradition in Kul n , Ism a# l b. #Abb ad transmits directly from al-S a# l is not known to have transmitted . adiq. Since Ism from this Imam (cf. 46*), the assumption must be that a name is missing. This assumption is borne out by the isn ad in KQ, in which #an rajul intervenes between Ism a#l and al-S ur s comment in Fas . adiq. See al-N . l, p. 263, ll. 57. 49 Fas . l, p. 262, l. 7. Cf. 4648, 82, 83, 85.

50 See #Ayy ash , I, pp. 6970, no. 131 (Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir) > S af , . . I, p. 187, Burh an, I, p. 170, no. 6, Bih ar, XCIX, pp. 236237, no. 13; cf. . Tabris , II, p. 45. Al-B aqirs reading does not appear to be recorded . elsewhere, so it is not clear whether it was an ya. t. tawwafa (as in the d and Ubayy are said to have #Uthm anic codex) or an ya. t ufa. Ibn Mas#u read an l a ya. t ufa (with a pleonastic l a) (Jeery, pp. 28, 120), while the reading of #Al and Ibn #Abb as is given as an l a ya. t. tawwafa (Jeery, p. 185) (though Ibn #Abb ass reading is also said to have been an l a ya. t ufa [Jeery, p. 195]). According to Ibn Jinn (I, p. 115), the reading of #Al , d, Ubayy and others was all as, Ibn Mas#u a ya. t. tawwafa; similarly Ibn #Abb Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 73 (an l a ya. t. tawwafa as the reading of Ibn #Abb as), Samarqand , I, p. 106 (ascribing the reading all a ya. t. tawwafa to Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as and Anas b. M alik), M award , I, p. 213 (an l a ya. t. tawwafa d and Ibn #Abb as the reading of Ibn Mas#u as) and Ab u Hayy an, I, p. . 631 (stating that an l a was the reading of Anas and others and is also d). All readings with l found in the codices of Ubayy and Ibn Mas#u a are rejected by al-Tabar (II, p. 51). . n: Ab ad : Ibn Ab Najra u l-Fadl Najr an Isn . an b. Ab . #Abd al-Rahm #Amr b. Muslim al-Tam m , a K ufan transmitter from al-Rid . a and alJaw ad (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 7374, VII, p. 156; Ardab l , I, pp. 444445, II, p. 429). Al-Sayy ar also transmits from him directly in Kul n , VI, p. 8, t alno. 5.#As u l-Fadl . . umayd al-H . anna . : Ab .im b. H .im b. Humayd . #As Hann at ufan transmitter from al-S . ., a K . adiq and his disciples (Kohlberg, l, pp. 143, 152, 164; Modarressi, TS, p. 210). Us .u

76

notes

51 See Kul n , I, p. 418, no. 31 (a-fa-kullam a j a"akum Muh a l a . ammad bi-m tahw a anfusukum bi-muw al at #Al fa-stakbartum fa-far qan min al Muh ammad . kadhdhabtum wa-far qan taqtul un) > Najaf , p. 76, no. 53 (a-fa-kullam a istakbartum), Bih ar, XXIII, p. 374, no. 54 (without a-fa-kullam a, with fa. stakbartum), XXIV, p. 307, no. 7 (a-fa-kullam a istakbartum), Huwayz , I, . p. 99, no. 276 (without a-fa-kullam a, with fa-stakbartum); tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 723. Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 49, no. 68 (dh alika tafs ruh a f l-b a. tin) > S af , I, p. 142, Burh an, I, p. 125, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 307, no. 8; . . Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 206 > Bih ar, XXXIX, p. 262, no. 33; . Bay ad , I, p. 289 . It is not clear whether the absence of a-fa-kullam a and . a"a the addition of f a" before istakbartum point to the existence of a qir in which the sentence begins with j a"akum. The evidence in Kul n is inconclusive, as there are various versions of this text. Cf. the discussion in M azandar an , VII, pp. 6869; Bih ar, XXIII, p. 374. . r b. Marwa n: #Amm Isn ad : #Amma ar b. Marw an al-Thawb an alYashkur , a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim (Modar. . adiq and al-K n b. Zayd: Ab ressi, TS, pp. 198199).#Uthma u #Ad #Uthm an b. Zayd , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a" , IV, p. b. #Ad al-Juhan . adiq (Quhp 131; Ardab l , I, p. 533). He also transmitted from J abir al-Ju#f (in addition to KQ, see Bas a"ir, p. 404, no. 4; Qumm , II, pp. 111112; Fur at, I, . p. 291, no. 393). The form #Al b. Zayd found in the manuscripts is an error. In the parallel tradition in Kul n , Munakhkhal appears instead of #Uthm an b. Zayd. See similarly 87, 135. 52 According to the marginal note in ms. T, it is not unlikely that Ab u #Abdall ah is al-Sayy ar himself, and that this kunya was added by a copyist. If so, then the whole sentence q ala Ab u dh alika must be am an addition. This in turn would mean that the formula #alayhi l-sal found (in all manuscripts) after Ab u #Abdall ah was inserted by a later copyist who took this kunya to refer to al-S . adiq. Cf. 54. 53 Fas ash , I, p. 51, no. 71 . l, p. 255, ll. 1516. For this reading see #Ayy (J abir < al-B aqir) > Burh an, I, p. 130, no. 2; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. nic 52. In the Qumm, 1380/19601961 edition of #Ayy ash the Qur"a verse begins as follows: wa-idh a q la lahum m adh a anzala rabbukum f #Al ; this version is reproduced in Burh an. Al-N ur states that it contains an akh aw min qalam al- #Ayy ash ) and that error (wa-f hi sahw imm a min al-nuss the correct version is the one cited from #Ayy ash in the lithograph edition of the Bih ar ; there the verse is reproduced as it appears in the . #Uthm anic codex, with the addition of f #Al (Fas . l, p. 255, ll. 1620).

notes

77

The text of the Bih ar as reproduced in the printed edition (XXXVI, pp. . 9899, no. 38) mistakenly contains the words min rabbikum ( amin u bi-m a anzala ll ah min rabbikum f #Al ). 54 Fas ash , I, p. 101, no. 290 (Ab u Ish . aq al. l, p. 257, l. 10. See #Ayy Sab # < #Al ) > Burh an, I, p. 205, no. 4, Bih a r , IX, pp. 189 190 , no. 24, . af , I, p. 220, LXXV, p. 315, no. 37; Kuln, VIII, p. 289, no. 435 > S . Burh an, I, p. 205, no. 1, Bih ar, XCII, p. 57, no. 34, Huwayz , I, p. 204, . . no. 753, Fas l , p. 257 , ll. 7 10 , cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin , p. 210, . with note 426 = Divine Guide, p. 201. According to al-Qumm (I, p. 71), this verse was revealed concerning ful an or, in the view of others, wiya. The Najaf edition of al-Qumm concerning Mu#a s Tafs r was censored (see Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 3945). The uncensored version is cited in Burh an, I, p. 206, no. 7; here ful an is replaced by al-th an , i.e. ash , I, p. 100, no. 287 (al-Husayn b. Bashsh ar < #Umar. See also #Ayy . * Ab u l-Hasan) > Burh an, I, p. 205, no. 2 (ful an wa-ful an). Cf. 52, 600 . . b: al-Hasan Isn ad : Ibn Mahb b. Mahb ad/al-Zarr ad (d. . u . . ub al-Sarr 224/838839), a transmitter from al-K azim and al-Ri d a (Quhp a " , II, . . pp. 143146; Ardab l , I, pp. 221224).Muhammad b . S ulaym a n al. Azd: Muhammad b. Sulaym an b. #Amm ar al-Azd, a transmitter from . ru d: l-Ja al-S a" , V, p. 220; Ardab l , II, pp. 119120).Abu . adiq (Quhp Ab u l-J ar ud Ziy ad b. al-Mundhir al-Hamd an al-Kh arif , leader of the J ar ud branch of Zayd Sh #ism and a transmitter from al-B aqir (Bar Ish q: Asher, Scripture, pp. 4656; Modarressi, TS, pp. 121125).Abu .a he may be Ab u Ish an , a transmitter from #Al (T , Rij al, . aq al-Hamd . us p. 64, no. 24). In the parallel tradition in #Ayy ash the transmitters name # . Now it is highly unlikely that the peris given as Ab u Ish . aq al-Sab son usually known by this name transmitted directly from #Al (see 71*). Either of the following possibilities suggests itself: (i) the transmitter is the person usually known as Ab u Ish # ; he transmitted this . aq al-Sab tradition from #Al via an intermediary, but the name of the intermediary was omitted by al-#Ayy ash (or by a copyist). The fact that in KQ, too, there is no intermediary renders this possibility problematic (unless al-#Ayy ash and al-Sayy ar drew from a common source; see Introduction, p. 45). (ii) The transmitter is #Al s disciple Ab u Ish an , . aq al-Hamd who was also known as al-Sab # , Sab # being a sub-tribe of Hamd an. 55 Fas ad, see . l, p. 257, ll. 1315. For this tradition, with a dierent isn d: wa-zulzil 66. Cf. the reading in the codex of Ibn Mas#u u thumma zulzil u iyya, I, p. 288 , Qur t ub , III, p. 35 , Ab u Hayy a n, wa-yaq ulu l-ras ul (Ibn #At . . .

78

notes

II, p. 149). The context demands that the verb in thumma zulzil u (both d and in KQ ) be vocalized in the passive. Jeery (p. 30) in Ibn Mas#u ds reading: (i) wa-zulzil adduces two versions of Ibn Mas#u u fa-zalzal u (read: fa-zulzil u) (wa)-yaq ul h qat (sic) al-ras ul (see Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. . aq 57); (ii) wa-zulzil u thumma zalzal u (read: zulzil u) wa-yaq u l. ufan Isn ad : #Al b. #Atiyya : # Al b. # A t iyya alHann a t al-A s . . . . .amm, a K transmitter from al-S . adiq and his disciples (Modarressi, TS, pp. 187 l-#Abba s: Ab 188).Abu u l-#Abb as al-Fadl aq, . b. #Abd al-Malik al-Baqb a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS , pp. 220 221 ). . 56 The text of the #Uthm anic codex is Jibr l wa-M k al. Al-S . adiq endorsed the reading Jabra" l (see 78); there seems to be no record of his reading of the second word. In the manuscripts of KQ, the readings which were rejected by al-S l wa-M k a" l ; this is . adiq appear as Jabra" probably an error, since these words do not contain a shadda. The readings meant here are presumably those given in the edition. They s l-Naj ud) in the are: (i) Jabra"ill. This is ascribed to #A .im (i.e. b. Ab transmission of Ab an (i.e. Ab u Yaz d Ab an b. Yaz d b. Ahmad al-Bas . .r al-#At t a r al-Na hw , alive in 160 / 776 777 ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 4 , no. 2 , . .. Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, I, pp. 101102) (Ibn al-Jawz, I, p. 104) and to the . Bas an, Wafay at, VI, . a b. Ya#mar (d. 129/746; see Ibn Khallik .ran Yahy pp. 173176; Ibn al-Jazar , II, p. 381, no. 3873; Blachre, Introduction, p. , I, p. 437; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 82; Sellheim, Materialien, I, pp. 4344) (Tabar . 97; Ibn #At u Hayy an, I, p. 486). . .iyya, I, p. 183; Ibn al-Jawz, I, p. 104; Ab (ii) M k a"ill. This qir a"a is mentioned by al-Tabar (I, pp. 437438), who . does not identify those who upheld it. 57 Fas taw agh t ) . l, p. 262, ll. 78. For this tradition (with the reading al-. see Kul n , VIII, p. 289, no. 436 (Sahl b. Ziy ad < Ibn Mahb . ub < Ibn b < Humr aqir) > S af , I, p. 262, Bih ar, LXVII, Ri"a an b. A#yan < al-B . . . p. 23, XCII, p. 57, no. 35. In KQ, al-. taw agh t is attested only in the margin of ms. L as an emendation of al-N ur based on Kul n . For this d, al-Hasan); reading see also Jeery, p. 31 (Ibn Mas#u Ibn Jinn , I, p. . 131, Tha#lab , II, p. 237, Ab u l-Fut uh, u Hayy an, II, p. 294 . II, p. 332, Ab . (al-Hasan); #Ukbar , p. 100 (wa-qad quri"a). Cf. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, . na kafar u bi-wal ayat #Al b. Ab T a lib awliy a " uhum alIII, p. 107 (wa-lladh . t agh ut, with the comment: nazala Jabra" l bi-h adhihi l- aya kadh a) > Bih ar, . . XXXV, p. 58, no. 12. See in general Jeery, Vocabulary, pp. 202203; Hawting, Idolatry, pp. 5556; DC, art. Jibt et T ut (Meir M. Bar. agh Asher); cf. Kohlberg, Bar a"a, pp. 148149.

notes

79

b: Ab b/Rab Isn ad : Ibn Ri"a u l-Hasan #Al b. Ri"a ab al-Ta . . h . h . an alSa#d , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq, al-K a zim and their disciples . . n: (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 382383; Modarressi, TS, pp. 189191).H . umra Humr an b. A#yan al-Shayb an al-K uf , brother of Zur ara and a trans. , mitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , II, pp. 233 237; Ardab l . I, pp. 278279; van Ess, TG, index, s.v.; Modarressi, TS, p. 239). In the isn ad s cited in KQ, Humr an invariably transmits from al-B aqir. In four . b. of these isn ad s (57, 258, 302, 434) he transmits to Ibn Ri"a 58 Fas n , VIII, p. 290, no. 440 . l, p. 256, l. 15. For this tradition see Kul (rst part) (bi-wal ayat al-shay a. tn) > Bih ar, XCII, p. 58, no. 39 (rst part), . Fas . l, p. 256, ll. 1315, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 210, with ayat al-shay a. t n note 425 = Divine Guide, p. 201. For an explication of wal see Majlis , Mir" at, XXVI, pp. 316317 > Fas l , p. 256 , ll. 15 23 . . t Isn ad : Ibn Asba u l-Hasan #Al b. Asb at alim al-Kind Bayy a# . : Ab . . b. S al-Zut al-Muqri" (d. ca. 250/864), a K ufan transmitter from al-Rid .t . .a and al-Jaw ad (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 165166; Ardab l , I, pp. 554557; Kohl l, pp. 143, 156). Al-Sayy ar cites from him either directly (see berg, Us .u e.g. Kul n , I, p. 543, no. 5, VI, p. 303, no. 4; Ibn B abawayh, Khis al, p. . 12, no. 38; T b, VI, pp. 294295, no. 820 [for Muhammad . us, Tahdh . b. Ahmad read Ahmad b. Muhammad]) or via one transmitter. . . . "in #Al b. Ab H u l-Hasan #Al b. Ab Hamza S alim al-Bat . amza: Ab . . .a ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (d. 201/816817 or 202/817818), a K . and al-K azim aqifa, reportedly the rst to sug. and a leader of the W gest that al-K azim did not die and to oppose al-Rid . . as claim to the succession (Kohlberg, Us u l, p. 143 ; Modarressi, TS , pp. 183187). . 59 Fas n , VIII, pp. 290291, no. 440 (second . l, p. 257, ll. 34. See Kul part) (#Al b. Ibr ah m < his father < #Al b. Asb at b. Ab Hamza < . . < #Al S a f , I, p. 223 , Bi h a r , XCII, p. 58 , no. 39 (second Ab u Bas r < alS a diq) > . . . . part), Fas . l, p. 257, ll. 13, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 210211, with note 427 = Divine Guide, p. 201. Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 103, no. 304 > S af , I, p. 223, Burh an, I, p. 209, no. 2, Bih ar, IX, p. 190, no. 26. . . 60 Fas . l, p. 136, ll. 1213.

ash , I, p. 50, no. 70 (towards the 61 Fas . l, p. 255, ll. 1213. See #Ayy end; J abir < al-B aqir) > S af , I, p. 146, Burh an, I, p. 129, no. 3, Bih ar, . . XXXVI, p. 98, no. 38; Kul n , I, p. 417, no. 25 > S a f , I, p. 146 , Fa s . . l, p. 255, ll. 911, tr. Lawson, Note, p. 286; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib,

80

notes

III, p. 107 (cf. I, p. 284) > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12. In all these . sources the reading is bi-m a anzala ll ah f #Al (for which see Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 51); and this appears to be the reading in KQ as well (with all ah omitted by the copyists). It is also possible, however, that KQ has preserved an otherwise unattested reading, namely unzila f #Al . Isn ad : al-Munakhkhal: (al-) Munakhkhal b. Jam l al-Asad al-Raqq Bayy a# al-Jaw ar, a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq and especially from J abir al-Ju#f (Modarressi, TS, pp. 351352). In KQ al-Munakhkhal appears in four traditions, in all of which he transmits from J abir. Acad cording to Modarressi (TS, p. 352), exegetical traditions with an isn as in this h th were included in al-Munakhkhals Kit ab al-tafs r. See . ad further 112*. 62 Cf. Nu#m an, Sharh . , I, p. 240, no. 255, where Q 2:6 is glossed as alladh na kafar u bi-wal ayat #Al wa-aws a" ras ul all ah. . iy 63 Fas ash , I, p. 45, no. 49 (Zayd al-Shah . h . am . l, p. 254, ll. 13. See #Ayy < al-B aqir) > S a f , I, p. 121 , Burh a n , I, p. 104 , no. 5 , Bi h a r , XXIV, p. 222, . . l , p. 253 , l. 23 p. 254 , l. 1 . Cf. Sa # d b. # Abdall a h, N a sikh , p. no. 8, Fas . 64 (wa-q ala l-z un al Muh q la lahum fa. ammad h . aqqahum ghayr alladh . alim anzaln a #al a lladh na zalam u a l Mu h ammad rijzan min al-sam a " bi-m a k an u . . yafsuq un); Qumm , I, p. 48 (ending) > Bih a r , XIII, p. 174 , no. 2 . For this . reading see also Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 51. See 64, 81. m: Ab u Us ama Zayd b. Y unus al-Shah Isn ad : Zayd al-Shah .a . h . am, .h a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 401402). 64 Fas n , I, pp. 423424, no. 58 > Najaf , p. . l, p. 254, l. 3. See Kul 63, no. 41, al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, II, p. 278, no. 59, Burh an, I, p. 104, . no. 2, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 224, no. 15, Huwayz , I, p. 83, no. 214, Fas . . l, p. . 253, ll. 2023, tr. Lawson, Note, p. 286; 63, 81. (At 81 the same isn ad recurs, with the addition of Muhammad b. #Al as the transmitter to . al-Sayy ar .) 65 Fas a"ir, p. 71, no. 4 . l, p. 308, ll. 45. For this tradition see Bas . (h akadh a wa-ll ahi unzilat #al a Muh ammad ) > Bi h a r , XXIV, p. 176, no. 7; . . a n, Kul n , I, p. 416, no. 23 > Najaf , p. 319, no. 17, S af , III, p. 323, Burh . III, p. 45, no. 3, Bih ar, XI, pp. 195196, no. 49, XXIV, p. 351, no. 66, . Huwayz , III, p. 400, no. 150; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 320 . (kadh a nazalat #al a Muh ammad ) > Burh a n , III, pp. 45 46 , no. 5, cited .

notes

81

in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 212, with note 434 = Divine Guide, p. 202; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 64. In most of these sources, wa- #Al is followed by wa-F a. tima; thus Ibn Shahr ash ub cites this reading in the chapter on the merits of F at .ima. A possible reason for the inclusion of Q 20:115 in the chapter on S urat al-baqara is the similarity in subject matter between the beginning of this verse and the beginning of Q 2:37 (fa-talaqq a Adam min rabbihi kalim at ). Could the words f Muh . ammad wa-l-a"imma min dhurriyyatihim have also been included as a reading of Q 2:37 (after kalim at )? Cf. Kul n , VIII, p. 305, no. 472, where the Imam comments on the beginning of Q 2:37 by stating: sa"alahu bi-h . aqq wa-l-Husayn wa-F a. tima. Similarly Fur at, I, Muh wa-l-Hasan . . . ammad wa- #Al pp. 5758, no. 16; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 124, no. 2. h: a transmitter from alIsn ad : Ja#far b. Muhammad b. #Ubaydalla . Rid a and the author of a kit a b which was transmitted by Muhammad . . al-Barq (Quhp a" , II, p. 40; Ardab l , I, pp. 159160; Kh u" , V, pp. 83 a al-Qumm 85, no. 2280). The isn ad Muhammad b. #Is < Muhammad . . b. Sulaym an < #Abdall ah b. Sin an which is attested in the Bas a"ir and . in Kul n also appears in mss. T and B. According to mss. M and L a al-Qumm and the variant reading of ms. T, Muhammad b. #Is trans. mitted from Sulaym an (i.e. Muhammads father). At 339, Muhammad . . b. Sulaym an transmits from his father who in turn transmits from #Abdall ah b. Sin an. 66 Fas ad ) see . l, p. 257, ll. 1516. For this tradition (with the same isn Kul n , VIII, p. 290, no. 439 > S af , I, p. 225, Bih ar, LXVII, p. 198, . . XCII, p. 58, no. 38. See 55. 67 Fas . l, p. 259, ll. 1719, Mustadrak, III, p. 22, no. 2918. Cf. Ibn T us, Fal ah . aw . , pp. 9495 (possibly citing KQ ; see Introduction, pp. 35 36). Commentators are divided over the meaning of al-s at al-wus. t a . al at Q 2:238 (see Paret, Kommentar, pp. 5051; Gilliot, Exgse, pp. 149 150). Many identify it with s at al- #as , II, pp. 554561, . . al . r (see e.g. Tabar Ibn Ab H an , Ghar b, p. 125, Ibn Ab . atim, II, p. 448, no. 2374, Sijist Zaman n, I, p. 84); others, including many (but not all) Sh # exegetes, reject this identication and claim that al-s at al-wus. t a is the noon . al prayer (s al a t alzuhr ) (for this view see Tabar , II, pp. 561563; Ibn . . . Ab H abawayh, Ma # an , pp. 313315; . atim, II, p. 448, no. 2373; Ibn B Ibn T us, Fal ah ar, . aw . , pp. 9395; see in general the discussion in Bih . and s al a t al# a s LXXXII, pp. 277281). The claim that al-s al a t al-wus t a . .r . . are two distinct prayers nds support in the reading wa-l-s al a t al-wus t a . .

82

notes

wa-s at al- #as ab, I, p. . h . ass counter-argument in his I #r . al . r (but see al-Nah 321). KQ contains a number of traditions (67, 69, 70, 79) in which this reading is cited on the authority of al-B aqir. In all of them the Imam states that this is how the Prophet recited the verse. For such a statement by al-B aqir see also As a" b. Raz n, p. 156; #Ayy ash , . l #Al I, p. 127, no. 415 (Muhammad b. Muslim < al-B a qir) > S a f , I, p. . . 246, Huwayz , I, p. 237, no. 936; cf. Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 354 . ar, LXXXII, p. 283, no. 3. In addition to the Prophet 355, no. 1 > Bih . and al-B aqir, those who read the verse with the words wa-s at al- #as . al .r are reported to have included (i) Ibn #Abb as (see the references in "isha (see Jeery, p. 232; Ibn Ab 71*); (ii) #A D aw ud, pp. 8385; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , pp. 313314, nos. 2, 4 > Bih ar, LXXXII, p. 287, . nos. 56; Zamakhshar , I, p. 376 > Ibn T us, Sa #d, p. 129; Ibn al. aw #Arab , N asikh, p. 61); (iii) Haf s a (see Je ery, p. 214 ; Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, . . . , II, pp. 563 , 564 ; Ibn Ab D a w u d, pp. II, p. 109, nos. 577578; Tabar . 8587; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 314, no. 3 > Bih ar, LXXXII, p. 287, . no. 7; Bayhaq , Sunan, I, p. 462); (iv) Umm Salama (see Jeery, p. 235; Ibn Ab D aw ud, Mas ah . . if, pp. 8788); (v) Ubayy (see Jeery, p. 122); (vi) #Ubayd b. #Umayr (see Jeery, p. 237; Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 111, . , II, p. 564); (vii) al-Hasan b. #Al (see Ibn T us, Fal ah no. 583; Tabar . . . aw ., p. 93 [where a line is missing] > Bih ar, LXXXII, p. 289, no. 17) and . (viii) al-S , I, p. 79 [the printed edition has s at al. adiq (see 80; Qumm . al #as r but this text as cited in S a f , I, p. 247 , Burh a n , II, p. 231 and Fa s . . . l, p. 257, l. 19 has wa-s at al- #as us, Fal ah . aw . , p. 93). Cf. Wansbrough, . al . r ]; Ibn T Quranic Studies, p. 204 (on s at al- #as at al- #as . al . r vs. wa-s . al . r ). 68 Fas . l, p. 259, ll. 1920, Mustadrak, III, p. 22, no. 2919. For a similar explication of q anit n see #Ayy ash , I, p. 127, no. 416 (Zur ara < al-B aqir) ar, LXXXV, (mu. t # n r aghib n ) > S af , I, p. 247, Burh an, I, p. 231, no. 5, Bih . . p. 201, no. 14. See 67, 6971, 79, 80. 69 70 Fas . l, p. 259, ll. 2022. See 67, 68, 70, 71, 79, 80. See 6769, 71, 79, 80.

71 Fas . l, p. 259, l. 23p. 260, l. 1. For the ascription of this reading to Ibn #Abb as see Jeery, p. 196; Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 77; Tabar , II, p. 564; . us, Sa #d, Bayhaq , Sunan, I, p. 463; Zamakhshar , I, p. 376 > Ibn T . aw p. 129. For another tradition going back to Ibn #Abb as see 626. Both traditions are unusual in that they are not cited on the authority of an Imam. See 6770, 79, 80.

notes

83

Isn ad : #Abd al-Malik b. H u M alik #Abd al-Malik b. Hu. usayn: Ab . sayn al-Nakha# al-W asit (see Mizz , XXXIV, pp. 247249, no. 7599 . and the references given by the editor). Al-T (Rij al, p. 233, no. 166) . us lists him as a disciple of al-S . adiq. Although #Abd al-Malik (assuming he lived to a great age) could conceivably have transmitted directly from Hubayra b. Yar m (d. 66/685686), he is nowhere said to have done so. Instead, he is known to have transmitted from Ab u Ish . aq al-Sab # (see Mizz , XXXIV, p. 248), who in turn was reportedly the sole transmitter from Hubayra b. Yar m (see idem, XXII, pp. 110111, XXX, p. 151). It can be taken that Ab u Ish . aqs name was omitted by a copyist.Abu Ish ah b. #Al Ab u Ish an . aq: #Amr b. #Abdall . aq al-Hamd al-Sab # al-K uf (d. between 126/743744 and 129/746747), a Successor (t abi # ) and a transmitter from al-S -Caskel, II, p. . adiq (Ibn al-Kalb 167; T u s , Rij a l , p. 246 , no. 375 ; Mizz , XXII, pp. 102 113, no. 4400, . ah b. #Ubayd/#Al and the references given by the s.v. #Amr b. #Abdall editor; Modarressi, TS, p. 46). Birth-dates given for him are 29/649 n 650 (Sam#a , Ans ab, VII, p. 70), two years before the death of the caliph #Uthm an (i.e. 33/653) (Mizz , XXII, p. 103), or the night of #Al s murder (i.e. 19 Ramad a n 40 / 26 Jan. 661 ) (Muf d, Ikhti s a s , p. 79 ). See . . . m: in the manuscripts, the name of the trans54*.Hubayra b. Yar mitter from Ibn #Abb as is given as #Al b. Maryam. This is probably an error. In other sources, the person who transmits Ibn #Abb ass read ing of Q 2:238 is #Umayr b. Yar m (see Tabar , II, p. 564 [for Maryam . read Yarm]; Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 77) or Hubayra b. Yarm (see Bayhaq , Sunan, I, p. 463). Only the latter name is known to the Rij al experts; see e.g. Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq at, VI, pp. 170171; Mizz , XXX, pp. 150151, . no. 6552 and the references given by the editor. He is probably iden tical with Hubayra b. Maryam (sic) al-Himyar whom al-T (Rij al, p. . . us . 61, no. 2) mentions as a disciple of #Al 72 Fas ash , I, p. 56, no. 78 (#Umar b. Yaz d . l, p. 256, ll. 14. See #Ayy < al-S an, I, p. 140, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 208, no. 10. For . adiq) > Burh . the reading without aw see also Qumm , I, p. 58 (the word minh a is missing from the printed edition but appears in Fas l , p. 256 , ll. 4 5). . Al-#Ayy ash s text contains a nal sentence (missing from KQ ) in which the inner meaning of this reading is explained. See also the discussion in Fas . l, p. 256, ll. 513. n: Ab u #Al #Amr b. #Uthm an al-Thaqaf alIsn ad : #Amr b. #Uthma Khazz az/al-Kharr az, a K ufan transmitter from disciples of al-S a . diq and al-K azim (Quhp a " , IV, p. 289 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 624 626 ). #Ab.

84

notes

h b. H d b. #Abdalla h: this name is not attested elsewhere. dalla . amma r Perhaps the reference is to #Abdall ah b. Hamm ad al-Ans , a trans. .a mitter from al-S azim a", III, p. 279; Ardab l , I, p. . (Quhp . adiq and al-K l, p. 143).#Umar b. Yaz 482; Kohlberg, Us d: there are two K ufan .u transmitters from al-S a diq by that name: (i) Ab u l-Aswad # Umar b. . (Muhammad b.) Yaz d Bayy a # al-S a bur , who also transmitted from al. , IV, pp. 264265, 267; Ardab l , I, pp. 637, 638639; K azim a" . (Quhp Modarressi, TS, p. 388); (ii) Ab u M us a #Umar b. Yaz d b. Dhuby an al-Sayqal (Quhp a " , IV, pp. 267 268 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 639 640 ). . 73 Fas . l, p. 263, ll. 911. This tradition appears to conform to the view of a number of Sunn commentators, who explain the ghayra ikhr aj as a circumstantial clause (h al ) in the sense of ghayra mukhraj at ; see . ; Jal alayn, Zamakhshar , I, p. 377; Bayd a w , p. 54 ; Qur t ub , III, p. 228 . . d, I, p. 276. Al-N I, p. 39; Ab u l-Su#u ur assumed that mukhraj at was a qir a"a, but this is unlikely. It may be that the tradition is incomplete, and that the original text was similar or identical to the one at 96. Isn ad : #Umar b. H : Ab u Sakhr #Umar b. Han al-#Ijl al. anzala . . zala . . Bakr al-K uf , a transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , IV, p. . 257; Ardabl, I, pp. 633634). 74 The sentence wa-nah un also occurs at Q 3:84, 29:46. . nu lahu muslim nic references to muslim KQ contains six traditions that include Qur"a un (74, 76, 120, 129, 361, 363) and a seventh (285) that includes a nic reference to muslim Qur"a n. In all of these traditions the Sh # reading is presumably musallim un or musallim n respectively. This is based on the following considerations: at 74 and 76 ms. T has a shadda over the l am; at 120 the reading musallim un is supported by other sources, as is the reading musallim n at 285; at 129 ms. L has a shadda over the l am; at 361, 363 there is strong evidence in support of musallim un (see the notes to the relevant traditions). The reading musallim un/musallim n reects the m (for which see Kohlberg, ComSh# adherence to the concept of tasl munity, p. 34; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin [= Divine Guide], index, s.v.). Cf. further 107*. 75 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. In a tradition going back to #Abdall ah b. #Al b. al-Hasan/alHusayn < his father < al-S . . . adiq, the Imam interprets the sentence hiya maw aq t li-l-n as wa-l-h ajj (they [i.e. . the new moons] are appointed times for the people and for the pil-

notes

85

grimage) as referring to their fast, their breaking of the fast and their pilgrimage (li-s trihim wa-h , Tahdh b, IV, p. 166, . us . awmihim wa-. . ajjihim) (T no. 472 > S af , I, p. 208, al-Hurr al-#Amil, Was a"il, IV/2, pp. 186187, . . no. 13364). This may be the content of the text that is missing here. Isn ad : #Amr b. Shamir/Shimr: Ab u #Abdall ah #Amr b. Shamir/Shimr b. Yaz d al-Ju#f , a K ufan transmitter from al-S abir al-Ju#f . adiq and J (Modarressi, TS, pp. 204205). 76 See Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 95 (li-wal ayat #Al ) > Burh an, I, p. 156, no. 2 (bi-wal ayat #Al ); Najaf , p. 79, no. 59 (bi-wal ayat #Al ) > Bih ar, . * XXIII, p. 371, no. 48, XXXV, p. 341, no. 11. Cf. 25 , 74, 120, 129, 285, 361, 363. 77 Fas ash , I, p. 71, no. 136 (Ibn Ab #Umayr . l, p. 257, ll. 57. See #Ayy < unidentied transmitter < al-S a diq) > Burh a n , I, p. 170 , no. 1, Bih ar, . . II, p. 76, no. 53; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107 (inna lladh na yaktum un m a anzaln a min al-bayyin at f #Al b. Ab T . alib; the Imam adds: adhihi l- aya h akadh a) > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12. In nazala Jabra" l bi-h . the version cited by Ibn Shahr ash ub the word wa-l-hud a is missing, as it also is in the manuscripts of KQ (it is attested only in the margin of ms. L as an emendation of al-N ur ). It is not clear whether the text without al-hud a is a Sh # reading or the result of a copyists error. b b. Yaz Isn ad : Ya#qu d: Ab u Y usuf Ya#q ub b. Yaz d b. Hamm ad al. K atib al-Anb ar al-Sulam, secretary to the #Abb asid caliph al-Muntas .ir ad (r. 247248/861862) and a transmitter from al-Rid . a and al-Jaw (Quhp a" , VI, pp. 276277; Ardab l , II, pp. 349350). 78 The reading Jibr l conforms to the #Uthm anic codex (at Q 2:97, 2:98, 66:4). Jabra" l was the qir a"a of Tam m, Qays and most K ufan s readers (see Tabar , I, p. 436), including Hamza, al-Kis a" and #A . . .im in the transmission of Ab u Bakr (i.e. Shu#ba b. #Ayy ash al-Asad al, I, Hann at uf , d. 193/808809 or 194/809810; see Ibn al-Jazar . . al-K pp. 325327, no. 1421) (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 167). Cf. Ab u H na, II, . atim, Z pp. 164165; 56. a al-#Amir n: Ab Isn ad : #Uthma u #Amr #Uthm an b. #Is al-Kil ab alRuw as , a leading W aqif and a transmitter from al-K azim and al-Ri d . .a (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 133135; Ardab l , I, pp. 534536). He transmitted #a: Sam Sam a#a b. Mihr ans kit ab (Modarressi, TS, p. 370).Sama a#a b. Mihr an b. #Abd al-Rahm a n Bayy a # al-Qazz, a K u fan transmitter from . al-S a diq, al-K a zim and their disciples (Modarressi, TS , pp. 369 370 ). . .

86 79 80 81

notes Fas . l, p. 260, ll. 12. See 6771, 80. Fas . l, p. 260, l. 3. See 6771, 79. Fas . l, p. 254, ll. 34. See 63, 64.

82 Fas alim al-ghayb wa-l. l, p. 261, l. 23p. 262, l. 1. For the reading # shah ada al-rah an al-rah m see 46, 47, 85. Cf. 48, 49, 83. . m . r b. Yu nus: Ab r b. Y u Yahy unus Buzurj alIsn ad : Mans . a Mans .u .u Sarr aj, a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim. One of the . . transmitters of his kit ab was Ibn Ab #Umayr (Modarressi, TS, pp. 318 r b. Y 319). For Ibn Ab #Umayr < Mans unus see also 290. .u 83 Fas alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada al- #az z . l, p. 262, ll. 12. The words # al-h ak m constitute the nal verse of S u rat al-tagh a bun (Q 64 : 18 ). They . do not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a reading of ayat al-kurs . Cf. 4649, 82, 85. bir b. Ra shid: J ad : al-Minqar #an Ja abir b. R ashid is only known Isn from a single isn ad : Ab u Ja#far al-Muqri" im am masjid al-K ufa < J abir b. m, Tibb R ashid < al-S a Bist ar, LXXVI, p. 298, . , p. 146 > Bih . adiq (Ibn .a . no. 33, Huwayz , IV, p. 394, no. 82). Perhaps this is also the isn ad in . KQ ; if so, then al-Minqar is probably a corruption of al-Muqri". 84 Fas . l, p. 282, ll. 23. Scholars dealing with the word which in the a focus inter alia on #Uthm anic codex (at Q 5:95) takes the form dhaw the following points: (i) The reading dh u (occasionally spelled with a separating alif [al-alif al-f as . ila, cf. Wright, I, p. 11]). This reading is ascribed to al-B aqir (#Ayy ash, I, pp. 343344, nos. 197198), to al-S . adiq (Jeery, pp. 270, 332; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 35; Zamakhshar , I, p. 645), to al-B aqir and al-S , I, p. . adiq (Ibn Jinn 219; Tabris , VI, p. 193 ; R a wand , Fiqh , I, p. 313 ) or to the ahl al-bayt . an, Da # a"im, I, p. 306), as well as to #Ikrima (Jeery, p. 270). Al(Nu#m Bayd (p. 162) and al-#Ukbar (p. 204) do not identify the reader(s); . aw al-#Ukbar calls this reading sh adhdh (lit. anomalous, irregular), i.e. lacking a sucient number of authoritative chains of transmitters and therefore not generally accepted (for this term see Beck, #Arabiyya, pp. 221222; Gilliot, Exgse, pp. 145152; Kinberg, Lexicon, p. 376; EQ, n [Frederik Leemhuis]). (ii) The identity of art. Readings of the Qur"a dh u #adl. He is said to be the Imam (Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64; ar, XCIX, #Ayy ash , I, p. 344, no. 198 [> Burh an, I, p. 504, no. 19, Bih .

notes

87

p. 157, no. 47, Huwayz , I, p. 676, no. 375]; Nu#m an, Da # a"im, I, p. 306; . Zamakhshar , I, p. 645 [wa-q l ar ada l-im am]), the Prophet and, following him, the Imam (#Ayy ash , I, pp. 343344, no. 197 [Har z < Zur ara < al. B aqir] [> Burh an, I, p. 504, no. 18, Bih ar, XCIX, pp. 156157, no. 46, . Huwayz , I, p. 676, no. 374]; Kul n , IV, p. 396, no. 3, p. 397, no. 5, . both > S a f , II, p. 88 ), the Prophet and, following him, the ul u l-amr (i.e. . the Imams) (Tabris , VI, p. 194 > Fas . . l, p. 282, ll. 1213), or someone appointed by the Imam (man aq amahu l-im am) (Nu#m an, Da # a"im, I, p. 306). Al-Zamakhshar (I, p. 645) and al-Bayd a w (p. 162 ) state that dh u . #adl refers either to the category of just persons or to the Imam, while al#Ukbar (p. 204) only gives the former explanation (wa-l-mur ad bihi l-jins). (iii) The explanation of the dual form dhaw a as arising from a scribal , IV, p. 396, no. 3, p. 397, error (#Ayy ash , I, pp. 343344, no. 197; Kul n no. 5, VIII, p. 205, no. 247 [h adh a mimm a akh. ta"at bihi l-kutt ab] > Burh an, I, p. 503, nos. 911, Huwayz , I, p. 676 , nos. 371 373 ). According to . Muhsin af , II, p. 88), the error arose when a nal alif (i.e. the . al-Fayd . (S . alif al-f as aw of dh u. This was misconstrued . ila) was introduced after the w as a dual form and was vocalized as dhaw a. For scribal errors of this kind see Goldziher, Richtungen, pp. 3132. All three points are found aqir at in KQ : the reading dh u (ascribed to al-S . adiq at 84 and to al-B 167; the form dh-w-y given in the manuscripts is probably an error); the identity of dh u #adl (at 84); the explanation of the form dhaw a (at 167). Jam Isn ad : Abu la: Ab u Jam la (al-) Mufad dal b. S a li h al-Nakhkh as .. . . (d. late 2nd/8th century), a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq. He transmitted the kit ab of Zayd al-Shah . h . am (Modarressi, TS, p. 333). 85 Fas alim al-ghayb wa-l-shah ada al. l, p. 262, ll. 25. For the reading # m see 46, 47, 82. The word wa-l-ard a f l-ard rah an al-rah . (for wa-m .) . m . recorded in ms. M appears to be the result of a scribal error (due perhaps to the fact that lahu m a f l-samaw at wa-l-ard . is found elsewhere [at Q 2:116]). Cf. 48, 49, 83. al-Qasr Isn ad : #Umar b. Yahy /al-Tustar : this could refer to . a either of the following transmitters from al-S . adiq, all mentioned in alT s Rij al : the K ufan #Umar/#Amr b. Yahy adh an al-Nakha# . us . a (b.) Z (p. 248, no. 404, p. 253, no. 476); #Amr b. Yahy a b. Zakariyy a al-K u f . (p. 247, no. 387); #Amr b. Yahy a b. S a lim al-K u f (p. 250 , no. 431 ). None . d b. #Uthma n: Hamm is known as al-Qasr /al-Tustar .H ad b. . amma . #Uthm an al-N ab/Dh u l-N ab (d. 190/805806), a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim . and al-Rid . adiq, al-K . a (Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 223, no. 280; Modarressi, TS, p. 239).

88

notes

86 Mustadrak, III, p. 455, no. 3978. Cf. Barq , II, pp. 609610, nos. 11 15 (b ab al-buny an) > Bih a r , LXXVI, p. 151 , nos. 1821; Kul n , VI, pp. . 528529 (b ab tashy d al-bin a" ); Ibn B abawayh, Khis al, p. 379, no. 8 > . Bih ar, LXXVI, p. 149, no. 5; Tabris , Mak arim, pp. 126127 (f miqd ar . . , no. 34 ; alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , samk al-bayt ) > Bih a r , LXXVI, p. 154 . . II/1, pp. 566567, nos. 66416644 (b ab istih b a b kit a bat a yat al-kurs d u ran . #al a ra"s tham aniyat adhru # min al-jid ar idh a z ada rtif a #uhu #anh a wa-law k ana masjidan). 87 Fas n , I, p. 417, no. 26 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, . l, p. 253, l. 20. See Kul ar, XXXV, p. 57, Man aqib, III, p. 106 (> Burh an, I, p. 70, no. 3, Bih . no. 12); tr. Lawson, Note, pp. 285286; referred to in Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 51. Isn ad : in mss. M, L and T, the name of one of the transmitters is given as Hamm ad b. Marw an (i.e. Hamm ad b. Marw an al-Bakr al-K uf , . . a transmitter from al-S l , I, p. 276]). Al-N ur emended the . adiq [Ardab Hamm ad of ms. L to #Amm ar (i.e. #Amm ar b. Marw an, for whom see . ur may well be 51*), and this reading is incorporated in ms. B. Al-N right: #Amm ar b. Marw an transmitted to Ibn Sin an and appears in the isn ad of the parallel tradition in Kul n . 88 The interpretation of the sux pronoun in h . ubbihi as referring to #Al (out of love for #Al ) is unusual. Elsewhere, this pronoun is said to refer to the m al (of which the righteous gives despite his love for it), to the act of giving or to God (the righteous gives of his possessions because he loves to do so, or out of love for God; see e.g. Tabar , II, . pp. 9597; Zamakhshar , I, p. 330; Tabris , II, pp. 96 97 ; Qur t ub . . , II, p. 242). d was also known as Ibn Umm #Abd after his mother, 89 Ibn Mas#u Umm #Abd bint #Abd Wadd b. Saw a" b. Quraym b. S . ahila of the tribe Jamhara, p. of Hudhayl (see Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq at, III, p. 151; Ibn Hazm, . . 197; Ibn #Abd al-Barr, Ist # ab, II, p. 987, no. 1659; cf. H . akim, Mustadrak, II, pp. 601602, IV, p. 371, no. 5416; Jeery, p. 20). Of the six readings attributed to him here, only two appear to be recorded on his authority elsewhere: (i) bi-shay a. t nihim (Q 2:14); see Jeery, p. 25 (also ascribed to Ubayy and al-Sha#b [idem, p. 117]; cf. the discussion in Tabar , I, pp. . 130131); (ii) Wa-th umih a (for wa-f umih a [Q 2:61], th um being a dialectal b, p. variation of f um, and both meaning wheat; see Sijist an , Ghar 156, Lane, s.v. th um); see Sprenger, Moh ammad , III, p. xxxviii, note 2; .

notes

89

GdQ, III, p. 61; Jeery, p. 26; Tabar , I, p. 312; Ibn Ab D aw ud, Mas ah . . . if, pp. 54, 55; M atur d , I, p. 481; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 88; Samarqand , I, p. 57; Tha#lab , I, p. 205; M award , I, p. 129; Zamakhshar , I, p. 285; Ab u lFut uh, , I, p. 77; Lis an, s.v. fwm; Ab u Hayy an, I, p. . I, p. 205; Ibn al-Jawz . as 395; Suy ut , Durr, I, p. 141. This reading is also ascribed to Ibn #Abb . (Jeery, p. 26; Tabris , I, p. 271 ; R a z , III, p. 93 ), to Ubayy (Ibn al-Jawz , . I, p. 77) and to #Alqama (Jeery, p. 26; cf. R az, III, p. 93 [ #an #Alqama #an Ibn Mas # ud ]). 90 Cf. #Askar , Tafs r, p. 586 (m a ajra"ahum #al a #amal y ujib #alayhim #adh ab ujib lahum sukh. t al-n ar ); Tabar , II, p. 92 ( ma #a #ilmihim bi-anna dh alika m . all ah wa-al m #iq abihi ); Ibn Muhakkam, I, p. 167 (m a ajra"ahum #al a l- #amal . alladh yudkhiluhum al-n ar ); #Ayy ash , I, p. 75, no. 157 > Burh an, I, p. 175, no. 2; Kul n , II, pp. 268269, no. 2 (al-S a diq on Q 2 : 175 : m a as . . barahum , I, p. 195 , Burh an, I, #al a #l m a ya #lam un annahu yus ayyiruhum il a l-n a r ) > S a f . . p. 175, no. 1; Tha#lab , II, p. 48; M award , I, p. 224; Lis an, s.v. s a . br (fa-m as a l-n ar ay m a ajra"ahum #al a a #m al ahl al-n ar ). This is the only . barahum #al tradition in KQ explicitly transmitted on the authority of a Sunn (ba #d . al- # amma). 91 Mustadrak, VII, p. 386, no. 8486. The reading preserved in ms. M may be rendered yu. tawwaq unahu or ya. t. tawwaq unahu; both are attested , II, p. 64; Ibn #At (see Ibn Jinn , I, p. 118; Tha#lab .iyya, I, p. 252; Ab u l-Fut uh, u Hayy an, II, p. . II, p. 56; Qurt . .ub, II, pp. 286287; Ab 41; Lane, s.v. . tawwaqa; for the former reading see also Tabar , II, pp. . 132, 137, 138 [Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, Muj ahid]; Ibn al-Jawz , I, p. 161 [Ab u Bakr, Ibn #Abb as]; idem, Naw asikh, p. 64 [Ibn #Abb as]; #Ukbar, p. 77 [wa-quri"a]; the word is unvocalized in Ab u #Ubayd, "ishas reading is given as either Fad a"il, II, pp. 106107, nos. 569570). #A . yu. tawwaq unahu (Tabar , II, p. 138, Ibn Jinn , I, p. 118) or ya. t. tawwaq unahu . (Ab u Hayy a n, II, p. 41 ); in the printed edition of Samarqand (I, p. . 122) her reading is given as ya. t uq unahu, but it is not clear whether the vocalization was provided by al-Samarqand or by the editor. The reading yu. tawwaq unahu was rejected by al-Tabar (II, pp. 132, 141) and . by Ibn al-Jawz (Naw asikh, p. 65: h adhihi l-qir a"a l a yultafatu ilayh a). See the discussion in Brockett, Value, pp. 3943. The tradition species several categories of persons who are required to feed a needy person for every day on which they do not fast. These categories include those who have reached an extreme old age (al-f an ), those aicted by #u. t ash (a disease that causes insatiable thirst) and young persons too weak to

90

notes

partake of the sah ur (the last meal before daybreak). See in general al. Hurr al# Amil , Was a"il, IV/2, pp. 149158, nos. 1324313272. Cf. Ibn . Muhakkam, I, p. 175 (k ana rukhkhis h a li-l-shaykh al-kab r wa-l- #aj uz al. . a f kab ra idh a k an a l a yu. t q an al-s tir a wa-yu. t #im a mak an kull yawm . awm an yuf. misk nan). 92 For the Sh #a as ul u l-alb ab (those possessed of understanding) see Bas a"ir, pp. 5456 (b ab f l-a"imma annahum hum wa-sh #atuhum ul u . l-alb ab) (most of these traditions are cited in Bih a r , XXIV, pp. 119 . 121); Kul n , I, p. 212, nos. 12 (wa-sh #atun a ul u l-alb ab); Ibn al-Juh . am > Najaf, p. 512, nos. 34. For #Al and the other Imams as the gate (al-b ab) (or as the gates leading to God, abw ab all ah) see e.g. Bas a"ir, pp. . l-a"imma annahum h ujjat all ah 6162, nos. 1, 2, 9 (in the chapter entitled f . wa-b ab all ah); Kul n , I, p. 193, no. 2 (in the chapter entitled inna l-a"imma khulaf a" all ah f ard abuhu llat minh a yu"t a) > Burh an, I, p. 190, . ihi wa-abw no. 2; Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at, p. 103 = Fyzee, p. 96 (annahum abw ab all ah) > Bih ar, XXVI, p. 262, no. 46; Ibn Sh adh an, Mi"at manqaba, p. . 94 (manqaba no. 41) (#Al as the b ab) > Ibn T us, Yaq n, p. 244 > Bih ar, . aw . XXXVI, p. 263, no. 84; #Amil , Mir" at, p. 91; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin (= Divine Guide), index, s.v. b ab (All ah). The concept of the Imams as abw ab is at times associated with Q 2:189 (wa-"t u l-buy ut min abw abih a); see e.g. #Ayy ash , I, p. 86, no. 210 (Sa#d < al-B aqir) > Burh an, I, p. 190, no. 5, Bih ar, II, p. 104, no. 60; Ibn Jabr, Nahj, p. 343. A connection . between Q 2:269 and #Al as the b ab appears to be recorded only in KQ. It is probably based on the phonetic similarity between al-alb ab and al-b ab. See 340*, 472. 93 Fas . l, p. 263, ll. 78. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 31, 343 (Ibn d, Tal Mas#u u Muhammad (or Ab u . ha . b. Mus . .arrif [i.e. the Successor Ab #Abdall ah) Tal arrif b. # Amr b. Ka # b al-Hamd a n al-Y a m al. ha . b. Mus . K uf , d. 112/730731; see Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel, I, table 229, II, p. 555; Sam#an, Ans ab, XIII, p. 478; Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 343, no. 1488; Ibn d). u Hayy an, II, p. 347 (Ibn Mas#u Hajar, Tahdh b, V, pp. 2526]); Ab . . According to Ab u #Ubayd (Fad a " il , II, p. 112 , no. 588 ), in Ibn Mas # u ds . reading the words yawm al-qiy ama appeared at the end of the verse. In Samarqand (I, p. 182), Tha#lab (II, p. 282), M award (I, p. 348) and Tabris (II, p. 359), yawm al-qiy ama is an exegetical gloss on l a yaq um una; . similarly in Ab u l-Fut uh, uz-i qiy amat ). . II, p. 397 (r

notes

91

94 Fas , III, p. .iyya, I, p. 355 > Qurt .ub . l, p. 263, ll. 89. Cf. Ibn #At 304: wa-qad y ujad f sunbul al-qamh m a f hi mi " at h abba wa-amm a f s a"ir al. . h ub fa-akthar (at times, an ear of wheat contains one hundred grains; . ub in other cereals there are more). 95 Cf. Qumm , I, p. 95 (to Q 2:285286); #Ayy ash , I, pp. 159160, no. 531; Najaf, p. 98, no. 90. According to these accounts, the Prophet received the last two verses of S urat al-baqara directly from God during the night of the mi #r aj. In KQ this point is underscored by the statement that there was no messenger (i.e. angel) between them. On the merits a"il, pp. 8384, of reciting these two verses see e.g. Ibn al-Durays, Fad . . nos. 161163, p. 85, no. 167; Qurt , III, pp. 433434; Suy ut , Durr, .ub . I, pp. 668669 and the sources cited therein; Saleh, Formation, p. 103, note 5. The nal two (or three) verses are occasionally referred to as the kh atima (or khaw at m) of S urat al-baqara; see e.g. Ibn al-Durays, Fad a"il, . . p. 86, no. 173; Samarqand , I, p. 191; Zamakhshar , I, p. 409; Suy ut , . Durr, I, p. 669; DC, art. Prires dans le Coran (Michel Cuypers). For mush afaha see also 542. at see 73. According to this tradi96 Fas . l, p. 260, ll. 34. For mukhraj tion, the beginning of Q 2:240 concerning the testament (was . iyya) was abrogated by the inheritance verse(s) ( ayat al-maw ar th or ayat al-far a "i d ., i.e. Q 4:1112 or Q 4:176), while the next part, concerning the provision for a year, was abrogated by Q 2:234, which prescribes four months and ten nights as the waiting period ( #idda) of the widow. See also Muq atil, I, p. 127; Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 250 (fol 14a l. 8fol , II, 14b l. 1); Tabar , II, pp. 579 580 ; Samarqand , I, p. 158; Tha#lab . p. 201; Tabris , II, pp. 266267; R awand, Fiqh, II, p. 171; Lis an, s.v. mt # . (from al-Azhar ); Ab u Hayy an, II, pp. 253254; Suy ut , Itq an, III, p. 73. . . Cf. Nu#m an , Tafs r, pp. 67 and the discussion in Powers, Studies, pp. 155157, 179182. For the view that (part of) Q 2:240 was abrogated asikh, p. by Q 2:234 see also Zuhr , N asikh, pp. 2021; Ab u #Ubayd, N 44; Ibn Muhakkam, I, p. 225; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 67; Ibn Ab . H asikh, pp. 6970; Hibat All ah, . atim, II, p. 452, no. 2391; Nah . h . as, N N asikh, p. 26; M award , I, p. 303; Ab u l-Fut uh, . I, p. 4, II, pp. 251252; Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh, pp. 8283. Some exegetes comment on the fact that Q 2:234 (the abrogating verse) appears at an earlier point in the text than Q 2:240 (the abrogated verse). Thus Hibat All ah (N asikh, p. 26) and Ibn al-#At a"iq (N asikh, p. 37) note that this is one of only two n; and al-Tabris such occurrences in the Qur"a observes that Q 2:234 .

92

notes

abrogates Q 2:240 even though it precedes the latter in the recitation (wa-in k anat mutaqaddima f l-til awa #alayhi ) (II, p. 251; similarly Ibn Muhakkam, I, p. 225, M aturd, II, p. 185 [wa-in k anat muqaddama f l. dhikr ], Ab u l-Fut uh, ah cites these two verses . II, p. 252). Sa#d b. #Abdall in a chapter in which he argues that the original arrangement (ta"l f ) of n followed a chronological order, and that the Qur"a n as we the Qur"a have it deviates from this order. The fact that Q 2:234 precedes Q 2:240 proves that the present position of these verses is dierent from what it was in the original text (N asikh, pp. 6667; similarly S af , I, pp. 44, 45, . n is reported to have followed the chronos copy of the Qur"a 248. #Al logical order [fa-minhum man rattabah a #al a l-nuz ul wa-huwa mus ]; .h . af #Al see Suy ut , Itq an, I, p. 216; idem, Tan asuq, p. 68; Sprenger, Moh . . ammad, III, p. xliv, note 1; Goldziher, Richtungen, pp. 272273; Jeery, pp. 182 183). Cf. 654*. 97 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 97, no. 16190, p. 143, no. 16328. The sentences which include a citation of Q 2:181 and Q 2:182 may be an interpolation. For the beginning see #Ayy ash , I, p. 77, no. 167 (Ibn Musk an < Ab u Bas r < a h aduhum a , i.e. al-B a qir or alS a diq) > Bi h a r , CIII, p. . . . . 200, no. 33; #Ayy ash, I, p. 78, no. 173 (Y unus < al-S a n, . adiq) > Burh I, p. 179, no. 11. For the abrogation of the bequest verses (Q 2:180, 2:240) by the inheritance verse(s) see Coulson, Succession, p. 213; Pow, N asikh, p. 20; Muq atil, I, p. 95 ers, Studies, pp. 143188. See also Zuhr (Q 2:180 abrogated by Q 4:11); Ab u #Ubayd, N asikh, pp. 8083 (with Burtons commentary, pp. 146148 of the English section); Tabar , II, . pp. 116120 (citing views for and against abrogation); M atur d , II, pp. 1718; Nah asikh, p. 21 (Muj ahid states that Q 2:180 is abrogated . h . as, N an, by Q 4:11); Samarqand, I, p. 120; Zamakhshar , I, p. 334; Suy ut , Itq . III, p. 73. Al-Tabris (II, p. 105) defends the position that Q 2:180 is not . abrogated (wa-huwa l-s h n min as abin a); and this is also . ah . . #inda l-muh . aqqiq .h . the position of al-R awand (Fiqh, II, pp. 299300, 306), Ibn Idr s (Sar a"ir, III, p. 186), Ibn al-#At a"iq (N asikh, pp. 3031) and al-Ardabl (Zubda, pp. 469470). Al-Bar a" b. Ma#r ur, who died one month before the Prophet emigrated to Medina, asked to be buried facing the Prophet (see Ibn abawayh, #Ilal, p. 301, no. 1). He also bequeathed to him one third of B his estate (see EI 2, art. al-Bar a" b. Ma#r ur [K.V. Zettersten]; Powers, Studies, p. 129), and this became the accepted custom (sunna) (Kul n , III, pp. 254255, no. 16; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, IV, p. 137, no. 479; idem, Khis al, p. 175, no. 267 > Bih ar, LXXXI, pp. 231232, no. 4). The term . . s a h ib h a dh a l-amr may refer to the Imam (as in the tradition cited here) . .

notes

93

or to the Mahd (though he is more usually known as s ah . . ib al-amr ). The Imam is said to be entitled to a maximum of one third of the estate, the minimum being either one ninth (thulth al-thulth; see #Ayy ash , I, p. 77, no. 168 [Sam a#a < al-S ar, CIII, p. 200, no. 34) or one . adiq] > Bih . sixth (adn ahu l-suds wa-aktharuhu l-thulth; see #Ayy ash , I, p. 76, no. 163 [#Amm ar b. Marw an < al-S a diq] > Bi h a r , CIII, p. 199 , no. 30). Trans . . lation of the nal sentence: The minimum (to which the Imam is entitled) is one third of one third (i.e. one ninth) of the estate; the rest is disposed of according to the wishes of the testator (up to the limit of one third of the estate). 98 Cf. Bas a"ir (missing from the printed edition) > Burh an, I, p. 273, . , I, p. 323, no. 69; #Ayy ash , I, p. 166, no. 19 > Burh an, no. 1, Huwayz . I, p. 273, no. 3, Huwayz , I, p. 323 , no. 67 . In these sources the words . q a"iman bi-l-qis. t are said to refer to the Imam. 99 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. The original text may well be identical with Bas a"ir, p. 203, no. 4, which has the same isn ad as KQ ; . here the r asikh un f l- #ilm (those rmly rooted in knowledge) are the Prophet and the Imams. For similar traditions (in all of which Burayd wiya cites the Imams interpretation of Q 3:7) see Bas b. Mu#a a"ir, p. 204, . wiya < ah aduhum a [i.e. al-B a qir or alS no. 8 (Burayd b. Mu#a . adiq]) > . Bih ar, XXIII, p. 199, no. 33; Qumm, I, pp. 9697 > Burh an, I, p. 271, . wiya < al-B no. 8; #Ayy ash , I, p. 164, no. 6 (Burayd b. Mu#a aqir) > Burh an, I, p. 271, no. 13; Kul n , I, p. 213, no. 2 > Burh an, I, p. 270, no. 4. See further Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 100. af , I, p. 348, 100 Fas , I, p. 122 > S . . l, p. 268, ll. 1213. Cf. Qumm Bih a r , XIX, p. 243 , no. 1 , Huwayz , I, p. 387 , no. 338 ; # Ayy ash , I, p. . . * 196, no. 135 (Rib# and Har z [not b./ # an Har z; cf. 39 ] < alS . . . adiq) >S af , I, p. 348, Burh an, I, p. 310, no. 4, Bih ar, XIX, p. 284, no. 23. . . For the reading wa-antum d a" see also Jeery, p. 125 (Ubayy); Sa#d . u #af b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63; Tabris , IV, p. 188 (ba #d adiq n); Goldziher, . . al-s . Richtungen, p. 284; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 54, with notes 52, 53; idem, Scripture, p. 167; Kohlberg, Praise, p. 150, note 11. Cf. the reading wa wa-antum adhilla which Ab u Bakr la-qad nas ah bi-Badr bi-sayf #Al . arakum all Ibn al-Anb ar (d. 328/940) cites from an anonymous deviator from the community (z a"igh z agha #an al-milla) (Qurt , I, pp. 81, 82). See 101. .ub

94

notes

101 See #Ayy ash , I, p. 196, nos. 133 (Ab u Bas r < al-S . . . adiq) (> Huwayz , I, p. 387, no. 339), 134 (#Abdall ah b. Sin an < al-S . adiq), both >S af , I, pp. 348349, Burh an, I, p. 310, nos. 23, Bih ar, XIX, p. 284, . . no. 22. For the reading wa-antum qal l see also Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 54, with note 52; Kohlberg, Praise, p. 150, note 11. See 100. ah, N asikh, 102 Fas . l, p. 267, l. 15. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall p. 60; Qumm , I, pp. 10, 110 > S af , I, pp. 4445, 342, Burh an, I, p. . 308, no. 1, Huwayz , I, pp. 382383, no. 327; #Ayy ash , I, p. 195, no. 128 . (Hamm a d b. # Is a < unidentied transmitter < alS a a"at #Al ) . . diq, as qir ar, XXIV, p. 153, no. 1; > S af , I, p. 342, Burh an, I, p. 309, no. 2, Bih . . Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 26; Goldziher, Richtungen, pp. 282283; Kohlberg, n, p. 212; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 53; idem, Scripture, p. 102; Qur"a Cook, Commanding Right, p. 261. Cf. 114. 103 Fas ah, N asikh, p. 61, where . l, p. 269, ll. 34. Cf. Sa#d b. #Abdall al-S . adiq declares that God revealed the verse as follows: laysa laka min al-amr shay" an yat uba #alayhim aw tu #adhdhibahum fa-innahum z un. . alim < al-B aqir) > S a f , I, p. 350 , In #Ayy ash , I, p. 198, no. 141 (al-Jarm . Burh an, I, p. 314, no. 4, Huwayz , I, p. 389, no. 349, al-B aqir recites . the verse as follows: laysa laka min al-amr shay" an yat uba/tat uba #alayhim aw yu #adhdhibahum/tu #adhdhibahum (variant: in yatub #alayhim aw tu #adhdhibhum/ yu #adhdhibhum) fa-innahum z un. In contrast, the version in Nu#m an , . alim Tafs r, p. 27 > Fas anic codex, . l, p. 269, ll. 89 is identical with the #Uthm a lim u n . See 125 . but with the addition of li- al Muh . ammad after z . Isn ad : #Al al-Jarm : Ab u l-Hasan # Al b. alHasan b. Mu hammad al. . . T a t ar al-Jarm , a K u fan transmitter from al-K a zim (Quhp a " , IV, pp. . . . 183184; Ardab l , I, pp. 568569; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 87, note 184). 104 Fas ash , I, pp. 169170, . l, p. 264, ll. 78. For this reading see #Ayy no. 35 (Ab u #Amr al-Zubayr < al-S a diq) > Burh a n , I, p. 279, no. 14, . Huwayz , I, p. 331, no. 109; T al , I, p. 306 (Ibr ah m b. #Abd al. . us, Am Samad < al-S akadh a unzilat ) > Burh an, I, p. 277, no. 1; Tabar , . . . adiq: h Bish ara, p. 197; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 5253. Cf. Tisdall, p. 234 ( and the family of Mohammed and his seed). Tisdalls readings n (given in translation only) are based on a manuscript of the Qur"a discovered in Bankipur in 1912 (see idem, p. 228). See 106. Kha lid al-Qamma t u Kh alid Yaz d al-Qamm at Isn ad : Abu . : Ab ., a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS , p. 399 ). .

notes

95

105 Fas at, I, p. 78, no. 52 (Humr an < al. . l, p. 264, ll. 910. Cf. Fur n, p. B aqir) (udkhila h arf mak a n h arf ; referred to in Kohlberg, Qur "a . . 212); #Ayy ash, I, p. 168, no. 30 (Hish am b. S alim < al-S u . adiq: fa-wad . a # sman mak ana sm) > S af , I, p. 305, Burh an, I, p. 278, no. 9. For this . d); Tha#lab reading see also Jeery, p. 32 (Ibn Mas#u > Fas . l, p. 136, d; in the printed edition of Tha#lab ll. 1316 (the codex of Ibn Mas#u [III, p. 53], the verse is cited as in the #Uthm anic codex); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 53 (Some sources read wa- al Muh . ammad instead of wa- al #Imr an). Cf. Hask an , I, pp. 118119, nos. 165167; Modarressi, . Debates, pp. 25, 31. According to anon., Alq ab (p. 212), al-T (II, . us p. 441) and al-Tabris (III, p. 62 > Huwayz , I, p. 330, no. 107), the . . reading of the ahl al-bayt was wa- al Muh a l- # alam n; it is not . ammad #al clear whether the reading to which they refer is the one with wa- al #Imr an (as in 104, 106) or without it (as in 105). 106 Fas ash , I, p. 169, . l, p. 264, ll. 1012. For this tradition see #Ayy no. 34 (Ayy ub < al-S af , I, p. 305, al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, III, . . adiq) > S . p. 46, no. 695 (Ab u Ayy ub < al-S a diq), Burh a n , I, p. 279 , no. 13 , Bih ar, . . t u al Muh ammad min XXIII, p. 227, no. 48; cf. Qumm , I, p. 100 (fa-asqa. . al-kit ab) > Huwayz , I, p. 330, no. 104. See 104. . a/#Uth Ayyu b al-Kharra z: Ab Isn ad : Abu u Ayy ub Ibr ah m b. #Is m an/Ziy ad al-Kharr az/al-Khazz az, a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq and al-K azim (Modarressi, TS , pp. 285 286 ). In ms. L, al-N u r cor. rected the name to Ayy ub al-Hurr (for whom see Modarressi, TS, pp. . 212213), and quoted this latter name in the Fas . l. Two considerations may have led him to make this emendation: (i) he clearly realized that al-H-r . am in ms. L is an error; (ii) he may have relied on the parallel tradition in #Ayy ash , which is cited in most versions on the authority of Ayy ub. Both points are, however, problematic: (i) according to ms. M (which was not available to al-N ur ), al-H-r . am is an error for alKharr az, not for al-Hurr; (b) in the version of #Ayy ash cited in the . Ithb at, the name appears as Ab u Ayy ub, and this may well be the correct form. This possibility is reinforced by the fact that Ab u Ayy ub is known to have transmitted to D aw ud b. al-Nu#m an (see e.g. Ardab l , I, p. 26), and this is probably also the case in the tradition cited by al-Sayy ar . 107 Cf. al-B aqirs explication of ghayr al-isl am as ghayr al-tasl m li-wal ayatin a (Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 283 > Bih a r , XXIII, p. 358, . no. 12). For the replacement of the fourth form of the root slm by the second form see 74*.

96

notes

Isn ad : #Umar b. #Abd al-#Az z: Ab u Haf z . s . #Umar b. #Abd al-#Az b. Ab Yas ar known as Zuhal, a Ba s ran transmitter from al-K a zim . . . nus: Y (Quhp a" , IV, p. 262; Ardab l , I, p. 635).Yu unus b. Zaby an, . a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq, accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 291293; Ardab l , II, pp. 355356; Modarressi, TS, and Y unus b. Zaby an are recorded as transmitting p. 89). Khaybar . jointly from al-S . adiq (Kuln, I, p. 537, no. 2). More usually, however, Khaybar transmits from Y unus b. Zaby an (Ardab l , I, p. 299); the text . of KQ should therefore perhaps be emended to al-Khaybar #an Y unus. For the corruption of al-Khaybar to al-Himyar (as in the manuscripts . of KQ ) see 5*. 108 Fas . l, p. 269, l. 10.

109 Fas (pp. 481485 > Quhp a" , I, pp. . l, p. 263, ll. 1314. Al-Kishsh 5458, Bih ar, L, pp. 319323, no. 16) has preserved a lengthy rescript . (tawq #) which the eleventh Imam al-Hasan al-#Askar sent to his disci. ple Ish a q b. Ism a # l al-N s a b u r (cf. Hussain, Occultation , p. 96; 342*). In . this text (partially quoted in Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh ar, . af, pp. 359361 > Bih . LXXVIII, pp. 374377, no. 2; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 249250, no. 6 > Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 99100, no. 3), the Imam cites Q 2:85 and Q 47:38 . in the versions recorded at 109 and 515 respectively (Kishsh , p. 482 > Quhp a" , I, p. 55, Bih a r , L, p. 320 [Q 2 : 85 ]; Kishsh , p. 483 > . ar ]; Quhp a", I, p. 56, Bih ar, L, p. 321 [Q 47:38, without ilayhi in the Bih . . Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 250 [Q 47:38]; in the text as recorded in Ibn Shu#ba [at p. 360], only Q 2:85 is cited in its Sh # version). Each of these two traditions in KQ carries the isn ad : Ish a q b. Ism a # l #anhu, where . #anhu appears to refer to the Imam mentioned in the previous tradition, namely al-S ur interprets it, incor. adiq (this is in fact how al-N porating al-S a diqs name in the text of the Fa s l ). . . As can be seen from Kishsh , however, the Imam in question is al-Hasan al-#Askar . Since . the eleventh Imam is never cited in KQ, the possibility that 109 and 515 am are interpolations cannot be ruled out. In Kishsh , the sentence tam al-ni #ma dukh ul al-janna (the perfection of [Gods] favour is entry to Paradise) appears towards the beginning of the rescript (with dukh uluka instead of dukh ul ), considerably earlier than the citation of Q 2:85 and without any connection to it. Al-#Ayy ash (I, p. 293, no. 23 [Hish am b. S alim < al-S an, I, p. 444, no. 17, Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 138, . adiq] > Burh . no. 29 [ending]) reproduces this utterance as a commentary on Q 5:3 (al-yawm akmaltu lakum d nakum wa-atmamtu #alaykum ni #mat ). The Prophet

notes

97

is similarly said to have dened tam am al-ni #ma as al-khal as ar . min al-n wa-dukh ul al-janna (Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 218, no. 1). q b. Isma # Isn ad : Ish l: Ish a# l al-N s ab ur , a disciple of al.a . aq b. Ism Hasan al-#Askar (Quhp a" , I, p. 185; Ardab l , I, p. 80). . tawwaq un min al-zak at 110 Fas . l, p. 269, ll. 1012. Cf. Jeery, p. 125 (sa-yu. [sic] as the reading of Ubayy; the words m a bakhil u bihi should be added after sa-yu. tawwaq un); Kul n , III, p. 502, no. 1, p. 504, no. 10 (min al zak at appears as a gloss) > S af , I, p. 373, Huwayz , I, p. 414, no. 449 . . (and see al-N ur s comment at Fas l , p. 269 , ll. 12 13); Ibn B abawayh, . #Iq ab, p. 278, no. 1 ( #iq ab m ani # al-zak at ). Ibn B abawayh reproduces a ah < longer version of the tradition in KQ, with the isn ad : Sa#d b. #Abdall Ya#q ub b. Yaz d < Muhammad b. Ab #Umayr < #Abdall ah b. Musk an . < Muhammad b. Muslim < al-B a qir. Here, however, min al-zak a t is a . gloss. 111 Fas anic codex the words bi-l. l, p. 269, ll. 1315. In the #Uthm bayyin at wa-l-zubur appear in the following verse, that is, Q 3:184. T lib: Ab Isn ad : Abu u T al-Sha#r an , a Bas .a . alib al-Azd .ran trans nus: mitter from students of al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, p. 376).Yu ar (for whom see Kh u" , XXI, p. 200, he is probably Y unus b. Bakk no. 13853). He appears in a single tradition in Kul n (I, p. 417, no. 28 > Bih ar, XXIII, p. 373, no. 52: al-Barq < his father < Ab u T . alib < . Y unus b. Bakk ar < his father < J abir < al-B aqir). 112 Fas . l, p. 270, ll. 23. See EI 2, art. Radj#a (E. Kohlberg). Cf. Jeery, p. 344, where some authorities ascribe the reading wa-mansh ura (read thus for mans ura) to Ubayy. A longer version of this tradition (isn ad : b < Muhammad Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Ab l-Khat b. Sin an < . . . .t .a #Amm ar b. Marw an < al-Munakhkhal b. Jam l < J abir b. Yaz d < al , Mukhta s ar , p. 17 > Bi h a r , LIII, p. 64, B aqir; see 61*) is recorded in Hill . . . no. 55. See 113. 113 Fas . l, p. 269, l. 22p. 270, l. 2. For this tradition see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65 > Fas ash , I, p. 210, no. 169 . l, p. 270, ll. 35; #Ayy (but with the isn ad Muhammad b. Y u nus < unidentied transmitter < . al-B aqir) > Bih ar, VI, p. 188, no. 26 (for wa-mabsh ura read wa-mansh ura), . , I, p. 418, no. 465. See 112. Burh an, I, p. 329, no. 5, Huwayz .

98

notes

114 Fas . l, p. 267, ll. 1114. Both antum khayr a"imma and kuntum khayr a"imma (see 102) are attested as Sh # readings. In the Qumm, 1380/ 19601961 edition of #Ayy ash (I, p. 195, no. 129 [Ab u Bas r]), the . reading given is kuntum khayr a"imma, and this is also the reading in al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, III, p. 47, no. 699 and Huwayz , I, p. 383, . . no. 328, both citing #Ayy ash ; yet the reading cited from #Ayy ash in S af . an (I, p. 209, no. 3), in Bih ar (XXIV, p. 153, no. 2) and (I, p. 342), in Burh . in Fas . l (p. 267, ll. 57) is antum khayr a"imma. In these sources, there is no discussion of the reasons for reading either antum or kuntum. Scholars (both Sunn and Sh # ) who adhere to the #Uthm anic codex naturally reject the reading antum, while oering various explanations as to why the text has kuntum and not antum. See M award , I, p. 416; R awand , Fiqh, I, pp. 360361; #Ukbar , p. 133; cf. Rad , Haq . a"iq, pp. 216222; . ub, Mutash abih, II, p. 271. See also Paret, Kommentar, p. Ibn Shahr ash 77. Isn ad : Ibn Aslam: Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Aslam al-Jabal al. Tabar , a K ufan transmitter from al-Rid ab was transmit. . a. His kit ted by Muhammad b. #Al (Quhp a" , V, pp. 149150; Ardab l , II, p. . 67). On occasion al-Sayy ar transmits from him directly (e.g. 493; Ibn B abawayh, Khis al, p. 227, no. 113; T , Istibs ar, I, p. 483, no. 1871). . us . . ash , I, p. 180, no. 73 (Hab b al115 Fas . . l, p. 266, l. 3. See #Ayy Sijist an < al-B aqir) > Burh an, I, pp. 294295, no. 5, Bih a r , XV, p. . 179, no. 1, Huwayz , I, p. 358, no. 212; partially cited in S af , I, p. 37, . . #Amil , Mir" at, p. 37. Elsewhere, al-S . adiq is said to have added the word umam as an exegetical gloss (T , II, p. 514; Tabris , III, p. 130; idem, . us . , Haq a " iq , p. 141 ( fa-k ana khi. t ab al-anbiy a" Jaw ami #, I, p. 198). Cf. Rad . . bi-m a yaj uz dukh ul umamihim ma #ahum f hi khi. t aban li-l-umam ma #ahum); Ibn Shahr ash ub, Mutash abih, I, p. 9 (bal yak un ma #n ahu akhadha m th aq umam al-nabiyy n); R az , VIII, p. 102. A dierent reading is recorded on the d: wa-idh akhadha ll authority of Ibn Mas#u ah m th aq alladh na ut u l-kit ab , III, p. 331; M aturd, II, p. 416; Rad (Jeery, p. 34; Tabar . . a"iq, . , Haq p. 140; Zamakhshar , I, p. 441); this was also the reading of Ubayy, Muj ahid and al-Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, pp. 124, 277, 288; Tabar , . III, p. 331; Zamakhshar , I, p. 441 [Ubayy]) (cf. Q 3:187). Muj ahid is said to have maintained that Q 3:81 as recorded in the #Uthm anic codex is a result of scribal error (huwa kha. ta" min al-k atib) (Tabar , III, . p. 331, M atur d , II, p. 416); this is reminiscent of al-B aqirs statement in KQ. See in general DC, art. Pacte prternel (Genevive Gobillot). Cf. 116, 117.

notes

99

Isn ad : The name Ibr ah m b. Mahb . ub found in the manuscripts is unknown; in contrast, the isn ad Ibn Mahb b. Mahb . ub (i.e. al-Hasan . . ub, * am b. S alim is quite common. Ibr ah m for whom see 54 ) < Hish n was probably inserted by a copyist.H b al-Sijista : Hab b b. al. ab . Mu#all a al-Sijist an , a Kh arij who embraced Im am Sh #ism and was a transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a" , II, . pp. 79, 82; Ardabl, I, p. 178). 116 Cf. Qumm , I, p. 106, #Ayy ash , I, p. 181, no. 76, both > S af , I, . , pp. 116117, nos. 2930, partially cited in #Amil , Mir" at, p. 325; Najaf p. 26. The words bi-Muh . ammad wa-la-tans . urunna #Aliyyan do not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a; they may be a gloss. For the expression wa-la-yuh r al-mu"min n cf. Q 27:17 (wa-h . sharunna li-am . ushira li-Sulaym an jun uduhu). Al-karra is synonymous with al-raj #a (cf. EI 2, art. Radj#a [E. Kohlberg]). Cf. 115, 117. 117 Fas . l, p. 266, ll. 34. The word min found in the manuscripts would only make sense as a reading of Q 3:81 if it were preceded by al-m th aq or m th aqan; no such reading is recorded. Alternatively, min umam could be an otherwise unattested variant reading of Q 33:7 (waidh akhadhn a min al-nabiyy n m th aqahum). Yet it seems best to assume that min is a copyists error for m th aq. Such an error could have arisen by m th aq being written without an alif (as in the standard Egyptian text) and without diacritical marks. Cf. 115, 116. 118 This is evidently an exegetical tradition on Q 3:103, the verse itself having been omitted from the manuscripts. Translation: By God, it is through us that He saved you from it (i.e. from Hell), so do not throw yourselves into it by your sins. For a Sh # qir a"a of this verse see a bi-Muh Kul n , VIII, p. 183, no. 208 (fa-anqadhakum minh . ammad ). 119 Fas ash , I, p. 184, . l, p. 266, ll. 1112. For this tradition see #Ayy no. 84 (Y unus b. Zaby an < al-S af , I, p. 328, Burh an, I, p. 297, . . adiq) > S . no. 3, Bih ar, XCVI, p. 145, no. 19, Fas n , VIII, p. . . l, p. 266, l. 13; Kul 1 , Bi h a r , XCII, p. 57, 183, no. 209 > S a f , I, p. 328 , Burh a n , I, p. 297 , no. . . no. 32, Huwayz , I, p. 363 , no. 233 , Fa s l , p. 266 , ll. 12 13 ; Ibn T a us, . . w . Sa #d, p. 121 (from a mujallad #at q; see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 277, no. 420) > Fas . l, p. 266, ll. 811. The transmitter in all of these sources is Y unus b. Zaby an, and the reading is lan tan al u l-birr h a tunq u m a . . att tuh ibb u n ; al-khayr for al-birr is only attested in ms. M (cf. Q 33 : 25 : lam .

100

notes

yan al u khayran). For al-birr glossed as al-khayr alladh yustah . aqqu bihi l-ajr see Ibn al-Jawz , I, p. 341 (from Ab u Rawq). Cf. Jeery, pp. 34, 124 (Ibn d and Ubayy read ba #d Mas#u a for mimm a). . m 120 Fas ash , I, pp. 193194, no. 119 (al-Husayn . . l, p. 266, l. 21. See #Ayy b. Kh alid < Ab u l-Hasan al-Awwal [i.e. M us a al-K azim]) (but reading . . thumma l-im am for wa-l-a"imma) > S af , I, p. 337, Burh an, I, pp. 304305, . no. 4, Bih ar, II, p. 206, no. 93, LXVIII, p. 232, LXX, pp. 269270. For . this reading (but with thumma l-im am) see T , II, pp. 544545 > Fas . us . l, p. 266, ll. 2223; Tabris , IV, p. 157 ; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 53 . In KQ . the qir a"at #Al , representing the correct text, is contrasted with qir a"at Zayd, which is here identical with the #Uthm anic codex. For a similar juxtaposition between the readings of #Al and Zayd (i.e. Zayd b. #Al ) see 293* (to Q 16:90); noted by Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 53, note 50, p. 62, note 66. Cf. 74, 76, 129, 285, 361, 363. lid: al-Husayn Isn ad : al-H b. Kh alid al-Sayraf , a trans. usayn b. Kha . . mitter from al-K azim a" , II, p. 174; Ardab l , I, pp. . and al-Rid . a (Quhp 238239). 121 Mustadrak, VIII, p. 12, no. 8933. Cf. #Al b. Ja#far, Mas a"il, p. 263, , Tahdh b, V, p. 16, no. 48 no. 634; Kul n , IV, pp. 265266, no. 5; T . us (all going back to al-K azim); S af , I, p. 335. Cf. Ibn Ab H . . atim, III, p. . 715, no. 3871; Samarqand , I, p. 232; Rad , Haq a " iq , pp. 195196. Cf. . . 122. r b. al-#Abba s: Ab r b. al-#Abb Isn ad : Mans u l-Husayn Mans as al. .u .u (or K ufan) transmitter from al-Jaw ad and al-H ad R az , a Baghd ad (Quhp a" , VI, p. 144; Ardab l , II, p. 267).#Amr b. Sa# d: #Amr b. Sa# d al-Mad a"in al-S ab at , a transmitter from al-Rid a" , IV, . . a (Quhp #Ubayda al-Mada "in p. 286; Ardab l , I, pp. 621622).Abu : a transn mitter from al-B aqir and al-S l , II, p. 401).Sulayma . adiq (Ardab lid: he may be Ab b. Kha u l-Rab # al-Aqt a # Sulaym a n b. Kh a lid b. . Dihq an b. N ala, a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq who participated in Zayd b. #Al s revolt against the Umayyads in 122/740 and lost an arm in the ghting (Modarressi, TS, pp. 374375). The problem is that Sulaym an predeceased al-S . adiq and so could hardly have addressed al-K azim (unless it is assumed that the conversation . took place before al-K azim succeeded his father as Imam). Alterna. b/Ha tively, the reference could be to Sulaym an b. Kh alid al-Khat . t .t .a . t a b, whom alT u s mentions as a transmitter from al-K a zim ( Rij a l , p. . . . ad with his name appears to be attested. 351, no. 14). No isn

notes

101

122 Mustadrak, VIII, pp. 1213, no. 8934. See Kul n , IV, p. 266, nos. 6, 8 > al-Hurr al# Amil , Was a " il , V, pp. 10 11 , nos. 14133, 14135. . Ibn B abawayh maintains that people of means (ahl al-jida) are under an obligation (far d . a) to go on the pilgrimage annually ( #Ilal, p. 405, no. 5); al-T u s holds a dierent view (see Tahdh b, V, pp. 1617). For a denition . of mudmin al-h ajj (addicted to the pilgrimage) similar to that found in . KQ see Kuln, IV, p. 542, no. 9: a pilgrimage addict is someone who goes on a pilgrimage whenever he nds a way there, just as a wine addict is someone who imbibes wine whenever he nds it (mudmin ala wajada l-h a anna mudmin al-khamr alladh idh a h idh . ajj h . ajja kam . ajj alladh wajadahu sharibahu). According to another denition, mudmin al-h . ajj is a person who goes on a pilgrimage for three consecutive years, whether or not he subsequently goes on a fourth h n , IV, p. 542, . ajj (see Kul no. 9; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, II, p. 139, no. 603; idem, Khis al, p. 113, . no. 100; Fatt al, Rawd a , p. 359 ). Cf. 121 . . r: Ab Isn ad : #Al b. Mahziya u l-Hasan #Al b. Mahziy ar al-Ahw az , a . (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 226 transmitter from al-Rid ad and al-H ad . a, al-Jaw 230; Ardab l , I, pp. 604605; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 15, note 73). 123 Fas ash , I, p. 173, nos. 4748 > Burh an, . l, p. 264, ll. 2123. Cf. #Ayy I, p. 283, nos. 1516, Bih ar, XIV, p. 192, no. 2. In KQ, wa-rka # of . the #Uthm anic codex is attested only in the margin of ms. L as an emendation of al-N ur . The version of Q 3:43 given in KQ (whether with wa-rka # or without it) does not appear to be attested elsewhere. s text is wa-sjud wa-rka # shukran li-ll ah (> Huwayz , I, p. 336, #Ayy ash . no. 127); Qumm , I, p. 102 (> Burh an, I, p. 281, no. 1) has wa-rka # wasjud , while Ubayys reading is recorded as wa-rka # shukran li-ll ah ma #a l-r aki # n (Jeery, p. 124). Shukran li-ll ah may in fact be an exegetical gloss (cf. Tabris , III, p. 77: wa-q l ma #n ahu wa-sjud li-ll ah shukran). Al-N ur . (Fas l , p. 264 , l. 23 p. 265 , l. 1 ) raises the possibility that the words # inda . wil adatih a in KQ constitute a reading of Q 3:44 but, on the basis of the parallel tradition from #Ayy ash , tends to conclude that they are a gloss. d b. Su qa: Ab Isn ad : Ziya u l-Husayn Ziy ad b. S uqa al-Bajal al. Jar r al-K uf , a transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Quhp a" , III, pp. 6869; Ardab l , I, p. 336). 124 Fas an , Nahj, II, p. 37 . l, p. 265, ll. 78. Cf. the tradition in Shayb akhb arin a #an a"immatin a #alayhim al> Fas . l, p. 265, ll. 1314: wa-ruwiya f sal am: inn r a #uka ilayya wa-mutawa ka ba #da nuz ulika #al a #ahd al-q a"im min al Muh ammad (After you have come down to earth, [which you will do] .

102

notes

during the time of the Q a"im, the descendant of Muhammad, I will . raise you up and take you [to myself]). Al-N ur takes the words inn r a #uka ilayya wa-mutawa ka to be a Sh# qir a"a, and maintains (Fas . l, p. 265, ll. 810) that it is supported by a tradition in which al-Rid . a states that Jesus was raised from earth alive, died between earth and heaven, was transported to heaven, and was then brought back to life (cf. Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, I, p. 170. Al-Rid . a, however, cites Q 3:55 as it appears in the #Uthm anic codex [ibid.]). See also Nu#aym, Fitan, p. 394, no. 1337 (where inn r a #uka ilayya wa-mutawa ka appears as a h th quds ). Those . ad who adhere to the reading of the #Uthm anic codex yet maintain that the raising (r a #uka) preceded the gathering (mutawa ka) put forward various explanations, for example that this verse is an instance of taqd m wa-ta"kh r (preposition and postposition, see Versteegh, Grammar, pp. 104105); see Muq atil, I, p. 172; Tabar , III, p. 291; Ibn Muhakkam, I, . . p. 286 (wa-f h a taqd m ay r a #uka wa-mutawa ka ba #da m a tanzilu); Ibn Ab H atur d , II, pp. 382383; Samarqand , . atim, II, p. 661, no. 3583; M I, p. 218; Tha#lab , III, p. 81; M award , I, p. 397; Ibn #At .iyya, I, p. 444; Tabris , III, p. 95; Ab u l-Fut uh, , I, p. 322; . . III, p. 56; Ibn al-Jawz #Ukbar , p. 125 (wa-l-taqd r r a #uka ilayya wa-mutawa ka); Ab u Hayy an, II, . p. 497; Zarkash, III, p. 244; Suy ut an, III, p. 38 (Qat ada); Versteegh, ., Itq Grammar, pp. 124, 141. See the discussion in Robinson, Christ, pp. 117 126. 125 Fas . l, p. 269, ll. 48. Translation: I recited the following verse in the presence of Ab u #Abdall ah (i.e. al-S . adiq): Nothing is in your hand. The Imam said: Yes indeed, by God, many things (are in the Prophets hand); the rule in its entirety belongs to him. The verse was in fact revealed (as follows): Nothing is in your hand (concerning the next world); they are evil-doers (who are destined to Hell) regardless of whether you forgive them or punish them (in this world). For the rst part see 103. For the beginning of this tradition cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 197, no. 139 (bal a wa-ll ahi inna lahu min al-amr shay"an wa-shay"an wa-shay"an) > Huwayz , I, p. 388, no. 347. Cf. also #Ayy ash , I, p. 197, no. 139 > . S af , I, p. 350 and the discussion in Rad , Haq . a"iq, pp. 229237. For the . . ending cf. Tabar , V, p. 177, where Ibn Zayd adduces both Q 4:80 and . Q 42:48 as verses which preceded the order to ght the unbelievers. zan The sentence fa-m a arsaln aka #alayhim h . af . occurs in both verses; the nic text cited in KQ might thus be the result of a conation. For Qur"a Q 59:7 cf. 204, 567.

notes

103

d, Tal 126 For this reading see Jeery, pp. 35, 255 (Ibn Mas#u . ha . b. Mus arrif). Translation: They are the ones who assert that the Imam . is in need of (the khums) that they bring him (because God is poor and cannot support the Imam). These appear to be presented as the words of people who have to pay the obligatory fth to the Imam, but would rather not do so. Cf. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 48 > S af , I, p. . 373, Huwayz , I, p. 416, no. 456: al-B aqir q al: hum (S af and Huwayz : . . . + alladh na) yaz #um un anna l-im am yah aj minhum il a m a yah un ilayhi. Cf. . t . mil also Qumm , I, p. 127. , I, 127 Mustadrak, XI, p. 282, no. 13024. For the beginning cf. Qumm p. 129 > S af , I, p. 380, Burh an, I, p. 334, no. 6, Huwayz , I, p. 426, . . no. 499; #Ayy ash , I, p. 212, nos. 179180 > S af , I, p. 380, Burh an, . I, p. 335, nos. 1011, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 217 , no. 9 , p. 218 , no. 12 , pp. . , Was a"il, 378379, no. 105; Kul n , II, p. 81, no. 3 > al-Hurr al-#Amil . VI/2, p. 205, no. 20448, Burh an, I, p. 334, no. 2, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 221, . no. 22, LXXI, p. 195, no. 3 (with al-Majlis s explication at pp. 195196); Nu#m an , Ghayba, p. 42 > Bahr , Mah a . an . ajja, p. 52. The statement minn l-mur abi. t wa-minhum al-mur abi. t (some of us persevere in ghting and some of them persevere in ghting) is said to refer to the future struggle between #Alids and #Abb asids; see Qumm , II, p. 23 (to Q 3:200) , I, pp. 380 381 ; # Ayy a sh , II, pp. 305 306 , no. 129 (ending) (Ab u >S a f . l-Tufayl # Amir b. W a thila < al-B a qir < Zayn al# Abid n) > Burh a n , II, p. . 433, no. 10, Bih ar, XLII, pp. 149150, no. 14 (all on the authority of #Al . Zayn al-#Abid n). "isha and Haf 128 This refers to accounts according to which #A . s .a brought about the Prophets death by administering poison to him. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 200, no. 152 (#Abd al-Samad b. Bash r < al-S . . adiq) > , I, p. 359 , Burh a n , I, p. 320 , no. 10 , Bi h a r , XXII, p. 516 , no. 23, S a f . . XXVIII, pp. 2021, no. 28, Huwayz , I, p. 401 , no. 390 , Jaz a " ir , N ur, p. . 66; Kohlberg, Shahd, pp. 5859. Cf. Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 4445; 590*. Isn ad : #Abd al-S r: #Abd al-Samad b. Bash r al-#Ur am . amad b. Bash . al-#Abd , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS , pp. 176 . 177). 129 Cf. 74, 76, 120, 285, 361, 363.

104

notes

130 Fas aqir (see Tabris , XXVI, p. . . l, p. 330, l. 21. In addition to al-B 45 > Fas l , p. 330 , l. 20 ) and alS a diq (in KQ ), this is also recorded as the . . reading of #As , XXVI, p. 62) in the transmission of Ab u Bakr . .im (Tabar b. #Ayy ash (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 601; Ibn #At , XXVI, . .iyya, V, p. 121; Tabris p. 45; Ab u l-Fut uh, u Muhammad . X, p. 195) and al-Mufad . . dal . (i.e. Ab , d. 168/784785; al-Mufad dal b. Mu hammad b. Ya # l a alDabb al-K u f . . .. see Ibn al-Jazar , II, p. 307, no. 3639) (Tha#lab , IX, p. 38), and as the reading of Ibn Miqsam (i.e. Ab u Bakr Muhammad b. al-Hasan . . 2 , Suppl., art. Ibn Mi ksam Ibn Miqsam al-#At t a r, d. 354 / 965 ; see EI . .. [G.H.A. Juynboll]) (see Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 26). It might be suggested that Q 47:31 (which includes the verb la-nabluwannakum/la l #Imr yabluwannakum) was incorporated in the chapter on S urat a an as a result of a confusion with Q 3:152 (which includes the verb liyabtaliyakum). lim: there are a number of transmitters from al-S Isn ad : Ibn Sa . adiq called Ibn S alim, including Hish am b. S alim al-Jaw al q , Haf alim . s . b. S Bayy a# al-S abur and his brother #Umar, and Asb at alim. None is . b. S recorded as transmitting to Sayf. The name according to ms. M is Ab u # Umayr al-Nakha # , S alim; for the K ufan Ab u S alim T a lib b. H a r u n b. . a disciple of al-S al, p. 222, no. 10. No isn ad with his . us, Rij . adiq, see T name appears to be attested. 131 Q 3:140 is usually taken to refer to the battle of Uhud; the . tradition in KQ relates the verse more specically to #Als role in it. For #Al s bravery in the battle see e.g. Fur at, I, pp. 9496, no. 78; Kul n , VIII, pp. 318322, no. 502; Muf d, Irsh ad, pp. 4349; Tabris , . I #l am, pp. 191193. Translation: He (i.e. the Imam) said: This verse was revealed concerning #Al during the battle of Uhud. He went on: . God brought a temporary setback upon Himself . I (i.e. the disciple) said: He brought a temporary setback upon Himself ? He replied: God brought a temporary setback upon His friend (wal ) (by bringing about the Muslim defeat); by bringing a temporary setback upon His friend, God also brought a temporary setback upon Himself . 132 Fas . l, p. 273, ll. 1215. For a longer version of this tradition see wiya < al-B #Ayy ash , I, pp. 246247, no. 153 (Burayd b. Mu#a aqir) (fa-in khiftum tan azu #an f l-amr fa-rji # u il a ll ah wa-il a l-ras ul wa-ul l-amr minkum, adding: h akadh a nazalat ) > Burh an, I, p. 384, no. 16, Bih ar, . XXIII, pp. 289291, no. 17, Huwayz , I, p. 506 , no. 351 , and (with slight . n , I, p. modications) Fayd, ul, p. 114. For this reading see also Kul . Us .

notes

105

276, no. 1 (fa-in khiftum tan azu #an f amr fa-rudd uhu il a ll ah wa-il a l-ras ul wail a ul l-amr minkum, adding: kadh a nazalat ) > Najaf , p. 134, no. 12, S af , . I, p. 430, Burh an, I, p. 381, no. 4, Huwayz , I, p. 506, no. 352; Kuln, . VIII, pp. 184185, no. 212 (fa-in khiftum tan azu #an f l-amr fa-rji # uhu il a ll ah a r , XXIII, p. 302 , no. 60 . The wa-il a l-ras ul wa-il a ul l-amr minkum) > Bih . version of Q 4:59 in Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 combines the text of the #Uthm anic codex and the Sh# reading (fa-in tan aza #tum f shay" farji # uhu il a ll ah wa-il a l-ras ul wa-il a ul l-amr minkum); similarly Qumm , I, p. 141 > Burh an, I, p. 383, no. 12, Huwayz , I, p. 506, no. 353. Cf. Jeery, . p. 126 (fa-rji # u for fa-rudd uhu as the reading of Ubayy); Tisdall, p. 235. See further Lalani, Thought, pp. 6364. Cf. 147. 133 The expression y a ayyuh a l-n as rst occurs at Q 2:21. #Al Zayn al-#Abid n is recorded as stating that those addressed are all legally competent human beings (s a"ir al-mukallaf n min wuld Adam ) (#Askar , Tafs r, p. 135, no. 68 > Burh an, I, p. 66, no. 1). This view is endorsed in Tabris , I, p. 130 (to Q 2:21) ([h adh a l-khi. t ab mutawajjih il a] jam # al-n as . al wa-l-maj an n), mu"minihim wa-k arihim ill a man laysa bi-mukallaf min al-a. tf V, pp. 8 (to Q 4:1) ([wa-huwa khi. t ab li-] l-mukallaf n min jam # al-bashar ), 298 (to Q 4:170) ([khi. t ab li-] jam # al-mukallaf n), 306 (to Q 4:174) ([wahuwa khi. t ab li-] l-mukallaf n min s a"ir al-milal alladh na qas .s . a qis .s . atahum f h adhihi l-s ura); similarly Ab u l-Fut uh, III, p. 303 , IV, p. 76 ; R a z , II, pp. . (I, pp. 33, 278), y a ayyuh a 7577, IX, p. 128. According to al-Samarqand l-n as at times addresses the Meccans and at timesas in Q 2:21 and Q 4:1mankind in general. Al-Tabris (V, p. 298, to Q 4:170) cites a . view (wa-q l ) according to which al-n as are the unbelievers. Yahy . a b. Sall am (d. 200/815) mentions eleven meanings which al-n as has in the n (Tas Qur"a ar f, pp. 168171); the tenth is al-n as kulluhum, and it applies . inter alia to Q 4:1 (Tas ar f, p. 171). . ash , I, p. 223, no. 38 > Burh an, I, p. 346, no. 8; Kul n , V, 134 Cf. #Ayy p. 128, no. 1 > Burh an, I, pp. 345346, no. 1; Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab, pp. 277278, no. 2 > Huwayz , I, p. 447, no. 73; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, III, p. . 373, no. 1759 (ya #n [bi-dh alika]: li-yakhsha an akhlufahu f dhurriyyatihi kam a ). Translation: He (i.e. the guardian) s ana # a [ huwa ] bi-h a " ul a " al-yat a m a . who replaces a father of orphans possessing some property should know (or: should fear) that I will replace him with regard to his own ospring in like manner: if he treated (the orphans) well I will treat (his ospring) well, and if he treated them badly I will treat (his ospring) badly.

106

notes

135 Fas #Al see Fur at, I, p. 105, . l, p. 272, ll. 68. For the reading f no. 97; #Ayy ash , I, p. 245, no. 148 > Burh an, I, p. 374, no. 4; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 55. The reading anzaln a (for nazzaln a) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere; #Ayy ash has anzaltu. Isn ad : See 51*. 136 Fas at, I, p. 116, no. 120 (qad j a"akum burh an . l, p. 279, ll. 34. Cf. Fur min rabbikum wa-anzaln a ilaykum n uran mub nan f #Al b. Ab T n , . alib); Kul I, p. 417, no. 27 (y a ayyuh a lladh na ut u l-kit ab amin u bi-m a nazzaln a f #Al n uran mub nan, a conation of Q 4:47 and Q 4:174) > Burh an, I, p. 373, no. 1. 137 Al-B aqirs reading is said to have been: wa-l a yajid u f anfusihim h arajan mimm a qa d a Mu h ammad wa- a l Mu h ammad wa-yusallim u tasl man . . . . (#Ayy ash , I, p. 256, no. 186 [J abir < al-B aqir] > Bih a r , II, p. 206 , no. 94). . Cf. Tisdall, p. 235; 141, 143, 144. 138 For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 (with alB aqirs statement: h akadh a nazala bihi Jabra" l #al a Muh , I, . ammad ); Qumm af , I, pp. 45, 484, Burh an, I, p. 428, no. 3, Huwayz , I, p. 576, p. 159 > S . . no. 684; #Ayy ash , I, p. 285, no. 307 (middle) (Ab u Hamza al-Thum al . < al-B aqir) > S a f , I, p. 484 , Burh a n , I, p. 428 , no. 2 , Bi h a r , XXXVI, p. . . 99, no. 39; Kul n , I, p. 424, no. 59 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. af , I, p. 484, Huwayz , I, p. 576, 106 (> Bih ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12), S . . . no. 685; Tisdall, p. 236; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 56. 139 Fas ash , I, p. . l, p. 278, l. 23p. 279, l. 3. For this reading see #Ayy 285, no. 307 (ending) (Ab u Hamza al-Thum al < al-B aqir: qad j a"akum . al-ras ul bi-l-h wal ayat #Al fa- amin u [without bi-wal ayatihi ] . aqq min rabbikum f an, I, khayran lakum wa-in takfur u bi-wal ayatihi etc.) > S af , I, p. 484, Burh . p. 428, no. 2, Bih a r , XXXVI, p. 99 , no. 39 ; cf. Kul n , I, p. 424 , no. 59 . (qad j a"akum al-ras ul bi-l-h wal ayat #Al fa- amin u khayran . aqq min rabbikum f [variant: khayr ] lakum wa-in takfur u bi-wal ayat #Al etc.) > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, pp. 106107 (> Bih a r , XXXV, p. 58 , no. 12 ), Fa s l , p. 278 , . . ll. 2022 (but with the ending wa-in takfur u bi-wal ayatihi ); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 56. 140 Fas ash , I, p. 256, no. 188 (Ab u Bas r < . . l, p. 276, l. 6. See #Ayy al-S a diq) > Burh a n , I, p. 392 , no. 4 ; Kul n , VIII, p. 184 , no. 210 (rst . part) > Fas n , unlike that of . l, p. 276, ll. 36. In the version cited in Kul

notes

107

KQ and #Ayy ash , the word wa-sallim u is added before li-l-im am tasl man, a fact noted by al-N ur (Fas l , p. 276 , ll. 6 7 ). Al-Majlis , referring to . the version in Kuln, understands this tradition as indicating that wasallim u li-l-im am tasl man was part of the Imams qir a"a, yet he does not rule out the possibility of an exegetical gloss (Mir" at, XXVI, p. 75 > Fas . l, p. 276, ll. 78). The reading qal lan attested in the manuscripts of KQ was upheld by a number of early authorities, including Anas b. M alik, d, Ubayy (see Jeery, pp. 37, 126, 216) and Zayd (see Jeery, Ibn Mas#u , p. 222); it is also the reading of Ibn #Amir and was Zaid b. #Al recorded in the Syrian codices (mas a h if ahl al-Sh a m ) (see Tabar , V, p. . . . 161, Ibn Muj ahid, p. 235, D an, Muqni #, pp. 103, 111, Tabris , V, p. 148, . Ab u l-Fut uh, ash and Kul n . III, p. 432). The parallel traditions in #Ayy contain the canonical reading qal l. In his Muqaddim at #ilm al-qur" an, Muhammad b. Bahr (. early 4th/10th century; see Kohlberg, . . al-Ruhn Muslim Scholar, p. 285, no. 441; Ja#fariy an, Shadhar at, p. 11) includes a list of the dierences between the Medinese codex and the codices sent by #Uthm an to a number of major centres. Qal lan (for qal l ) appeared in the codex which #Uthm an sent to Syria (cited in Ibn T us, Sa #d, . aw p. 280; cf. 499*, 652*). See further Beck, Kodizesvarianten, pp. 369 370 (noting that S bawayh probably did not know the reading qal lan); Cook, Stemma, p. 92. For a dierent Sh # reading of the latter part of Q 4:66 see Kul n , I, p. 424, no. 60 (wa-law annahum fa #al u m a y u #az . un bihi f #Al ) > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 > Bih a r , XXXV, p. . 57, no. 12, cited with further sources in Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 55. 141 Fas n , VIII, p. 184, no. 210 . l, p. 275 (in the margin). See Kul (ending; the text has min amr al-w al , as in three of the manuscripts amr al-wal aya), cited in Amirof KQ ) > Fas . l, p. 275, ll. 1517 (with f Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 211212, with note 431 = Divine Guide, p. 201; cf. 137, 143, 144. 142 Fas . l, p. 273, ll. 13. For this reading see Tisdall, p. 235. For the identication of those who are the object of jealousy (Q 4:54) with the Imams (nah as] al-mah ud un) see e.g. Sulaym, Kit ab, p. 306 (nah . nu [l-n . s . nu l88 ( na h nu as n as wa-nah nu l-ma h s u d u n ); A s l Mu h ammad b. al-Muthann a , p. . l-n . . . . al-mah s u d u n ); Ba s a " ir , p. 35 , no. 3 ; Fur a t, I, p. 106 , no. 99 ; # Ayy a sh , I, . . p. 247, no. 155 (Ab u l-Sabb ah an < al-S n , I, p. 206, . al-Kin . . adiq); Kul nos. 2, 4; T , Tahdh b, IV, p. 132, no. 367; Ibn al-Magh azil , p. 173; Ibn . us ad al-D n, #Uy un, p. Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, I, p. 285, IV, pp. 180, 215; #Im 219; Najaf , p. 130, nos. 34.

108

notes

wu d al-Raqq Isn ad : Da : Ab u Sulaym an D aw ud b. Kath r/Kuthayr al-Raqq , a transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim, accused of extrem. . ism (ghuluww) (Quhp a", II, pp. 289291; Ardabl, I, pp. 307309; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 22, note 26). 143 Fas . l, p. 276, ll. 12. See 144; cf. 137, 141. n b. Ish q: he may be Sulaym Isn ad : see also 226.Sulayma an b. .a aw ud al-Muhallab who came to Bas Ish . aq b. D .ra in 267/880881 and transmitted the Tafs r of Ab u Hamza al-Thum al (Naj ash , I, p. 290, s.v. . Th abit b. Ab Sayya).Y a hy a b . al -M ub a rak : a transmitter from al. . Rid ah b. Jabala (Quhp a", VI, p. 264; Ardab l , . a, as well as from #Abdall h b. Jabala: Ab II, pp. 338339).#Abdalla u Muhammad #Abdall ah b. . (d. 219/834), a transmitter from al-K azim Jabala b. Hayy an al-Kin an . . r: (Quhp a" , III, pp. 270271; Ardab l , I, pp. 476478).Ish a q b . # A mm a . Ab u Ya#q ub Ish a q b. # Amm a r b. Hayy a n al-K u f alSayraf , a trans. . . mitter from al-S azim; predeceased al-K azim . . (Kohlberg, . adiq and al-K l, p. 140, note 89, p. 145; Modarressi, TS, p. 299). Us .u 144 See 143; cf. 137, 141.

145 Fas ash , I, p. 255, no. 183 (Muhammad . . l, p. 275, ll. 1011. See #Ayy b. #Al < Ab u Jun ada al-Hu s ayn b. al-Mukh a riq al-Sal u l < al. . K azim); Kul n , VIII, p. 184 , no. 211 (A hmad b. Mu hammad b. Kh alid . . . < Ab u Jun ada al-Hu ariq al-Sal ul < al-K azim) > . s . .ayn b. al-Mukh S af , I, p. 432, Burh an, I, pp. 387388, no. 3, Fas . . l, p. 275, ll. 14, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 211, with note 430 = Divine Guide, p. 201. Al-Majlis , referring to the version in Kul n , understands this tradition as indicating that the sentence fa-qad sabaqat #alayhim kalimat al-shaq a" wasabaqa lahum al- #adh ab formed part of the verse, but he does not rule out the possibility that it is an exegetical gloss (Mir" at, XXVI, p. 76 > Fas . l, p. 275, ll. 47). Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 255, no. 182, Kul n , VIII, pp. 334335, no. 526, where Q 4:63 is said to refer to ful an wa-ful an, i.e. Ab u Bakr and #Umar. da al-H riq b. #Abd al-Rahm n Juna Isn ad : Abu . us . a .ayn b. Mukha " b. H b. Warqa ubsh b . J un a da al -S al u l : a K u fan (probably Zayd ) . transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim (Modarressi, TS , pp. 275 276 ). . . 146 Fas . l, p. 276, ll. 1719. Cf. Jeery, pp. 37, 197 ([fa-min nafsika] d and Ibn wa-innam a qad a #alayka ascribed by some to Ibn Mas#u . aytuh as); Ibn Wahb, J ami #/Tafs r, p. 188 (fol 21b ll. 56), Ab u #Ubayd, #Abb

notes

109

d read fa-min nafsika Fad a"il, II, p. 116, no. 603 (Ubayy and Ibn Mas#u . wa-an a katabtuh a #alayka); M atur d , III, pp. 265266 (wa-ruwiya f h . arf Ibn Mas # ud q al: wa-an a qadartuh a #alayka); Samarqand, I, p. 320 (wa-an a qad .iyya, II, p. 82 (wa-f . aytuhu #alayka as a gloss on min nafsika); Ibn #At mus h af Ibn Mas # u d: fa-min nafsika wa-an a qa d aytuh a # alayka, wa-qara " a bih a .. . as, wa-h a Ab u #Amr annah a f mus ud: wa-an a katabtuh a, Ibn #Abb . ak .h . af Ibn Mas # wa-ruwiya anna Ubayyan wa-Ibn Mas # ud qara" a: wa-an a qadartuh a #alayka); lib Ab u Hayy an, III, p. 313; Tha#a , II, p. 267 (fa-min nafsika wa-an a . qad aytuh a # alayka in the codex of Ibn Mas # u d); Suy u t , Durr , II, p. 331 . . . Al-Qurt ub (V, pp. 286 287 ) maintains that wa-an a katabtuh a # alayka is an . nic text exegetical gloss which was only regarded as part of the Qur"a adhihi qir a"a #al a l-tafs r wa-qad athbatah a by one (or some) heretics (fa-h ba #d ahl al-zaygh min al-qur " a n ). In Muq a til (I, p. 243 ), the reading in . d and Ubayy is given as fa-bi-dhanbika wa-an the codices of Ibn Mas#u a katabtuh a #alayka. The text in the manuscripts of KQ appears to be the only instance in which the words fa-min nafsika are omitted (and are not replaced by a similar phrase, as in Muq atil). It is not clear whether this omission is the result of a scribal error or whether KQ preserves an otherwise unattested qir a"a. The former possibility is implied by ms. M (wa-an a qad a); the latter is implied by mss. L, T and B (fa-an a . aytuh qad a). . aytuh 147 Fas ash , I, p. 254, no. 178 (latter half) . l, p. 273, ll. 1617. See #Ayy abir < al-B aqir) > Burh an, I, p. 386, no. 28, (#Amir b. Sa#d al-Juhan < J Bih ar, XXIII, p. 294, no. 32. Cf. 132. . mir b. Sa# Isn a d : #A d al-Juhan : unidentied. 148 Fas . l, p. 271, l. 23p. 272, l. 2, Mustadrak, XIV, pp. 447448, no. 17243. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 36, 126, 197, 246, 255, 288 (Ibn d, Ubayy, Ibn #Abb Mas#u as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, Tal # . ha . b. Mus .arrif, al-Rab b. Khuthaym); As l # A s im b. Humayd , p. 24 ( # Al ); Ab u # Ubayd, Fa d a " il , II, . . . . p. 116, no. 602, Samarqand , I, p. 294 (Ibn #Abb as); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65 (al-B aqir and al-S ar, CIII, p. 305, no. 12; . adiq) > Bih . Qumm , I, p. 136 (cited by al-S ar, CIII, . adiq, possibly as a gloss) > Bih . az , X, p. 43 (> Fas p. 314, no. 13; Ibn Ab D aw ud, pp. 53, 77, 81, R . l, p. 144, ll. 1719) (Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as); #Ayy ash , I, p. 233, no. 85 (Ibn #Abb as) > Burh an, I, p. 360, no. 8, Bih ar, CIII, p. 314, no. 15, Huwayz , . . I, p. 467, no. 174; #Ayy ash , I, p. 234, nos. 8788 (Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir, . ar, #Abd al-Sal am < al-S an, I, pp. 360361, nos. 1011, Bih . adiq) > Burh . CIII, pp. 314315, nos. 1718, Huwayz , I, p. 468 , nos. 176 177 ; Tabar , . .

110

notes

V, pp. 1213, M award , I, p. 471 (Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. al-Jubayr, al-Sudd ); Kul n , V, p. 449, no. 3 (al-S a diq) > S a f , I, p. 406 , Burh an, I, p. . . 360, no. 2, Huwayz , I, p. 467, no. 172; Tha#lab, III, p. 286 (Ibn #Abb as, . Tal d b. Jubayr, the codex of Ubayy) > Tabris , V, p. . ha . b. Mus . .arrif, Sa# ur , II, pp. 150151 (Ibn 72 > Fas , III, p. 166, Suy . us . l, p. 144, ll. 1517; T d, Ibn #Abb Mas#u as, Ubayy, Sa# d b. Jubayr); Tabris , V, p. 72 (some . d); Ab Companions, including Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as and Ibn Mas#u u lFut uh, awand , Fiqh, II, p. 105; Tisdall, p. 236; Burton, . III, p. 358; R Collection, pp. 178180; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 4344, with note 20, p. 54, with note 55; Gribetz, Bedfellows, pp. 11, 5152 (analysing instances where Sh # s, in discussing mut #a, cite the #Uthm anic codex as against instances where they cite the Sh # version of the verse). See also Gleave, Exegesis, pp. 8095 (includes a survey of earlier scholarly literature). See 149. For mut #a see also 372, 452. 149 See 148.

150 Fas ah, . l, p. 277, ll. 1012. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall N asikh, p. 64 (al-B aqir); Qumm , I, p. 159 > S a f , I, pp. 45 , 483 ; # Ayy a sh , . I, p. 285, no. 307 (beginning) (Ab u Hamza al-Thum al < al-B aqir) . > Burh an, I, p. 428, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 99, no. 39; Goldziher, . Richtungen, p. 285; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 55. 151 Fas ash , I, p. 285, no. 305 (Zur ara . l, p. 277, ll. 57. See #Ayy and Humr an < al-B aqir) > S af , I, p. 482, Bih ar, XVI, p. 325, no. 18, . . . Huwayz , I, p. 573, no. 670. Al-Majlis suggests that this was either the . reading of the Imams, or that it reproduces the meaning (rather than the exact wording) of the verse (naql li-l- aya bi-l-ma #n a). sim b. Muhammad Isn ad : al-Qa : al-Q asim b. Muhammad al-Jawhar , . . kit a b a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim; author of a . . which was transmitted by Muhammad b. Kh a lid al-Barq (Quhp a " , V, . pp. 5051; Ardab l , II, pp. 2021).Muhammad al-H : Ab u Ja#far . . alab Muhammad b. #Al b. Ab Shu#ba al-Halab , a K ufan transmitter from . . al-B aqir and al-S . adiq; predeceased al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 337 338). 152 Fas . l, p. 275, ll. 1213. For this reading see Tisdall, p. 235. nus: where this is the rst name in an isn Isn ad : Yu ad that appears in unus b. #Abd KQ, the reference is often (but not always; see e.g. 28*) to Y al-Rahm a n. This statement is based on a number of considerations: .

notes

111

rst, at 566 the name appears in full. Second, Y unus b. #Abd al Rahm a n is known to have transmitted from # Al b. Ab Hamza (see . . Ardabl, I, p. 548; cf. 426, 657). Third, the isn ad Y unus < rajul < al-S unus standing for b. #Abd al. adiq is attested elsewhere, with Y Rahm l , II, p. 358; cf. 335). Ab u Muhammad Y unus b. . an (Ardab . #Abd al-Rahm a n al-Qumm mawl a a l Yaq t n (d. 208 / 823 824 ) was a . . a" , VI, mutakallim and a transmitter from al-K azim . and al-Rid . a (Quhp pp. 293307; Ardab l , II, pp. 356359; Kohlberg, Bar a"a, pp. 161 162; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 387392 and index).H #: he . amza b. al-Rab is not mentioned in the classical works of Rij al. A person of this name appears in the isn ad of a tradition cited in Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , pp. 1617, no. 1; idem, Tawh d, p. 168, no. 1 > Bih ar, IV, pp. 6465, no. 5. Al. . Kh u" (VII, p. 296, no. 4074) gives the name as Hamza b. al-Murta#, . m b. (al-) which may be an error for Hamza b. al-Rab # . # A bd al -S ala . : #Abd al-Sal Muthanna am is the name of nine disciples of al-S . adiq mentioned by al-T (Rij al, pp. 233, 267); none, however, is called #Abd . us al-Sal am b. Muthann a. 153 Fas ash , I, p. 268, . l, p. 278, ll. 1617. For this tradition see #Ayy no. 242 (Ab u Bas an, I, p. 406, no. 1. According to .r < al-S . adiq) > Burh , I, p. 448) and al-Majlis (Bih ar, LXVIII, p. 234), Muhsin al-Fayd af . . (S . . al-#Ayy ash ascribed the reading al-sal am to al-S a . diq. This conforms to the text of the #Uthm anic codex. Among the Seven Readers, als sal am was adopted by Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, al-Kis a" and #A .im (in the transmission of Ab u Bakr and Haf . s .), with the rest reading al-salam s (except for al-silm in Ab an b. Yaz ds transmission from #A .im) (see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 236, Ibn #At iyya, II, p. 96 , Ibn al-Jawz , II, p. 102, Ab u . na, II, pp. 6869). Mss. T and B Hayy an, III, p. 342; cf. Ab u H . atim, Z . have al-sal am, while mss. M and L, as well as #Ayy ash and Fas . l, have al-s-l-m, which can be read as either al-sal am or al-salam/silm. For the d and reading mu"manan (given protection) see Jeery, p. 37 (Ibn Mas#u al-B aqir [erroneously identied as Muhammad b. al-Hanayya]); Ibn . . d, Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 28 (Muhammad b. #Al [i.e. al-B aqir], Ibn Mas#u . #Abb as); Ab u l-Q asim al-Balkh as cited in T , III, p. 297, Tabris , V, . us . 96 (Ab u Ja # far b. al-Qa # q a # , Ab u p. 198 (al-B aqir); Ibn #At iyya, II, p. . Hamza and al-Yam a n ); Tabris , V, p. 198 (Ab u Ja # far al-Q a ri " and al. . B aqir) > Fas , II, p. 102 (#Al , Ibn #Abb as, . l, p. 278, ll. 1719; Ibn al-Jawz #Ikrima, Ab u l-#Aliya, Yahy u Ja#far [probably al-B aqir]); . a b. Ya#mar, Ab as, #Ikrima, #Ukbar , p. 171; Ab u Hayy an, III, pp. 342343 (#Al , Ibn #Abb . Ab u l-#Aliya, Yahy a b. Ya # mar). AlS a diqs reading of this word does not . .

112

notes

appear to be recorded elsewhere and cannot be known with certainty from KQ, since the word is not vocalized in the manuscripts. It can only be assumed that al-S . adiq followed his father in reading mu"manan. 154 The criticism is directed at those among al-Hasans K ufan fol. lowers who clamoured for battle after being ordered to desist follow wiya. Some two decades ing al-Hasans abdication in favour of Mu#a . later, when summoned to join al-Husayn on the battleeld, they sought . excuses to avoid ghting. Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 258, no. 196 (to Q 4:77) > Bih ar, XLIV, p. 217, no. 2; #Ayy ash , II, p. 235, no. 48 (to Q 14:44) > . Burh an, I, p. 395, no. 5, II, p. 321, no. 2, Bih ar, LII, p. 132, no. 35; Kul n , . , Mah an, I, p. 394, no. 2. VIII, p. 330, no. 506 > Bahr . an . ajja, p. 60, Burh For a somewhat dierent understanding of Q 4:77 see Naw adir #Al b. Asb a. t, p. 122 > Bih a r , XLIV, p. 220 , no. 14 . . 155 The manuscripts are unvocalized, but the reading being cited is evidently wa-Hasanun . Such a reading is not attested elsewhere. It . alludes to the second Imam, but without aecting the meaning of the r al-Yaman, pp. sentence (good companions they!). Cf. Ibn Mans .u 149150; 333. rama: Ab Isn ad : Cf. 333.Ibn U u Ja#far Muhammad b. Urama al. Qumm , a transmitter from al-Rid a , suspected and then cleared of . a" , V, pp. 160162; Ardab l , II, charges of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp p. 78; Kh u" , XVI, pp. 124128, no. 10314; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 35, note 100, p. 36, note 101). 156 Fas n , I, p. 421, no. 45 (in talw u l-amr . l, p. 276, ll. 1920. See Kul aw tu #rid u #amm a umirtum bihi ) > S af , I, p. 472, Fas . . . l, p. 276, ll. 2022. ash , I, p. 222, no. 34 157 Mustadrak, XVII, p. 155, no. 21020. See #Ayy (Ab u Bas r < alS a diq), p. 223 , no. 36 (Ab u Ba s r < al-B aqir) > S af , I, . . . . p. 393, al-Hurr al-#Amil, Was a"il, VIII/2, p. 420, no. 32490, Burh an, I, . p. 345, nos. 1, 2, Bih ar, CIV, pp. 366367, nos. 2, 4; #Ayy ash , I, pp. 222 . 223, no. 35 (Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir) > S af , I, p. 393, al-Hurr al-#Amil , . . . Was a"il, VIII/2, pp. 420421, no. 32491, Bih a r , CIV, p. 367 , no. 3 . For . the question of whether the ayat al-far a"id ayat al-maw ar th, cf. 96, 97) . (or abrogates Q 4:8 see Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, pp. 235236 (fol 20a l. 20 fol 20b l. 1); Tabar , IV, pp. 263266; Ibn Muhakkam, I, p. 351; Nah . h . as, . . N asikh, pp. 9193; Nu#m an , Tafs r, pp. 1011 > Mustadrak, XVII, p. 155, no. 21019 (Q 4:8 is abrogated by Q 4:11); Hibat All ah, N asikh, pp. 31

notes

113

32; Ibn al-#Arab , N asikh, p. 87; Tabris , V, pp. 2728; Ab u l-Fut uh, . . III, pp. 323325; Shayb an , Nahj, II, pp. 120121; Suy ur , II, p. 337; Ibn al#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 39; Suy ut , Itq an, III, p. 74; Powers, Studies, pp. 147, . 194195. See 158. 158 Mustadrak, XVII, p. 155, no. 21021. See 157.

ah 159 Q 4:15 arms that women found guilty of abomination (f . isha) are to be conned in their houses until death or until God provides a way for them (sab l ). According to KQ, the way (out of connement) is through marriage. Of those who advocated this interpretation of sab l, some regarded the f ah . isha of Q 4:15 as referring to illicit heterosexual relations (see e.g. Bayd , p. 106; Ardab l , Zubda, . aw p. 658; Bih a r , LXIX, p. 125 ), whereas the Mu # tazil exegete Ab u Mus . lim Muhammad b. Ba hr al-I s fah a n (d. 322 / 934 ) took this term to refer . . . to lesbianism (hiya l-mar"a takhl u bi-l-mar"a f l-f ah ura #anhunna, . isha al-madhk j wa-l-istighn a" bi-l-h al/bi-l-nik ah aw yaj #al all ah lahunna sab lan bi-l-tazw . al .) (T u s , III, p. 143 ; R a wand , Fiqh , II, p. 368 ; cf. Gimaret, Lecture , p. 214 ; . a k [G.H.A. Juynboll]; EQ , art. Homosexuality [Everett EI 2, art. Sih . . K. Rowson]). The nal three words (ka-dh alika ruwiya #anhum) appear to be out of place. Al-N ur assumed that kadh alika was the last word of the tradition, and that the next tradition began with the words ruwiya #an Muh a # l. He therefore placed a line above ruwiya #anhum in . ammad b. Ism ms. L and, in the margin, corrected the #anhum to #an. 160 Mustadrak, X, p. 400, no. 12255. See #Ayy ash , I, p. 276, no. 274 (Muhammad b. Ism a # l al-R a z < unidentied transmitter < al-S . . adiq; a"il, V/3, pp. 469470, mank uh unan) > al-Hurr al-#Amil, Was . . an for ma"b no. 19900, Burh an, I, p. 416, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVII, pp. 331332, no. 70, . Huwayz , I, pp. 551552, no. 569. Cf. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, . p. 55 (wa-lam yujawwiz as h a bun a an yu t laq h a dh a l-laf z li-ghayrihi min al .. . . a"imma wa-q ala rajul li-l-S adiq: y a am r al-mu"min n fa-q al mah fa-innahu l a . yard a bi-h adhihi l-tasmiya ah a btuliya bi-bal a" Ab Jahl [i.e. passive . . ad ill homosexuality]) > Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 334, no. 73; Ibn Jabr, Nahj, p. 470. . #Abd #Al al-Huwayz (d. 1112/17001701), author of the Tafs r n ur al. thaqalayn, is said to have written a book in which he argued (presumably on the basis of Q 4:117) that Umayyad and #Abb asid caliphs who called themselves am r al-mu"min n were all aicted with ubna (the condition of being passive partners in a homosexual relationship); see Khw ans ar , Rawd a t , IV, p. 210 . .

114

notes

# Isn ad : Muhammad b. Isma l: Muhammad b. Ism a# l al-R az (as in . . the parallel tradition in #Ayy ash ), a transmitter from al-Jaw ad (Ardab l , II, p. 76). He is probably identical with Ab u #Abdall ah (or Ab u Ja#far) Muhammad b. Ism a# l b. Ahmad b. Bash r al-Barmak S . . . al-s . ahib .awma#a who lived in Qumm but did not originate there (Quhp a" , V, pp. 150, 158). In an isn ad recorded in Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 389, ar transmits from Muhammad b. Ism a# l al-R az , who no. 1, al-Sayy . in turn transmits from al-Jaw ad. Elsewhere, al-Sayy ar transmits from r Muhammad b. Ism a# l al-Ans (Bas a"ir, p. 125, no. 4), who may be . .a . identical with Muhammad b. Ism a # l al-R az . . 161 For as ab al-s fa see Kohlberg, Sa . aba, pp. 154155. Else. h .h . . ah . where this verse is said to refer to Ab u Bakr, #Umar and Ab u #Ubayda b. (see # Ayy a sh , I, pp. 274 275 , nos. 267 269 [ # Amir b. Kath r alal-Jarr ah . Sarr aj < #At a " al-Hamd a n < al-B a qir; # Umar b. Sa # d < Ab u lHasan; . . #Umar b. S an, I, p. 414, nos. 24; Kul n , . all to Q 4:108] > Burh . alih; VIII, p. 334, no. 525 > Burh an, I, p. 414, no. 1, Bih ar, XXX, p. 271, . ab al-s fa. no. 141); all three were among the as . ah . .h . 162 Fas , I, p. 160 (Ibn Ab #Umayr < Ab u . l, p. 279, ll. 89. See Qumm Ja#far al-Th an , reading awf u bi-l- #uq ud allat #uqidat #alaykum li-am r al-mu"min n) > Najaf , p. 144, no. 1, S af , II, p. 5, Burh an, I, p. 431, no. 9, Bih ar, . . , Fa s l , p. 279 , ll. XXXVI, pp. 9293, no. 20, Huwayz , I, p. 583 , no. 9 . . 58; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 56. See also Kit ab tafs r al-qur" an wa-ta"w lihi etc. (possibly KQ ; see Introduction, p. 36) (Haf . s . s . [perhaps Haf . al-Marwaz , a transmitter from al-H ad ; see T u s , Rij a l , p. 413 , no. 9 ] . < #Abd al-Sal am al-Is an < Ab u Ja#far [i.e. al-Th an ]) > Ibn T us, . aw .fah ar, XXXVI, p. 191. Here, as in ms. Sa #d, p. 121 > Najaf, p. 145, no. 1, Bih . M, the additional words are treated as a gloss (awf u bi-l- #uq ud ya #n llat #uqidat #alayhim li- #Al am r al-mu"min n). One of the ten places ( #asharat maw a. tin) mentioned in the tradition is probably Ghad r Khumm (cf. 437). #Umar/Abu #Amr al-Is n n Isn ad : Abu /al-Is : unidentied. .faha .baha The name #Abd al-Sal am al-Is an found in the parallel tradition in .fah Ibn T us is likewise unknown. The only disciple of al-Jaw ad with . aw bah a n recorded by alT u s is Ibr a h m b. Shayba althe nisba al-Is . . Is an (Rij al, p. 398, no. 12). .bah

notes

115

163 The manuscripts are unvocalized, but the reading being cited is in all likelihood wa-arjulikum, conforming to the Sh # practice of wiping (rather than washing) ones feet before prayer. For further references and discussion see Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 5657, with note 58; Madelung, Ibn #Abb as, pp. 1415 (showing that this was the reading of Ibn #Abb as); Lalani, Thought, pp. 120121. For wa-arjulikum see also s Ibn Muj ahid, pp. 242243 (Ibn Kath r, Hamza, Ab u #Amr, #A . .im in the transmission of Ab u Bakr); Tabar , VI, p. 128 (some Hij and . . az #Ir aq readers; this is the reading which al-Tabar himself prefers [VI, . u bi-l-nas u bi-l-khafd pp. 130131]); M atur d , III, p. 470 (qara" . b wa-qara" . ); Samarqand, I, p. 372 (Ibn Kathr, Ab u #Amr, Hamza, #As . .im in the transmission of Ab u Bakr); Rad , Talkh s , IV, p. 27; . . , p. 280; Tha#lab D an , p. 98; Kar ajak , I, pp. 152154; Ibn al-#Arab , N asikh, p. 116 s (Anas, Ab u Ja#far [i.e. Yaz d b. al-Qa#q a#?], #A im, al-A # mash, Hamza, . . , VI, p. 34 ; R a z , XI, pp. 127 128 ; # Ukbar , p. 188; Ibn #Amir); Tabris . Qurt , VI, p. 91 (Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, Hamza); Ardab l , Zubda, p. . .ub 18; Fas . l, p. 280, ll. 214. 164 Fas n , VIII, p. 205, no. 248 > S af , II, . . l, p. 282, ll. 2021. See Kul p. 91, Huwayz , I, p. 681, no. 403 (in Huwayz , without lam tubda lakum). . . Al-Majlis leaves open the possibility that lam tubda lakum is a gloss at, XXVI, p. 120 > Fas (Majlis , Mir" . l, p. 282, ll. 2122). This however is rejected by al-N ur as far-fetched (wa-l a yakhf a bu #duhu) (Fas . l, p. 282, l. 22). 165 Fas and Sh # author. l, p. 281, ll. 1820. According to both Sunn ities, this verse was revealed during the Prophets farewell pilgrimage to Mecca in the year 10/632 (see Modarressi, Debates, p. 25). For the reading f #Al see Qumm , Tafs r, II, p. 201 > S af , I, p. 45; Tabris , . . 59 > S a f , II, p. 55 , Huwayz , I, p. 654 , no. 298 ; Jaz a " ir , N u r , Ih tij a j , p. . . . p. 66; Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 285; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 5758; tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724. Another Im am reading includes the words f #Al and in addition replaces the sentence wa-in lam taf #al fa-m a ballaghta ris alatahu with wa-in lam taf #al #adhdhabtuka #adh aban al man (if you do it not, I will aict you with a painful punishment) (Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12). Cf. Jef. ds reading as min rabbika inna #Aliyyan mawl fery, p. 40 (giving Ibn Mas#u a l-mu"min n; this reading is reproduced in Irbil , I, p. 326 > Burh an, I, p. 491, no. 12; Suy ut , Durr, II, p. 528 [from Ibn Mardawayh] [kunn a naqra" . #al a #ahd ras ul all ah etc.] > Bih a r , XXXVII, pp. 189 190 ); Tisdall, p. 237; .

116

notes

Modarressi, Debates, p. 25. #Al b. Muhammad al-Bay ad al-#Amil . . (d. 877/14721473) cites a Sunn claim according to which the Im am s hold that f #Al formed part of the original verse but was omitted by the Sunn s (asqa. tah a ahl al-sunna). Al-Bay ad (who was himself an Im am ) . rejects this claim: no Im am upholds it; in fact, the Im am s unanimously agree that whoever recites this addition in his prayer has his prayer nullied (man qara"a bi-tilka l-ziy ada f s atihi ba. talat ). We only say . al that it is #Al concerning whom this verse was revealed (Bay ad , I, p. . ad s view is in line with that of Im a m scholars who deny 259). Al-Bay . n has been altered (see Introduction, that the original text of the Qur"a pp. 2728). Yet he did not refrain from citing traditions with an Im am * reading (see e.g. Bay ad , I, p. 291; 301 ). The words f #Al (or f fad ) . . l #Al appear as a gloss (on the authority of al-B aqir) in Tha#lab , IV, p. 92 > Ibn T a w u s, Tar a " if , p. 152 (> Bi h a r , XXXVII, p. 189 , no. 73), Bay ad , . . . . I, p. 259. The reading ris al atihi (Q 5:67) adduced in ms. M conforms to s the qir a"a of N a#, Ibn #Amir, #A u Bakr (see .im in the transmission of Ab Ibn Muj ahid, p. 246) and Ibn Miqsam (see Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 13; cf. 190). See also Nah ab, II, p. 31 (ris al atihi as the reading of . h . as, I #r the Medinese); Tha#lab , IV, p. 92; #Ukbar , p. 199. 166 Mustadrak, XV, p. 413, no. 18669, p. 419, no. 18693, p. 420, no. 18698. The reading ah al kum (not ah aliyakum) recorded in ms. M is often ascribed to al-S a diq (Je ery, p. 332 ; Ibn Jinn , I, pp. 217218; . Tha#lab, IV, p. 104; Zamakhshar, I, p. 640 [bi-suk un al-y a" li-l , VI, p. 181; Qurt , VI, p. 279; takhf f ]; Ibn #At . .iyya, II, p. 230; Tabris .ub Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 13 [bi-suk un al-y a" ]). For this tradition cf. T , IV, . . us pp. 1314; idem, Tahdh b, VIII, p. 297, no. 1098 > Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir, III, p. 629; R awand , Fiqh, II, p. 227. The ending is a commentary on the s continuation of Q 5:89 (aw kiswatuhum aw tah r raqaba); cf. As . r . l #A . im b. Humayd , p. 24 . . 167 Fas . l, p. 157, ll. 1113. See 84.

168 Fas t #u (is . l, p. 282, l. 22p. 283, l. 1. The reading hal rabbuka yasta. it your Lord who is able) appears to be attested only in KQ. The better known reading of Q 5:112 is hal tasta. t #u rabbaka (are you able to call on your Lord). It is recorded on the authority of various early authorities (see Tabar , VII, p. 129) including the Prophet (see Tirmidh , S h . . ah . . , XI, p. 53, H a kim, Mustadrak , II, p. 616 , no. 2989 , Qur t ub , VI, p. 365), . . "isha (see M #A atur d , III, p. 650, Ibn Ab Zaman n, I, p. 216), Ibn

notes

117

#Abb as (see M atur d , III, p. 650) and #Al (see Ibn Ab H . atim, IV, p. 1243, no. 7015, Ab u Hayy a n, IV, p. 58 ) and was adopted by al-Kis a" . (see Kis a", Ma # an , p. 128, Ibn Muj ahid, p. 249, Nah ab, II, p. 50, . h . as, I #r Samarqand , I, p. 429, Tha#lab , IV, p. 124, M award , II, p. 82, Tabris , . IV, p. 369 , R a z , XII, p. 107 , Ibn al-Jawz , II, p. VI, p. 235, Ab u l-Fut uh, . 277, Qurt , VI, p. 364, Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 58, Ibn Hish am, Mughn , . .ub pp. 904905); see further Ibn Kh alawayh, Hujja , pp. 109110; #Ukbar, . p. 208. It is also attested in Sh # texts; see #Ayy ash , I, p. 350, no. 222 (Yahy ) > S a f , II, p. 97 , Burh a n , I, p. 511 , no. 1, Bih ar, XIV, p. . a al-Halab . . . 248, no. 34, Huwayz , I, p. 689 , no. 430 , Fa s l , p. 283 , ll. 2 9 . See further . . Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 23. Cf. 169. Ya#qu b: he may well be Ish Isn ad : Abu z Ab u l. aq b. #Abd al-#Az Saf atij (for whom see 195*). There are three other transmitters from al-S u Ya#q ub Ish d al-T al-K uf . aq b. Yaz . a" . adiq having this kunya: Ab (T u s , Rij a l , p. 149 , no. 146 ); Ab u Ya # q u b Is h a q b. Ibr a h m al-Azd al. . r al-K #At uf (idem, Rij al, p. 150, no. 151); Ab u Ya#q ub al-Asad im am .t .a l-Sayd) al-K uf (idem, Rij al, Ban l-Sayd a" (printed erroneously as Ban . . p. 339, no. 25). 169 For the explication of yasta. t # (at Q 5:112) as yaqdir (to be able) see e.g. Tabris , VI, p. 237; Qurt , VI, p. 364. Cf. 168. . .ub 170 Cf. M award , II, p. 31, T , III, p. 500, Tabris , VI, p. 77, all . us . citing an anonymous view according to which the ghur ab of Q 5:31 was an angel in the form of a raven. In contrast, #Al (Ibn Shahr ash ub, 5 ) and al-B a qir ( Tabris , I h tij Man aqib, II, p. 384 > Bih a r , X, p. 85 , no. . . aj, . p. 329 > Bih a r , XLVI, p. 352 , no. 5 ) are said to have adduced the raven . as an example of a messenger (mab # uth/ras ul ) who was neither a jinn nor a human being, neither an angel nor a devil. Cf. Muf d, Ikhtis as . . , p. 44 (mas a"il #Abdall ah b. Sal am). 171 For this tradition see T , Tahdh b, X, pp. 183184, no. 718 (al. us Husayn b. Sa# d < Fad an < Zur ara < al-B aqir or al-S . . ala < Ab . adiq) , I, p. 636, no. 220. The view that the beginning of Q 5:45 > Huwayz . (the verse of lex talionis) is muh . kam (eective/not abrogated; cf. 189) is held inter alia by al-T u s ( Tahdh b, X, pp. 183) and al-R awand (Fiqh, . II, pp. 415416: l a khil af anna dh alika th abit f shar #in a wa-l a yathbutu naskhuhu l a qur" anan wa-l a sunnatan fa-innahu yajibu l- #amal bihi ). The opposing view is espoused by al-Qumm (I, pp. 13, 169), for whom the beginning of Q 5:45 is abrogated by Q 2:178. This view is shared

118

notes

by al-Nu#m an (Tafs r, p. 9), who maintains that the ruling at Q 5:45 does not distinguish between men, women and slaves (since it allows mutual retaliation among them). Al-Qumm (at I, p. 169), al-Nu#m an and Ibn al-Jawz (Naw asikh, pp. 5051) point out that the ruling cited in Q 5:45 is that of the tawr at (see Q 5:4445 [inn a anzaln a l-tawr at wakatabn a #alayhim f h a; cf. Exodus 21:2324, Leviticus 24:1721, Deuteronomy 19:21]); and al-Nu#m an adduces Q 2:178 as an instance of a verse abrogating a Biblical ruling (fa-nasakha ll ah ta # al a m a f l-tawr at ). Ab u #Ubayd (N asikh, p. 47; cf. Wansbrough, Quranic Studies, p. 192) mentions two views: according to the Medinese, Q 5:45 and Q 2:178 are both valid; according to the #Ir aq s, Q 2:178 is abrogated by Q 5:45 (see s similarly Qurt , II, p. 246). See further EI 2, art. Ki . s .a ., at V, p. .ub 177b (J. Schacht); EQ, art. Retaliation (Khaled Abou El Fadl); Adang, Writers, pp. 221222. 172 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 434, no. 17202. This paragraph comprises three dierent traditions, all dealing with the ahl al-kit ab: (i) A tradition describing a discussion between Imam and disciple on the issue of marriage with scriptuaries. For this issue see in general Friedmann, Tolerance, pp. 160193 (chapter ve: interfaith marriages). For Q 5:5 being abrogated by Q 60:10 see #Ayy ash , I, p. 296, no. 38 (Ibn Sin an < al-S a diq); Kul n , V, p. 358 , no. 8 ; Nu # m a n, Da # a " im , II, pp. 249 250 , . a r , III, p. 179 , no. 3 ; idem, Tahdh b , VII, p. 298 , no. 942; T u s , Istib s . . no. 1245; Tabris , VI, p. 33; R awand, Fiqh, II, p. 135; Suy ur, II, pp. . 196197. Cf. Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh, p. 207 (citing a view according to which Q 60:10 was abrogated by Q 5:5; this view is rejected by Ibn al-#Arab [N asikh, p. 214]). Another verse said to have abrogated Q 5:5 is Q 2:221. The naskh in both cases is problematic since S ura 5 is traditionally said to have been revealed after both S ura 2 and S ura 60. For Q 2:221 see Friedmann, Tolerance, p. 192; Maghen, Hardship, pp. 33 34, adducing conicting views as to whether Q 2:221 abrogated Q 5:5 or was abrogated by it. Cf. Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 35 (the view that Q 2:221 is abrogated by Q 5:5 is problematic [wa-f l-kull nazar . ]). (ii) An exegetical tradition on Q 5:21. For God rescinding (mah a ) . His decree granting the Holy Land to the Children of Israel see #Ayy ash , I, p. 304, no. 69 (to Q 5:21) (Zur ara, Humr a n, Mu hammad b. Muslim, all . . < al-B aqir and al-S af , II, p. 25, Bih ar, XIII, p. 180, no. 11, . adiq) > S . . Huwayz , I, p. 606, no. 108; #Ayy ash , I, p. 304, no. 72 (Mas#ada b. . Sadaqa < al-S ar, XIII, p. 181, no. 14, Huwayz , I, p. 606, . . . adiq) > Bih . no. 111. For the context see Rubin, Bible, pp. 6163. (iii) An exegetical

notes

119

tradition on Q 5:106. According to this verse, a will (was . iyya), to be valid, has to be drawn up or dictated in the presence of two trustworthy witnesses (see Powers, Studies, pp. 11, 107, 211). These witnesses must under normal circumstances be Muslims. If, however, a Muslim is in the company of non-Muslims, feels that his end is near, makes a will and then dies, the question arises as to whether the testimony of the non-Muslims is admissible. This was a moot point among Sunn s (see Friedmann, Tolerance, pp. 3536). Most Im am scholars answered the question in the armative, and supported their position by interpreting the words two others not from among you ( akhar an min ghayrikum) as referring to non-Muslims (see Bas a"ir, p. 534, no. 1; Qumm , I, p. 189; . #Ayy ash , I, pp. 348349, nos. 216219; Kul n , VII, pp. 36, nos. 1, 3, 6, awand , Fiqh, 7; T , Tahdh b, IX, pp. 178181, nos. 715718, 724725; R . us I, p. 417). The tradition in KQ is in keeping with this position. 173 Mustadrak, XII, pp. 238239, no. 13989. Cf. Barq , I, p. 232, nos. 182183 ([dh alika] ta"w luh a l-a #zam ) > Burh a n , I, pp. 463 464, nos. 5, . 7, Bih a r , II, pp. 20 21 , nos. 57 58 ; Qumm , I, p. 167 > Huwayz , I, . . , I, pp. 312313, no. 84 > Bih a r , CIV, p. 374 , p. 618, no. 147; #Ayy ash . no. 24; #Ayy ash, I, p. 313, no. 87 > Bih ar, II, p. 21, no. 60; Kuln, II, pp. . 210211, no. 2 (dh aka ta"w luh a l-a #zam ) > S af , II, p. 31, Burh an, I, pp. 463 . . 464, no. 5, Bih a r , LXXIV, p. 403 , no. 49 , Huwayz , I, p. 619, no. 154; . . T u s , Am a l , I, p. 230 > Burh a n , I, p. 464 , no. 6 ; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 251 . . . tij (wa-li-l-ih a" f h adh a l-mawd l f l-b a. tin laysa ka-z . y . i # ta"w . ahirihi wa-huwa man had ah a); DC, art. Abel et Can (Meir M. Bar-Asher); the discussion in Kohlberg, Taqiyya, p. 377. Cf. also the expression ta"w luhu l-a #zam . in 399 , no. 126 , # Amil , Mir " at, p. Muf d, Ikhtis a s , p. 123 > Bi h a r , XXIV, p. . . . 26. 174 Those who read tanfa # are said to have included the Prophet (see Ibn #Ad , Du a", IV, p. 1495), Ab u l-#Aliya (i.e. the Bas . #af .ran Rufay# b. Mihr an al-Riy ah am, . , d. 90/708709) (see Ibn Jinn, I, p. 236; Ibn Hish Mughn , p. 667), Ibn S r n (see Nah ab, II, p. 109; Ibn Kh alawayh, . h . as, I #r , VII, p. 148; Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 42; Zamakhshar , II, p. 64; Qurt . .ub pp. 259, 260) and Ibn #Umar (see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 42; Ibn #At iyya, II, . p. 367). For a grammatical explication of this reading see Nah h a s, I # r a b, .. II, p. 109 > Qurt , VII, p. 148; Ibn Jinn , I, pp. 236237; #Ukbar , p. .ub 238; Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 259. .

120

notes

175 The doctrine that Gods will (ir ada) regarding His own acts is identical with their creation is typical of the Baghd ad Mu#tazil s; see Madelung, al-Q asim, pp. 165166. The words mi"at manqaba appearing in the margin of ms. T are evidently a later addition. The purpose of this addition is not clear; it cannot be a reference to the work by Ibn Sh adh an bearing this title, since the tradition in question is not included in it. 176 Mustadrak, VII, p. 93, no. 7736. Both h ad and h ad mean har. as . . is . vest or reaping. Among the Seven Readers, h a s a dihi was adopted . . by #As u #Amr and Ibn #Amir, with the rest reading h adihi (Ibn .im, Ab . is . , Muj ahid, p. 271; Ibn al-Jawz , III, p. 104; Qurt , VII, p. 104; Bayd .ub . aw p. 193; cf. Ibn Kh alawayh, Hujja , p. 127; Ahw az , Ibn Muh ay s in , p. 234 ; . . . Tabris , VII, p. 213 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, V, p. 75 ; Rabin, West-Arabian , p. 99 ). . . According to one report, when a disciple read Q 6:141 to al-Rid . a, the Imam told him to open his mouth (iftatih . /iftah . al-fam) while pronounc ing the h a" (Himyar , pp. 215216 > Burh an, I, p. 556, no. 10, Bih ar, . . . 307 ). Mu hsin al-Fay d takes XCVI, p. 94, no. 6, Huwayz , I, p. 771 , no. . . . this to mean that the disciple had read h adihi and had been put right . is . by the Imam (S af , II, p. 162). This assumption is borne out by the tra. dition in KQ, where al-Rid adihi. For the text . a endorses the reading h . as . of the tradition cf. #Ayy ash , I, pp. 377380, nos. 97114, particularly nos. 97, 103, 104, 108; Kul n , III, pp. 564566 (b ab al-h ad wa-l-jad ad ). . as . 177 Fas , I, p. 199 > Huwayz , I, p. 709, . . l, p. 283, ll. 2223. See Qumm no. 42, Fas l , p. 283 , ll. 20 22 ; cf. Kul n , VIII, p. 287 , no. 432 (where bi. wal ayat #Al is a gloss) > S a f , II, p. 113 , Burh a n , I, p. 520 , no. 1 , Huwayz , . . I, p. 709, no. 43. 178 This tradition properly belongs in the chapter on S urat al-m a"ida, where the word al-mas h occurs ve times, at verses 17 (twice), 72 . (twice) and 75. For the possible derivation of mas h . from the Aramaic mesh h a see Jeery, Vocabulary, p. 265. In KQ muthaqqal occurs four times: . the meaning here is with a long nal vowel written with mater lectionis (mamd uda). At 348 it denotes with a longer (heavier) pronunciation, and at 180 and 343 it denotes with a double consonant (shadda). Mukhaaf occurs ve times: at 180, 181, 260 and 261 it denotes without a double consonant (shadda); at 325 it denotes without a vowel (i.e. with a suk un). See in general Versteegh, Grammar, index, s.vv. muthaqqal, mukhaaf.

notes

121

179 Fas . l, p. 284, ll. 2223. For this reading see Jeery, p. 131 (Ubayy); Qumm , I, pp. 221222 > S af , II, p. 173, Bih ar, VI, p. 313, no. 18, . . LXVII, p. 32, Huwayz , I, p. 782, no. 361. Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, . p. 65 has kasabat, but al-N ur cites Sa#ds text as iktasabat (Fas . l, p. 284, l. 23p. 285, l. 2). n: Ab b. #Uthma u #Uthm an (al-) Mu#all a b. #Uthm an Isn ad : Mu#alla al-Ahwal al-K uf, a transmitter from al-S a", VI, p. 112; . . adiq (Quhp Ardab l , II, p. 251). 180 Fas unaka as the reading of #Al (as . l, p. 283, ll. 1415. For yukdhib at 181) see Nah an , II, p. 417; Tha#lab, IV, p. 145; Tabris , . h . as, Ma # . u l-Fut uh, VII, p. 48 > S af , II, p. 116, Fas . IV, p. . . l, p. 283, ll. 1820; Ab 417. For yukdhib unaka as the reading of al-S . adiq see Jeery, p. 332. Of the Seven Readers, N a# and al-Kis a" read yukdhib unaka and the rest, yukadhdhib unaka (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 257; Samarqand , I, p. 444; Tha#lab , IV, p. 145; Ab u l-Fut uh, , III, pp. 2324; Ab u . IV, p. 417; Ibn al-Jawz Hayy an, IV, p. 116; cf. Tabar , VII, pp. 180181; M atur d , IV, p. 70; . . #Ukbar , p. 215). Translation: They will not bring anything which will render a lie that which you (i.e. Muhammad) bring. . 181 Fas ah, . l, p. 283, ll. 1516. For this tradition cf. Sa#d b. #Abdall N asikh, p. 66 (ending: l a ya"t una bi-h aqq yub t il u na bihi h aqqaka ); Qumm , I, . . . p. 196 (where al-S a diqs reading is erroneously given as l a ya " t u naka ; the . correct version [l a yukdhib unaka] is found in Bih ar, IX, p. 202, no. 66); . a. til yukdhib una bihi #Ayy ash , I, p. 359, no. 20 (ending: l a ya"t una bi-b h aqqaka )> S a f , II, p. 116 , Burh a n , I, p. 523 , no. 3 , Bi h a r , IX, p. 202, . . . no. 65, XVIII, pp. 231232, no. 72; Ibn Ab H a tim, IV, p. 1283 , no. . 7238; Kuln, VIII, p. 200, no. 241 (ending as in #Ayy ash) > S af , II, . p. 116; Suy ut , Durr, III, p. 18; al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, II, p. 599, . annahu k ana yaqra"u h adh a l-h a yukdhib unaka no. 4834 ( #an #Al . arf fa-innahum l mukhaafa q al l a yaj " una bi-h aqq huwa a h aqq min h aqqika ). See 180 . . . . b b. Shu#ayb: Ab Isn ad : Ya#qu u Muhammad Ya#q ub b. Shu#ayb b. M . tham/Maytham b. Yahy ar al-Asad , a transmitter from al. a al-Tamm n b. M S tham/Maytham: #Imr an . adiq (Modarressi, TS, p. 398).#Imra b. M tham/Maytham b. Yahy a al-Tamm a r al-Asad , paternal uncle of . Ya#q ub b. Shu#ayb, a transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and ya alal-S a" , IV, p. 273; Ardab l , I, pp. 644645).#Aba . adiq (Quhp Asad : #Ab aya b. #Amr b. Rib# al-Asad , a transmitter from #Al and al-Hasan (Ibn Sa # d, Tabaq a t , VI, p. 127 ; Quhp a " , III, p. 253 ; Ardab l , I, . . p. 435).

122

notes

182 Fas n , VIII, pp. 205206, no. 249 > . l, p. 284, ll. 1617. See Kul Huwayz , I, p. 761 , no. 254 , Fa s l , p. 284 , ll. 1416. Cf. Q 7:137 (wa-tammat . . kalimat rabbika l-h a #al a ban isr a" l ). . usn n: several transmitters from al-S Isn ad : Muhammad b. Marwa . . adiq bearing this name are recorded by al-T u s : (i) Mu hammad b. Marw an . . al-Bas r , who was also a transmitter from al-B a qir ( T u s , Rij a l , p. 136 , . . no. 18, p. 301, no. 332); (ii) Ab u #Abdall ah (or Ab u Yahy . a) Muhammad . b. Marw an al-Dhuhl al-Bas (d. 161/777778) (T , Rij al, p. 301, no. . us .r 333; he may be identical with (i)); (iii) Muhammad b. Marw an b. . #Uthm an al-Madan (T u s , Rij a l , p. 301 , no. 331 ). . 183 For this reading see Tisdall, p. 236.

184 For the identication of the qawm of Q 6:45 as the Umayyads see u l-Hasan #Al b. Muhammad [i.e. the also #Ayy ash , I, p. 359, no. 22 (Ab . . Imam al-H ad ]) > Burh an, I, p. 526, no. 6, Bih ar, LXVII, pp. 199200, . LXXX, pp. 315316, no. 6; Kishsh , pp. 7071 > Bih ar, XLII, pp. 135 . 136, no. 16, LXVII, pp. 199200. Elsewhere the qawm are said to be the #Abb asids (#Ayy ash , I, p. 360, no. 23 > S af , II, p. 121, Burh an, I, p. 526, . ar, XXXI, pp. 523524, no. 23, Huwayz , I, p. 719, no. 86) no. 7, Bih . . or the Umayyads and #Abb asidsthe former were punished unawares (baghtatan) and the latter will be punished openly (jahratan) (#Ayy ash , I, p. 360, no. 24 [Mans u r b. Y u nus < unidentied transmitter < alS a diq, . . to Q 6:4447] > Burh an, I, p. 526, no. 8, Bih ar, XXXI, p. 524, no. 24). . Translation: It is the last remnant of the Umayyads to which reference is made in the verse: of the people who did wrong the last remnant was cut o (Q 6:45). The downfall of one of them is tantamount to the downfall of many. 185 For this verse see in general Gramlich, Urvertrag; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 132133; DC, art. Pacte prternel (Genevive Gobillot). , Mukhtas For the tradition see Ibn Mahb ab al-mashyakha > Hill . . ub, Kit . ar, p. 169 (but reading dhurriyyatahum; isn ad : al-Hasan b. Mahb b. . . ub < #Al b < Ab Ri"a u Bas r < al-S . . adiq); its ending is a paraphrase of Q 3:81. The reading dhurriyy atihim was adopted by three of the Seven Readers (N a#, Ab u #Amr and Ibn #Amir) (see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 298; Ibn #At .iyya, II, p. 475; Ibn al-Jawz , III, p. 217; cf. Tha#lab , IV, p. 304, Tabris , IX, . p. 59) and was also followed by Ibn Miqsam (see Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, , II, pp. 4142, no. 116 (al-As p. 15). It is further attested in #Ayy ash .bagh b. Nub ata < #Al ) > Burh an, II, p. 51, no. 34 (but reading dhurriyyatahum),

notes

123

Bih ar, V, p. 258, no. 62 (dhurriyyatahum); Ibn al-Juh us, . am > Ibn T . aw . Yaq n, p. 283; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 55. Al-Tabar (IX, pp. . 111117) adduces numerous traditions on Q 7:172, in all of which the form dhurriyy atihim is recorded. Cf. 193, 195197, 405. 186 In this tradition, a man asks #Al about an apparent contradiction between two verses: according to the rst (Q 37:24), the unbelievers will be questioned on the Day of Judgment; according to the second (Q 3:77), God will neither speak to them nor look upon them. #Al replies that on that day people (here evidently meaning the unbelievers) will pass through various places; at some they will be stopped and questioned, at others they will be turned away (or: sent o to be punished) without being either stopped or questioned. A similar reply is ascribed to #Ikrima (see Qurt , X, p. 61, XVII, p. 174; idem, Tadhkira, p. 344). .ub Commentators discuss other pairs of verses with similar apparent contradictions, for example Q 37:24 vs. Q 55:39 (see Kar ajak , II, p. 189; T , VI, pp. 6566; Tabris , XXVII, p. 98) or Q 7:6 vs. Q 28:78 (see . us . T , IV, pp. 349351). For the nal sentence cf. 3. . us 187 Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 365, no. 42 (ar ada ghayr alladh q al ) > Burh an, I, p. 535, no. 15, Bih ar, XI, p. 88, no. 13. See further Murtad h, pp. . a, Tanz . 2023; Tabris , VII, p. 112. . 188 This exegesis on Q 6:8485 is quoted to show that just as Jesuss position as a descendant (dhurriyya) of Abraham is not aected by the fact that this descent is through his mother, so too al-Hasan and al. Husayns position as descendants of the Prophet is not a ected by the . fact that this descent is through their mother. The connection between the two cases (Jesus to Abraham via Maryam, al-Hasan and al-Husayn . . to the Prophet via F at ima) is said to have been pointed out by the . Bas ran Qur " a n scholar Ya hy a b. Ya # mar when he was brought before . . al-Hajj ash, I, p. 367, no. 53 [on the authority of Ab u l. aj (see #Ayy Harb b. Ab l-Aswad] > Burh an, I, p. 539, no. 9, Bih ar, XCVI, p. 243, . . r, Tafs r, II, p. no. 9; Ibn Ab H . atim, IV, p. 1335, no. 7554 > Ibn Kath 155, Suy ut , Durr , III, p. 51 ; Nu # m a n, Shar h , III, pp. 92 96 , no. 1021; . . Ibn B abawayh, Am al , pp. 564565; K uf , Man aqib, p. 224, no. 688; Kar ajak , I, pp. 357360 > Bih ar, X, pp. 147149, no. 1, XXV, pp. 243 . 246, no. 26; Ibn Khallik an, Wafay at, VI, p. 174), and by M us a al-K azim . when he addressed H ar un al-Rash d (see Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh af , pp. 298 . 299 [inna ll ah nasaba l-mas h # Is a b. Maryam il a khal lihi Ibr a h m bi-ummihi .

124

notes

Maryam etc.]; Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, I, p. 69, no. 9; Muf d, Ikhtis as . . , p. 50 > Bih a r , XLVIII, p. 122 , no. 1 ). Cf. Kul n , VII, p. 90 , no. 4 (citing . a min dhurriyyat Adam al-Fadl adh an [fa-ja #ala #Is ]), VIII, pp. 317318, . b. Sh no. 501 (fa-ja #ala #Is a b. Maryam min dhurriyyat N uh u l-Fut uh, . IV, p. . ); Ab adh a akad dal l anna awl ad F a. tima 479; Ganj , Kif aya, p. 340 ( wa-f h dhurriyya li-l-nab ); S a f , II, p. 137 ; 278 . . 189 For the beginning of this tradition see #Ayy ash , I, p. 383, no. 123 (Ab u Bas r < al-B a qir) > S a f , II, p. 170 , Burh a n , I, p. 562, no. 1, Bih ar, . . . XCII, p. 275, no. 7 (in the chapter Fad a " il s u rat al-an # a m ); for the ending . ar, XXIV, p. 13, no. see Qumm , I, p. 221 > Burh an, I, p. 563, no. 1, Bih . 9; cf. 378. The view that verses Q 6:151153 are muh at (eective, not . kam abrogated; cf. 171) is ascribed to Ibn #Abb as (Tabar , VIII, pp. 8687, . Tabris , VII, p. 235, R az , XIV, p. 4) and al-Sudd (Tabar , VIII, p. 87); . . it is also mentioned in Muq atil, I, pp. 157, 378. Al-Qurt ub (VII, p. 132) . cites the view of an unnamed authority according to which these verses incorporate the Decalogue (cited in Gnther, Commandments, p. 40; see further idem, pp. 3336). 190 Cf. Muq atil, I, p. 369. Elsewhere, the verse which came down in reply to Quraysh is said to have been either Q 28:68 (see e.g. Muq atil, u s , VIII, p. 174 , Tabris , XX, p. 314 ) or Q 43 :32 II, pp. 503504, T . . (see e.g. Tabar , XXV, p. 66 , Ibn Shu # ba, Tu h af , p. 344 [> Bi h a r , V, p. . . . 74, no. 1], Qurt .ub, XVI, p. 83). Unzila (at Q 43:31) is also attested in Qumm , II, p. 310. It is not clear whether this is a qir a"a or a scribal error. For ya #lamu (at Q 6:124) see Kul n , III, p. 500, no. 11; Kishsh , a r , X, p. 158 , no. 8 ; p. 125; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 201 > Bih . Ibn Kathr, Bid aya, IX, p. 86 (year 87/706). The reading ris al atihi (at s Q 6:124) adduced in ms. M was adopted by N a#, Ibn #Amir, #A .im (in the transmission of Ab u Bakr), Ab u #Amr, Hamza and al-Kis a" (Ibn . Muj ahid, p. 246; Tabris , VII, p. 185 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, V, p. 53 ; Ibn al. . Jawz, III, p. 91; Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 219; cf. 165), and was also followed . by Ibn Miqsam (Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 13). , I, p. 416, no. 21, p. 424, no. 61 (both from M alik al191 See Kul n Juhan ) > Najaf , p. 162, no. 1, Burh an, I, p. 519, no. 1, Bih a r , XXIII, p. . 190, no. 8. Cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 356, no. 13 > Tabris , VII, p. 25 (> Bih ar, . . IX, p. 85), Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 180, S af , II, p. 112, Burh a n, . I, p. 520, no. 3, Bih ar, IX, pp. 201202, no. 64. . lik al-Juhan r (or Ab Isn ad : Ma : Ab u Mans u Muhammad) M alik b. . .u

notes

125

A#yan al-Juhan , a K ufan (Bas , p. 189) trans.ran, according to Kishsh mitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , V, pp. 88 89 ; Ardab l , II, . pp. 3637). He was also a poet (Modarressi, TS, p. 82, notes 52, 53). 192 Fas records an anonymous account . . l, p. 285, ll. 1012. Al-Tabris d and S (wa-ruwiya) according to which Ibn Mas#u alim (i.e. S alim b. Ma#qil mawl a Ab Hudhayfa b. #Utba) read the verse as follows: wa-idh a . ar q al u rabban a # a"idhan bika an taj #alan a qulibat abs aruhum tilq a" as ab al-n . .h . ma #a l-qawm al-z a lim n (VIII, p. 67 > Bi h a r , VIII, p. 332 , Huwayz , II, p. . . . 36, no. 142, Fas . l, p. 136, ll. 2022, p. 285, ll. 1214). Another anonymous account cited by al-Tabris attributes this reading to al-S . . adiq (VIII, p. d, 67). For the reading qulibat see Jeery, pp. 43, 132, 234, 318 (Ibn Mas#u , Ubayy, S alim, al-A#mash); M atur d , IV, p. 433 (Ubayy); Zamakhshar II, p. 81 (al-A#mash). Cf. 194. sim b. #Urwa: Ab Isn ad : al-Qa u Muhammad (al-) Q asim b. #Urwa, . a resident of Baghd ad and a transmitter from disciples of al-S . adiq ": Ab (Modarressi, TS, pp. 359360).al-H l-#Ala u #Al . usayn b. Ab al-Husayn b. Ab l# Al a " al-Kha a f al-A # war, a K u fan transmitter from . l, pp. 144, 150; Modarressi, TS, al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Kohlberg, Us .u pp. 274275). 193 Of the Seven Readers, Ab u #Amr read yaq ul u and the rest, taq ul u; this latter reading is also recorded in a tradition having Yahy a alHalab . . in its isn ad (see Qumm, I, pp. 246247 > Burh an, II, pp. 4748, no. 12, Bih ar, V, p. 236, no. 12). The word yaq ul recorded in the manuscripts is ev. idently an error. Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. Cf. 185, 195197, 405. 194 Fas . l, p. 285, l. 12. Cf. 192.

atihim see 185. Cf. Fur at, I, 195 Fas . l, p. 285, ll. 1517. For dhurriyy pp. 145147, nos. 180184 > Fas . l, p. 285, l. 19p. 286, l. 12 (traditions with the reading a-lastu bi-rabbikum [variant: + q al u bal a] wa-anna Muh ammadan [ # abd wa] ras u l wa-anna # Aliyyan am r al-mu " min n ); #Ayy ash , . II, p. 41, nos. 113114 (wa-ashhadahum #al a anfusihim a-lastu bi-rabbikum waanna Muh ul all ah nabiyyukum [variant: wa-anna Muh . ammadan ras . ammadan ah] wa-anna #Aliyyan am r al-mu"min n) > Burh an, II, p. nabiyyakum ras ul all 50, nos. 3132, Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 332, no. 72, Huwayz , II, pp. 9899, . . no. 363, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724; Kul n , I, p. 412, no. 4 > Hill , Mukhta s ar , p. 171 , Najaf , p. 180 , no. 19 , Burh a n, II, p. 47, no. 10, . .

126

notes

Huwayz , II, p. 92, no. 336; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 5859. Cf. 185, . 193, 196, 197, 405. # Isn ad : Muhammad b. Isma l: Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Ism a# l b. . . Baz #, a K ufan transmitter from al-K azim, al-Rid ad, died . . a and al-Jaw during the imamate of al-Jaw ad (Quhp a" , V, pp. 151154; Ardab l , II, pp. 6976). For an example of his transmission from Muhammad . a"im > Hill , Muh b. Sin an see Ibn Sh adh an, Kit ab al-q . . tad . ar, p. 5 > Bih ar, XXVII, p. 308, no. 13 (Ibn Sh adh an < Muhammad b. Ism a# l < . . Muhammad b. Sin an < #Amm ar b. Marw an).Mans u r : he may well . . r b. Y r b. Y ad Mans unus be Mans unus (for whom see 82*; cf. the isn .u .u < Ab u l-Saf atij < J abir al-Ju#f [Najaf, p. 327, no. 10 > Burh an, III, p. 57, l-Safa tij: Ab no. 2, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 91, no. 10]).Abu u Ya#q ub Ish . aq . b. #Abd al-#Az z Ab u l-Saf atij al-Bazz az, a K ufan transmitter from alS a" , I, pp. 187188, VII, p. 49; Ardab l , I, p. 82, II, p. 390; . adiq (Quhp l-Rab z: al-M see 168*).Abu # al-Qazza azandar an (VII, p. 50 > Fas . l, p. 287, ll. 910) describes him as majh ul. He is only mentioned in this tradition as recorded in KQ and Kul n . Perhaps he is to be identied with Ab u l-Rab # Sulaym an b. Kh alid b. Dihq an al-Aqt .a# (see 121*); yet this person is nowhere called al-Qazz az. 196 Fas . l, p. 285, l. 19. Cf. 185, 193, 195, 197, 405.

197 Translation: The people of the right said: yes (we will acknowledge #Al as legatee); the people of the left acknowledged the two shah adas (i.e. Gods unicity and Muhammads prophethood), but when . they wanted to acknowledge am r al-mu"min n (as legatee), the Second (i.e. #Umar) indicated with his eye that they should not (do so); they refused to acknowledge (#Al as legatee) and were therefore cursed. For as ab al-yam n see Q 56:27, 38, 90, 91, Q 74:39; for as ab al-shim al see .h . .h . Q 56:41; in general Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin (= Divine Guide), index, s.v. ab al-yam n/as ab al-shim al. Cf. 185, 193, 195, 196, 405. as .h . .h . h: there are a number of Isn ad : #Al b. Muhammad b. Ab #Abdalla . transmitters from al-S b. Muhammad, but none of them . . adiq called #Al is known as #Al b. Muhammad b. Ab #Abdall ah (or Ab T . . alib). Perhaps #an Ab #Abdall ah was written down twice, the rst #an subsequently being changed to bn. 198 Fas . l, p. 287, ll. 1718. See 199. Isn ad : H b. al-Sar al-#Abd al-K uf , a . umayd: he may be Humayd . transmitter from al-S a diq (Quhp a " , II, p. 135 ; Ardab l , I, p. 284 ) and .

notes

127

a member of the #Abd al-Qays, the tribe to which J abir al-#Abd also bir al-#Abd belonged.Ja : he is mentioned in a single tradition in a] Kul n , I, p. 410, no. 1 (isn ad : Ibn Mahb ad [i.e. b. #Is . ub < Hamm . < Humayd < J abir al-#Abd [in the printed edition: Humayd wa-J abir . . al-#Abd , which appears to be an error] < #Al ) > Bih a r , XL, p. 336 , no. . 17. 199 The readings at 198199, when taken together, closely resemble the following qir a"a attributed to #Al : akhraja li- #ib adihi min al-qu. tn wa-lkatt an wa-l-. tayyib at min al-rizq al-h al a l qul hiya li-lladh na a man u yashrakuhum . f h a l-ku ar f l-duny a kh alis ama (see Jeery, p. 186). . atan lahum yawm al-qiy For al-h al as a gloss on al-. tayyib at min al-rizq see Ibn Ab H . atim, V, p. . al 1467, no. 8397 (Qat ada). Cf. 200*. 200 Cf. Tabris , Mishk at, p. 269 (from Ab an b. #Uthm an). For ashraka. kum ma #ahum cf. the reading yashrakuhum f h a l-ku ar at 199. : he may be Ahmad Isn ad : Ahmad b. Yahy b. Yahy . . a . . a al-Muqri", who transmitted from #Ubaydall ah b. M us a b. M us a al-#Abs al-K uf , himself a transmitter from al-S a diq (Quhp a " , IV, p. 126 ; Ardab l , I, p. 530; for . b, IX, p. 348, no. 1251). the isn ad cf. T . us, Tahdh 201 See Ibn B abawayh, Am al , p. 458; idem, Tawh d, p. 118, no. 22 > . Bih a r , XIII, p. 223 , no. 16 (Mu hammad b. M u s a b. al-Mutawakkil < . . #Al b. al-Husayn al-Sa#d ab ad < Ahmad b. Ab #Abdall ah al-Barq < . . his father Muhammad b. Kh alid < Ahmad b. al-Nadr . . . . < Muhammad ah b. Marw an < Muhammad b. al-S a"ib < Ab u [al-] S . < #Abdall . . alih b. #Abb as f qawlihi #azza wa-jalla: fa-lamm a af aqa q al subh a naka tubtu ilayka . wa-an a awwal al-mu"min n [Q 7:143] q al yaq ul: subh anaka tubtu ilayka min an . as"alaka ru"yatan wa-an a awwal al-mu"min n bi-annaka l a tur a). Cf. Muq atil, I, p. 414 (awwal al-mus addiq n bi-annaka lan tur a f l-duny a ); Thawr , Tafs r, . tubtu ilayka ] an as " alaka pp. 113114, no. 291; Tabar , IX, p. 55 (Muj a hid: [ . l-ru"ya); Ibn Ab H abawayh, . atim, V, pp. 15611562, no. 8950; Ibn B #Uy un, I, pp. 159160 > Burh an, II, pp. 3334, Huwayz , II, pp. 6465, . no. 248; Tha#lab , IV, p. 279 (wa-an a awwal al-mu"min n bi-annaka l a tur a f l-duny a); M award , II, p. 259 (awwal al-mu"min n bi-annahu l a yar aka shay" min khalqika); Tabris , Ih aj, p. 429; Vajda, Vision, pp. 34, 3843, 52 . . tij 53; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 124125 = Divine Guide, p. 48. 202 For the beginning cf. Bas a"ir, p. 69, no. 2 > S af , II, p. 235, . . Bih a r , XIII, p. 224 , no. 19 , XXVI, p. 342 , no. 12 , LIX, p. 184, no. .

128

notes

26, Huwayz , II, pp. 6364, no. 245 (wa-raw a ba #d abin a #an Ah . . as .h . . mad b. Muh ammad al-Sayy a r q a l wa-qad sami # tu an a min A h mad b. Mu h ammad . . . q al h Ab u Muh ah: cf. 19*] b. Ab . addathan . ammad #Ubayd [read: #Ubaydall #Abdall ah al-F aris wa-ghayruhu rafa # uhu il a Ab #Abdall ah #alayhi l-sal am q al: inna l-kar ubiyy n qawm min sh #atin a min al-khalq al-awwal ja #alahum all ah khalfa l- #arsh law qusima n ur w ah id minhum # al a ahl al-ar d la-kaf a hum thumma . . q al: inna M us a lamm a sa"ala rabbahu m a sa"ala amara w ah ubiy. idan min al-kar y n fa-tajall a li-l-jabal fa-ja #alahu dakkan); Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir, III, p. 569 (< ab al-Sayy ar , probably al-Sayy ar s Naw adir ; see Introduction, p. 35). Kit For the ending cf. the title of chapter 29 of al-Hurr al-#Amil , Fus ul (p. . . 60): inna ll ah subh anahu l a y us a ntiq al. Translation: It was . . af bi-h . araka wa-l one of the cherubs (not God) who became manifested to the mountain. (The mountain) turned to dust, and Moses fell down senseless. God is too great and majestic to be described as moving or changing from one state to another. For the kar ubiyy un see in general Ab u H na, II, . atim, Z p. 168; WKAS, I, pp. 115b, 556ab. 203 The kafar u of the manuscripts is evidently a scribal error; cf. "isha, atin a). The as ab al-jamal are #A Q 4:56 (inna lladh na kafar u bi- ay .h . Tal . ha, . al-Zubayr and their supporters, who fought against #Al in the Battle of the Camel (36/656). For the tradition cf. Qumm , I, p. 230 > Najaf , p. 171, no. 4, Burh an, II, p. 15, no. 1, Bih a r , XXXII, p. 106, no. 76 . (nazalat h adhihi l- aya f Tal h a wa-l-Zubayr wa-l-jamal jamaluhum ); #Ayy ash , . . II, p. 17, no. 40 > Burh an, II, p. 15, no. 2. 204 For this tradition cf. Bas a"ir, pp. 378379, no. 3 (in the chapter . entitled al-tafw d il a ras u l all a h ) > Bih ar, XVII, pp. 78, no. 10; Bas a"ir, . . . p. 379, nos. 4, 5, the latter > Bih ar, XVII, p. 8, no. 11; Kuln, I, pp. . 266267, no. 4 (beginning) > S af , V, p. 208, Bih ar, XVII, pp. 45, no. 3. . . The reading wa-"mur bi-l-ma #r uf recorded in mss. L and B is attested in , Tahdh b, IX, p. 397, no. 1417; Fatt al, a number of sources; see e.g. T . us Rawd awand, Fiqh, II, p. 42. Al-Tabar does not give . . a, pp. 369, 422; R this reading but equates the #urf of Q 7:199 with ma #r uf (IX, p. 156, cited in Cook, Commanding Right, p. 26); similarly Ibn Ab H . atim, V, p. 1638, no. 8684; Nah h a s, I # r a b , II, p. 170 . For Q 59 : 7 cf. 125 , 567. .. r < u Wahb < Muhammad b. Mans 205 See Bas a"ir, p. 33, no. 2 (Ab . .u . #Abd S azim]) > Bih ar, XXIV, p. 301, no. 7; #Ayy ash , II, p. . [i.e. al-K . . alih . r < #Abd S 16, no. 36 (Muhammad b. Mans an, II, p. 13, no. . . > Burh .u . alih) 4, cited in Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 123; Kul n , I, p. 374, no. 10 > Najaf ,

notes

129

pp. 170171, no. 3, S af , II, p. 194, Burh an, II, p. 13, no. 2; Nu#m an , . Ghayba, p. 186, no. 11 > Bih a r , XXIV, pp. 189 190 , no. 10 ; # Amil , Mir " a t, . p. 6. h: he may be Ab Isn ad : Muhammad b. #Abdalla u Ja#far Muhammad . . b. #Abdall ah b. Mihr an, an immediate authority of al-Sayy ar (Ibn ad and alB abawayh, #Ilal, p. 606, no. 81) and a transmitter from al-Jaw H ad . He was accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , V, pp. 249250; Ardab l , II, pp. 144145; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 23, note 26). His nisba is given both as al-Karkh and al-K uf (for the latter see Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 384, 606); al-K uf may be a corruption of al-Karkh . Abu Wahb: he is only known as a transmitter from Muhammad b. . r: Ardab r (Ardab Mans l , II, p. 204).Muhammad b. Mans l (II, p. . .u .u r who transmitted to Ab u 204) suggests that the Muhammad b. Mans . .u Wahb is the K ufan Muhammad b. Man s u r b. Y u nus Buzurj (for whom . . see Quhp a" , VI, p. 57). 206 Many commentators see in Q 7:175 an allusion to Bal#am; see e.g. Muq atil, I, p. 424; Qumm , I, pp. 248249 > Bih ar, XIII, pp. 377 . 378; #Ayy ash , II, p. 42, no. 118 (Sulaym an al-Labb an < al-B aqir) > Burh an, II, p. 51, no. 2, Bih ar, XIII, p. 379; Tabar , IX, pp. 119121; . . , V, pp. 8889; Ibn B abawayh, Ibn Muhakkam, II, pp. 5859; M atur d . Ikm al, p. 601; Tha#lab , IV, pp. 305306; Ab u l-Fut uh, V, p. 329 ; Qurt . .u b , IX, pp. 319320; Suy ut , Durr , III, pp. 265 268 ; idem, Muf h am a t , p. . . 2 r( m (for a) (G. Vajda). The form Bul#u 96; EI , art. Bal#am b. Ba#u m) does not appear to be attested elsewhere. Bal#am/Bal#a 207 Fas , . . l, p. 288, ll. 67. For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 67, Tabar IX, p. 174, Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 48, Ab u l-Fut uh, . V, p. 366 (Ibn Mas#ud); d, Ubayy, Tal Jeery, pp. 44, 133, 256, 270, 286, 333 (Ibn Mas#u . ha, . #Ikrima, #At a " b. Ab Rab a h, alS a diq); idem, Zaid, p. 260 (Zayd b. . . . ); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 (al-S a diq) > Fa s l , p. 288 , ll. 15 16 ; #Al . . Qumm, as cited in Bih ar, XCVI, p. 213, no. 19 (in the printed edition . of Qumm , at I, p. 254, the words q ala nazalat yas"al unaka l-anf al are missing); #Ayy ash , as cited in Bih a r , XCVI, p. 211 , no. 11 , Huwayz , II, . . p. 120, no. 19 (in the printed edition of #Ayy ash , at II, p. 48, no. 17 > ala yas"al unaka l-anf al are missing); Burh an, II, p. 62, no. 39, the words q Nah ab, II, p. 175, idem, Ma # an , III, pp. 127128 (Sa#d b. Ab . h . as, I #r Waqq as an , Tafs r, p. 46 (the reading with #an is a falsication .); Nu#m [tah f ]); Ibn Jinn , I, p. 272, Tabris , IX, p. 98 (> Bih ar, XIX, p. 211, . . r . d, Sa#d b. Ab u Huwayz , II, p. 117 , no. 4 , Fa s l , p. 136 , l. 23 ) (Ibn Mas # . .

130

notes

Waqq as Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir, al-S . ha . b. Mus ., #Al . adiq, Tal .arrif; Tabris : also Zayd b. # Al ); Muf d, Sarawiyya , p. 83 ; Tha # lab , IV, p. . d, al-Da 326 (Ibn Mas#u a"at ahl al-bayt ); . h . h . ak, #Ikrima); T . us, V, p. 72 (qir Ibn #At u Hayy an, IV, p. 453 (Sa#d b. Ab Waqq as . .iyya, II, p. 496, Ab ., d, #Al Ibn Mas#u b. al-Husayn, al-B a qir, Zayd b. # Al , alS a diq, Tal ha . . . . "); R b. Mus awand , Fiqh, I, p. 249 (Ibn . h . h . ak, #At .arrif, #Ikrima, al-Da .a d and qir Mas#u a"at ahl al-bayt ); Fas . l, p. 23, l. 23 (the reading with #an as n). See an example for the addition of a word to the text of the Qur"a 208, 211. uf , a nephIsn ad : Shu#ayb: Ab u Ya#q ub Shu#ayb b. Ya#q ub al-#Aqarq ew of Ab u Bas asim al-Asad and a transmitter from al. a b. al-Q .r Yahy l, p. 146: Modarressi, TS, p. 371). S azim . (Kohlberg, Us . adiq and al-K .u 208 Fas . l, p. 288, ll. 78. See 207, 211. sit Isn ad : al-Wa : he may well be Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-W asit , . . . . a transmitter from al-S an b. #Uthm an (T , . us . adiq who transmitted to Ab ar, XII, p. 117, no. 53). Al-W asit does Tahdh b, I, p. 465, no. 1524 > Bih . . not appear to be mentioned elsewhere as Ab ans paternal uncle. He is to be distinguished from his namesake, a transmitter from al-Jaw ad (Quhp a", V, p. 195; Ardabl, II, p. 96; cf. Kh u", XVI, p. 283, no. 10574). 209 Fas an , I, p. 205, . . l, p. 289, ll. 1516. For this reading see Hask no. 268, citing the anonymous al-Tafs r al- #at q (ruwiya #an Y unus b. [read: qawlihi ta # al a: y a #an] Bakk ar #an ab hi #an Ab Ja #far Muh f . ammad b. #Al ayyuh a lladh na aman u l a takh un u ll ah wa-l-ras ul wa-takh un u am an atikum f al Muh un); Tisdall, p. 237. . ammad wa-antum ta #lam Isn ad : Bakkar: Bakk ar b. Ab Bakr al-Ha , a K ufan transmitter . dram . n: he from al-S a" , I, p. 272; Ardab l , I, p. 125).H . assa . adiq (Quhp an b. al-Mugh ra al-Jamm al, a K ufan may be Ab u #Al Hass . an b. Mihr transmitter from al-B aqir, al-S a diq and al-K a zim (Quhp a " , II, pp. 94 . . 95; Ardabl, I, p. 187; Modarressi, TS, pp. 257258). 210 Fas . l, p. 289, ll. 78. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 44, 133, 187, d, Ubayy, #Al 225 (Ibn Mas#u , Zayd b. Th abit); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 49 d, Zayd b. Th (Ibn Mas#u abit, Ab u l-#Aliya); Ibn Jinn , I, pp. 277278, , IX, p. 127 (> S af , II, p. 290, Bih ar, V, p. Ibn #At . .iyya, II, p. 516, Tabris . . 282, XXV, p. 92, no. 68, LXX, p. 335, Huwayz , II, p. 143, no. 62) (#Al , . Zayd b. Th abit, al-B aqir, al-Rab # b. Anas, Ab u l-#Aliya, Ibn Jamm az [i.e. Sulaym an b. Muslim b. Jamm az al-Zuhr , d. after 170/786787;

notes

131

see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 315, no. 1387]; Ibn Jamm az is not mentioned in Tabris ); # Ukbar , p. 263 ( wa-quri " a f l-sh a dhdh ); Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. . . d, #Al, Zayd b. Th 478 (Ibn Mas#u abit, al-B aqir, al-Rab# b. Anas, Ab u lib l-#Aliya); Tha#a , III, p. 125 (#Al ). Ibn Jinn (I, p. 277, cited in Ibn #At a (in l a tus banna) was .iyya, II, p. 516) maintains that the alif of the l . omitted due to takhf f (shortening of the pronunciation), and that the meaning is not aected. Isn ad : #Abd al-Rah m al-Qas r: he may well be #Abd al-Rah m b. . . . Rawh r al-Asad , a K u fan transmitter from al-B a qir and al. al-Qas . S a diq (Quhp a " , IV, p. 86 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 455 456 ).T ha # laba : Ab u . Ish un al-Nahw ufan transmitter from al. aq Tha#laba b. Maym . , a K S . adiq and his disciples (Modarressi, TS, p. 380). ulihi is also attested in Ibn Kath r, 211 Fas . l, p. 288, ll. 810. Wa-li-ras Bid aya, III, p. 368. It is not clear whether this is a genuine qir a"a or a scribal error (cf. Q 63:8: wa-li-ll ah al- #izza wa-li-ras ulihi ). See 207, 208. Isn ad : Khalaf: Khalaf b. Hamm ad b. Y asir/N ashir al-Asad , a K u. fan transmitter from al-K azim (Quhp a " , II, p. 271 ; Ardab l , I, pp. 297 . l-Maghra ": Ab 298).Abu u l-Maghr a" Humayd b. al-Muthann a al. azim #Ijl al-Sayraf , a K ufan transmitter from al-S . (Kohl. . adiq and al-K berg, Muslim Scholar, pp. 124125, no. 58; Modarressi, TS, pp. 273274). 212 Of the Seven Readers, only Ab u #Amr read us ar a (rather than asr a) (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 309, Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 436, Samarqand , II, p. 33); this was also the reading of Zayd (Jeery, Zaid b. #Al , p. 224). See also Tha#lab , IV, p. 374 (Ab u Muhammad, Ab u Ja#far); Ibn #At . .iyya, II, p. 554 (Ab u #Amr, Ab u Ja#far, Qat ada, Nas r b. # A s im, Ibn Ab Ish . aq); . . Tabris , IX, p. 180, Ab u l-Fut uh, u Ja#far, Ab u #Amr); . . V, p. 441 (Ab s Ab u Hayy an, IV, p. 516 (Ab u Ja#far, Ibn Ab Ish u . . aq, Nas .r b. #A .im, Ab #Amr). The tradition refers to two events relating to al-#Abb as: rst, the ransom which he paid for himself, for his nephew(s) and for his ally after his capture at Badr (see e.g. Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq at, IV, pp. 1316; . Kul n , VIII, p. 202, no. 244; Qurt , VIII, p. 52; Suy ut , Durr, III, pp. .ub . 369370; Landau-Tasseron, Alliances, p. 160); second, the annuity he at, IV, was given from the produce of Khaybar (see e.g. Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq . p. 18; EI 2, art. al-#Abb as b. #Abd al-Mut t alib [W. Montgomery Watt]). .. For Q 9:128 see 226, 227. 213 For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 66; Qumm , I, p. 297 > S a f , II, p. 383 , Huwayz , II, p. 277 , no. 385 ; Tabris , X, pp. . . .

132

notes

156157 (al-Rid an, II, p. 168, no. 2; Ibn Jabr, Nahj, p. 580; Bar. a) > Burh Asher, Readings, p. 60; idem, Scripture, p. 167. See 214. 214 Cf. the account in which al-S # qir a"a of Q . adiq recites the Sh 9:117; his disciple Ab an b. Taghlib observes that this is not how the Sunn s (al- # amma) read the verse, and then cites the version of the #Uthm anic codex. To this al-S . adiq responds: What sin did the Prophet commit for which God forgave him? Indeed, it was through him that God forgave his community (fa-ayy dhanb k ana li-ras ul all ah s a t aba . h . att a ummatihi ) (Tabris , I h tij ll ah #alayhi #anhu/minhu? innam a t aba ll ah bihi #al . . aj, p. 76 > S af , II, p. 383, Bih ar, XXVIII, p. 192, no. 2, Huwayz , II, pp. . . . 277278, no. 386, all > Fas . l, p. 290, ll. 1522). The text of KQ should perhaps be emended accordingly to read: m a k ana li-l-nab dhanb fayat uba #alayhi minhu. See 213; cf. 508, 517. 215 Fas , I, p. 297 > . l, p. 292, ll. 1213. For this tradition see Qumm alaf u see (in addition to Huwayz , II, p. 279, no. 390. For the reading kh . the references given at 217*) Jeery, pp. 187, 319, 333 (#Al [according to some], al-A#mash, al-S a diq); idem, Zaid, p. 261 (Zayd b. #Al ); . Nah an , III, p. 265, Tha#lab, V, p. 105, Zamakhshar, II, p. . h . as, Ma # 218, Qurt , VIII, p. 282 (al-S alawayh, p. 55 (Ab u #Abd .ub . adiq); Ibn Kh al-Rahm a n al-Sulam , # Al [i.e. Zayn al# Abid n?], alS a diq); Ibn Jinn , . . n, al-B aqir, al-S a diq, Ab u # Abd alI, pp. 305306 (#Al Zayn al-#Abid . Rahm ); T , V, p. 316 (qir a"at ahl al-bayt ); Tabris , X, pp. . an al-Sulam . us . 153 (Ab u #Abd al-Rahm , #Al Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir, . an al-Sulam al-S a diq), 157 ( qir a " at ahl al-bayt ) > S a f , II, p. 386 , Huwayz , II, p. . . . 15 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, VI, p. 133 ; Ibn al278, no. 387, Fas l , p. 292 , ll. 14 . . Jawz , III, p. 387 (Ab u Raz n [i.e. the Companion Ab u Raz n Laq t . b. #Amir al-#Uqayl ; see Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel, I, table 104, II, p. 376; Ibn #Abd al-Barr, Ist # ab, II, p. 1657, no. 2952], Ab u Mijlaz, al-Sha#b , Ibn Ya#mar); Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 112 (Ab u Zayd, Ab u Mijlaz, al-Sha # b , Ibn . Ya#mar, #Al b. al-Husayn, Zayd b. #Al, al-B aqir, al-S . . adiq); Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 6061. See 216, 217. Isn ad : #Umar b. Yaz d: of the two transmitters from al-S . adiq bearing u M us a #Umar this name (see 72*), the reference here is probably to Ab b. Yaz d b. Dhuby an al-Sayqal, since in a similar isn a d he is called . al-Sayqal (Muhammad b. Ab Nas d al. . .r < Tha#laba < #Umar b. Yaz m, Tibb Sayqal < al-S a Bist ar, XCV, p. 54, no. . , p. 41 > Bih . . adiq; see Ibn .a . 15).

notes 216 Fas . l, p. 292, ll. 1314. See 215, 217.

133

217 Fas ash , II, p. 115, . l, p. 292, ll. 1112. For this tradition see #Ayy no. 152 (Fayd ar < al-S af , II, p. 386, Burh an, II, . b. al-Mukht . adiq) > S . p. 169, no. 7, Bih a r , XXI, p. 237 , no. 22 , Huwayz , II, p. 278 , no. 388; . . a n , II, p. 169 , no. 2, Kul n , VIII, p. 377, no. 568 > S a f , II, p. 386 , Burh . Bih ar, XCII, p. 58, no. 40 and the commentary in M azandar an, XII, . pp. 542543. #Uthm ans two companions (s ah ahu) are Ab u Bakr and . . ib #Umar; the three of them disobeyed (kh alaf u) the Prophet during the expedition to Tab uk in the year 9/630 (see Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 61, note 65). See 215, 216; cf. 667. r: (al-) Fayd Isn ad : Fayd ar al-Ju#f , a K ufan . b. al-Mukhta . b. al-Mukht a" , V, pp. 40 transmitter from al-B aqir, al-S azim . (Quhp . adiq and al-K 42; Ardab l , II, p. 14). He was reportedly the rst to hear from al-S . adiq that al-K azim would be the next Imam (Kishsh , p. 302 ; cf. Muf d, . Irsh ad, pp. 288, 289.) 218 Fas ash , II, pp. . l, p. 289, l. 23p. 290, l. 1. For this reading see #Ayy 8889, no. 58 (#Abdall ah b. Muhammad alHajj a l < al-Ri d a , ara . . . Zur ar, < al-B aqir) > S af , II, p. 344, Burh an, II, pp. 128129, no. 14, Bih . . XIX, p. 80, no. 33, Huwayz , II, p. 220, nos. 160161; Kul n , VIII, p. . 378, no. 571 (al-Rid akadh a naqra"uh a wa-h akadh a tanz luh a) > S af , II, . a: h . p. 344, Burh an, II, p. 128, no. 13, Huwayz , II, p. 220 , no. 158 , Fa s . . l, p. 289, ll. 2122, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 212, with note 432 , Jaw ami #, I, p. 535, Turay h , II, p. 860 = Divine Guide, p. 201; Tabris . . . (al-S a diq); # Im a d al-D n, # Uy u n , p. 243 ; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 59, . with note 63; idem, Scripture, p. 103. As noted by Bar-Asher, this reading is meant to clarify beyond any doubt that it was the Prophet, not Ab u Bakr, who received divine revelation during their sojourn in the cave while eeing from Mecca. Cf. Q 48:26; 220. 219 Fas ah, Mukhtas a"ir as . l, p. 291, l. 14. See Sa#d b. #Abdall . ar al-bas . ash , cited in Hill , Mukhtas ar, LIII, p. 71, no. 70; #Ayy . . ar, p. 21 > Bih . II, pp. 112113, no. 140 (Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir) > Huwayz , II, p. 273, . . no. 362; Kul n , VIII, pp. 377378, no. 569 > S af , II, pp. 380381, . Bih a r , XCII, p. 59 , no. 41 , Huwayz , II, p. 274 , no. 368, all > Fas . . . l, p. 291, l. 14p. 292, l. 4. For this reading see also Jeery, pp. 45, 134, d, Ubayy, al-A#mash); Farr 319 (Ibn Mas#u a", I, pp. 16, 453, Nah . h . as, d); Ibn B I #r ab, II, p. 238, Tha#lab , V, p. 98 (Ibn Mas#u abawayh, Faq h, s II, p. 141, no. 63; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 305; Samarqand , II, p. 92 (#A im .

134

notes

d, [presumably Ibn Ab l-Naj ud]); Zamakhshar , II, p. 216 (Ibn Mas#u Ubayy) > Fas l , p. 137 , l. 2 ; Ibn # A t iyya, III, p. 88 , Qur t ub , VIII, p. 271 . . . d); Tabris d, al(the codex of Ibn Mas#u , X, p. 146 (Ubayy, Ibn Mas#u . A#mash, al-B aqir, al-S af , II, p. 380, Huwayz , II, p. 274, no. . . adiq) > S . d); 367; Ab u l-Fut uh, . VI, p. 125 (the codices of Ubayy and Ibn Mas#u 24, Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 106 (Ubayy, Ibn Mas # u d, al-A # mash); Fa s l , p. . . ll. 56. 220 Fas uh . l, p. 290, ll. 13. The reading bi-r . minhu (or, according to mss. L, T and B: bi-r uh al-qudus minhu ) does not appear to be recorded . elsewhere. It is stated in the Qur"an that God supports the believers with His spirit (wa-ayyadahum bi-r uh . minhu) (Q 58:22) and supports Jesus with the holy spirit (r uh al-qudus ) (Q 2:87, 2:253, 5:110). Cf. 218. . 221 Fas ash ub, Ma. l, p. 290, ll. 1314. For this reading see Ibn Shahr th alib > Fas . l, p. 290, l. 14; Tisdall, p. 237. The addition of waylaka (woe # interpretation of Q 9:40 as critical of unto you) reinforces the Sh Ab u Bakr (cf. Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 8485, 102103). 222 Fas , XI, p. 34, . . l, p. 291, ll. 79. For this reading see Tabar Ahw az , Bas , p. 312, Zamakhshar , II, p. 216 (al-Hasan al-Bas ; re. .r . r jected by al-Tabar himself [XI, p. 35 ] on the ground that it is not . recorded in the codices of the Muslims [mas a h if al-muslim n ]); Ibn . . Ghalb un, II, p. 444, T , V, p. 303, Ibn al-Jawz , III, p. 380 (Ya#q ub . us ub b. Ish al-Bas , one of the Ten Readers, [i.e. Ya#q . aq al-Ha . dram . .r d. 205/820821]); Tha#lab , V, p. 96, Qurt , VIII, p. 266 (al-Hasan, . .ub Ya#q ub, Ab u H a tim [i.e. Ya # q u b alHa dram s student Ab u H . . . . atim Sahl u H b. Muhammad al-Sijist an , d. 255/869; see EI2, art. Ab . atim al. Sidjist an (B. Lewin), Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 320321, no. 1403]); Tabris , . X, p. 138 (Ya#q ub, Sahl, al-Hasan, Qat ada, al-Jahdar [i.e. Ab u l-Mu. . s jashshir #A l-Sabb ah al-Bas , d. ca. 128/745746; . al-Jahdar . .im b. Ab . .r see Ibn al-Jazar, I, p. 349, no. 1498] and others, wa-raw ahu l-Barq #an , Jaw ami #, Ab #Abdall ah [i.e. al-S . . adiq]) > Fas . l, p. 291, ll. 911; Tabris I, p. 559 (al-S af , II, p. 380; Ab u Hayy an, V, p. 105 (Hasan, . . . adiq) > S . Muj ahid, Qat ada, Ya#q ub). According to al-Nu#m an (Tafs r, p. 32), ill a an has the same meaning as il a an. 223 Fas at, II, p. 423, no. 560 (imm a yu #adhdhi. l, p. 291, ll. 67. Cf. Fur a r , XX, p. 114 , no. 44 , citing Kul n buhum wa-imm a an yat uba #alayhim); Bih . (imm a an yu #adhdhibahum wa-imm a yat ubu #alayhim; in the printed edition of

notes

135

Kul n [II, p. 407, no. 1 > Burh an, II, p. 160, no. 1] the text of the #Uthm anic codex is cited). Isn ad : al-Azraq: Sabb ah d al-Azraq al-K uf , a trans. b. #Abd al-Ham . . # mitter from al-S a" , III, p. 209; Ardab l , I, p. 410).Isma l . adiq (Quhp bir: Ism b. Ja a# l b. J abir al-Ju#f /al-Khath#am , a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (van Ess, TG, I, p. 332; Modarressi, TS, pp. 305306). According to al-Tustar (Rij al, II, pp. 3337), the correct nisba is al-Khath#am , and al-Ju#f was introduced as the result of a confusion with Ism a# l b. #Abd al-Rahm . In contrast, al-Kh u" . an al-Ju#f maintains (IV, p. 34, no. 1310) that Ism a# l b. J abirs nisba is al-Ju#f , and that al-Khath#am is a scribal error. 224 All four manuscripts of KQ reproduce the text of Q 9:19 as it is recorded in the #Uthm anic codex. It appears from the context, however, that a reading is being cited here, presumably suq at al-h ajj wa. #amarat al-masjid al-h am (those who slake the pilgrims thirst and keep . ar the holy mosque in repair). This reading is not attributed elsewhere to d but is ascribed to a number of early authorities; see Jeery, Ibn Mas#u p. 228 (Ibn al-Zubayr); Nah ab, II, p. 207 (Ab u Wajza [i.e. Ab u . h . as, I #r Wajza al-Sa#d Yazd b. (Ab) #Ubayd al-Madan, d. 130/747; see Ibn alJazar , II, p. 382, no. 3879, GAS, II, pp. 428429]); Nah an , III, . h . as, Ma # p. 192; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 285, Tabris , X, p. 30 (al-B a qir, Ibn al-Zubayr, . d b. al-Qa#q a#, one of Ab u Wajza al-Sa#d , Ab u Ja#far al-Q ari" [i.e. Yaz the Ten Readers]); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 52 (Ab u Wajza al-Sa#d, Yaz d b. al-Qa#q a#); Samarqand , II, p. 47 (qir a"a sh adhdha); Zamakhshar , II, p. 180 (cf. Lane, Commentary, p. 337), Qurt , VIII, p. 91 (Ibn al-Zubayr, .ub Ab u Wajza); Bayd a w , p. 250 ; Lane, s.v. siq aya; Rabin, West-Arabian, p. . 143. The Imam seems to distinguish between those in charge of the oce of providing water for the pilgrims (ahl al-siq aya) and those who perform the actual service (al-suq at ). There appears to be no report stating that the Imams were ahl al-siq aya; #Abb as, however, is often reported as b. #Abd to have been in charge of the oce (see e.g. EI 2, art. al-#Abb al-Mut .t .alib [W. Montgomery Watt], art. Ka#ba [A.J. Wensinck(J. Jomier)], at IV, p. 320; K uf , Man aqib, I, pp. 134135, no. 74; Hask an , . I, pp. 248251, nos. 335339; Qurt ub , VIII, p. 91 ), so the reference . here might be to the H ashim s and not specically to the Imams. The ending of the tradition may be corrupt; a possible emendation would be annahum ahl al-siq aya (for f as amihim bi-l-siq aya). . l qiy Isn ad : Ish a q b . I br a h m : Is h a q b. Mu hammad b. Ibr ah m al-Hu . . . . day. n , a transmitter from al-K azim, al-Ri d a and al-Jaw a d (Quhp a " , I, pp. . .

136

notes

184, 198; Ardab l , I, pp. 79, 88). Judging by the isn ad in KQ, he also transmitted from al-H ad . 225 The sentence j ahid al-ku ar wa-l-mun aq n (ght the unbelievers and the hypocrites) occurs twice, at Q 9:73 and Q 66:9. Exegetes attempt to square this with accounts in the S ra literature according to which Muhammad did not take up arms against the hypocrites. . According to one Sh # tradition, when the verse came down and the Prophet pledged to ght both the unbelievers and the hypocrites (lauj ahidanna l- #am aliqa ya #n l-ku ar wa-l-mun aq n), the archangel Gabriel told him: either you or #Al (will ght them) (T , Am al , II, p. . us ar, XXXII, p. 292, no. 247; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 196 > Bih ar, 116 > Bih . . . tij . XXIX, p. 423, no. 7). #Al is indeed said to have fought both the unbelievers (during the Prophets lifetime) and the hypocrites (after the Prophets death) (see 585). Another view is that Muhammad fought . the unbelievers and, before his death, instructed #Al to complete the mission by ghting the hypocrites (i.e. #Al s enemies at the battles of the Camel, Si n and al-Nahraw an) (cf. Nu#m an, Sharh . . , I, p. 114, II, p. 73; Muf d, #Ukbariyya, p. 116). A dierent way of resolving the issue is based on the Sh # reading j ahid al-ku ar bi-l-mun aq n (ght the , V, p. 260, X, p. unbelievers by means of the hypocrites) (see T . us 52; Ab u l-Fut uh, awand , Fiqh, I, p. 342). The . VI, p. 70, XI, p. 202; R explanation for this qir a"a is that the Prophet, rather than ghting the hypocrites, courted their friendship (k ana yata"allafuhum) (thereby aiming to weaken the unbelievers) (see 584; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 66; Tabris , X, p. 100 [to Q 9 : 73 ] > S a f , II, p. 358 , Bi h a r , XIX, pp. 155 . . . 156, Huwayz , II, p. 241 , no. 237 ; Tabris , XXVIII, p. 128 [to Q 66:9] . . >S af , V, p. 197, Bih ar, XIX, p. 163, Huwayz , II, p. 241, no. 238, V, . . . p. 375, no. 37; cf. Qumm , I, p. 301 [to Q 9:73] > Burh an, II, p. 145, no. 1, Huwayz , II, p. 242, no. 239). See further Kohlberg, Jih ad, . pp. 7071. The tradition cited in KQ is also recorded in Qumm , II, p. 377, to Q 66:9 (isn ad : Ya#q ub b. Yaz d < Sulaym an al-K atib < an unidentied transmitter < al-S af , II, p. 358, V, p. 197, . adiq) (> S . Burh an, IV, p. 357, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIX, p. 426, no. 16, Huwayz , II, p. . . nic verse is followed by the words 242, no. 241). In Qumm the Qur"a h akadh a nazalat. This is evidently erroneous, as the version cited there is that of the #Uthm anic codex (and the tradition would not make sense otherwise). n Ka tib #Al Isn ad : Sulayma b. Yaqt n: he is Sulaym an b. al-Husayn . . K atib #Al b. Yaqt n, who transmitted from # Al b. Yaq t . . n (for whom see

notes

137

484*) and transmitted to Ya#q ub b. Yaz d (Quhp a" , IV, p. 240; Kh u" , IX, p. 252, no. 5433). 226 Fas n , VIII, p. 378, . l, p. 292, ll. 2122. For this tradition see Kul no. 570 > Burh an, II, p. 175, no. 1, Bih a r , XCII, p. 59 , no. 42, Huwayz , . . II, p. 287, no. 429, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 212, with note 433 = Divine Guide, pp. 201202; Majlis , Mir" at, XXVI, p. 566 am k ana mukh alifan li-m a f (wa-yadullu #al a anna mus .h . afahum #alayhim al-sal ayd l-n as f ba #d al-ashy a " ) > Fa s l , p. 292 , ll. 22 23 . For this reading . . see also #Ayy ash , II, p. 118, no. 166 (#Abdall ah b. Sulaym an < alB aqir; but with bi-sh #atin a for bi-l-mu"min n) > Burh an, II, pp. 175176, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 329330, no. 50, Huwayz , II, p. 286, no. 427. . . A dierent reading of this verse is min anfasikum the most excellent among you (for min anfusikum). It is ascribed to a number of early authorities, including the Prophet (see H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. 619, no. 2999, Zamakhshar , II, p. 223), F at , X, p. 167) and . .ima (see Tabris #Abdall ah b. Qusayt (see Ibn Jinn , I, p. 306). Cf. 212, 227. . al-Makk b. al-Muba rak al-Qurash Isn ad : Yahy : the nisba al-Qurash is . a not mentioned elsewhere. For the isn ad see 143. an, 227 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 118, no. 165 (Tha#laba < al-S . adiq) > Burh II, p. 175, no. 2, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 329 , no. 49 ; # Ayy a sh , II, p. 118 , no. . 166 (#Abdall ah b. Sulaym an < al-B aqir) > Burh an, II, pp. 175176, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 329330, no. 50. In these traditions it is stated . that the three expressions min anfusikum/anfusin a, m a #anittum/ #anitn a, h ar s # alaykum/ # alayn a refer to the Imams, while bi-l-mu " min n/bi-sh # atin a . . refers to their followers. This claries the nal sentence in KQ (three quarters concern us and one quarter concerns our sh #a; cf. 11). For the reading of Q 9:128 given here cf. 212, 226. 228 Mustadrak, XIII, p. 188, no. 15058, XIV, p. 28, no. 16015. For this tradition (without the ending) see #Ayy ash , II, p. 101, no. 93 (Ab u l-J ar ud < al-S af , II, p. 362, Burh an, II, p. 148, no. 2, Bih ar, . adiq) > S . . XXXVIII, p. 306, no. 6; Irbil , II, p. 272. Translation: #Al went and oered himself as a hireling, stipulating that for every bucket of water that he drew he would receive a date of his choosing; in this way he collected a mudd (of dates) which he brought to the Prophet. #Abd alRahm . an b. #Awf, who was at the door, slandered and disparaged him (by casting doubts on his motives for giving charity). In contrast to this # accounts present negative image of #Abd al-Rahm . an b. #Awf, non-Sh

138

notes

him as a virtuous Companion who generously gave to charity only to be slandered by some mun aq un; see e.g. Muj ahid, Tafs r, pp. 372 373, Ibn Wahb, J ami #/Tafs r, p. 168 (fol 26b ll. 1520), Tabar , X, pp. . 194197, Ibn Ab H . atim, VI, pp. 18501851, nos. 10504, 1050610508, M atur d , V, p. 434 (to Q 9:79). For the beginning of Q 9:80 being immediately followed by the ending of Q 9:125 see also #Ayy ash , II, p. , II, p. 250, no. 265. 102, no. 95 > Burh an, II, p. 149, no. 5, Huwayz . Similarly, in some traditions the beginning of Q 9:54 is immediately followed by the ending of Q 9:125; see Barq , I, p. 166, no. 123 > Bih a r , LXVIII, p. 103 , no. 14 ; Kul n , II, p. 464 , no. 3 > Huwayz , . . II, p. 226, no. 182; Bih ar, LXVIII, p. 266, no. 23, citing al-Tabris s . . Ih aj (however, in the printed edition of the Ih aj, at p. 248, Q 9:54 . tij . tij is cited in its entirety, and is not followed by Q 9:125). Al-Majlis oers several explanations for the combination of Q 9:54 and Q 9:125, one qir a"a of Q 9:54 (Bih ar, LXVIII, pp. 103104, being that this is a Sh # . 267268). These explanations are also applicable for the combination of Q 9:80 and Q 9:125. r: Ab Isn ad : H u #Abdall ah Husayn b. (al-) Mukht ar . usayn b. Mukhta . al-Qal anis , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim. His kit ab . . was transmitted by Hamm ad b. #Is a (Modarressi, TS, p. 277). . ar, IX, p. 229 Cf. Qumm , I, p. 310 > Burh an, II, p. 180, no. 2, Bih . 213, no. 90, XXXVI, pp. 7980, no. 2, Huwayz , II, p. 296 , no. 27. . The version given in Qumm, Bih ar and Huwayz is ill a m a y uh a ilayya . . . ya #n f #Al , making f #Al a gloss. In the Burh an this passage appears as a ill a m a y uh a ilayya min wal ayat #Al . See also Fur at, I, p. 177, no. 227 (ill . m a y uh a ilayya min rabb f # Al ) > Bi h a r , XXXVI, pp. 138 139 , no. 98 . . . None of these sources contains the words y a Muh . ammad. The reading in attabi #u ill a m a y uh a ilayya f #Al is attested for Q 46:9; see Najaf , p. 578, . no. 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 172, no. 4, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 320 , no. 30 (h akadh a . unzilat/nazalat ). z: Ayy b al-Bazza ub b. R ashid al-Bazz az al-K uf , a transIsn ad : Ayyu mitter from al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 138139 [in the entry on Ayy ubs son #Abdall ah]). 230 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 120, no. 11 > Burh an, II, p. 180, no. 5, Bih ar, . XXXVI, p. 148, no. 125; Kul n , I, p. 419, no. 37 (aw baddil #Aliyyan) > Najaf , pp. 213214, no. 2, Burh an, II, p. 180, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 210, . no. 15, Huwayz , II, p. 296 , no. 29 , # Amil , Mir " a t , p. 54 . .

notes

139

231 Fas ah, . l, p. 293, ll. 1618. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall N asikh, p. 61; Qumm , I, pp. 8, 324 (a rearrangement of the original word order [taqd m wa-ta"kh r ] as an instance of falsication) > Najaf , p. 225, no. 8, S af , I, p. 45, II, p. 437, Burh an, II, p. 212, no. 1, Bih ar, IX, p. . . 214, no. 92, XXXV, p. 387, no. 3, Huwayz , II, p. 345, no. 38; Nu#m an , . u fa-qaddam u h arfan # al a h arf ); Shayb a n , Nahj , Tafs r, p. 27 (fa-h arraf . . . I, p. 36 (as an instance of al-muqaddam wa-l-mu"akhkhar ), all > Fas . l, p. 293, ll. 816, 1922; Fas . l, p. 24, ll. 1315; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 43. According to this account, the phrase (h ab M us a . arf ) wa-min qablihi kit was (wrongly) placed between sh ahid minhu and im aman wa-rah matan . . This change in the word order leads to a signicant shift in meaning: for if, in the original text, the example and (source of) mercy (im aman * ), in the wa-rah matan ) is the sh a hid (generally taken to be a # Al ; see 507 . rearranged text of the #Uthm anic codex it is rather the book of Moses. r al-Yaman, Kashf, p. 172. See 507. Cf. Ibn Mans .u n h al-Bassa m Isn ad : Both Bukayr al-H and #Abdalla are un. assa identied. 232 Fas . l, p. 293, l. 2. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 46, 199 (Ibn d, Ibn #Abb Mas#u as); Tabar , XI, p. 97 (Shahr b. Hawshab < Ibn . . #Abb as); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 56 (Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Hawshab); Zamakh. ut , Durr, III, p. 541 (Ibn shar , II, p. 229, Ab u l-Fut uh, . VI, p. 166, Suy . #Abb as); Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 137 (Shahr b. Hawshab, al-A#mash, the . . d). codex of Ibn Mas#u 233 Cf. Tisdall, p. 237 (Certainly thou art a warner, and #Al is a guide to every people). For the Prophet as al-mundhir and #Al as al-h ad see e.g. As , p. 41; #Ayy ash, II, p. 204, nos. 79 (Han . an . . l #As . im b. Humayd wiya, J b. Sad r/Sudayr, Burayd b. Mu#a abir, all < al-B aqir); Tabar , . an , I, pp. 293303, nos. 398 XIII, p. 108 (from Ibn #Abb as); Hask . 416; Tabris , XIII, p. 147; Ibn Sh adh an, Mi"at manqaba, p. 44 (manqaba . no. 4); Hill , I, p. 321. The string tah f al. , Nahj, pp. 180181; Irbil . r j ahil n wa-ta"w l al-mub. til n wa-ntih al al-d all n (the falsication of the . . ignorant, the [erroneous] interpretation of the vain-doers, the [false] profession of belief by those who go astray) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere; the usual formulation is tah f /ta"w l al-gh al n wa. r n wa-ta"w l al-j ahil n, for which see e.g. Himyar , p. 52, ntih al al-mub. til . . Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 215 (both > Bih ar, XXIII, p. 30, no. 46), . Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 31, Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, I, p. 245 (as a Prophetic tradition); Bas a " ir , pp. 10 11 , nos. 1 , 3 , Muf d, Ikhtis as . . . , p.

140

notes

3 (as an utterance of al-S an, Da # a"im, I, p. 81: tah f al. adiq). Cf. Nu#m . r j ahil n wa-ntih a l al-mub t il n wa-ta " w l al-gh a l n (as a Prophetic tradition). . . For the entire tradition cf. Himyar , p. 52; Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 215. . Cf. 270. 234 Fas ash , II, p. 161, no. 70 (Hamm ad < . . l, p. 294, ll. 2223. See #Ayy Har . z < al-S . adiq). In the printed edition (as also in the version cited in ar, VIII, p. 349, no. 10 [second part]) the word is majdh udh, as in the Bih . #Uthm anic codex. However, it appears as majd ud in #Ayy ash as cited in Burh an, II, p. 234, no. 12 and Fas l , p. 294 , l. 23 . Al-Majlis assumes that . the reading in the codex of the Imams (f mus ud and .h . ahim) was majd points out that this does not aect the meaning, since both words mean cut o (Bih ar, VIII, p. 349). See 235. . 235 Fas ash , II, p. 160, no. 69 (Ab u Bas r . . l, p. 294, ll. 2122. See #Ayy aqir). In the printed edition (as also in the version cited in Burh a n, < al-B II, p. 234, no. 11, Huwayz II, p. 399, no. 226, Fas . . l, p. 294, ll. 1921) the word is majdh udh. However, it appears as majd ud in #Ayy ash as cited in Bih a r , VIII, p. 349 , no. 10 (rst part). The rst exception (istithn a" ) . referred to in KQ is the sentence kh alid n f h a ill a m a sh a"a rabbuka which occurs at Q 11:107; the second exception is this sentence as it occurs at Q 11:108. In the version cited in KQ, the words ill a m a sh a "a rabbuka of Q 11:108 are missing; yet they appear in all available versions of the parallel tradition in #Ayy ash . Al-Majlis (Bih ar, VIII, p. 349) . assumes that there was a Sh # reading of Q 11:108 in which the words ill a m a sh a"a rabbuka were omitted, that this reading was included in the original text of al-#Ayy ash , and that the words ill a m a sh a"a rabbuka were added by a scribe. The text of KQ conrms al-Majlis s assumption. Such a qir a"a is consistent with the Sh # doctrine that all believers will remain in Paradise forever. See 234. n: Ab , Isn ad : Sa#da u l-Hasan #Abd al-Rahm . . an b. Muslim al-#Amir known as Sa#d an, a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim . . adiq and al-K l, p. (Quhp a" , III, p. 110; Ardab l , I, pp. 357358, 454; Kohlberg, Us .u 146). For other examples of Sa#d an transmitting from #Al b. Ab Hamza . al-Bat a " in see 236 ; Ibn Q u lawayh, K a mil , p. 535 , no. 824 > Bi h a . . r, CII, p. 299, no. 23. ash , II, p. 158, 236 Fas . l, p. 294, ll. 1819. For this tradition see #Ayy no. 58 (#Al b. Ab Hamza < alS a diq) (with fa-asri , as in the #Uthm anic . . codex and in mss. L and B) > S a f , II, p. 462 , Burh a n , II, p. 231, .

notes

141

nos. 2829, Bih ar, XII, p. 170, no. 31. The reading fa-sluk attested . in ms. M does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. It is synonymous with fa-sir, which is also adduced as a reading of this verse (Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 61). Cf. Q 23:27 (fa-sluk f h a); Q 10:27 (qi. ta #an min al-layl muzliman ). . 237 Fas . l, p. 293, l. 23p. 294, l. 1. The manuscripts are unvocalized, but the reading being cited is evidently ibnaha. See Himyar , p. 29 > . Burh an, II, p. 220, no. 2, Bih a r , XI, p. 316 , no. 12 . Cf. Qumm , I, p. 328 . 447 , Burh a n , II, p. 220 , no. 1 , Bi h a r , XI, p. 337 , no. 65; > S a f , II, p. . . #Ayy ash, II, pp. 148149, no. 31 > S af , II, p. 447, Bih ar, XI, p. 337, no. . . 66, Huwayz , II, p. 363, no. 113; Tabar , XII, p. 50 (al-B aqir: wa-n ad a . . N uh ibnaha q a l h a dhihi bi-lughat Tayyi " lam yakun ibnahu k a na ibn imra " atihi ); . . Ibn Ab H aqir: wa-n ad a N uh al . atim, VI, p. 2034, no. 10894 (al-B . ibnaha q ya #n bi-lughat Tayyi " ibn imra " atihi ); Na h h a s, Ma # a n , III, p. 352 ( # Urwa); .. . Samarqand , II, p. 156 (for bi-d a" ); Ab u . amm al-alif read bi-nas . b al-h Hayy an, V, p. 226 (#Al , #Urwa, #Al b. al-Husayn, al-B aqir, al-S . . . adiq); Suy ut , Durr, III, p. 603. The form ibnaha is allowed by some authorities . ab, II, p. 284; Ibn Jinn , either as an instance of takhf f (see Nah . h . as, I #r I, p. 322; Tabris , XII, pp. 154, 165; #Ukbar, p. 293), or because of a . reluctance to alter the consonantal skeleton of the #Uthm anic codex (kar ahat m a yukh alif al-mus h af ; see T u s , V, p. 495 ). For the reading ibnaha . .. see further Jeery, p. 333 (al-S a diq; it is also ascribed to # Al and to . #Urwa b. al-Zubayr, though some say that the latter two read ibnah a, see Jeery, p. 187); Ibn Jinn , I, p. 322, Tabris , XII, p. 151 (> Huwayz , . . , #Urwa b. al-Zubayr, al-B aqir, al-S a diq); Ibn II, p. 363, no. 115) (#Al . Kh alawayh, p. 60 (Hish am b. #Urwa); Zamakhshar , II, p. 270; R az , XVII, p. 185 (al-B aqir, #Urwa); #Ukbar, p. 293 (wa-yuqra"u bi-fath . alh a" min ghayr alif ); Qurt , IX, p. 38. See further GdQ, III, p. 141. .ub According to the statements cited here and at 238, 240, in the dialect of Tayyi " (i) the sux pronoun of the third feminine singular is -ha, not . -h a; and (ii) the word ibn stands for a son born by a woman/wife, apparently as opposed to a son fathered by a man/husband. For (i) cf. Vollers, Volkssprache, p. 148 (who does not however refer to Tayyi "). . Statement (ii) is only attested in connection with Q 11:42, where it is used to buttress the argument that the ibn was the son of Noahs wife, but that Noah was not his real father (cf. Kohlberg, Antediluvian, p. 61). Isn ad : Bakr b. Muhammad : Ab u Muhammad Bakr b. Muhammad b. . . . #Abd al-Rahm a n b. Nu # aym al-Gh a mid al-Azd , a K u fan transmitter .

142

notes

from al-S azim a" , I, pp. 277278; Ardab l , . and al-Rid . adiq, al-K . a (Quhp * . I, pp. 128129; Kohlberg, Us u l, p. 144 ). See further 8 . 238 Fas ash , II, p. 148, no. 30 (Muhammad . . l, p. 294, l. 1. See #Ayy b. Muslim < al-B aqir) > Burh an, II, p. 222, no. 17, Bih a r , XI, p. 316, . Huwayz , II, p. 363 , no. 112 . In all of these sources the text reads bi. nas ar, where the text appears . b al-alif except for the version in the Bih . correctly as bi-nas a" (with a fath a" ). Cf. 237, 240. . b al-h . a over the h 239 Fas . l, p. 293, ll. 78. Translation: Save those who persevered in the face of what you did to him (i.e. to #Al ) after (the death of) their prophet. Juna da al-Makfu f: he may well be Ab u Jun ada al-A#m a Isn ad : Abu (for whom see 615*). 240 Fas (see Ibn . l, p. 294, ll. 810. This reading is ascribed to #Al Kh alawayh, p. 60; T , V, p. 495; Zamakhshar , II, p. 270; R az , XVII, . us p. 185; Qurt ub , XI, p. 321 ; Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 227 ; Suy u t , Durr , III, . . . p. 603; al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, II, p. 600, no. 4838; Bih a r , XI, p. . 316) and to #Urwa (see Jeery, p. 187; Ibn Jinn, I, p. 322). See further a ya #n ibn imra"atihi ); Samarqand , II, p. 156 (wa-qara"a ba #d . uhum ibnah #Ukbar , p. 293 (wa-yuqra"u ibnah a ya #n ibn imra"atihi ka-annahu tuwuhhima id afatuhu ilayh a d unahu li-qawlihi: innahu laysa min ahlika) and the discussion . in Fas . l, p. 294, ll. 1016. See 237, 238. n b. Ab d: Ab Isn ad : #Abd al-Rahm H u l-Q asim (or Ab u Mu. a . amma hammad) # Abd al-Ra hm a n b. Ab Hamm a d, a K u fan who moved . . . ah ar ) of Ahmad al-Barq ; to Qumm, where he was the landlord (s . . ib d . accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a", IV, p. 71; Ardabl, I, p. 442). 241 Among the Seven Readers, two readings of Q 11:46 are recorded: (i) #amila ghayra s alih a" ). See Ibn Muj ahid, p. 334; Samarqand , . . in (al-Kis II, p. 158; Tabris , XII, p. 161; Ibn al-Jawz, IV, p. 88; Qurt . .ub, IX, p. 46. This reading is also ascribed to the following: the Prophet (Tirmidh , S h , II, p. 158, both on the authority . ah . . , XI, p. 54, Samarqand h , II, p. of Umm Salama; Tirmidh , S a h . . . . XI, p. 54, Ibn Muhakkam, 239, Ibn Ab Zaman n, I, p. 364 [vocalized incorrectly by the editors], riyya; M all on the authority of Asm a" bint Yaz d al-Ans atur d , VI, p. .a "isha); 136; H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. 620, no. 3001, on the authority of #A Ibn #Abb as (Tabar , XII, p. 53); Umm Salama, #Ikrima (according to . some authorities) and others (see Jeery, pp. 235, 271); Ya#q ub (i.e. al-

notes

143

Ha ) (Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 458) and Sahl (Tabris , XII, p. 161); the . dram . . K ufans (Tha#lab , V, p. 172); Ibn Miqsam (see Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 16). It is generally understood to mean that Noahs son committed unrighteous deeds (see e.g. Ibn Kh alawayh, Hujja , p. 162). (ii) #amalun . s ghayru s a li h in (six of the Seven Readers, including #A .im in the trans. . mission of Haf s ). See Ibn Muj a hid, p. 334 ; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 458; . . Tabris , XII, p. 161; Ibn al-Jawz, IV, p. 87 (citing ve readers); Qurt , . .ub IX, p. 46; cf. #Ukbar , p. 294. Al-Tabar (XII, pp. 5253) records it on . ar ), while althe authority of most readers of the provincial cities (ams . d. This reading was M atur d (VI, pp. 136137) ascribes it to Ibn Mas#u given several interpretations, one of them being: He (i.e. the person reputed to be Noahs son) is (the ospring of) an unrighteous deed (i.e. of illicit intercourse). This interpretation is ascribed to Hasan al-Bas . .r (see Tabar , XII, p. 53 , Ibn Mu hakkam, II, p. 230 , Qur t ub , IX, p. 46 ), . . . to Muj ahid and to Ibn Jurayj (see Murtad h, p. 18). Al-Shar f al. a, Tanz Murtad al , II, pp. 145146, Tanz h, pp. 1819) maintains that while . a (Am reading (ii) is better known, reading (i) also makes sense. The available evidence on the reading of the Imams is inconclusive. This evidence may be summarized as follows: (a) An account of a discussion between al-Rid a". In this account al-Rid . a and his disciple al-Washsh . a wishes to a" mentions the two readknow how people recite Q 11:46. Al-Washsh ings, and al-Rid . a reacts by declaring: They are lying; he is (indeed) his (i.e. Noahs) son, but God removed him from Himself (or: from Noahs religion) when he opposed His religion (kadhab u huwa bnuhu wa-l akinna ll ah naf ahu #anhu h n kh alafahu f d nihi ) (see #Ayy ash , II, p. 151, no. 41 . [al-Hasan b. #Al al-Washsh a" < al-Rid abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 30 . . a]; Ibn B 31 > Bih a r , XI, p. 320 , no. 26 ; cf. Ibn B a bawayh, #Uy un, II, pp. 7475, . an, II, p. 219, no. 18, Bih ar, XI, p. no. 3 > S af , II, pp. 450451, Burh . . 320, no. 24, Huwayz , II, pp. 368369, no. 139). In insisting that the . person in question really is Noahs son, the Imam rejects the interpretation of Q 11:46 ascribed to Hasan al-Bas and others, an interpre. .r tation that only ts reading (ii). Rejecting this particular interpretation of reading (ii) does not, however, necessarily entail a rejection of that reading (see al-Majlis s discussion [Bih ar, XI, pp. 320321]). (b) The . tradition in KQ. Since the manuscripts are unvocalized, there is only the Imams comment (d a #al a ashadd dh alika) to go by. This comment . a #h is however rather obscure (the text may in fact be corrupt). If it means: adhere to (the reading reecting) the more severe (meaning) (i.e. that Noahs ibn was not his own ospring), then it is reading (ii) that is being endorsed.

144

notes

n: there are a number of persons of this Isn ad : Muhammad b. #Imra . name, including some transmitters from al-S a" , VI, p. 13; . adiq (Quhp Ardabl, II, p. 165; Kh u", XVIII, pp. 8589, nos. 1150411517). The isn ad in KQ does not help in identifying which transmitter is meant here. 242 Cf. Kit ab Durust, p. 160 (a Prophetic tradition); Barq , I, pp. 108 109, no. 100 (al-B aqir); idem, I, p. 185, no. 196 (al-S ar, V, p. . adiq) > Bih . ah m < al-S a diq) > S a , II, p. 287, no. 13; #Ayy ash , II, p. 148, no. 27 (Ibr . . f 445, Burh an, II, p. 222, no. 15, Bih a r , XI, p. 336 , no. 63 ; Kul n , V, p. 355, . no. 5 (al-B aqir); Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab, p. 311, no. 9 (al-B aqir) > Bih ar, V, . p. 285, no. 6; Murtad ar, p. 166 (a Prophetic tradition); Kohlberg, . a, Intis . Walad zin a, p. 238, with note 6. 243 Fas ash , II, p. 159, nos. 6364 (Ab u . l, p. 295, ll. 23. See #Ayy Bas r < al-S af , II, p. 471, Burh an, II, p. 233, no. 1, Huwayz , II, . . . adiq) > S . p. 394, no. 205. For the reading q a"iman wa-h dan see also Jeery, pp. . as . 137, 333 (Ubayy, al-S . adiq). In the edition, the word bi-l-nas . b recorded in #Ayy ash has been preferred over bi-l-sayf. This latter word, however, also makes sense ([mowed down] with the sword). a n, 244 See Qumm , II, p. 388 (to Q 71:27) > S af , V, pp. 232233, Burh . IV, p. 390, no. 1, Bih a r , XI, p. 315 , no. 9 , Huwayz , II, p. 350 , no. . . 65 (in Qumm , read al-Rass an for al-Rass am, as in Burh an, Bih ar and . Huwayz ); cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 144, no. 18 > S af , II, p. 442, Bih ar, XI, p. . . . , 331, no. 53; Kul n , VIII, pp. 282283, no. 424 > S af , II, p. 442; Tabris . . XII, p. 148. # Isn ad : #Al b. Isma l al-M tham /Maytham : Ab u l-Hasan #Al b. . Ism a# l b. Shu#ayb b. M tham/Maytham b. Yahy ar al-Asad , . a al-Tamm a mutakallim and transmitter from al-Rid a (Quhp a " , IV, p. 167 ; Ardab l , . I, p. 559; Modarressi, TS, p. 43).Fudayl : al-Fu dayl b. al-Zubayr . . al-Asad al-Rass an, a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq lih (Quhp a" , V, p. 34; Ardab l , II, p. 9).S tham/Maytham: . b. M .a S tham/Maytham b. Yahy ar al-Asad , a transmit. b. M . a al-Tamm . alih ter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , III, p. 208 ; Ardab l , I, p. 409; . Modarressi, TS, p. 42, note 7). nic sentence recurs at Q 23:27. Cf. #Ayy 245 This Qur"a ash , II, p. 145, a r , XI, pp. 331 332, no. 54 no. 19 (ending) > Burh an, II, p. 221, no. 6, Bih . (with al-Majlis s comment at p. 332), Huwayz , II, p. 354 , no. 74. .

notes

145

246 Fas . adiq); . l, p. 295, ll. 67. For this reading see Jeery, p. 333 (al-S Tabar , XII, p. 200 (Ab u Raj a " [i.e. the Ba s ran # Imr a n b. Taym/Mil h . . an . rid, d. ca. 105/723724; see Ibn al-Jazar, I, p. 604, no. 2469]); al-#Ut .a Ibn Muhakkam, II, p. 264 (ba #d , I, p. 339 (#Al , #Al Zayn . . uhum); Ibn Jinn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir, al-S a diq, Ab u Raj a " and others); Tha # lab , V, p. . 216, Ab u l-Fut uh, VI, p. 374 (Ab u Raj a " al# U t a rid , al-Sha # b , al-A #raj . . [i.e. #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Hurmuz al-Madan, d. 117/735; see Ibn alJazar , I, p. 381, no. 1622]); Ahw az , Bas , p. 330 (al-Hasan al-Bas ); . .r . r idem, Ibn Muh ay s in , p. 255 , M a ward , III, p. 30 (Ibn Mu hay s in); Ibn . . . . a", al-A#raj, #Al b. Ab T #At u Raj . alib, al-Hasan . .iyya, III, p. 237 (Ab [according to some authorities], Yahy ada [according . a b. Ya#mar, Qat to some authorities] and others); Tabris , XIII, p. 49 (#Al , #Al Zayn . al-#Abid n, al-B aqir, al-S , II, p. 423, no. 55, . . adiq and others) > Huwayz Fas , IV, pp. 164165 (#Abdall ah b. #Amr, . l, p. 295, ll. 810; Ibn al-Jawz s #Al b. al-Husayn, alHasan al-Ba s r , Muj a hid, Ibn Mu hay . . . .in, Ibn Ab . #Ubla [i.e. the Successor Ibr ah m b. Ab #Ubla Shamir b. Yaqz . an b. #Abdall ah, d. ca. 152/769; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, I, pp. 142143; Ibn . al-Jazar , I, p. 19, no. 72; Lane, Commentary, p. 358]); #Ukbar , p. 305 (wayuqra"u). For the meaning of sha #afah a/shaghafah ah ubban see Lane, s.vv. . sha #afa, shaghafa. See 247. Isn ad : Ibn Bukayr: Ab u #Al #Abdall ah b. Bukayr b. A#yan al-Shay, a nephew of Zur ara b. A#yan, a mutakallim and transmitter from b an al-S . adiq (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 324, 328; Modarressi, TS, pp. 140141). 247 Fas . l, p. 295, ll. 78. See 246.

248 Fas abil see Jeery, . l, p. 295, ll. 1314, 1617. For the reading san pp. 49, 333 (Ibn Mas#ud, al-S ash, II, p. 179, no. 33 (Ibn Ab . adiq); #Ayy ar, XII, p. 303, no. 107, Huwayz , Ya#f ur < al-S af , III, p. 23, Bih . . adiq) > S . . II, p. 429, no. 82. For both san abil and qarrabtum (as readings of al-S . adiq) see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65; Qumm , I, p. 345 > S a f , III, pp. 23, . 24, Bih ar, XII, pp. 232233, no. 6; Tabris , XIII, p. 64 (for qara"tum read . . qarrabtum) > Bih ar, XII, p. 234; Tabris , Jaw ami #, I, p. 645. Al-S . . adiq is . also reported to have read ta"kulna for ya"kulna (see Jeery, p. 333; cf. Wright, I, p. 56). See 249. Isn ad : for Mu#all a b. #Uthm an < Mu#all a b. Khunays see Barq , I, p. 235, no. 198, II, p. 458, no. 396, p. 561, no. 947, p. 575, no. 28; Kul n , VI, p. 272, no. 8. 249 Fas . l, p. 295, ll. 14, 17. See 248.

146

notes

250 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 197, no. 85 (Ibn Ab #Umayr < unidentied transmitter < al-S a diq) (rst half) > S a f , III, p. 48, Burh an, II, p. 272, . . no. 21, Bih ar, XII, p. 319, no. 145. For this meaning of #arsh see e.g. . Tabar , XIII, pp. 6768; Ibn Muhakkam, II, p. 287; Ab u H na, . . . atim, Z II, p. 154; Tabris , XIII, p. 120 . . # a" , I, p. Isn ad : Asad b. Isma l: a transmitter from al-S . adiq (Quhp 200; Ardabl, I, p. 89). 251 Fas ash , II, p. 177, no. . l, p. 295, ll. 1011. For this reading see #Ayy 25 (Ibn Ab Ya#f ur < al-S a diq) > S a f , III, p. 20 , Burh a n , II, p. 254, no. . . 50 (giving two variants of the transmitters name: Ibn Ab Ya#q ub and Ibn Ab Ya#f ur), Bih ar, XII, p. 302, no. 101, Fas . . l, p. 295, ll. 1113 (Ibn ub). The printed edition of #Ayy ash has ta"kulu l-. tayr minh a for Ab Ya#q minhu; yet in all the sources citing #Ayy ash , minhu is retained. 252 See #Ayy ash , II, p. 189, no. 63 (al-Fudayl b. Yas ar < al-S . . adiq) > Burh an, II, p. 264, no. 7, Huwayz , II, p. 453, no. 157. N a# is said to . have read all sux pronouns of the rst person singular in S urat Y usuf as -iya (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 353; cf. Vollers, Volkssprache, p. 147). Ibn #Amir read ve words in S urat Y usuf in this way. One of them was wa-h . uzniya an , p. 131). at Q 12:86 (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 354; cf. D 253 For Josephs brothers selling him for twenty dirhams see Muq atil, II, p. 143; Thawr, Tafs r, p. 138, no. 388; Qumm, I, p. 341 > S af , . III, p. 11, Huwayz , II, p. 418, no. 32; #Ayy ash , II, p. 172, no. 11 (al. Hasan < unidentied transmitter < al-S af , III, p. 11, Burh a n, . . adiq) > S . II, p. 247, no. 11, Bih a r , XII, p. 300 , no. 90 , Huwayz , II, p. 418 , no. . . , XII, pp. 172173; Ibn Ab H 36; Tabar . atim, VII, p. 2116, nos. 11424 . d); Ibn B 11425; Samarqand , II, p. 192 (Ibn Mas#u abawayh, Khis al, p. . 563 > Huwayz , II, p. 418, no. 31; Tha#lab , V, p. 205; M award , III, p. . 18; Tabris , XIII, p. 33 > Huwayz , II, p. 418, no. 33; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, . . p. 151; Qurt .ub, IX, p. 155. Cf. Genesis 37:28 (they sold him for twenty pieces of silver). Thaman al-kalb is the price to be paid as compensation for the slaying of a hunting dog. That this amounts to twenty dirhams is af , III, p. 11, Burh an, II, stated in #Ayy ash , II, p. 172, no. 12 (al-Rid . a) > S . p. 247, no. 12, Bih a r , XII, p. 300 , no. 91 ; # Ayy a sh , II, p. 172 , no. 15 (al. Rid an, II, p. 248, no. 15, Bih ar, XII, p. 300, no. 94, Huwayz , . . a) > Burh . II, p. 419, no. 39; Qumm , I, p. 341 > S af , III, p. 11. .

notes

147

254 Fas . l, p. 295, ll. 34. The reading of h-y-(")-t is uncertain: ms. M has h-y-t, mss. L, T and B have h-y-"-t ; none is vocalized. Fas . l has huyyi"at (vocalized), presumably an error for huyyi"tu. #Al appears to be the only Imam whose reading of this word is recorded. His reading is said to have been h tu (Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 63; Ab u Hayy an, V, p. 294), hi"tu . (Jeery, p. 187; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 337; Tabris , XIII, p. 37 > Huwayz , II, . . p. 419, no. 40), h a an a (Jeery, p. 187) or huyyi"tu (Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 63). This last reading (meaning I have prepared myself ) is also ascribed d, Ibn al-Samay# (i.e. Ab to Ibn Mas#u u #Abdall ah Muhammad b. #Abd . al-Rahm a n b. al-Samay # al-Yam a n , who is said by some to have . studied with N a#; see Ibn al-Jazar, II, pp. 161162, no. 3106), Ibn Ya#mar and al-Jahdar (Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 155). Hi"tu (in the sense of . tahayya"tu) is given as the reading of Ibn #Abb as (Ibn Ab H . atim, VII, p. 2121, no. 11466; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 154) and Ab u #Abd al-Rahm . an , V, p. 208 ). There are various al-Sulam (Tabar , XII, p. 180 ; Tha # lab . views on whether hayta (as the word appears in the #Uthm anic codex) is of Arabic or foreign origin. Those who espouse the latter view dier as to the identity of the original language: some say it is Coptic; for others it is Syriac, Hebrew, or the language (or dialect, lugha) of Hawr an . (Tabar , XII, pp. 179, 180; Suy ut an, II, pp. 140141; cf. Lane, s.v. . ., Itq hayta). 255 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, pp. 173174, no. 18 > Burh an, II, p. 248, no. 18, Bih ar, XII, pp. 300301, no. 96, Huwayz , II, p. 420, no. 46; M award , . . III, p. 25. See the discussion in Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 162164. aqillan (also b aqilan, b aqil a", beans) does not appear to be 256 B recorded elsewhere as a gloss on the bid a #a muzj at (poor merchandise . or transported goods) of Q 12:88. Ab u S . glosses these words as . alih pine-cones and green seeds (al-s a" ) (Tabar , . . anawbar wa-l-h . abba al-khad . r XIII, p. 51; M atur d , VI, p. 281; M award , III, p. 73; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 213). 257 Muql is the fruit of the Theban palm, often consumed as saw q (porridge); see Lane, s.vv. h at , saw q, muql . Cf. Qumm , I, pp. 346 . a r , XII, p. 236 , no. 8 (Josephs brothers stayed in a desert 347 > Bih . in which muql grew; they took some of it to Egypt to exchange it for food); #Ayy ash , II, p. 192, no. 67 (k anat al-muql wa-k anat bil aduhum bil ad al-muql wa-hiya l-bid a # a [ al-muzj a t ]) > S a f , III, p. 40 , Burh a n , II, p. 266 , . . no. 11, Bih a r , XII, p. 314 , no. 131 , Huwayz , II, p. 458 , no. 175 ; Tha # lab , . .

148

notes

V, p. 251, M award , III, p. 73, Tabris , XIII, p. 112, Ibn al-Jawz , IV, . p. 213, Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 336 (alDa h h a k glosses bi d a # a muzj a t as saw q . . .. . al-muql ). 258 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. 259 Fas , I, pp. 345346 . l, p. 296, ll. 24. For this tradition cf. Qumm , II, p. 180, no. 35 >S a f , III, p. 25 , Bi h a r , XII, p. 233 , no. 6 ; # Ayy a sh . . (Muhammad b. # Al alSayraf < unidentied transmitter < al-S . . . adiq) > Burh an, II, p. 255, no. 60, Bih ar, XII, p. 304, no. 109, Fas . . l, p. 296, ll. 45; #Ayy ash , II, p. 180, no. 36 (#Al b. Mu#ammar < his father < al-S an, II, p. 255, no. 61, Bih ar, XII, p. 304, no. 110, Fas . adiq) > Burh . . l, p. ar u n see also Sa # d b. # Abdall a h, N a sikh, 296, ll. 56. For the reading yu #s . p. 61 > Fas l , p. 296 , ll. 6 10 ; Ibn Ab H a tim, VII, p. 2155 , no. 11683 . . a b. #Umar al-Thaqaf (as the reading of #Is [i.e. Ab u #Umar al-Thaqaf al-Nahw al-Bas , d. 149/766; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 613, no. 2498]); . .r Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 27 (the Imam objects to the reading ya #s un as it . ir could refer to the pressing of wine); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 64, Tha#lab , V, p. 228 (al-A#raj, #Is a b. #Umar); Ibn Jinn, I, pp. 344345, Ibn #At .iyya, a, al-A#raj, al-S III, p. 251, Ab u Hayy an, V, p. 315 (#Is , . . adiq); Samarqand II, p. 203, Ab u l-Fut uh, VI, p. 395 (an anonymous reader); Ibn al. Jawz , IV, p. 181 (Sa# d b. Jubayr); Fas . l, p. 24, l. 7; Lane, s.v. #as . ara. According to Jeery (p. 333), al-S un (cf. #Ukbar , . adiqs reading was tu #s . ar a" wa-fath ad ); but al-Tabris (XIII, p. p. 307: wa-yuqra"u bi-d . . amm al-t . al-s . 64 > Huwayz , II, p. 429, no. 87) concurs with KQ in maintaining . that the Imams reading was yu #s un. Al-Tabar (XII, p. 233) ascribes . . ar the reading yu #s un (erroneously vocalized in the Cairo, 1388/1968 . ar edition as ya #s un) to a K ufan reader (or to a number of K ufan readers . ir [ba #d ]), and states that it contradicts the position of most readers of the . provincial cities (ams a r ) and should therefore not be used when reciting . n. the Qur"a , II, p. 201, no. 260 Fas ash . l, p. 296, ll. 1011. For this tradition see #Ayy 102 (Ab u Bas r < al-B a qir and alS a diq) (but reading istay "asa) > S af , . . . III, p. 54, Burh an, II, p. 276, no. 3, Bih a r , XVIII, p. 261 , no. 14 , Fa s l , p. . . 296, ll. 1112; cf. Qumm , I, p. 358 > Burh an, II, p. 276, no. 1, Huwayz , . II, p. 478, no. 248 ( fa-zann u anna l-shay a t n qad tamaththalat [in the . . an tamaththala] lahum f s urat al-mal a"ika). Of the Seven Burh an: anna l-shay. t . Readers, kudhib u was the reading of the three K ufan readers, while the

notes

149

rest read kudhdhib u (Ibn Muj ahid, pp. 351352; Samarqand , II, p. 222; D an , p. 130; Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 347 ). Kudhib u is also ascribed to #Al , to . #Al Zayn al-#Abidn, al-B aqir, al-S u l-Fut uh, . VI, p. . adiq and others (Ab 452), or to the Imams in general (Tabris , Jaw ami #, I, p. 663 > Fas . . l, p. 296, ll. 1213). See further Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 253 (fol 13a ll. 10 u as the reading of Muhammad b. Ka#b al-Quraz ); Tabar , 11) (kudhib . . . XIII, p. 86 (Ibn Mas#ud: mukhaafa); Ibn Muhakkam, II, pp. 290291; . Tha#lab , V, pp. 264265; Tabris , XIII, p. 130 (bi-l-takhf f ); #Ukbar , p. . 312. See 261, 262. 261 See 260, 262. Isn ad : #Al b. H d: #Al b. Had d b. Hak m/Hukaym al-Mad a"in . ad . . . al-Azd al-S ab at , a resident of K ufa and a transmitter from al-K azim . . and al-Rid a" , IV, p. 175; Ardab l , I, pp. 563564). . a (Quhp 262 See 260, 261.

263 See #Ayy ash , II, p. 197, no. 85 (Ibn Ab #Umayr < unidentied transmitter < al-S a diq) (latter half: k a na suj u duhum dh alika #ib adatan li-ll ah) . ar, XII, p. 319, no. 145. >S af , III, p. 48, Burh an, II, p. 272, no. 21, Bih . . Cf. Qumm , I, p. 356 > S af , III, p. 49, Bih ar, XII, pp. 250251, no. 16; . . M award , III, p. 82; Qurt , IX, p. 264; Lis an, s.v. sjd (wa-q l kharr u lahu .ub sujjadan ay kharr u li-ll ah sujjadan). 264 Fas . l, p. 297, l. 23p. 298, l. 1. This reading is vocalized in ms. L. For this qir a"a see also Jeery, p. 334 (al-S Ibn #Abb as, . . adiq, al-Hasan, ub); #Ayy ash , II, p. 230, no. 30 (al-B aqir) > Burh an, II, p. 318, no. 1; Ya#q Tabar , XIII, pp. 226227 (al-Da ahim, Qat ada); M atur d , . . h . h . ak b. Muz . VI, p. 397, F aris , II, p. 352, Samarqand , II, p. 255, Ibn Muhakkam, II, . p. 333, #Ukbar , p. 321 (readers not identied); Nah an , III, p. . h . as, Ma # a lawayh, pp. 60 , 68 (Ibn # Abb as, al534 (al-Da h h a k, alHasan); Ibn Kh . .. . Hasan, al-S am/Sal am . . adiq, #As .im [according to one transmission], Sall Ab u [in the text, erroneously, ibn] al-Mundhir [i.e. Ab u l-Mundhir Sall am/Sal am b. Sulaym an al-Taw l al-Muzan al-Bas thumma l. .r K uf , d. 171/787788; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 309, no. 1360]); Ibn Jinn , I, p. 363 (Ibn #Abb as, al-Hasan, alDa h h a k, al-B a qir, alS a diq, # Amr . . .. . ar al-Bas ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 602, b. F a"id [i.e. Ab u #Al al-Usw .r no. 2462], Ya#q ub); Tha#lab , V, p. 320, Ab u l-Fut uh, . VII, p. 29 (Hasan . al-Bas r , alDa h h a k, Sall a m); Ahw a z , Ba s r , p. 342 (alHasan al-Ba s ); . .. . . .r . Ibn #At iyya, III, p. 340 (alDa h h a k b. Muz a him, alHasan, Qat a da, . .. . . .

150

notes

Sall am); Tabris , XIII, p. 221 (Ibn #Abb as, al-Hasan, al-B aqir, al-S . . . adiq, al-Da h h a k, # Amr b. F a " id, Ya # q u b [i.e. alHa dram ] in the transmission . .. . . of Zayd [i.e. Ab u #Al Zayd b. Ahmad b. Ish , nephew of . . aq al-Ha . dram . Ya#q ub al-Ha ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 296, no. 1303]) > S af , III, p. . dram . . ; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 278 (Ibn Mas # u d, Ab u Raz n, 88, Fas l , p. 298 , ll. 1 2 . al-Hasan, # Ikrima, Qat a da, # A s im in the transmission of Ab a n, Ya # q u b . . in the transmission of Ab u H as, . atim); Qurt .ub, IX, p. 367 (Ibn #Abb al-Hasan, al-Da ada); Ab u Hayy an, V, p. 416 (Ibn #Abb as, al. . h . h . ak, Qat . Da aqir, al-S . h . h . ak, al-B . adiq and others). Ha ru n al-Makfu f: Ab Isn ad : Abu u H ar un al-Makf uf M us a b. #Umayr al-Qurash al-Ja#d, a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 355356). 265 Fas . l, p. 297, ll. 1516. For the reading yatabayyan see GdQ, III, pp. d, #Al 3, 56; Jeery, pp. 51, 187, 200, 271, 334 (Ibn Mas#u , Ibn #Abb as, #Ikrima, al-S u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 123, nos. 623, 624 (Ibn . adiq); Ab . #Abb as, Ibn Ab Mulayka [i.e. the Successor Ab u Bakr #Abdall ah b. #Ubaydall ah b. Ab Mulayka al-Taym al-Makk , d. 117/735; see Ibn alJazar , I, p. 430, no. 1806; Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, V, pp. 306307]); Sa#d . b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (yatabayyan alladh na); Tabar , XIII, p. 154 . (yatabayyan alladh na) (#Al [read: anna #Aliyyan rad ah #anhu k ana yaqra"u], . iya ll Ibn #Abb as) > T u s , VI, p. 255 ; Ibn Kh a lawayh, p. 67 ( # Al , al-S . . adiq, d, Ibn #Abb Ibn Mas#u as); M award , III, p. 112; Zamakhshar , II, p. 360 (Ibn #Abb as, #Al and a group of Companions and Successors); Ab u lFut uh, as); Qurt , IX, p. 320 (Ibn #Abb as, #Al , . VI, p. 493 (Ibn #Abb .ub Ibn Ab Naj h); Ab u Hayy a n, V, p. 383 , Tha # a lib , III, p. 370 , Suy u t . . ., and others). It is further recorded Durr, IV, p. 118 (Ibn #Abb as, #Al as the reading of #Al Zayn al-#Abid n, Zayd b. #Al , al-Jahdar (see . Tabris , XIII, p. 174 > S af , III, p. 71; Jeery, Zaid, p. 264) and . . others (Ibn Jinn , I, p. 357; Tabris , XIII, p. 174 > Huwayz , II, p. . . 507, no. 140). Ibn #Abb as is reported to have assumed that the copyist had written yay"as in a state of drowsiness (wa-huwa n a #is); see Tabar , . XIII, p. 154; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 67; Samarqand , II, p. 238; Tha#lab , , IX, p. 320; Suy ut , Durr, V, p. 293; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 253; Qurt .ub . IV, p. 118; idem, Itq an, II, p. 327; Lane, s.v. ya"isa. This assumption is rejected by al-Zamakhshar (II, pp. 360361). According to some, Ibn #Abb ass reading was yatabayyan li-lladh na (see Nah an , III, p. . h . as, Ma # 497), conforming to the reading in mss. L, T and B. # Isn ad : Muhammad b. Isma l: there are a number of transmitters . of this name (see e.g. 160*, 195*); it cannot be established which of

notes

151

them is referred to here.Muhammad b. al-H r/ . . usayn: ditto.Kath Kuthayr b. Sa# d: unidentied. 266 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. The missing sentence may be fa-q al nah nu dhurriyyat ras u l all a h ; cf. # Ayy a sh , II, p. 214 , no. 53 > S a f , III, p. . . 73, Burh an, II, p. 297, no. 5, Bih ar, XXV, p. 219, no. 16; Kul n , VIII, p. . , II, p. 509, no. 147; T , 81, no. 38 > Burh an, II, p. 297, no. 1, Huwayz . us . Am al , I, p. 143 > Najaf , pp. 237238, no. 18, Burh an, II, p. 297, no. 2, Bih ar, XXVII, p. 165, no. 22, LXVIII, pp. 2021, no. 34, C, p. 393, no. . 24. 267 Fas ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 197 > . l, p. 297, ll. 68. See Ibn Shahr Huwayz , II, p. 486 , no. 39 . In this version it is Humr a n himself (not an . . unidentied person) who recites the verse in its canonical version and is corrected by the Imam. For this reading (min khalhi bi-amr all ah) af , I, p. 45, III, p. 60, Burh an, II, see also Qumm , I, pp. 10, 360 > S . p. 283, no. 1, Huwayz , II, p. 486, no. 40, pp. 486487, no. 41; Tabris , . . XIII, p. 148 (as the qir a"a of al-S a diq). Cf. # Ayy a sh , II, p. 205 , no. 15 . (lahu raq b min bayn yadayhi wa-mu #aqqib at min khalhi yah . faz . unahu bi-amr all ah) > Burh an, II, p. 283, no. 3 (without innam a khalhi ), Huwayz , . ash , II, p. 205, no. 16 > Burh an, II, p. 283, no. II, p. 486, no. 37; #Ayy 4, Bih ar, XCIII, p. 144, no. 7. For the reading bi-amr all ah see Jeery, . pp. 187, 200, 271, 334 (#Al, Ibn #Abb as, #Ikrima, al-S , XIII, . . adiq); Tabar p. 118 (as an anonymous reading) (f ba #d a" at ) > Suy ut , Durr, IV, . . al-qir , Ibn #Abb as, p. 90; Ibn Jinn , I, p. 355, Zamakhshar , II, p. 352 (#Al #Ikrima, Zayd b. #Al , al-S a diq); Tabris , XIII, p. 148 ( # Al , Ibn # Abb as, . . #Ikrima, Zayd b. #Al). Further readings are: wa-ruqab a" min khalhi min amr (or bi-amr ) all ah yah u nahu (Je ery, p. 200 , Qur t ub , IX, p. 293 [Ibn . . faz . #Abb as]); lahu mu #aqqib at min khalhi wa-raq b min bayn yadayhi (Jeery, p. 279 [Muj ahid], Ab u Hayy an, V, p. 364 [Ibn #Abb as]); lahu mu #aqqib at . b min khalhi (Jeery, p. 139, Ibn Muhakkam, II, min bayn yadayhi wa-raq . p. 297 [the codex of Ubayy]); lahu raq b min bayn yadayhi wa-raq b min khalhi (Jeery, p. 345 [al-S al-B aqir; in Jeery, . . adiq and Muhammad erroneously, Muhammad b. alHanayya]). . . Isn ad : Ibn Bukayr (i.e. #Abdall ah b. Bukayr, see 246*) transmitted from Humr an b. A#yan and transmitted to al-Q asim b. #Urwa (Ardab l , . I, pp. 279, 473).

152

notes

268 Fas a ll ah see Jeery, p. 139 . l, p. 297, ll. 2021. For the reading #al (Ubayy). For aw jahara see Ibn Ab H a tim, VII, p. 2228, no. 12175 (al. Hasan). . 269 See #Ayy ash , II, p. 211, no. 43 (Muhammad b. al-Haytham < . unidentied transmitter < al-S a diq) (with the ending: ya #n l-shuhad a" ) > . Burh an, II, p. 291, no. 9, Bih ar, VIII, p. 142, no. 60. For this reading . see Jeery, p. 345 (al-S al-B aqir; in Jeery, erro. . adiq and Muhammad Elsewhere, #al a l-faqr f l-duny a neously, Muhammad b. al-Hanayya). . . is cited as a gloss on bi-m a s abartum (Q 13 : 24 ) (M a ward , III, p. 109 , . Qurt u #Imr an al-Jawn], Suy ut .ub, IX, p. 312 [both citing Ab ., Durr, IV, p. 109 [Muhammad b. Nas ]) or on bi-m as u (Q 25:75) . . arith .r al-H . abar (Ibn Ab H r, Bid aya, IX, p. 339, . atim, VIII, p. 2744, no. 15497, Ibn Kath both citing al-B aqir). b. al-Haytham: Muhammad b. al-Haytham b. Isn ad : Muhammad . . #Urwa al-Tam m , a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq via one intermediary; his father transmitted from al-S a" , VI, p. 68; . adiq directly (Quhp Ardab l , II, p. 213). 270 Cf. Bas a"ir, p. 228, no. 3 > Burh an, II, p. 37, no. 2, p. 379, no. . 3, Bih ar, XIII, p. 242, no. 49, XVII, p. 145, no. 34; Ibn Shahr ash ub, . Bi h a r , XL, p. 212 , no. 12; Man aqib, III, p. 265; Hill , Mukhta s ar , p. 109 > . . . Burs , Mash ariq, p. 103. For the ending cf. 233; for Q 36:12 cf. 451. 271 Fas . l, p. 298, ll. 34. For this tradition (with the reading rabbi ghr l wa-li-waladayya) see #Ayy ash , II, p. 234, no. 45 (Har z b. #Abdall ah . < unidentied transmitter < ah aduhum a [i.e. al-B a qir or alS a diq]) > . . S af , III, p. 95, Burh an, II, p. 321, no. 2, Bih ar, XII, p. 74, no. 23, . . Huwayz , II, p. 552, no. 124; cf. Qumm , I, pp. 371372 (with the read. ing wa-li-waladayya) > Burh an, II, p. 321, no. 5, Huwayz , II, p. 552, . no. 122; Fas l , p. 24 , ll. 3 4 . In all of these sources, as also in 278, . Ya#q ub is not mentioned, only Ism a#l and Ish . aq; both appear (in this order) two verses earlier, at Q 14:39. The dual waladayya precludes the possibility that all three are meant. The fact that in KQ Ish . aq precedes Ya#q ub while Ism a# l appears in third place implies that Ism a# l is a later addition. (We owe this observation to Mr. Joseph Witztum.) nic verses in which Ya#q ubs presence may be related to certain Qur"a m; he seems to be considered as a son rather than a grandson of Ibr ah see Q 6:84, Q 19:49, Q 29:27 (wahabn a lahu [i.e. Ibr ah m] Ish a q wa . ah m (R. Paret), Ya#k Ya #q ub); cf. EI 2, art. Ibr . ub (R. Firestone), EQ,

notes

153

art. Jacob (Andrew Rippin), DC, art. Jacob (Jean-Louis Dclais). Al-N ur mistakenly assumed that Ism a# l belonged to the following tradition; he therefore added a w aw before Muh in ms. . ammad b. #Al L; in Fas a # l wa-Muh . Simi. l this appears as wa- #an Ism . ammad b. #Al larly, ms. T has wa-Ism a # l wa-Muh ammad b. # Al . For the reading wa. d andaccording li-waladayya see also Jeery, pp. 52, 140 (Ibn Mas#u to some authoritiesUbayy); idem, Zaid, p. 264 (Zayd b. #Al , Ibn d, Ubayy, al-Zuhr Mas#u , members of the ahl al-bayt ); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, a# l and Ish , XIII, p. 225, N asikh, p. 63 (as referring to Ism . aq), Tabris . both > Fas alawayh, p. 69 (read wa-li. l, p. 298, ll. 8, 1314; Ibn Kh waladayya for wa-li-w alidayya); Ibn Jinn, I, p. 365 (al-Husayn b. #Al , al. Zuhr , Ibr ah m al-Nakha# , al-B aqir); Samarqand , II, p. 257 (ba #d . uhum); M award , III, p. 139, Qurt , IX, p. 375 (Ibr ah m al-Nakha# , Yahy . a .ub award read wa-li-waladayya); Ibn alb. Ya#mar; for wa-li-w alidayya in M d, Ubayy, al-Nakha# Jawz , IV, p. 281 (Ibn Mas#u , al-Zuhr ). It is not clear whether rabbi (for rabban a) in both KQ and #Ayy ash is a reading or the result of a conation with Q 7:151 or Q 38:35. See 272, 278; cf. 604*. 272 Fas ash , II, p. 235, no. 47 (ya #n Ism a # l . l, p. 298, ll. 45. Cf. #Ayy wa-Ish aq, wa-l-Hasan wa-l-Husayn wa-ll ahi bn a ras ul all ah; the canonical . . . li-w alidayya is said to be the result of a scribal error [kalima s a l. ah .h . afah kutt ab]) > Burh an, II, p. 321, no. 4, Bih a r , XII, p. 74 , no. 24 , Huwayz , II, . . p. 552, no. 126. See 271, 278. ash , II, p. 234, no. 44 (with min 273 Fas . l, p. 298, ll. 1517. Cf. #Ayy shay" for sha"n shay" ) > Burh an, II, p. 321, no. 1, Huwayz , II, p. 552, no. . 119, Fas . l, p. 298, l. 17. Isn ad : al-Sind : he may be Khall ad al-Sind /al-Sar /al-Sudd al Bazz az al-K uf , a transmitter from al-S a diq (Quhp a " , II, p. 270 ; Ar. dab l , I, p. 296). ahid, Ab u Raj a ", 274 For this reading see Jeery, p. 334 (al-S . adiq, Muj Zayd b. #Al ); idem, Zaid, p. 264 (Zayd b. #Al ); Nah an , III, p. . h . as, Ma # 536, Qurt , IX, p. 373 (Muj ahid); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 69, with note 2 .ub (al-S a diq, Muj a hid, al-Yam a n ); Ibn Jinn , I, p. 364 (#Al , al-B aqir, al. S , XIII, p. 225 (#Al , al-B aqir, al-S ahid) > Najaf , . . adiq); Tabris . adiq, Muj , II, p. 551, no. 112; Ibn al-Jawz , IV, p. 280 p. 246, no. 8, Huwayz . (ba #d , p. 321 (wa-yuqra"u); Lis an, s.v. hwy; Ab u Hayy an, V, p. . . uhum); #Ukbar 422 (#Al , Zayd b. #Al , al-B aqir, al-S a diq, Muj a hid). Al-B a qir alludes to .

154

notes

ma (see Kul this reading when he addresses Qat ada b. Di#a n , VIII, pp. 311312, no. 485 > Bih a r , XXIV, pp. 237 238 , no. 6 ). Cf. 275 . . Isn ad : al-H u Muhammad #Abdall ah b. Muhammad al. ajjal: Ab . . Asad al-Muzakhrif al-Hajj ufan transmitter from al-Rid . al, a K . a (Quht lim: Ab p a" , IV, p. 46; Ardab l , I, pp. 503504).Asba u #Al . b. Sa b. S a lim Bayy a # al-Zu t t , a K u fan transmitter from alS a diq Asb at .. . . l, p. 143; Modarressi, TS, pp. 209210). (Kohlberg, Us .u 275 The reading here is presumably tahw a, as at 274 (though it should be borne in mind that in the four manuscripts of KQ there is usually no distinction between a nal y a" and an alif maqs ura bi-s urat y a" ). . . Cf. Sulaym, Kit ab, p. 408 (fa-iyy an a #an a bi-dh alika kh as at, I, p. .s . atan); Fur ash , II, pp. 233234, 223, no. 299 > Bih ar, XXVII, p. 178, no. 25; #Ayy . no. 41 (am a innahu lam yaqul al-n as kulluhum) > Burh an, II, p. 320, no. 13, Bih ar, LXVIII, pp. 8687, no. 11; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 160 > Bih ar, XXXII, . . . tij . p. 97, no. 67. Cf. further Thawr , Tafs r, p. 157, no. 465. 276 Fas . l, p. 298, ll. 1719. This reading (you have turned away from the legatee/friend) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. For the ending see Qumm , I, pp. 368369 > Huwayz , II, p. 534, no. 47 (wa. q ala l-shay. t an lamm a qud a furigha min amr al-duny a; *q ala . iya l-amr ay lamm #Al b. Ibr ah m #an Ab Ja #far #alayhi l-sal am: kull m a f l-qur" an wa-q ala l, the words shay. t an yur du bihi l-th an *; in the printed edition of Qumm between the asterisks are missing); #Ayy ash, II, p. 223, no. 8 (Har z < . unidentied transmitter < al-B aqir, to Q 14:22) > S af , III, p. 84, Burh a n, . II, p. 310, no. 2, Bih a r , XXX, p. 232 , no. 98 , Huwayz , II, p. 534 , no. 48 . . . n, the word al-shay. In the Qur"a t an is quite common, whereas wa-q ala lshay. t an is attested only at Q 14:22. The Imams statement (as given in KQ, Qumm and #Ayy ash ) would thus make better sense without wa n it refers to alt an occurs in the Qur"a q ala: whenever (the word) al-shay. th an (i.e. #Umar). Al-S a diq is said to have interpreted the jinn wa-l-ins . of Q 41:29 as referring to the two of them; he then added: so-and-so (i.e. #Umar) was called shay. t an (and Ab u Bakr was called al-ins) (Kul n , VIII, p. 334, no. 523 [> Burh an, IV, p. 109, no. 1], with the comment in Fayd, af , III, p. 936, no. 1628). Cf. Kohlberg, Sa . aba, p. 166, . W . h note 140; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 4344, 84, 109; Hakim, Satan, p. 52; 725*. 277 Fas . l, p. 298, ll. 1920.

notes

155

278 Fas opposition to some Sh # . l, p. 298, ll. 57. For early Murji" doctrines see EI 2, art. Murdji"a (W. Madelung). For the later identication of the Murji"a with the ahl al-sunna wa-l-jam a #a see CroneZimmermann, S alim, p. 243. See 271, 272; cf. 188. 279 Cf. Kul n , I, p. 465, no. 5 > S af , IV, p. 273; Ibn B abawayh, . r, #Iqd, Ma # an , p. 202, no. 1 (ending) > Bih ar, XI, p. 77, no. 4; Mans .u . p. 314, citing al-Barq s al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f. In these traditions only al. r Husayn is mentioned. . 280 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 184, no. 49 > Bih ar, II, pp. 206207, no. 99; . Kul n , II, pp. 341342, no. 17, p. 343, no. 22, VIII, p. 100, no. 70, p. 369, no. 559 (m a k ana saq man wa-m a kadhaba); Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , pp. 201202, no. 1 > Bih a r , XI, pp. 76 77 , no. 4 . See in general Murta d . a, . Tanz h, pp. 2327. 281 For the beginning of this tradition see Bas a"ir, p. 17, no. 13 > . a r , XXII, p. 331 , no. 42 , XXV, p. 12 , no. 22 ; cf. Kohlberg, MuhadBih . . dath, p. 42. For the ending cf. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 244. See in general EI 2, Suppl., art. Salm an al-F aris (G. Levi Della Vida). 282 Fas . l, p. 299, ll. 67. The word #Aliyyin is vocalized in Fas . l. For this tradition see Kul n , I, p. 424, no. 63 (Hish am b. al-Hakam < al-S . . adiq, reading: h adh as a. t #Al mustaq m) > Najaf, pp. 247248, no. 1 (adding: . ir ya #n #Al b. Ab T an, II, p. 344, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 23, no. . alib), Burh . 49, Huwayz , III, p. 15 , no. 51 . For this reading (without the substitution . of wa-inna for q ala) see also Bas a " ir , p. 512 , no. 25 > Bi h ar, XXXV, p. . . 363, no. 2; Fur at, I, p. 225, no. 302 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 372, no. 18; . #Ayy ash , II, p. 242, no. 15 > S af , III, p. 113, Burh an, II, p. 344, no. 4, . Huwayz , III, p. 15, no. 52; Madelung-Walker, p. 29 (Arabic) = p. 85 . (English: This is the straight path of #Al ); Hask an , I, p. 60, no. 92; . Hill . , Mukhtas . ar, p. 68; Fas . l, p. 24, l. 7; Blachre, Introduction, pp. 184185. For an attack on this qir a"a see Qurt , I, p. 82 (from Ibn al-Anb ar ); .ub Tawh d , Bas a " ir , VII, p. 216 , cited in al-Q a d , Taw h d , pp. 149 150 . . . . . Contrast the reading h adh a s ir a t un # aliyyun mustaq m (this is a sublime . . and straight path) ascribed to Qat ada, Muj ahid, Ibn S r n, Hasan al. Bas , Ibn Miqsam and others (see Farr a", II, p. 89; Tabar , XIV, p. 34; . .r Ab u H na, II, p. 215; Nah an , IV, p. 27; Ibn Jinn , II, . atim, Z . h . as, Ma # p. 3; Ibn Muhakkam, II, p. 349 ; Samarqand , II, p. 268 ; Ibn Ghalb un, . II, pp. 485486; Ahw az , Bas r , p. 346 ; T u s , VI, p. 337 ; Zamakhshar , . .

156

notes

II, p. 391; Tabris , XIV, p. 26; Ab u l-Fut uh, . . VII, p. 61; Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, pp. 17, 36). Qat ada (d. 118/736) reports that al-Hasan al. Bas .r used to interpret the verse as referring to the path and religion of #Al b. Ab T b. Mu"min al-Sh r az , Kit ab nuz ul al-qur" an . alib (Muhammad . f sha"n am r al-mu"min n > Ibn T a w u s, Tar a " if , pp. 96 97 > Bi h a r , XXIV, . . . pp. 2324, no. 50, XXXV, p. 373, no. 24, XXXVI, p. 167, no. 152; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, pp. 74, 107 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 59, no. 12). Cf. . GdQ, II, p. 99, with note 4; 286. m b. al-H Isn ad : Hisha u Muhammad Hish am b. al-Hakam . akam: Ab . . (d. 179/795796), a prominent mutakallim and a transmitter from alam b. al-Hakam [W. Madelung]; S azim . . (EI 2, art. Hish . adiq and al-K van Ess, TG, I, pp. 349379 and index; Modarressi, TS, pp. 259268). Ibn Ab #Umayr (for whom see 1*) is the most frequent transmitter from Hish am b. al-Hakam (Modarressi, TS, p. 260). . 283 Cf. Qumm , I, p. 377 > S af , III, p. 117; Tabar , XIV, p. 44; Ta. . . bris , XIV, p. 37. In these sources, la- #amruka (Q 15:72) is glossed as (ay) wa-h atika y a Muh award , III, p. 166 the gloss is wa-h atika . ay . ammad ; in M . ay and in Samarqand , II, p. 272, (ay) bi-h ay a tika y a Mu h ammad . See 284 . . . Isn ad : #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Sulayman al-Hashim: for this form of the name see Barq , II, p. 421, no. 200 > Bih ar, LXVI, p. 343, no. 8. . He may well be identical with #Abd al-Rahm a an/Sulaym an . n b. Salm al-Ans a r , a transmitter from al-B a qir and alS a diq who transmitted to . . Ab an (probably Ab an b. #Uthm an) (Ardabl, I, p. 451; Quhp a", IV, p. 79). 284 See 283.

285 For this reading see Jeery, p. 334 (al-S . adiq, Ibn Qays, Ibn Dharr [i.e. the Murji" Ab u Dharr #Umar b. Dharr b. #Abdall ah al-Hamd an al-Murhib al-K uf , d. ca. 153/770; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b , VII, pp. 444 . 445; Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel, I, table 231, II, p. 571; Crone-Zimmermann, S alim, pp. 234, 242], Ab u #Imr an [i.e. the Successor Ab u #Imr an #Abd al-Malik b. Hab b al-Azd /al-Kind al-Bas , d. ca. 128/745746; see . .r Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, VI, pp. 388389]); #Askar , Tafs r, p. 242 > Burh a n, . al-s n wa-tashd d al-l a m ); Hill , Mukhta s ar , p. 71 II, p. 325, no. 4 (bi-fath . . . > Burh an, II, p. 325, no. 3, III, p. 107, no. 2, Fas . l, p. 298, ll. 2023 (musallim n vocalized). Cf. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 215 > Bih ar, . XXXI, p. 574, no. 3 (yawaddu lladh na kafar u law k an u musallim n li-wal ayat am r al-mu"min n #alayhi l-sal am); 74, 76, 120, 129, 361, 363.

notes

157

286 Fas adh an, Mi"at . l, p. 75, ll. 1921, p. 299, ll. 710. See Ibn Sh manqaba, pp. 139140 (manqaba no. 85) (isn ad : Ja#far b. Q ulawayh < #Al b. al-Hasan al-Nahw b. Muhammad [i.e. al-Sayy ar?] < al. . < Ahmad . . r b. Ab Mans [sic] al-#Abb as < #Al b. Asb at b. Buhl ul . .u . < al-Hakam < Ab u Hamm am < #Abdall ah [read: #Umar?] b. Udhayna < Ja#far b. al-Husayn < his father; in the b. Muhammad < his father < #Al . . matn, #Umar appears instead of al-th an ) > Fas . l, p. 299, ll. 1315; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107 > Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 5859, no. 12, . r, #Iqd, p. 314, citing al-Barq Fas s al-Tanz l .u . l, p. 299, ll. 1012; Mans wa-l-tah r f . For the Prophetic tradition Your rank compared to mine . is like that of Aaron compared to that of Moses (known as h th al. ad manzila, the tradition of the rank) see Kohlberg, R ada, pp. 677 . 678; Friedmann, Prophecy, pp. 5859; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 156157. Cf. 282, 345*. l: al-Hakam r Isn ad : al-H b. Buhl ul al-Ans , a trans. akam b. Buhlu . .a mitter from disciples of al-S u" , VII, p. 174, no. 3852).Abu . adiq (Kh m: Ab Hamma u Hamm am Ism a# l b. Hamm am b. #Abd al-Rahm . an alBas mawl a Kinda, a transmitter from al-Rid a" , I, pp. 227 .r . a (Quhp 228, VII, p. 108; Ardab l , I, p. 104, II, p. 423). 287 Fas . l, p. 301, ll. 34. For this reading see Jeery, p. 140 (Ubayy); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 (fa-at a [read thus for fa-inna] ll ah baytahum, followed by h akadh a nazalat ); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 72 (al-B aqir; for b-y-n-hum read baytahum); Tabris , XIV, p. 65 (qir a"at ahl al-bayt ; for biny. atahum read baytahum, as in Huwayz ) > Huwayz , III, p. 50, no. 67; Ab u . . Hayy a n, V, p. 471 (Ja # far [i.e. alS a diq]; for b-y-n-hum read baytahum ). . . an, II, p. 367, no. 3) #Ayy ash has a tradition (II, p. 258, no. 19 > Burh with the canonical reading (fa-at a ll ah buny anahum), followed by another with buny anahum or baytahum (depending on the manuscript) (II, p. 258, no. 20 > S af , III, p. 132, Burh an, II, p. 367, no. 4). In the next two tra. ditions (#Ayy ash , II, p. 258, nos. 21, 22 > Burh an, II, p. 367, nos. 5, 6) buny anahum is corrected to baytahum, and in a fth tradition (II, p. 258, no. 23) the reading baytahum appears without comment (though when it is cited in Burh an, II, p. 367, no. 7, buny anahum recurs). See 288, 289. 288 Fas . l, p. 301, ll. 45. Some authorities ascribe the reading walam ya #lam alladh na aman u to Ubayy (see Jeery, p. 140). This qir a"a is incorporated in #Ayy ash , II, p. 258, no. 22 (al-Hasan b. Ziy ad al-Sayqal . . < al-S an, II, p. 367, no. 6, Bih ar, XCIII, p. 144, no. 13, . adiq) > Burh . Huwayz , III, p. 49 , no. 63 . See 287 , 289 . .

158

notes

sa : Ab Isn ad : al-H u #Abdall ah al-Hasan/alHusayn b. . asan b. Mu . . M us a b. S alim al-Hann a t /al-Khayy a t al-K u f , a transmitter from al. . . S Nas a" , II, pp. 156157, . adiq; Ibn Ab .r transmitted from him (Quhp 200; Ardab l , I, pp. 227, 256). 289 Fas ash , II, p. 258, nos. 20 (Ab u l-Saf atij . l, p. 301, ll. 67. Cf. #Ayy b. Muslim < al-B aqir) > S af , III, p. 132, < al-S . . adiq), 23 (Muhammad . Burh an, II, p. 367, nos. 4, 7, Bih ar, XIV, p. 458, no. 12, XCIII, pp. 144 . 145, nos. 11, 14, Huwayz , III, pp. 4950, nos. 6465. See 287, 288. . 290 Fas # reading . l, p. 301, ll. 2123. There are two versions of the Sh of Q 16:92: (i) an tak una a"immatun hiya azk a min a"immatikum ([you propose to break the covenant] because you do not wish there to be [true] Imams [who are] more excellent than your [erring] leaders). asikh, pp. 6061; Qumm , I, p. 389 > Najaf , See Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N pp. 262263, no. 22, Burh an, II, pp. 382383, no. 3, Huwayz , III, pp. . 8283, no. 210; #Ayy ash , II, pp. 268269, no. 64 (Zayd b. al-Jahm < alS an, II, p. 383, no. 5, Bih ar, XXXVI, pp. 148149, no. 126, . adiq) > Burh . Huwayz , III, p. 81 , no. 207 ; Kul n , I, p. 292, no. 8 > Najaf , p. 262, . an, II, p. 382, no. 1, Huwayz , III, p. 81, no. 208; Nu#m an , no. 21, Burh . Tafs r, p. 27 (this text as cited in the Bih ar is hiya arb a min a"imma; what is . probably the correct version is cited from Nu#m an in Fas . l, p. 302, ll. 4 5); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 62. See the commentary in M azandar an , VI, p. 127 > Fas at, III, p. 268 > Fas . l, p. 302, ll. 1315; Majlis, Mir" . l, p. 302, ll. 913. (ii) an tak un u a"immatan etc. (so that you would be leaders who are more excellent than your [true] Imams). This reading is only recorded in Fas (see Fas . l, where it is given as the version of Qumm . l, p. 301, ll. 1214) and Kuln (see Fas ur also records . l, p. 301, ll. 1421). Al-N this version from KQ when citing 294. For ayy shay" arb a (what does arb a mean?) see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 60, Qumm , I, p. 389 (wayh aka m a arb a ), Kul n , I, p. 292 , no. 8 ( m a arb a ). See 294 . . l : Zayd b. (al-) Jahm/Juhaym al-Hil al , Isn ad : Zayd b. Jahm al-Hila a K ufan transmitter from al-S a" , III, p. 77; Ardab l , I, p. . adiq (Quhp 341). 291 This reading (some of you deviate [from the right course]) is d (see GdQ, III, p. 69; Jeery, p. 53; #Abd alascribed to Ibn Mas#u Razz aq, Tafs r, I/2, p. 354; Tabar , XIV, p. 84; Ibn Muhakkam, II, . . p. 362; Nah h a s, Ma # a n , IV, p. 58 ; Samarqand , II, p. 279 ; Tha # lab , VI, .. , X, p. 82 [the codex of Ibn p. 9; Ab u l-Fut uh, . VII, p. 88; Qurt .ub

notes

159

d]; Ab Mas#u u Hayy an, V, p. 463; Suy ut , Durr, IV, p. 209) and to #Al . . (see Jeery, p. 188; Nah h a s, Ma # a n , IV, p. 58 ; Ibn Kh a lawayh, p. 72 ; .. Qurt , X, p. 82; Suy ut , Durr, IV, p. 209; al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, .ub . II, p. 600, no. 4839). 292 Cf. 293. wiya: Ab wiya Isn ad : Kulayb b. Mu#a u Muhammad Kulayb b. Mu#a . b. Jabala al-Sayd aw al-Asad , a K ufan transmitter from al-S . . adiq and al-K azim . (Modarressi, TS, p. 315). 293 Fas . l, p. 301, ll. 79. A longer version of this tradition is recorded in #Ayy ash , II, p. 267, no. 60 (Ism a# l al-Jar r /Jurayr < al-S af , . adiq) > S . III, p. 152, Burh an, II, p. 381, no. 5, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 189 , no. 8 , Huwayz , . . III, pp. 7980, no. 204; cited in Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 62. Here alS a# ls reading of Q 16:90 by telling him to add the . adiq corrects Ism word h l-qurb a. When Ism a# l notes that this is not how . aqqahu after dh Zayd read the verse the Imam tells him that it is the qir a"a of #Al (and should therefore be followed). Cf. 120, 292. # Isn ad : Isma l al-Jar r /Jurayr : unidentied. If his nisba was al Jarr, this might be because he was a follower of the Zayd Sulaym an b. Jar r (. latter half of 2nd/8th century, see Madelung, al-Q asim, pp. 6166), whose supporters were known as Jar riyya or Sulaym aniyya (see the references in Shahrast an , Religions, p. 468, note 75). This would explain Ism a# ls reference to qir a"at Zayd. 294 Fas ash , II, p. 269, no. 65 . l, p. 301, l. 23p. 302, l. 1. Cf. #Ayy "isha) > Burh (where the woman is identied as #A an, II, p. 383, no. 6, "ishas Bih ar, XXXII, p. 286, no. 238, Huwayz , III, p. 83, no. 211. For #A . . nickname al-Humayr a" (little red one or little one of fair complex. ion) see e.g. Ibn #Abd al-Barr, Ist # ab, II, p. 1250; Lis an, s.v. h . mr (the "isha Humayr Prophet sometimes called #A a " , a diminutive of h a" . . amr of fair complexion); Qurt .ub, XIV, p. 221; Madelung, Succession, p. 173, note 157 (noting that this was a pet name given her by Muhammad . and later used by her enemies as her nickname). For #Al as the person through whom God puts people to the test (innam a yabl ukum all ah bihi [Q 16:92]) see Ibn Mans u r al-Yaman, Kashf , pp. 162 163 ; 481 . See 290. . 295 See #Ayy ash , I, p. 183, no. 80 (S tham/Maytham < al. b. M . alih a r , LIII, p. 50 , no. 21. This tradition B aqir) > Burh an, I, p. 296, no. 3, Bih . alludes to #Al s role during the raj #a. In the version cited in #Ayy ash , II,

160

notes

p. 259, no. 27 (#Abdall ah b. S tham/Maytham < al-B aqir), the . b. M . alih words h n yaq u lu # Al # alayhi l-sal a m an a awl a l-n a s are missing, as in the . four manuscripts of KQ. 296 Fas ah, N asikh, . l, p. 303, ll. 68. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall p. 63; Qumm , II, p. 21 > S a f , III, p. 200 , Burh a n , II, p. 425 , no. 12, . ana f lBih ar, XXXI, p. 514, no. 10 (with al-Majliss comment: ay k . qur" an: li-ya #mah u f h a), Fas an and Fas . l, p. 303, ll. 46 (in Burh . l, however, the canonical li-l-n as is retained and lahum is dropped, as in the version cited at 298); #Ayy ash , II, p. 297, no. 93 (Har z < unidentied transmit. ter < al-B aqir) > S af , III, p. 200, Burh an, II, p. 424, no. 1, Bih ar, XXXI, . . p. 525, no. 26, Huwayz , III, p. 179, no. 276; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. . d); for 6263. For the reading tnatan lahum see Jeery, p. 55 (Ibn Mas#u wa-li-ya #mah u (read: li-ya #mah u?) f h a after li-l-n as see idem, Zaid, p. 266 (Zayd b. #Al , #Al Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir). See 297299. 297 Fas . l, p. 303, l. 8. See 296, 298, 299.

298 Fas at records four traditions in which al. l, p. 303, ll. 911. Fur B aqir conrms to Zayd b. Sal am al-Ju#f that exegetical traditions which Khaythama transmitted from al-B aqir did in fact come from the Imam (Fur at, I, p. 191, no. 246 [to Q 11:17]; idem, I, pp. 191192, no. 247 [to Q 11:40] > Bih ar, LXVIII, p. 56, no. 101; Fur at, I, pp. 314315, no. 422 . [to Q 28:5] > Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 171172, no. 10; Fur at, I, pp. 319320, . no. 433 [to Q 29:49] > Bih ar, XXIII, p. 193, no. 18). See 296, 297, 299. . a al-A#war al-Kun as al-K uf , a Isn ad : H . afs . s . al-A#war: Haf . b. #Is transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , II, pp. 209 210 ; Arda. b l , I, p. 263). Al-Umaw of the manuscripts was probably produced after the (graphically similar) al-A#war was mistakenly written down twice, its second occurrence then being corrupted into al-Umaw . m al-Ju#f Sala : Sal am b. al-Mustan r al-Ju#f al-K uf , a transmitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S a" , III, p. 137; Ardab l , . adiq (Quhp I, p. 370). His son Zayd is only mentioned in Fur at.Khaythama: the only person of this name mentioned as a transmitter from al-B aqir is a n Khaythama b. # Abd al-Ra hm a n al-Ju # f al-K uf , Ab u #Abd al-Rahm . . who also transmitted from al-S a diq (Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel, II, p. 339 ; Ibn . Sa#d, Tabaq at, VI, pp. 286287; Quhp a" , II, pp. 275276; Ardab l , I, p. . 299).

notes

161

299 The ful an wa-ful an whom the Prophet saw in his dream (or rather, his nightmare) are identied elsewhere as Zurayq and Zufar (#Ayy ash , II, p. 297, no. 95 [al-Halab < Zur ara, Humr an, Muhammad b. Mus. . . lim < the Imam (name not given; evidently al-B aqir or al-S . adiq)] > S a f , III, p. 199 , Burh a n , II, p. 425 , no. 3 , Bi h a r , XXXI, pp. 525 . . 526, no. 28, Huwayz , III, p. 180 , no. 278 ), presumably Ab u Bakr . and #Umar (though normally both appellations refer to #Umar; see n; Bar-Asher, Scripture, index, s.vv.; but cf. 672*). For Kohlberg, Qur"a al-shajara al-mal # una as referring to the Umayyads see Qumm , II, p. 21 > Burh an, II, p. 425, no. 12, Bih a r , XXX, p. 165 , no. 23 , XXXI, p. 514, . no. 10; #Ayy ash, II, pp. 297298, nos. 9395 > Burh an, II, pp. 424 425, nos. 13, S af , III, p. 200, Bih ar, XXXI, pp. 525526, nos. 2628, . . aj, p. 276; GoldHuwayz , III, pp. 179180, nos. 276278; Tabris , Ih . . . tij ziher, Richtungen, pp. 266267; idem, Muslim Studies, II, pp. 111112; BarAsher, Readings, p. 63, note 67; idem, Scripture, p. 207. See 296298; cf. 598*. 300 Fas ad : . am (isn . l, p. 304, ll. 911. For this tradition see Ibn al-Juh [Ahmad b.] Mu hammad b. Kh a lid al-Barq < Mu hammad b. # Al al. . . Sayraf < Ibn Fudayl < Ab u Hamza < al-B aqir) > Najaf, p. 290, . . . no. 28 > Burh an, II, p. 443, no. 3, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 225, no. 16. The . Sh # reading appears as al-z n al Muh an) or as . ammad h . aqqahum (Burh . alim z a lim a l Mu h ammad h aqqahum (Najaf , Bi h a r ). For the reading alz n al . . . . . alim Muh ah, N asikh, p. 65; #Ayy ash , . ammad h . aqqahum see also Sa#d b. #Abdall II, p. 315, no. 155 (Muhammad b. Ab Hamza < al-B aqir) > S af , III, . . . p. 213, Burh an, II, p. 443, no. 2; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 63. An additional reading of this verse is al-z n li- al Muh . ammad ; see Ibn . alim an, II, p. 443, no. 4, Bih ar, al-Juh . am > Najaf, p. 290, no. 29 > Burh . XXIV, p. 226, no. 17. See also Tisdall, p. 237. The words min rabbika (in the manuscripts: rabbika, which is probably an error) do not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a of Q 17:82; they may be a gloss. The n. expression rah . ma min rabbika occurs six times in the Qur"a ": he is perhaps Ja#far b. Bash u Isn ad : al-Washsha r (see 41*) or Ab Muhammad al-Hasan b. #Al b. Ziy ad al-Khazz az/al-Kharr az al-Wash. . sh a", a K ufan transmitter from al-Rid ad (Quhp a" , II, pp. . a and al-Jaw 128130; Ardab l , I, pp. 210212). 301 Fas ah, . l, p. 304, ll. 1819. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall N asikh, pp. 6465; #Ayy ash , II, p. 317, no. 166 (Ab u Hamza < al-B a qir; . , III, p. 216, Burh an, II, p. 445, no. 4, Bih ar, wal aya for bi-wal aya) > S af . .

162

notes

XXXVI, p. 105, no. 50 (in all three sources: bi-wal aya), tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724; Kul n , I, pp. 424425, no. 64 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 (> Bih ar, XXXV, p. 57, no. 12), Najaf, p. 291, no. 32, . Burh an, II, p. 445, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 379, no. 66 (fa-ab a akthar al-n as . bi-wal ayat #Al ill a kuf uran), Huwayz , III, p. 221 , no. 445 ; Ibn al-Ju h a m > . . an, II, p. 445, no. 3, Bih a r , XXIII, p. 381 , no. Najaf , p. 291, no. 31 > Burh . 71 (contrast Ibn al-Juh , p. 290, no. 30, where the canonical . am > Najaf version is cited); Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 6364. Cf. Hask an , I, p. . 352, no. 482, citing the anonymous al-Tafs r al- #at q; Bay ad , I, p. 291 . (fa-ab a akthar al-n as ill a kuf uran bi-wal ayat #Al q al: wa-h akadh a nazalat ; cf. a" in the isn ad and with 165*). The tradition in KQ (without al-Washsh practically the same matn) is cited by al-Najaf (pp. 375376, no. 11 > Burh an, III, p. 169, no. 1) in his commentary on Q 25:50 (a verse having the same ending as Q 17:89). 302 Fas dan lan a, which is . l, p. 302, ll. 1920. Cf. the reading #ab ascribed to #Al (Jeery, p. 188; Ibn Jinn , II, p. 14; Tabris , XV, p. . 13 > Huwayz , III, p. 138 , no. 79 ; Tabris , Jaw a mi # , I, p. 744 > S af , . . . III, p. 178), to al-Hasan al-Ba s r (Ibn Kh a lawayh, p. 75 ; Ahw a z , Ba s r . . . , p. 353), to al-Hasan and Zayd b. #Al (Ab u Hayy an, VI, p. 9), or . . to an unidentied reader or readers (wa-quri"a) (Zamakhshar , II, p. 438). The reading #alayhim (for alaykum) is cited in Bih a r , LX, p. 216, . no. 40 from al-Hasan b. Mu hammad b. alHasan al-Qumm s Kit ab . . . ta"r kh Qumm (composed in 378/988989; see Dhar #a, III, pp. 277278, no. 1027). The Arabic original of this work was not available to alMajlis (and appears to be lost); instead he used a Persian translation, rendering some passages back into Arabic (see Bih ar, I, p. 42). The . Persian translation at al-Majliss disposal could well have been the one made in 865/14601461 by Hasan b. #Al b. Hasan b. #Abd al-Malik al. . Qumm ; yet in Jal al al-D n Tihr s edition of this translation, Q 17:5 . an is cited as it appears in the #Uthm anic codex (without the word lan a) (see Qumm, Ta"r kh, p. 100). Cf. 303. 303 Fas . l, p. 302, ll. 2021. For the connection between this verse and the return of al-Husayn and his followers during the raj #a see #Ayy ash , . a li h b. Sahl < alS a diq) > Burh a n , II, p. 407 , no. II, p. 281, no. 20 (S . . . 6, Bih ar, LI, p. 56, no. 46; Kul n , VIII, p. 206, no. 250 > Najaf , pp. . 277278, no. 7, Burh an, II, p. 406, no. 1, Bih ar, LIII, pp. 9394, no. . 103, Huwayz , III, p. 138, no. 77; Ibn Q ulawayh, K amil, pp. 133134, . , no. 153 > Burh an, II, p. 407, no. 3, Bih a r , XLV, p. 297, no. 5; Hill . .

notes

163

Mukhtas . ar, p. 48. In all of these sources the verse is cited as it appears in the #Uthm anic codex. See in general Crow, Husayn, pp. 6668. Cf. . 302. 304 Fas . l, p. 302, ll. 2223. The copyist of ms. L erroneously placed a full stop after wa-huwa (the penultimate word of 303) and a line above the next two words (al-Husayn al-Hajj . . al), indicating that these form the beginning of the next tradition. Al-N ur compounded the error by adding ibn between al-Husayn and al-Hajj . . al, resulting in a ctional al-Husayn b. alHajj a l. Among the Seven Readers, only al. . Kis a" read li-nas u"a (see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 378; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 497; Samarqand , II, p. 317; Tha#lab , VI, p. 85; Tabris , XV, p. 13; Ab u l. Fut uh, , X, p. 223). According to some, this was also . VII, p. 211; Qurt .ub the reading of #Al (see Kis a" , Ma # an , p. 181, Tha#lab , VI, p. 85, Ab u Hayy a n, VI, p. 10 ), though the readings la-nas u " anna and la-yas u " anna . are also ascribed to him (see Jeery, p. 188, Ab u Hayy an, VI, p. 10). . Jeery (p. 334) records the reading of al-S u"anna. This is . adiq as la-nas also reported as the reading of Ubayy (Jeery, p. 141; Qurt , X, p. .ub a", II, p. 223), though elsewhere he is said to have read la-nas u"an (Farr 117; Nah ab, II, p. 416; Ibn Jinn , II, p. 15; Ab u l-Fut uh, . h . as, I #r . VII, p. 211). See 309. n b. Ab d al-Muqri": he is not listed Isn ad : #Abd al-Rahm H . a . amma in Sh # biographical works, but appears in some isn ad s (e.g. T , Am al , . us II, p. 68). He is possibly the person mentioned in 240. In this case he cannot have transmitted directly from al-S . adiq, and it must be ad assumed that in KQ a name is missing from the isn ad (cf. the isn al-Hajj a l < # Abd al-Ra hm a n b. Ab Hamm a d < Haf s b. Ghiy a th < . . . . . al-S awand, Qis . adiq [R . as . , p. 155, no. 168]). Alternatively, though less likely, he may be #Abd al-Rahm Hamm ad Shukayl al-Muqri" . an b. Ab . al-K uf (d. 203/818819), who transmitted the readings of Hamza (see . Dhahab , Ta"r kh al-isl am, XIV, p. 229; Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 369370, no. 1572). , p. 284, no. 20. For this reading see 305 Fas . l, p. 303, ll. 1314, Najaf Ibn al-Juh a m > Najaf , pp. 284 285 , no. 21 > Burh an, II, pp. 433434, . no. 1; Mans u r, # Iqd , p. 314 , citing al-Barq s al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f ; Tisdall, . . r p. 237. See 307. 306 This reading of Q 17:99 does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. For the reading of Q 25:8 cited here see also 378.

164

notes

307 Fas . l, p. 303, ll. 1516. See 305. Isn ad : see also 494, 498. 308 F s atika does not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a reading; . al it could be a scribal error for bi-s atika. See #Ayy ash , II, p. 319, no. 176 . al (Ab u Bas r < alS a diq) (but reading bis al a tika ) > S a f a n, . . . , III, p. 122, Burh . II, p. 356, no. 5, p. 453, no. 10, Bih ar, IX, p. 219, no. 103, Huwayz , III, . . p. 32, no. 125, p. 234, no. 484. The view that Q 17:110 was abrogated by Q 15:94 is recorded not only in KQ and #Ayy ash , but also by Ibn al-Jawz on the authority of Ibn al-S a"ib (presumably Muhammad b. . al-S a"ib al-Kalb [d. 146/763] or #At a"ib [d. ca. 136/753754]) .a" b. al-S (see Ibn al-Jawz , V, p. 74; idem, Naw asikh, pp. 169170). Ibn al-Jawz , however, rejects it as unlikely (wuj ud al-naskh h ahun a ba # d ) (Ibn al-Jawz , ukh identify the V, p. 74). Elsewhere, those who regard Q 17:110 as mans abrogating verse as either Q 7:55 or Q 7:205. For the former view see Zamakhshar , II, p. 470; R az , XXI, p. 60 (adding: this is unlikely [wa-huwa ba # d ]). For the latter view see Zuhr , N asikh, p. 30, Hibat All ah, N asikh, p. 61, Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 58; it is rejected by alNah asikh, pp. 180181), by Ibn al-#Arab (N asikh, p. 162) and by . h . as (N Ibn al-Jawz (Naw asikh, p. 170). 309 Fas . l, p. 302, ll. 2122. See 304.

310 Mustadrak, IV, p. 280, no. 4702. Al-N ur cites this h th in a . ad n. The statement that alchapter devoted to the recitation of the Qur"a S . adiq disliked the hamz is in line with what is known about Quraysh suppressing the glottal stop (cf. Hopkins, Studies, pp. 1921). Cf. 375. r, #Iqd, p. 314, 311 Mustadrak, IV, pp. 279280, no. 4700. Cf. Mans .u citing al-Barq s al-Tanz l wa-l-tah r f . For the reading N u h a . . see Jeery, pp. 160 (with the correction at p. 360), 336 (Ubayy, al-S a diq); 454, 457. For . the ending cf. 460. u" , 312 Mustadrak, IV, p. 280, no. 4701. This tradition is cited in Kh Bay an, p. 228, no. 8 (with an analysis at p. 229). Al-Kh u" does not reveal the source of his citation. However, the fact that he mentions al-Sayy ar somewhat earlier (at p. 226) and reproduces the name of Tha#laba as Qt ar s work. He .-b-a suggests that he consulted a manuscript of al-Sayy cites the text with the variant yuh arrif u n kal a m all a h , which shows that . the manuscript he used was not M. The criticism of as h a b . . al- #arabiyya

notes

165

which nds expression in this tradition may be related to the fact that some early grammarians accepted only those qir a" at which conformed to specic criteria (see Baalbaki, Treatment, pp. 1214). Baalbakis statement that religious orthodoxy failed to accept the validity of grammatical criteria in matters relating to qir a" at (Treatment, p. 16) also applies in the case of the Sh #a. Indeed, the Sh # scholar Ibn al-Haytham, referring to the grammarians rejection of some Sh # nic verses, declares that the rules readings or interpretations of Qur"a of grammar are whatever conveys the truth These people claim to be reading the letters of the language correctly grammatically, and yet they are ignorant of what God intended in regard to meanings, applications, and examples (Madelung-Walker, p. 30 [Arabic] = p. 86 [English]). See also Introduction, pp. 1516; 460*. : he is probably #Abd al-A#l l S Isn ad : #Abd al-A#la a mawl aa am alK uf , a transmitter from al-S a diq who transmitted to both Tha # laba b. . Maym un and Y unus b. #Abd al-Rahm a" , III, p. 254; . an (cf. 566) (Quhp Ardab l , I, pp. 436437). Al-Ardab l assumes that he is identical with #Abd al-A#l a b. A#yan al-#Ijl (for whom see Ardab l , I, pp. 435436). d, al-Rab # 313 For this reading see Jeery, pp. 55, 293, 334 (Ibn Mas#u b. Khuthaym, al-S . adiq). Cf. 314. Da wu d: Ab Isn ad : Abu u D aw ud Sulaym an b. Sufy an al-Munshid alMustariqq (d. 231/845846), a K ufan transmitter from disciples of al S awiya) of the poetry of al-Sayyid al-Himyar . . adiq and a transmitter (r (Quhp a" , III, pp. 166167, VII, p. 39; Ardab l , I, p. 380, II, p. 384). 314 Cf. wa-l akin ja #alahu qayyiman which al-Tabar (XV, p. 190) and . Ab u l-Fut uh u . (VII, p. 299) adduce as an anonymous reading and Ab Hayy an (VI, p. 94) cites from ba #d ah aba. For ba"s shad d . . mas . . if al-s . ah . (great violence) as referring to #Al see #Ayy ash , II, p. 321, no. 2 (al Barq < unidentied transmitter(s) < Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir) > S af , III, . . p. 230, Burh an, II, p. 455, no. 2; Ibn al-Juh . am > Najaf, p. 291, no. 1 > Burh an, II, p. 455, no. 1. Cf. 313. b. Marw an 315 See #Ayy ash , II, pp. 328329, no. 39 (Muhammad . < al-B aqir) > S a f , III, p. 246 , Burh a n , II, pp. 471 472 , no. 2 , Bi h ar, . . XXX, pp. 234235, no. 101, Huwayz , III, p. 268, nos. 120121; cf. Ibn . T us, Tar . aw . a"if, p. 119 (part of a polemic against those who uphold the merits of #Umar). In these sources (as also in the manuscripts of KQ ) the nic verse is not vocalized. Al-mud Qur"a n) is however . illayn (for al-mud . ill

166

notes

adduced in a late Sunn text as a reading of the R ada u . referring to Ab Bakr and #Umar (see Afand -Z adah [d. 1167/1754], Shaw adhdh, p. 72). Since the tradition cited here also refers to two persons (in this case, Ab u Jahl and #Umar) the dual form would seem to be appropriate. This possibility is reinforced in #Ayy ash (II, p. 329), where wa-m a kuntu muttakhidh al-m-d -l-y-n # a d udan is glossed as ya # n him a . According to the . . tradition recorded in KQ, the Prophet asked God to strengthen Islam through Ab u Jahl or #Umar. Al-S . adiq appears to have accepted this tradition, but is recorded as declaring that he found this request by the Prophet harder to bear than decapitation (k ana #alayya ashadd min d . arb al- #unuq; see #Ayy ash, II, p. 329, no. 40 [Muhammad b. Marw an < al. an, II, p. 472, no. 3). Al-B aqir, in contrast, is said to have S . adiq] > Burh denied that the Prophet had ever uttered such a request (Halab , Taqr b, . p. 246 > Bih a r , XXX, p. 382 , no. 165 ). This is also the position of # Al b. . Ahmad al-K u f (d. 352 / 963 ), who regards this tradition as a forgery and . ercely attacks those who propagate it (K uf , Istigh atha, pp. 189190). The Companion Hudhayfa b. al-Yam an did not explicitly pronounce . himself on the issue of the traditions reliability but is reported to have declared that God strengthened His religion through Muhammad and . through no one else (K uf, Man aqib, p. 421, no. 904; Tabar , Bish ara, p. . 209). For Ab u Jahl see EI 2, s.v. (W. Montgomery Watt). Isn ad : As Ibn Musk an is not known to have transmitted from al-B aqir a diq. (see 15*), the Imam from whom he transmits here is probably al-S . 316 Fas a. l, p. 305, ll. 1920. For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 69, M d); Jeery, pp. 57, 200, 334 (Ibn Mas#u d, ward , III, p. 333 (Ibn Mas#u Ibn #Abb as, al-S u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, pp. 5253, no. 460 (Ab u . adiq); Ab . Mijlaz, Ubayy); idem, Fad a"il, II, p. 118, no. 608, p. 124, no. 628, . an); Bukh ar , S h ab Nah an , IV, p. 277 (#Uthm . h . as, Ma # . ah . . , III, p. 282 (Kit al-tafs r ); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (al-S a diq); Qumm , II, p. 39 . (within a lengthy tradition, with the comment: kadh a nazalat ) > Burh a n, II, p. 475, no. 4, Bih ar, XIII, p. 280, no. 1; #Ayy ash, II, pp. 335336, . ar, XIII, p. no. 54 (Har z < al-S an, II, p. 478, no. 14, Bih . . adiq) > Burh . 310, no. 40 (s a li h a omitted), Huwayz , III, p. 285 , no. 161 ; Tabar , XVI, . . . . d, p. 2, Zamakhshar , II, p. 495, Tabris , Jaw a mi # , I, p. 792 (Ibn Mas #u . Ubayy); Ibn Muhakkam, II, p. 474 , Ibn Ab Zaman n, I, p. 493 ( f ba #d . . al-qir a"a); Kishsh , p. 126 (al-S ara b. A#yan: h adh a l-tanz l . adiq tells Zur alih s text min #ind all ah; the reading kull saf na s . a is found in al-Kishsh . as cited in Fas l , p. 306 , l. 3 ; in the printed edition, the word s a . . lih . a is missing); Samarqand , II, p. 376, Tha#lab , VI, p. 187 (Ibn #Abb as); Ibn

notes

167

al-Nad m, Fihrist, p. 34 (Ibn Shanab udh) > Y aq ut, Udab a", V, p. 115; H a kim, Mustadrak , II, p. 624 , no. 3013 (the Prophet, on the authority . of Ibn #Abb as); Tabris , XV, p. 182 (#Al, al-B aqir, al-S , . . . adiq) > Huwayz III, p. 285, no. 285; Qurt , XI, p. 34 (Ibn #Abb as, #Uthm an); Ab u .ub Hayy an, VI, p. 145 (Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as); al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, . II, p. 608, no. 4873 (the Prophet, on the authority of Ubayy). Cf. the discussion in Wansbrough, Quranic Studies, p. 203. As can be seen, some sources ascribe this reading to Ubayy; others say he read s h . ah . . a (see d and Ibn #Abb Jeery, p. 143). Ibn Mas#u as are likewise cited for both readings. See 317. 317 Fas , XVI, p. 2 (citing . . l, p. 306, l. 4. For this reading see Tabar ba #d al-qir a " a t ); T u s , VII, p. 80 (Ubayy, Ibn Mas # u d); Ibn al-Jawz , V, p. . . 132 (Ubayy); Qurt ub , XI, p. 34 (Ibn # Abb a s, Ibn Jubayr). See 316 . . 318 Fas u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, . l, p. 306, ll. 1011. For this reading see Ab . p. 53, no. 461; Ibn Muhakkam, II, p. 474 (ba #d . . uhum). Cf. the reading waamm a l-ghul am fa-k ana k aran wa-abaw ahu (or: wa-k ana abaw ahu) mu"minayn ascribed to Ubayy (M award , III, p. 334, Ibn #At iyya, III, p. 536), to Ibn . #Abb as (Jeery, pp. 144, 200, Ibn Ab H . atim, VII, p. 2371, no. 12875, Nah an , IV, p. 277) and to al-S , XV, pp. 182, 194 > . h . as, Ma # . . adiq (Tabris a f , III, p. 255 , Bi h a r , XIII, p. 285 , no. 1 , Huwayz , III, p. 285, no. 164; S . . . in Ibn Ab Zaman n, I, p. 493, this is cited without attribution). Cf. 320. 319 Fas a M us a see Tabris , Ja. . l, p. 306, ll. 1213. For the reading y w ami #, I, p. 793 (#Al ). The reading tasta. ti # (for tas. ti #) is ascribed to a certain unidentied group (rqa) (see Qurt , XI, p. 39). Tasta. ti # is also .ub recorded in ms. M; here, however, it appears to be a scribal error, the result perhaps of a confusion with lam tasta. ti # of Q 18:78. 320 Fas ash , II, p. 336, no. . l, p. 306, l. 10 (in the margin). See #Ayy 55 (Har aqir or al-S ana . z < unidentied transmitter < al-B . adiq) (wa-k abaw ahu mu"minayn fa-. tubi #a k aran) > S af , III, p. 255, Burh an, II, p. 478, . no. 15, Bih ar, XIII, p. 310, no. 41 (all: wa-. tubi #a), Huwayz , III, p. 285, no. . . 165 (fa-. tubi #a). For this reading see also Qumm , II, p. 39 (in the tradition a l-ghul am fa-k ana abaw ahu mu"minayn wa-. tubi #a referred to at 316*: wa-amm k aran kadh a nazalat ) > Burh an, II, p. 475, no. 4, Bih ar, XIII, p. 280, no. . 1; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (wa-k ana abaw ahu mu"minayn wa-. tubi #a k aran). Cf. 318. Isn ad : see 39*.

168

notes

321 Fas , p. 292, no. 2. For this reading see . l, p. 305, ll. 56, Najaf Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65 (without f wal ayat #Al ); Qumm , II, p. 35 (ya #n wal ayat #Al ; without h an, II, p. 466, no. 6 (with . aqqahum) > Burh h , III, p. 258, no. 71 (with h ash , II, . . aqqahum), Huwayz . aqqahum); #Ayy l bi-h a dhihi l- aya p. 326, no. 28 (Ab u Hamza < al-B a qir) ( nazala Jabra " . h akadh a #al a Muh ammad , without f wal a yat # Al ) > Burh a n , II, p. 466 , no. . 5; Kul n , I, pp. 424425, no. 64 (li-l-z n al Muh aran, with . ammad n . alim the comment: nazala Jabra" l bi-h adhihi l- aya h akadh a) > Ibn Shahr ash ub, a r , XXXV, Man aqib, III, p. 106 (li-l-z a lim n li- a l Mu h ammad n a ran ) (> Bi h . . . p. 57, no. 12), S af , III, p. 241, al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, II, p. 278, no. . . 61, Burh an, II, p. 465, no. 1, Huwayz , III, p. 258, no. 70; Ibn al-Juh . . am > Najaf , p. 292, no. 2 (li-z a lim ) > Burh a n , II, p. 466 , no. 2 ( li-lz a lim n), . . Bih a r , XXIV, p. 226 , no. 18 ( liz a lim ); Tisdall, p. 238 (without f wal a yat . . #Al ); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 64. 322 Fas ur regards the additions as readings; . l, p. 306, ll. 1315. Al-N yet they could also be explanatory glosses. Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 342, no. 79 (within a lengthy tradition on Dh u l-Qarnayn which al-As .bagh b. Nub ata cites from #Al : amm a man zalama wa-lam yu " min bi-rabbihi fa. sawfa nu #adhdhibuhu f l-duny a bi- #adh ab al-duny a thumma yuraddu il a rabbihi f marji #ihi fa-yu #adhdhibuhu #adh aban nukran) > Burh an, II, p. 483, no. 25, Bih ar, XII, pp. 198199, no. 29. Cf. 621. . h b. Gha lib: Ab Isn ad : #Abdalla u #Al #Abdall ah b. Gh alib b. al Hudhayl al-Asad, a K ufan poet and transmitter from al-B aqir and alS ab was transmitted by al-Hasan b. Mahb . . ub (Modarressi, . adiq. His kit TS, pp. 141142).Sa#d b. T f: Sa#d b. Tar f/Zar f al-Isk af, a K ufan . ar . . preacher (q as s ) in the late Umayyad period and a transmitter from .. ad Sa#d < As al-B aqir (Modarressi, TS, pp. 118121). For the isn .bagh < #Al see idem, TS, pp. 6162, 119. Sa#d was the main transmitter from As ata from, or about, #Al (idem, TS, p. 119). .bagh b. Nub al-As bagh b . N ub a ta : Ab u l-Q a sim (al-) A s ata b. al. .bagh b. Nub H . arith al-Han . zal . , a close associate of #Al (van Ess, TG, I, pp. 291292; Modarressi, TS, pp. 5973). 323 Fas . l, p. 306, l. 16. According to Jeery (p. 144), Ubayys reading was thumma ttaba #a Dh u l-Qarnayn al-shams sababan. The verb (at Q 18:85, 89, 92) was read as ittaba #a by Ibn Kath r, N a# and Ab u #Amr; the rest of the Seven Readers (i.e. the K ufans and Ibn #Amir) read atba #a (Ibn Muj ahid, pp. 397398; T u s , VII, p. 84 ; Tabris , XV, p. 197). There . . appears to be no record of the reading of the Imams. For thumma

notes

169

atba #a/ittaba #a Dh u l-Qarnayn sababan (without al-shams) see the tradition u l-Qarnayn could be a reading from #Ayy ash referred to at 322* (here Dh or a gloss). 324 Fas . adiqs reading of Q 18:66 is only . l, p. 306, ll. 1617. Al-S recorded in KQ (here and at 327). The manuscripts dier: (i) ms. L (both here and at 327) has fa-m a (for mimm a). In Fas . l there is a line above fa-m a, indicating that this is the reading in question; at 327 fa-m a also appears in ms. T. This would presumably require the next word to be #ullimtu, and the sentence would mean: For I have not been taught right conduct. Such a reading is not otherwise attested. (ii) ms. M (at 327) has tu #alliman . For this reading see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 403. (iii) In ms. M and in Fas l (both at 324 ) the r a " of the nal word is vocalized with . ad amma . This rules out the reading rashadan , leaving two possibilities: . rushdan (as in the #Uthm anic codex) or rushudan. See Ibn Muj ahid, p. 394; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 81 (rushudan); Samarqand , II, p. 373; Tabris , . XV, p. 183. 325 Fas . l, p. 306, ll. 2122. For this reading (is it sucient for the unbelievers) see Jeery, Zaid, p. 267 (Zayd b. #Al ); idem, Ibn Miq sam, p. 19; Tabar , XVI, p. 32, Tha#lab , VI, p. 200 (#Al , #Ikrima, . Muj ahid); Ibn Ab H a tim, VII, p. 2392 , no. 12997 ( # Ikrima); M atur d , . , II, p. 383 , Ab u VII, p. 212; Nah h a s, Ma # a n , IV, p. 297 , Samarqand .. l-Fut uh, al-Hind , Kanz, II, pp. 600601, no. . VII, p. 387, al-Muttaq 4842 (#Al ); Ibn Jinn , II, p. 34 (#Al , Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Ya#mar, al-Hasan, . Muj ahid, #Ikrima, Qat ada, Ibn Kath r, Nu#aym b. Maysara [i.e. Ab u #Amr al-K uf al-Nahw , d. 174 / 790 791 ; see Ibn al-Jazar , II, pp. 342 . 343, no. 3746], al-Da ub [probably al-Ha ], Ibn Ab . h . h . ak, Ya#q . dram . r Layl a [i.e. #Is a b. #Abd al-Rahm Layl a al-Ans al-K uf ; . an b. Ab .a see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 609, no. 2491]); Ibn Ghalb un, II, pp. 518519 (al-A#sh a [i.e. Ya#q ub b. Muhammad b. Khal fa Ab u Y usuf al-A#sh a . al-Tamm al-K uf, d. ca. 200/815816, a transmitter from #As .im via Ab u Bakr; see Ibn al-Jazar , II, pp. 390391, no. 3897]); Ahw az , Ibn s in , p. 274 ; T u s , VII, p. 96 ( # Al , al-A # sh a , Ya hy a b. Ya # mar); Ibn Muh ay . . . . #At iyya, III, p. 525 ( # Al , alHasan, Ibn Ya # mar, Muj a hid, Ibn Kath r . . [according to some authorities]); Tabris , XV, p. 210 ( # Al , Ab u Bakr . in the transmission of al-A#sh a and al-Burjum [i.e. Ab u S . #Abd al. alih Ham d b. S al-Taym al-K uf , d. 230/844845; see Ibn . . al-Burjum . alih , I, pp. 360361, no. 1544], Ya#q ub in the transmission of Zayd, al-Jazar Ibn Ya#mar, al-Hasan, Muj a hid, # Ikrima, Qat ada, al-Da . . h . h . ak, Ibn Ab

170

notes

Layl a) > S af , III, p. 266, Huwayz , III, p. 311, no. 246; Ibn al-Jawz , V, . . p. 145 (#Al , Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, Muj ahid, #Ikrima, Ibn Ya#mar, lib Ibn Muhay , p. 357; Ab u Hayy an, VI, p. 157; Tha#a , III, . s . .in); #Ukbar p. 544 (#Al and others); Fas anic . l, p. 24, ll. 89 (the version of the #Uthm codex as an example for tabd l al-suk un bi-l-h araka ). . alibuhum (Jeery, p. 334), 326 Al-S . adiqs reading is recorded as wa-k glossed as their hounds master (s ah , VI, p. 160; . . ib kalbihim) (Tha#lab Zamakhshar , II, p. 475; Tabris , Jaw ami #, I, p. 776; Ab u l-Fut uh, . . VII, p. 317; Qurt ub , X, p. 373 ; Dam r , Hayaw a n , II, p. 299 ; Ab u Hayy an, . . . VI, p. 105; EQ, art. Dog (Bruce Fudge)). Ibn #At .iyya (III, p. 504; also Qurt , X, pp. 372373) cites this word (as an anonymous qir a"a) from .ub aq t by Ab u #Umar Muhammad b. #Abd al-W ahid ahid Kit ab al-yaw . . al-Z Ghul am Tha#lab (d. ca. 345/956), of which only fragments survive (see GAS, VIII, pp. 155156). Ab u Hayy an, in contrast (VI, p. 105), cites . the Kit ab al-yaw aq t as preserving the anonymous reading wa-k ali"uhum (their guardian). In ms. M the word w-k-a-l-i-him may stand for either wa-k ali"uhum or wa-k al him. Ab u Hayy an (or his source) interprets the . k ali" as referring to the dog or to a person who keeps guard. In KQ he is the angel who was in charge of them (i.e. of the sleepers). 327 See 324.

328 Fas . l, p. 306, l. 23. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 144, 188, 201, 345 (Ubayy, #Al , Ibn #Abb as [according to some authorities], Ibn Khuthaym); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 83 (Ibn #Abb as, al-Jahdar ); Ibn Jinn , . II, p. 38 (#Al , Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Ya#mar, Ab u Harb b. Ab l-Aswad . [d. 109/727728, son of Ab u l-Aswad al-Du"al ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 266, no. 1206, Ibn al-Qift , Inb ah, I, pp. 51, 56], al-Hasan, al-Jahdar , . . . k #Uthm an b. Nah k alQat ada, Ab u Nah k [i.e. the q ari" Ab u Nah Azd al-Far ah d al-Bas ; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, VII, p. 157], al-S . .r . adiq); Tha#lab, VI, p. 206 (Ibn #Abb as, Yahy . a b. Ya#mar; for wa-arithu read w arith); Zamakhshar , II, p. 503 (#Al and others); Tabris , XVI, p. 7 . (#Al , Ibn #Abb as, al-S al-Jahdar , Qat ada, . . . adiq, Ibn Ya#mar, al-Hasan, , III, p. 274 ; # Ukbar , p. 359 ( wa-quri " a sh a dhdhan ); Ab u Ab u Nah k) > S a f . Hayy a n, VI, p. 165 ( # Al , Ibn # Abb a s, al-Ja hdar ). . . 329 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing.

notes

171

330 Fas . l, p. 307, ll. 45. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 145, 201, 217 (Ubayy [according to some authorities], Ibn #Abb as, Anas b. M alik [according to some authorities]); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 125, no. . 632, Tabar , XVI, p. 74, Ibn Muhakkam, III, p. 11, Qurt , XVI, pp. . . .ub 9798 (Anas b. M alik); Qumm , II, p. 49 > S a f , III, p. 279 , Burh an, . III, p. 8, Bih a r , XIV, p. 209 , no. 6 ; Goldziher, Richtungen , p. 17 . Cf. the . an s aq, Tafs r, II, p. 7 reading inn nadhartu li-l-rah . m . amtan (#Abd al-Razz [f ba #d uf s ah, N asikh, pp. 6566 > Fas . al-h . ur . amtan]; Sa#d b. #Abdall . l, p. 307, ll. 89; Samarqand , II, p. 391 [Ibn #Abb as, according to some d, Anas]; M transmissions]; Tha#lab , VI, p. 212 [Ibn Mas#u award , III, p. 367 [wa-qad quri"a f ba #d uf ]; Ibn al-Jawz, V, p. 166 [Ubayy, . al-h . ur Anas b. M alik, Ab u Raz n al-#Uqayl ]; Ab u Hayy an, VI, p. 176 [the . d; cf. Jeery, p. 58]). For s codex of Ibn Mas#u awm in the sense of s . . amt see e.g. Muq atil, II, p. 311; Tabar , XVI, p. 74 ; Kul n , IV, p. 87 , no. . 3>S a f , III, p. 279 , Bi h a r , XIV, pp. 219 220 , no. 29 , Huwayz , III, p. . . . 332, no. 58; Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh an , Iftikh ar, p. 254; Ibn Ab . af, p. 267; Sijist , XVI, p. 98; Lane, s.v. s ama. See 331. Zaman n, I, p. 504; Qurt .ub . 331 Fas , I, . l, p. 307, ll. 56, Mustadrak, VII, p. 371, no. 8446. Cf. Barq p. 10, no. 31 (a Prophetic h th) > Bih ar, XIV, p. 217, no. 21, LXXVI, . ad . pp. 350351, no. 15, XCVI, pp. 298299, no. 9, Huwayz , III, p. 333, . no. 61. See 330. 332 Fas ur comments: . l, p. 307, ll. 67. After citing this tradition, al-N Thus in my copy, which is corrupt. I cannot see where the dierence (from the #Uthm anic codex) lies; perhaps it (i.e. the reading intended here) is shaqiyyan rather than taqiyyan, and God is the one who knows (kadh a f nuskhat wa-hiya saq ma wa-lam yazhar l mawd af wa. i # al-ikhtil . la #allahu shaqiyyan badal taqiyyan wa-ll ah al- # alim) (Fas . l, p. 307, ll. 78). In S urat Maryam the word shaqiyyan occurs three times (Q 19:4, 32, 48). Isn ad : Ja#far b. Muhammad b. H m: Ja#far b. Muhammad . . ukaym/H . ak . b. Hukaym/ Hak azim . . m al-Khath#am, a transmitter from al-K . and alRid a" , II, p. 39; Ardab l , I, p. 158). The manuscripts have . a (Quhp #an Muh ammad b. Hak m/ Hukaym # an ab hi. This appears to be an error: . . . Ab u Ja#far Muhammad b. Hukaym/ Hak m al-Khath#am (a transmitter . . . from al-S a diq and al-K a zim; see Kohlberg, Community, p. 34; van . . Ess, TG, I, p. 335; Modarressi, TS, pp. 341342) never transmits from his father; on the other hand, Ja#far b. Muhammad transmitted his . fathers kit ab (Naj ash , II, p. 257, no. 958).

172

notes

r, #Iqd, p. 315, citing al-Barq 333 Najaf , p. 304, no. 10. See Mans s .u al-Tanz l wa-l-tah r f ( isn a d : Ibn Urama al-Qumm < Y u nus < al-Ri d a . ). . The beginning of this tradition is cited from KQ in Modarressi, Debates, pp. 2425, note 111. See Burh an, III, p. 14, no. 6, Bih ar, XXXVI, . p. 57, no. 3 (from Najaf ). For this verse as referring to #Al see Qumm , II, p. 51 > S a f , III, p. 284 , Huwayz , III, p. 339 , no. 87 ; Madelung . . r al-Yaman, Kashf, Walker, p. 29 (Arabic) = p. 85 (English); Ibn Mans .u p. 35; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 59, no. . 12; Sh adh an, Fad a " il , p. 172 . Cf. 155 . . Isn ad : cf. 155. 334 Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 114, no. 146 > S af , II, p. 382 (reading, cor. rectly: inna ab a Ibr ah m wa #adahu), Burh an, II, p. 167, no. 1, Bih ar, XI, p. . 88, no. 14. Exegetes are divided over whether the promise mentioned at Q 9:114 was made by Abraham to his father or by Abrahams father to Abraham (see e.g. Murtad h, pp. 3336; T , V, p. 309; Tabris , . us . . a, Tanz X, pp. 150151; Qurt , VIII, p. 274). The traditions in both #Ayy ash .ub and KQ favour the second alternative. Each of these traditions has a dierent ending: the one in #Ayy ash ends by citing from the latter half of Q 9:114: when it became clear to him (i.e. to Abraham) that he (i.e. Abrahams father) was an enemy of God, he disowned him (tabarra"a minhu). The tradition in KQ also cites this part of Q 9:114, but without the words tabarra"a minhu; instead it continues with Q 19:44. The implication is that even after Abraham realized that his father had remained an unbeliever he went on pleading with him. Such a view does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. It may be suggested that the original text ended with the words tabarra"a minhu (just as in #Ayy ash ) and that the quotation of Q 19:44 formed part of a dierent tradition. 335 Two assumptions appear to underlie this tradition. The rst is that the w arid of Q 19:71 means arriving at a place and entering it. The second is that this verse applies only to those whom God does not keep away from the Fire. In the early literature (including KQ ) the term naskh was used inter alia to refer to cases of this kind, where a later verse limits the applicability of an earlier verse to certain specic cases. At a later stage the term sometimes used for this was takhs s . . (specication) (cf. Wansbrough, Quranic Studies, pp. 191192; Rippin, Abrogation, p. 224; 531*, 533*). For the view that the relationship between Q 19:71 and Q 21:101 is one of naskh (in the sense of specication) see also Qumm , II, p. 77. Other exegetes resolve the apparent contradiction between

notes

173

Q 19:71 and Q 21:101 by arguing that w arid means arriving at a place without necessarily entering it (cf. Lane, s.v.); see M atur d , VII, pp. 252253; T asikh, p. 164; R az , XXI, p. . us, VII, p. 143; Ibn al-#Arab, N 207. For the philologist al-Zajj aj (d. 311/923) Q 21:101 provides decisive proof (h a. ti #a) that the w arid of Q 19:71 cannot mean entering . ujja q (cited in Tabris , XVI, p. 62 ). . d); Thawr 336 For this reading see Jeery, p. 62 (Ibn Mas#u , Tafs r, p. h a b # Abdall a h [i.e. the followers of Ibn Mas # u d]); Tabar , 204, no. 657 (as . .. XVII, pp. 100101 (qurr a" ahl al-Mad na wa-ba #d ahl al-K u fa wa-l-Ba s ra . . ); Ibn Muj ahid, p. 431, Samarqand, II, p. 463, Tha#lab, VI, p. 311, Ibn #At , XVII, p. 64 (the non-K ufan readers and . .iyya, IV, p. 102, Tabris s #A u Bakr), Ab u l-Fut uh, . VIII, p. 62 (the .im in the transmission of Ab non-K ufan readers). For al-sijill as the name of an angel see Thawr , ); Qumm , II, p. 77 > S a f , III, p. 357 , Tafs r, p. 206, no. 656 (al-Sudd . Burh an, III, p. 75, no. 3, Bih ar, VII, p. 101, no. 8, Huwayz , III, p. 463, . . no. 185; Ahw az , Zuhd, p. 92, no. 145 > Burh an, III, p. 75, no. 2, Bih ar, V, . p. 322, no. 8; Tabar , XVII, pp. 99 100 (Ibn # Umar, al-Sudd ); Ibn Ab . hammad b. # Al H a tim, I, p. 78 , no. 327 , p. 189 , no. 1004 (Ab u Ja # far Mu . . [i.e. al-B aqir]); Ibn Jinn, II, p. 68; Samarqand, II, p. 462; Tha#lab, VI, p. 311; M award , III, p. 474; Zamakhshar , II, p. 585; Tabris , XVII, p. . 66; Ibn #At iyya, IV, p. 102 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, VIII, p. 62 ( # Abdall a h b. #Umar . . and al-Sudd ); R az , XXII, p. 197 (#Al ); Suy ut , Itq a n , IV, p. 78 ; van Ess, . TG, I, p. 301. 337 Many commentators maintain that . t ah a means y a rajul (o man), but they dier as to the language in which the word occurs in this sense: (i) Ethiopian (#Ikrima, in Ibn Ab H . atim, VII, p. 2415, no. 13378, Tha#lab , VI, p. 236, Ab u l-Fut uh, , V, p. 200, . VII, p. 446, Ibn al-Jawz wiya: Suy ut , Itq a n , II, p. 136 ); (ii) Hebrew ( # Aq l b. Ab T a lib tells Mu#a . . t a h a bi-l# ibr a niyya y a rajul , in Thaqaf , Gh a r a t , p. 380 ); (iii) Nabataean . (#Ikrima and al-Da , XVI, p. 136 > M award , III, p. . h . h . ak, in Tabar . 392; #Ikrima and al-Sudd , in Samarqand , II, p. 406; al-Hasan, in . Ibn Muhakkam, III, p. 32; ba #d uhum , in M a tur d , VII, p. 266 ; Sa # d . . b. Jubayr, in Tha#lab , VI, p. 236, Ab u l-Fut uh, VII, p. 446 , Suy u t , . . Itq an, II, p. 136; #Ikrima [citing Ibn #Abb as], Sa# d b. Jubayr [according to one version], al-Da , V, p. 200; Ibn #Abb as, in . h . h . ak, in Ibn al-Jawz atil, Ibn Ab H . atim, VII, p. 2415, nos. 1337513376); (iv) Syriac (Muq II, p. 324; Sa# d b. Jubayr, Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, in Tabar , XVI, p. . 136; ba #d uhum , in M a tur d , VII, p. 266 ; Qat a da, in Tha # lab , VI, p. 236 ; .

174

notes

Ibn #Abb as and Muj ahid, in M award , III, p. 392; #Ikrima [according to one version], Sa# d b. Jubayr [according to one version], Qat ada, in Ibn al-Jawz, V, p. 200); (v) the dialect of #Akk (Samarqand, II, p. 406; M award , III, p. 392; Zamakhshar , II, p. 528 > R az , XXII, p. 4; Bayd a w , p. 413 , cited in Rabin, West-Arabian , p. 9 ; al-Kalb , in . Tha#lab , VI, p. 236, Tabris , XVI, p. 83 , Ab u l-Fut u h, VII, p. 446 ; . . Ab u S as, in Ibn al-Jawz, V, p. 200); (vi) the dialect of . < Ibn #Abb . alih Tayyi " (Qut award , III, p. 392). . .rub, in M 338 Fas a. l, p. 307, ll. 1819. For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 88, M turd, VII, p. 273, Samarqand, II, p. 409, Ibn Muhakkam, III, p. 35, . Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 87, M award , III, p. 397 (Ubayy); Jeery, pp. 59, d, Ubayy, Ibn #Abb 146, 201, 334 (Ibn Mas#u as, al-S atil, II, . adiq); Muq d); Tha#lab p. 326 (Ibn Mas#u , VI, p. 241, Ab u l-Fut uh, VII, p. 451, . az , XXII, p. 19, Qurt ub , XI, pp. 184 185 , Ab u Hayy a n, VI, p. 219 R . . d); Sa#d b. #Abdall (the codex of Ibn Mas#u ah, N asikh, p. 63 (al-S . adiq); Qumm , II, p. 60 (h akadh a nazalat ) > S af , III, p. 303, Burh an, III, p. 34, . no. 7, Bih ar, XIII, p. 107, no. 6, Huwayz , III, p. 375, no. 53; Tabar , . . . XVI, p. 149 (an anonymous reading cited by Qat ada); Tha#lab , VI, p. 241, Tabris , Jaw ami #, II, p. 28 (> Huwayz , III, p. 375, no. 55), . . Qurt , XI, p. 184 (the codex of Ubayy); Tabris , XVI, p. 91 (Ibn . .ub #Abb as, Ubayy, al-S a diq) > S a f , III, p. 303 , Burh a n , III, p. 34, no. 8, . . Bih a r , XIII, p. 89 , Huwayz , III, p. 375 , no. 54 , Fa s l . . . , p. 144, ll. 2223; d, Ubayy, Muhammad Ibn al-Jawz, V, p. 204 (Ibn Mas#u b. #Al [i.e. al. B aqir]). Cf. Muj ahid, Tafs r, p. 461, Thawr , Tafs r, p. 193, no. 600, Ibn Ab H adduced as a gloss). For . atim, VII, p. 2418, no. 13402 (min nafs this tradition cf. Qumm , II, p. 60 (ja #alah a min ghayr waqt, i.e. God did not determine even for Himself when the Hour would occur) > Burh a n, III, p. 34, no. 7, Bih ar, XIII, p. 107, no. 6, Huwayz , III, p. 375, no. 53. . . 339 Fas . l, p. 308, ll. 24. See 65.

, II, p. 61 340 For this tradition see Bas a"ir, p. 518, no. 51; Qumm . >S af , III, p. 310, Burh an, III, p. 37, no. 1, Bih a r , XXIV, pp. 118119, . . no. 1, Huwayz , III, p. 382 , no. 75 ; Ibn al-Ju h a m > Najaf , pp. 314 . . 315, no. 7 > Burh an, III, pp. 3738, no. 2, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 119 ; Hill , . . Mukhtas ad is identical with KQ . ar, p. 66. In all of these sources the isn b for Ziy (with Ri"a ad), the verse is cited as in the #Uthm anic codex, a are identied as the Imams. Among Sh # exegetes, and the ul u l-nuh this identication is well-known (see Ibn al-Juh a m > Najaf , p. 321, no. .

notes

175

19 [ending]: kullam a yaj " f l-qur" an min dhikr ul l-nuh a fa-hum al-a"imma #alayhim al-sal am; cf. Fur at, I, p. 256, no. 348; #Amil , Mir" at, p. 325). In contrast, the ul u l-alb ab are regularly identied as the sh #a, as sh #at #Al etc. (see 92, 472). The manuscripts of KQ appear to reect a conation between Q 20:54 (= Q 20:128) (inna f dh alika la- ay at li-ul l-nuh a) and dh alika la-dhikr a li-ul l-alb ab). Once the copyist had Q 39:21 (inna f written down al-alb ab instead of al-nuh a (thus in mss. L, T and B; in ms. M the word is missing altogether), he may automatically have gone on to write hum sh #atun a. 341 This tradition seems to be out of place.

342 Q 20:125 is cited by al-H ad s son al-Hasan al-#Askar in the . * ). See Kishsh , rescript to Ish a q b. Ism a # l al-N s a b u r (for which see 109 . p. 482 > Quhp a" , I, p. 55, Bih a r , L, p. 320 , no. 16 ; Ibn Shu # ba, Tu h af . . , p. 359 > Bih ar, LXXVIII, p. 375, no. 2. Al-#Askar s reading of this . verse is not attested. It may have been h (as in the #Uthm anic . ashartan codex) or h ashartaniya , conforming to the reading of N a # , Ibn Kath r . (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 426) and Ibn Muhay s in (Ahw a z , Ibn Mu h ay s in , p. 281 ). . . . . 343 Fas . adiq conform . l, p. 308, ll. 1617. The readings upheld by al-S to the #Uthm anic codex (Q 3:39: yubashshiruka; Q 21:95: wa-h am; cf. . ar Tabris , XVII, p. 56 [ wah ar a m as the reading of alS a diq] > Fa s . . . . l, p. 308, ll. 1819). The text cited from S ura 3 is presumably taken from verse 39; it could however also be Q 3:45 (inna ll aha yubashshiruki ). There appears to be no record of al-A#mashs reading of Q 3:39 (or d (cf. EIr, of Q 3:45). He generally followed the readings of Ibn Mas#u * art. A#ma s [E. Kohlberg]; in general 598 ), and may also have done ds qir so here. Ibn Mas#u a"a (at Q 3:39) is said to have been yabshuruka (Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 20, Ab u l-Fut uh, . III, p. 28) or yubshiruka (Jeery, p. 33). The reading yabshuruka is also ascribed to Hamza (Ibn Muj ahid, . p. 205; Nah ab, I, p. 373; T . h . as, I #r . us, II, p. 450; Qurt .ub, IV, p. 75). d, For the reading wa-h . irm see Jeery, pp. 62, 228, 259, 321 (Ibn Mas#u Ibn al-Zubayr [but according to Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 82 he read wah am], Tal a", II, p. 211 (Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, . ha, . al-A#mash); Farr . ar Ibr ah m al-Nakha# ; cf. Beck, Kodex, pp. 366367); Tabar , XVII, . p. 86 (Ibn #Abb as); S af , III, p. 354. It was equally the reading of . s the K ufans #A u Bakr), Hamza and al. .im (in the transmission of Ab Kis a" (Jeery, p. 62; Ibn Muj ahid, p. 431; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 545; , XVII, p. 56; cf. Samarqand , II, p. 460; T , VII, p. 276; Tabris . us .

176

notes

Tabar , XVII, p. 86, Tha#lab , VI, p. 306, Ab u l-Fut uh, . . VIII, p. 57, #Ukbar , p. 383). For shaw adhdh readings of h -r-m see Ibn Kh alawayh, . n p. 93, Ibn Jinn, II, pp. 6566 and the discussion in Rippin, Qur"a 21:95, pp. 4851. See 346, 349, 352. Isn ad : al-Mundhir: (al-) Mundhir b. Jayfar/Jufayr/Hu b. Hu. dayr . . kaym/Hak m al# Abd , a K u fan transmitter from disciples of alS . . adiq. a" , VI, p. 140; His kit ab was transmitted by Safw an b. Yahy . a (Quhp . Ardab l , II, p. 264). 344 Cf. Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, pp. 1213 ( wa-lam yu"min [i.e. Ibl s] bi-anna Adam innam a ju #ila qiblatan li-l-mal a"ika etc.); Gimaret, Lecture, p. 83 (to Q 2:34). 345 Cf. Himyar , p. 21 > Bih ar, XXXVIII, p. 110, no. 41, Huwayz , . . . III, p. 376, no. 59; Fur at, I, pp. 255256, nos. 346347 > Bih a r . , , p. 310, no. 2 > XXXVIII, pp. 140141, no. 103; Ibn al-Juh . am > Najaf Burh an, III, p. 36, no. 1, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 126, no. 67; K uf , Man aqib, p. . 303, no. 222; Ibn Mans u r al-Yaman, Kashf , p. 75 ( wa-f l-b a t in h a dh a su" al . . Muh ammad s all a ll a hu # alayhi rabbahu jalla wa# al a f akh hi am r al-mu " min n . . ajak, I, p. 296 (citing the #alayhi l-sal am an yashudda #ad . udahu bihi ); Kar Prophets words on the mountain of Thab r); Hask an , I, pp. 368371, . nos. 510513; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 3; Tabris , VI, pp. 126 . 127 (to Q 5:55) > Huwayz , III, p. 376 , no. 58 ; Ibn T a w u s, Tar . . . a"if, p. 133 (citing Ibn Hanbal); Irbil, I, pp. 166167. Jamrat al- #aqaba is the third . halt in the valley of Min a, where pilgrims returning from #Araf at dur2 , art. ing the h ajj stop to partake in the ritual throwing of stones (see EI . Djamra [F. Buhl-(J. Jomier)]). The best-known tradition on Aaron and #Al is the h th al-manzila (see 286*). . ad 346 Fas . l, p. 228, ll. 1819, p. 308, l. 18. See 343, 349, 352.

347 Fas , p. 324, no. 10. See Burh an, III, p. . l, p. 308, ll. 2122, Najaf 52, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 226, no. 19 (from Najaf ). For this reading . see Tisdall, p. 238. The verse is cited (but as in the #Uthm anic codex) within a lengthy account in Kul n (VIII, p. 380, no. 574 [isn ad : #Al b. Hamm a d < # Amr b. Shamir < J a bir < al-B a qir] > Burh a n , III, p. 52 , . ar, XXIV, p. 368, no. 94, Huwayz , III, p. 413, no. 8). For this no. 2, Bih . . account see further 542*. d al-Azd Isn ad : #Al b. H : a transmitter from al-S . amma . adiq, alK azim and al-Ri d a who was accused of extremism ( ghuluww ). He trans. .

notes

177

mitted the Kit ab al-azilla (Quhp a" , IV, p. 193; Ardab l , I, p. 577; Halm, . Schatten, p. 241; idem, Gnosis, p. 242). 348 Fas atayn a see Jeery, p. 334 . l, p. 308, ll. 1314. For the reading (al-S a diq); Tabar , XVII, p. 34 , Ibn Ab H a tim, VIII, p. 2454, no. . . . 13662, Tha#lab , VI, p. 277, T u s , VII, p. 253 (Muj ahid); Ibn Jinn , . II, p. 63, Tabris , XVII, p. 31 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, Sa#d b. Jubayr, . al-#Al a" b. Say aba, al-S an [uniden. al-Is . adiq, Ibn Surayj/Shurayh .bah tied; not mentioned in Tabris ]); Samarqand , II, p. 447 (ba #d . . uhum); Zamakhshar , II, p. 575 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid); Tabris , Jaw a mi #, p. . 60 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, al-S af , III, p. 341; Ab u Hayy an, . . adiq) > S . a" VI, p. 294 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, Ibn Jubayr, Ibn Ab Ish . aq, al-#Al b. Say aba, al-S an ). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 71 . al-Is . adiq, Ibn Shurayh .bah (wa-hiya mamd uda) > Burh an, III, p. 62, no. 10, Fas . l, p. 308, l. 11. Some grammarians regard atayn a at Q 21:47 as being in the third form, for example Ibn Jinn (II, p. 63) and al-Zamakhshar (II, p. 575); others allow the fourth form (e.g. Tabris , XVII, p. 31 [wa-ruwiya #an al-S adiq . . uz an #alayhi l-sal am annahu q al: ma #n ahu j azayn a bih a, wa- #al a h adh a fa-yaj yak un min af #aln a wa-yak un maf # ul atayn a mah ufan]; cf. #Ukbar , p. 380). . dh * See Lane, s.v. at a. For the meaning of muthaqqala see 178 . h b. al-Mugh Isn ad : #Abdalla ra: Ab u Muhammad #Abdall ah b. al. Mugh ra al-Bajal , a K ufan transmitter from al-K azim and al-Rid . .a (Quhp a" , IV, pp. 5456; Ardab l , I, pp. 511513). According to the manuscripts of KQ, he transmitted from Sahl. The most frequently cited scholar of this name is Sahl b. Ziy ad. Neither he nor anyone else called Sahl appears to have transmitted to #Abdall ah b. al-Mugh ra or transmitted from Jam l al-Hann a t . Presumably a copyist mistakenly . . wrote down #an Jam l twice, and the rst occurrence was later wrongly t l b. #Abdall ah b. N a# alcorrected to #an Sahl.Jam l al-H . : Jam . anna Khath#am al-Hann at /al-Khayy a t , a K u fan transmitter from alS . . . . adiq (Quhp a" , II, p. 53; Ardab l , I, p. 168).Wal d: there are a number of transmitters from al-S . adiq bearing this name. The best-known is alWal d b. Subay h . (for whom see 480*). . 349 Fas . l, p. 228, ll. 1920, p. 308, ll. 1516. Both #azaba and gharaba mean to go away to a distance. The former is attested in several Im am traditions, e.g. Kul n , II, p. 672, no. 7, Ibn B abawayh, Khis al, p. . 47, no. 50 (fa- #zub thumma #zub thumma #zub). Cf. Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 82 (#Abdall ah b. al-Zubayr: some youths here [i.e. in Mecca?] read wah irm , but the correct reading is wa-h am [inna s anan h ahun a yaqra" un . . ar . iby

178

notes

wa-h a hiya wa-h am ]); cf. also Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, . irm wa-innam . ar p. 255 (fol 12b ll. 911). See 343, 346, 352. 350 Fas a muh . l, p. 309, ll. 1011. The reading wa-l . addath is recorded on the authority of (i) Ibn #Abb as (see Jeery, p. 202; Tirmidh , Awliy a ", pp. 351 [k ana mimm a yutl a thumma turika], 353; Makk , Q ut, I, p. 246; as, p. 14); (ii) #Al Zayn Qurt , XII, pp. 7980; Madelung, Ibn #Abb .ub al-#Abid n (see Bas a"ir, pp. 319320, no. 3 > Bih ar, XXVI, p. 67, no. . . 5; Bas a"ir, p. 369, no. 5 > Bih ar, XL, p. 142, no. 44; Kul n , I, p. 270, . . no. 2 > Huwayz , III, p. 512 , no. 193 ; Ibn al-Ju h a m > Najaf , pp. 345 . . ar, XXVI, pp. 346, nos. 3031 > Burh an, III, pp. 9899, nos. 23, Bih . 8182, nos. 4344); (iii) al-B aqir (see Bas a"ir, pp. 323324, nos. 1011 > . Bih ar, XXVI, pp. 6869, no. 8; Bas a"ir, p. 324, no. 13 > Bih ar, XXVI, . . . pp. 6970, no. 10; Kishsh , p. 157 > Bih a r , XXVI, p. 80 , no. 41; Muf d, . a r , XXVI, p. 74 , no. 26 ); (iv) alS a diq (see Sa # d b. Ikhtis a s , p. 323 > Bi h . . . . #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63); (v) al-B aqir and al-S n , I, p. 177, . adiq (see Kul no. 4 > S af , III, p. 385, Huwayz , III, p. 511, no. 190); (vi) Qat ada (see . . Bas a " ir , p. 321 , no. 8 > Bi h a r , XXVI, p. 72 , no. 19 ). See also Sulaym, . . , Kit ab, p. 351 > Muf d, Ikhtis as , II, p. 86 > Najaf . . , p. 324; Qumm pp. 347348, no. 34, Burh an, III, p. 98, no. 1, Huwayz , III, pp. 516 . 517, no. 206; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 183; Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 6465; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 212213, with note 435 = Divine Guide, p. 202; Introduction, p. 16, with note 79. Cf. Jeery, p. 148 (giving Ubayys reading as wa-l a nab muh D aw ud, p. 75 (wa-l a . addath); Ibn Ab nab muh as). For a discussion of the . addath as the reading of Ibn #Abb term muh Friedmann, Prophecy, pp. . . addath see Kohlberg, Muhaddath; 8692 and index; van Ess, TG, I, p. 280; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin (= Divine Guide), index; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 158159. Qablaka (instead of min qablika) is also attested in Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63. It is not clear whether this is a reading or a copyists error. The phrase wa n twice, at Q 21:7, 25:20; wa-m m a arsaln a qablaka occurs in the Qur"a a arsaln a min qablika appears four times, at Q 12:109, 16:43, 21:25, 22:52. a" (I. Goldziher351 For the doctrine of bad a" see EI 2, art. Bad [A.S. Tritton]); EIr, art. Bad a" (W. Madelung). For the expression bad a li-ll ah (God changed His decree/Gods decision became apparent) see 550, 619; #Ayy ash , I, pp. 104105, nos. 307, 309, Kul n , VIII, p. 82, no. 40 (to Q 2:213); Muf d, Tas h .h . . , pp. 2426. The notion that the Day of Reckoning mentioned at Q 21:1 (or the Hour mentioned at Q 54:1, see 550) was postponed as a result of a change in the divine decree

notes

179

(bad a" ) does not appear to be attested elsewhere. Cf. the exegetical tradition to Q 51:5455, according to which God wished to destroy mankind but then changed His decree as an act of mercy (Bas a"ir, p. . 110, no. 4; Qumm , II, pp. 330331 > Bih ar, IX, p. 239, no. 137; Kul n , . VIII, p. 103, no. 78 [> Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, II, p. 8] > Bih a r . , XVIII, p. 213, no. 45; Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 83; Ibn B abawayh, Tawh d . , p. ar, X, p. 330, no. 2; Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, I, p. 145, no. 443, no. 1 > Bih . 1 > Bih ar, IV, p. 95, no. 2; cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 55, no. 77). . 352 Fas . l, p. 308, l. 20. Of the last four words in this tradition, al N ur cites only the word wa-h . irm. This may not be a coincidence: only wa-h . adiq disapproved . irm can be established as a reading of which al-S (see 343, 346, 349, to Q 21:95). S-y-n-z-l appears to be corrupt. H-j-r may refer to hajran (Q 73:10), for which the variant hujran is recorded (see Lane, s.v.; cf. Qurt , I, p. 84). Finally, readers disagree at six .ub n as between waladan and wuldan (see Ibn Muj ahid, places in the Qur"a p. 412, Tabris , XVI, p. 65, both to Q 19:77). Al-S . . adiqs reading of h-jran and w-l-dan does not appear to be recorded elsewhere and cannot be established from KQ, since the manuscripts are unvocalized. 353 In the #Uthm anic codex, the form yulh un occurs three times . id (Q 7:180, 16:103, 41:40; cf. WKAS, II, part 1, p. 281a); it is the qir a"a of ve of the Seven Readers. Only Hamza read yal h ad u n throughout, . . while al-Kis a" read yalh un at Q 16:103 and yulh un at Q 7:180 and . ad . id ahid, p. 298; T , V, p. 39; Tabris , IX, p. 68; cf. Q 41:40 (see Ibn Muj . us . Tabar , IX, p. 134 [to Q 7 : 180 ], XIV, pp. 179 180 [to Q 16:103]). Al. S a diqs reading does not appear to be recorded elsewhere and cannot . be established from KQ, since the manuscripts are unvocalized. Isn ad : #Ab da/#Ubayda: #Ab da/#Ubayda b. Bash r al-Khath#am , a transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , IV, p. 127 ; Ardab l , . I, pp. 530531). He may be identical with #Ubayd b. #Abdall ah b. Bishr al-Khath#am al-K uf (Quhp a" , IV, p. 115; Ardab l , I, p. 526). 354 Fas u is occasionally glossed as li-yah u . l, p. 309, ll. 34. Li-yashhad .d . ur (Samarqand , II, p. 477; Tha#lab , VII, p. 19; Tabris , XVII, p. 99 ; . Qurt ub , XII, p. 41 ); it does not appear to be recorded elsewhere as . a qir a"a. 355 Fas n , I, p. 422, no. 51 . l, p. 309, ll. 46. For this reading see Kul a r , XXIII, p. 379 , no. 64 , Huwayz , III, p. > Burh an, III, p. 80, no. 1, Bih . .

180

notes

476, no. 29; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 238 > Bih ar, XXXIX, p. . 250, no. 13. 356 Fas a" as cited by al-Qurt .ub . l, p. 309, ll. 910. According to al-Farr (XII, p. 39), ya"t is grammatically correct; but he does not mention it as a qir a"a. In the corresponding passage in Farr a" (II, p. 224), the verb is ta"t (wa-law q al: wa- #al a kull d amir ta"t taj #aluhu #lan muwah . .h . adan li-anna a w ah kull ud fat il . ida). . b. Ayyu b: Yahy Isn ad : Yahy ub al-Bas , a transmitter from . a . a b. Ayy .r al-S a diq (Quhp a " , VI, p. 253 ; Ardab l , II, p. 326 ). . 357 Fas alan (foot soldiers) is . l, p. 309, l. 1. In ms. L, the word rujj vocalized. For this reading see Jeery, p. 335 (al-S as, . adiq, Ibn #Abb Muj ahid, al-Hasan). It is also ascribed to alS a diq (and others) in Ibn . . , III, p. Jinn (II, p. 79), Tabris (XVII, p. 94 > S af , III, p. 373, Huwayz . . . 488, no. 75) and Ab u Hayy an (VI, p. 338); Nah an , IV, p. 398) . . h . as (Ma # records it on the authority of #Ikrima. 358 Sajda is the practice of bowing down after reciting certain verses (or passages) known as sajda verses. There are usually said to be fourteen such verses (each in a dierent S ura), though other numbers are also given (see EI 2, art. Sadjda [A. Rippin]). All agree that Q 22:18 is among the fourteen verses. According to the account cited here on the authority of #Al , Q 22:77 is also a sajda verse, making S urat al-hajj . the only one to contain two such verses. This account is also recorded as a Prophetic tradition (Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 228 [fol 22b l. 22fol 23a l. 1] and the references given by the editor [p. 44]; Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, . II, p. 58, no. 473; Ibn Kathr, Tafs r, III, pp. 211, 236 and the sources cited therein; Suy ut , Durr, IV, p. 616; cf. Ab u D aw ud, Sunan, II, p. 58, . , Jaw ami #, II, p. 93 > S a f , III, p. 391) and as an nos. 14011402; Tabris . . utterance of #Umar (Sh a# , Umm, I, pp. 254, 255; M alik, Muwa. t. ta", I, pp. 205206, no. 13; Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 57, nos. 470, 471; Ibn . al-#Arab , Ah am, III, p. 1304; Suy ut , Durr, IV, p. 616), of Ibn #Umar . . k as (#Abd al-Razz aq, Mus . annaf, III, p. 341, no. 5890) and of Ibn #Abb (idem, Mus annaf , p. 342 , no. 5894 ; Ab u # Ubayd, Fa d a " il , II, p. 58 , no. . . 472). #Umar, Ibn #Umar and #Al are all said to have performed two sajdas while reciting S urat al-hajj a# , Umm, I, pp. 249, 254, 255). . (Sh There is disagreement as to whether this practice is obligatory or not; see 673*.

notes

181

359 See Najaf , p. 333, no. 1 (as an instance of the inner meaning [b a. tin] of tafs r ahl al-bayt ) > Burh an, III, p. 78, nos. 23, Bih ar, XXIV, p. . 24, no. 52. 360 Mustadrak, X, pp. 181182, no. 11797. For this tradition see Ibn al-Juh , p. 336, nos. 89 > Burh an, III, p. 90, nos. 28 . am > Najaf 29, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 360, no. 84. Cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 234, no. 43 (to . n , I, p. 392, nos. 1 Q 14:37) > Burh an, II, pp. 320321, no. 14; Kul (to Q 14:37), 2; Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, II, p. 266, nos. 2930 (waya #rid u #alayn a nus . adiq reveals . . ratahum). Cf. the tradition in which al-S to his disciple Dharh . al-Muh . arib (for whom see Modarressi, TS, pp. 217218) that the inner meaning (b a. tin) of thumma l-yaqd u tafathahum is . af , III, meeting the Imam (liq a" al-im am) (Kul n , IV, p. 549, no. 4 > S . p. 376, Bih a r , XXIV, pp. 360 361 , Huwayz , III, p. 492 , no. 97 , # Amil , . . Mir" at, p. 7; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, II, p. 290, no. 1432, pp. 290291, no. 1437; idem, Ma # an , pp. 322323, no. 10 > Bih ar, XLVII, p. 338, no. . 16, XCII, pp. 8384, no. 15, XCIX, p. 318, no. 20). The reading wayaqd u (for wa-l-y uf u) in mss. M, L and T does not appear to be recorded . elsewhere and may be the result of a scribal error. , I, p. 272, no. 368 (same isn ad as in KQ ) > Burh an, 361 Cf. Barq III, p. 107, no. 8, Bih a r , II, p. 204 , no. 86 ; Ba s a " ir , p. 524 , no. 25 ; Hill , . . . Mukhtas ar , p. 75 > Burh a n , III, p. 107 , no. 3 . Cf. also A s l # A s im b. Humayd , . . . . p. 25, Barq, I, pp. 271272, no. 366 (> Burh an, III, p. 107, no. 6, Bih ar, . ar, II, p. 204, no. 85), Bas a"ir, p. II, p. 204, no. 84), p. 272, no. 367 (> Bih . . 522, no. 12 (> Bih ar, II, p. 200, no. 66), Hill , Mukhtas aqir . . . ar, p. 73 (al-B addresses K amil al-Tamm ar). In some of these sources, al-musallim un appears as a gloss on al-mu"min un; in others it should perhaps be taken as a reading (qad aah un al-musallim un). The reading as given . a l-mu"min in KQ does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. Perhaps qad aah . a lmu"min un is to be understood here as the name of S ura 23 (see Paret, Kommentar, p. 551). If so, then al-S . adiqs instruction to his disciple is to un. Although the word m-sread the opening verse as qad aah . a l-musallim l-m un is unvocalized in the manuscripts, the reading musallim un appears to be conrmed by the fact that in Barq and Bas a " ir (as well as in . Kul n , I, p. 391, no. 5) the verse is cited in the chapters on tasl m. Cf. 74, 76, 120, 129, 285, 363. n: a W Isn ad : Salama b. H aqif and a transmitter from al-K azim . ayya . l-S : (Quhp a" , III, p. 152; Ardab l , I, p. 372).Abu abb a h al -K in a n . . Ab u l-Sabb a h Ibr a h m b. Nu # aym al# Abd al-Kin a n (d. after 170 / 786 . .

182

notes

787), a transmitter from al-S azim (Modarressi, TS, p. . . adiq and al-K 289). 362 Fas . l, p. 313, ll. 1617. Cf. Q 40:64. Isn ad : this is the only tradition in KQ in which Ab u T . alib transmits from Y unus via another person rather than directly. 363 It is not clear whether qad aah un follows the qad aah . a l-musallim .a a " ir , p. l-mu"min un of the #Uthm anic codex or replaces it (cf. 361*). Cf. Bas . 523, no. 19 (in the chapter f l-tasl m li- al Muh ammad etc.; isn a d : A hmad . . b. Muhammad [i.e. al-Sayy ar ?] < al-Husayn b. Sa# d < al-Nadr . . . b. Suwayd < Ibn Musk an < Durays < al-B aqir); Hill , Mukhtas . . . ar, p. 74 (same isn ad as Bas a"ir ). In both Bas a"ir and Hill , the Imam declares: qad . . . aah a l-musallim u n ; but whether this is a reading remains unclear. Cf. . also 74, 76, 120, 129, 285. 364 There is only partial agreement between the versions preserved in ms. M and ms. T. (Mss. L and B record essentially the same text as ms. T.) Both versions agree that each person has two houses awaiting him, one in Heaven and one in Hell; and both describe a situation where one of the two persons (say, Zayd) goes to Heaven and the other (say, #Amr) ends up in Hell. At this point the texts diverge: (i) according to ms. M, Zayd will inherit (or take possession of) #Amrs original paradisiacal home (i.e. the home which had been prepared for #Amr in Paradise while he was alive on earth), while #Amr will inherit Zayds original infernal home. There is no mention of Zayds original home in Paradise or of #Amrs original home in Hell. Other sources add that before he enters Hell #Amr will be shown his original paradisiacal home, and this will increase his sorrow; Zayd, before entering Paradise, will be shown his original infernal home, and this will increase his joy. See Ibn Ab Shayba, Mus , . annaf, VII, p. 512, no. 37626; Qumm II, p. 89 > S af , III, p. 395, Burh an, III, p. 109, no. 2, Bih ar, VIII, p. . . 287, no. 19, Huwayz , III, pp. 531532, no. 35; Tabar , II, p. 74, to . . a" Q 2:167; idem, XVI, p. 87, to Q 19:39 (wa-andhir y a Muh a"ul . ammad h al-mushrik n bi-ll ah yawm h asratihim wa-nadamihim # al a m a farra t u f janb all a h . . wa- urithat mas akinuhum min al-janna ahl al- m an bi-ll ah wa-l-. t a #a lahu waadkhal uhum mas akin ahl al- m an bi-ll ah min al-n ar ); Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad a t, p. 97 = Fyzee, p. 81 > Bih ar, VIII, p. 201; Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab, pp. . 305306 > Bih ar, VIII, pp. 125126, no. 26; H . akim, Mustadrak, V, p. . 698, no. 8566, p. 823, no. 8808; Haytham , Majma #, X, p. 432 (from

notes

183

al-Tabar an ); Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. 402. (ii) According to ms. T, Zayd . . will take possession of his own original paradisiacal home and #Amr, of his own original infernal home. There is no mention either of Zayd having an original home in Hell or of #Amr having an original home in Paradise. (According to one tradition, these homes will be demolished [see al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, XIV, pp. 496497, no. 39405, from al-Daylam]; cf. T ahid], where only the . us, VII, p. 351 [from Muj demolition of Zayds original home in Hell is mentioned.) 365 Cf. Samarqand , II, p. 511, where m a y u #ad un is explained as refer ring to the tna. In Tabris (XVIII, p. 174), f l-qawm of the #Uthm anic . codex is glossed as ma #a l-qawm. For the trial or test (tna) which #Al a r , XXVIII, pp. 1 endured after the Prophets death cf. in general Bih . 84. 366 Mustadrak, VII, p. 25, no. 7548. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 93 (innah a nazalat f m ani # al-zak at ) > S af , III, p. 410, Burh an, III, p. 119, no. 4; . Kul n , III, p. 504, no. 11 > S af , III, p. 410, Burh an, III, p. 119, no. 2; Ibn . B abawayh, Faq h, II, p. 7, no. 21 > Burh an, III, p. 119, no. 2 (ending); ar, XCVI, pp. 2122, no. 50 Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab, p. 279, no. 5 > Bih . (ending). 367 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 276, no. 16704 (a). This reading is ascribed to al-S ah, N asikh, p. 62; Kul n , V, p. 522, no. 4), . adiq (Sa#d b. #Abdall to al-B aqir and al-S , XIX, p. 71 [for Ja#far read Ab u . . adiq (Tabris Ja#far] > S a f , III, p. 447 ) or to the ahl al-bayt ( T u s , VII, p. 461 ). It is . . also recorded on the authority of Ubayy (Jeery, p. 150; Tabar , XVIII, . p. 167; Tha#lab, VII, p. 117; T . us, VII, p. 461; Ibn #At .iyya, IV, p. 195), d (Muq Ibn Mas#u atil, II, p. 426 [cited in Versteegh, Grammar and Exegesis, p. 219]; M atur d , VII, p. 593; Nah an , IV, p. 556; . h . as, Ma # Qurt ub , XII, p. 309 ; Ibn Kath r, Tafs r , III, p. 304 ), Ibn # Abb as (Tabris , . . XIX, p. 71; Qurt , XIX, p. . .ub, XII, p. 309) and Sa#d b. Jubayr (Tabris af , III, p. 447, 71). For this tradition cf. Kul n , V, p. 522, nos. 13 > S . Burh an, III, p. 151, nos. 13; Ibn Ab H . atim, VIII, p. 2641, no. 14846; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 564565, no. 1 > Bih ar, CIV, p. 34, no. 12; 368. . Al-jilb ab wa-l-qin a # are the outer garment and the head-shawl. 368 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 276, no. 16704 (b). Cf. Kul n , V, p. 522, no. 4 (al-jilb ab wa-l-khim ar idh a k anat al-mar"a musinna) > S a f . , III, p. 447, al Amil , Was a " il , VII/ 1 , p. 147 , no. 25433 , Burh an, III, p. 151, no. Hurr al# .

184

notes

4, Huwayz , III, p. 623, no. 240; 367. In this tradition, iz ar may well . mean a waist-wrapper/sarong (cf. Lane, s.v.). 369 Cf. the reading of Ubayy: bi-annahum yarith un al-ard . wa-la-yumakkinanna minkum (read lahum?) (Jeery, p. 150). Cf. also Q 28:56 (wanaj #alahum al-w arith n wa-numakkina lahum f l-ard . ). 370 Fas . l, p. 314, ll. 89. This sentence presumably follows wa-minhum man yamsh #al a arba # (Q 24:45) (cf. Ibn Muhakkam, III, p. 187: wa-minhum . man yamsh #al a arba # ay: wa-minhum man yamsh #al a akthar min dh alika). aqir (Tabris , XIX, p. Elsewhere it is recorded as an utterance of al-B . 60 > Huwayz , III, p. 615, no. 209, Fas . . l, p. 314, ll. 910 [where al N ur regards it as a reading]; Tabris , Jaw ami #, II, p. 129) or of al-S . . adiq (Qumm , II, p. 107 > S a f , III, p. 441 , Burh a n , III, p. 144 , Bi h a r , LXIV, . . p. 24, no. 2, Huwayz , III, p. 615, no. 208). Cf. the reading of Ubayy: . wa-minhum man yamsh #al a akthar (Jeery, p. 150; Qurt , XII, p. 292; .ub Ab u Hayy an, VI, p. 428). Commentators provide several answers to . n does not mention animals which walk the question why the Qur"a on more than four legs. One answer is that to the beholder they are indistinguishable from quadrupeds (li-annahu ka-lladh yamsh #al a arba # f mar" a/ra"y al- #ayn) (Tha#lab , VII, p. 113; T , VII, p. 448; Tabris , . us . XIX, p. 60; idem, Jaw ami #, II, p. 129). Another answer, which Ab u l-Q asim al-Balkh (d. 319/931) ascribes to the fal asifa, is that animals with more than four legs only support themselves (ya #tamidu) on four of award , IV, them (T , VII, p. 448; Tabris , XIX, p. 60; see further M . us . p. 115; Qurt ub , XII, p. 292 [citing al-Naqq a sh]; R a z , XXIV, p. 16; . Ibn al-Jawz , V, p. 391). Finally, such creatures are said to be so rare that they may be regarded as virtually non-existent (k ana mulh . aqan bi n) (R l- #adam) (and need therefore not be mentioned in the Qur"a az , XXIV, p. 16 > Bih a r , LXIV, p. 14 ). This is puzzling since, as noted by . al-R az , multipeds include spiders and scorpions, and these can hardly be regarded as rare. 371 Fas . l, p. 314, l. 6. For the reading with lahunna (after their being constrained, God is forgiving towards them) see Jeery, pp. 65, 202, d, Ibn #Abb 249, 295 (Ibn Mas#u as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, al-Rab # b. Khutha"il, II, p. 131, no. 650, p. 154 no. 716 (J abir [i.e. aym); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad . d); b. #Abdall ah]); Ibn Ab H . atim, VIII, p. 2591, no. 14536 (Ibn Mas#u Ibn Jinn , II, p. 108 (Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr); Ibn #At iyya, IV, p. 182 . d, J (Ibn Mas#u abir b. #Abdall ah, Ibn Jubayr); Tabris , XIX, p. 39 (Ibn .

notes

185

#Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr, al-S af , III, p. 434, Huwayz , III, p. . . adiq) > S . 602, no. 167, Fas l , p. 314 , l. 7 ; Ibn al-Jawz , V, p. 381 (Ibn # Abb as, Ab u . #Imr an al-Jawn, Ja#far b. Muhammad [i.e. al-S . . adiq]); Gilliot, Exgse, p. 151. Cf. Tha#lab , VII, p. 99 (whenever al-Hasan would read this verse . he would exclaim: lahunna wa-ll ahi lahunna). According to al-Zarkash (I, p. 337), J abirs reading was lahu, but this is probably an error for lahunna. 372 Fas . l, p. 314, ll. 46, Mustadrak, XIV, p. 448, no. 17245. For this reading see Tisdall, p. 238 (And let those who nd not marriage abstain through temporary marriage etc.); cf. Gribetz, Bedfellows, pp. 5051, with note 8. In what could be an allusion to this qir a"a, the Imam Ab u l-Hasan (here probably meaning al-Rid a" , V, . . a; cf. Quhp pp. 1213, Kh u" , XIV, pp. 265270, no. 9319) tells his disciple al-Fath . b. Yaz d that those whom God does not provide with the means to marry should abstain (from what is unlawful) through mut #a (fa-l-yasta #f bi-l-mut #a) (Kul n , V, pp. 452453, no. 2). See 148*, 452. 373 The Syrian Successor #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Ghanm (d. 78/697 dh b. Jabal whether 698) is reported to have asked the Companion Mu#a dh the correct reading (at Q 25:18) was nattakhidha or nuttakhadha; Mu#a told him he had heard the Prophet recite the word as nattakhidha (H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. 628, no. 3026; cf. 409*). This is reportedly the reading of the majority (al- # amma/al-jam a #a) (see Samarqand , II, p. 556; Ibn Jinn, II, p. 120). For nuttakhadha see Ibn Jinn, II, p. 119 (Zayd b. #Al , al-S u #Abdall ah Ja #far b. Muh ] and . adiq [reading Ab . ammad b. #Al others); Ahw az , Bas r , p. 409 (alHasan al-Ba s r ); Tabris , XIX, p. 91 . . . . (Zayd b. #Al , al-S a diq [reading wa-ruwiya dh a lika # an Ja # far b. Mu h ammad ] . . and others); Ibn al-Jawz, VI, p. 8 (Ab u #Abd al-Rahm . an al-Sulam, Ibn s Jubayr, al-Hasan, Qat ada, Ab u Ja#far, Ibn Ya#mar, #A ); . . .im al-Jahdar Jeery, Zaid, p. 270 (Zayd b. #Al ). Il ah (for awliy a" ) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a; but cf. Samarqand (II, p. 556), where the verse is glossed as: It did not behove us to be chosen (an nuttakhadha) instead of you as a god (il ahan) to be worshipped. Cf. the grammatical analysis in Ibn Jinn , II, p. 120, Qurt , XIII, pp. 1011. .ub 374 Fas . l, p. 314, ll. 23. The epistle mentioned here may well be the one preserved in Bas a"ir, pp. 526536, no. 1; towards its end (at . p. 535), al-S . adiq cites Q 24:2325. The reading of Q 24:23 recorded there diers both from KQ and from the #Uthm anic codex (it has almu"min at al-gh al at for al-gh al at al-mu"min at ). The qir a"a in the Bas a"ir is .

186

notes

also attested elsewhere (see Khas b , Hid aya, p. 298, Ibn B abawayh, . #Ilal, p. 391, no. 1), while that recorded in KQ appears to be unique. It is not clear whether the correct vocalization in KQ is muh n (as in .s . in the #Uthm anic codex at Q 4:24 and Q 5:5) or muh n (as read e.g. by .s . an al-A#mash at Q 5:5; see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 31). Cf. in general Motzki, Muh s an a t. .. Isn ad : al-Mufad u #Abdall ah al-Mufad . dal . b. #Umar: Ab . dal . b. #Umar al-Ju#f (d. before 179/795796), a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq and al-K azim . (GAS, I, p. 534; Halm, Schatten, pp. 224236 and passim; Modarressi, TS, pp. 333337). 375 For al-nabr (said to be synonymous with al-hamz, the glottal stop) see Lis an, Lane, both s.v. nbr, Wright, I, p. 16 (nabra). Absence of the glottal stop was a feature of Qurash speech (cf. 310). Cf. Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 327, no. 1 (iyy akum wa-l-nabr f hi ya #n l-hamz) > al-Hurr . ar, XI, p. 29 (from alal-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, p. 865, no. 7782; Bih . Jawhar ). For a statement in defence of nabr see Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 266 (fol 9a ll. 1415) (N a# b. Ab Nu#aym: sami #tu #Abdall ah b. Yaz d b. Hurmuz yus"al #an al-nabr f l-qur" an fa-q al: in k anat al- #arab tanbiru fa-inna n specialists l-qur" an ah . aqq an yunbar ). Translation: (Some of) the Qur"a n while (others) do pronounce the glottal stop in (reciting) the Qur"a n specialists do not add [reading: l not (or: The Qur"a a yaz d un] the n but suppress it). glottal stop in [reciting] the Qur"a t a"ifa (par376 Mustadrak, XVIII, p. 75, no. 22092. The view that the . ty) of Q 24:2 may refer to a single person is ascribed to various author ities, including #Al (see Tabar , XVIII, p. 69 [al-. t a"ifa rajul fa-m a . fawqa dh alika]; Ibn al-Ash#ath, Ash #athiyy at, p. 133, Nu#m an, Da # a"im, II, p. 451, no. 1579 [al-. t a"ifa min w ah a #ashara]; T , Tahdh b, X, p. 150, . us . id il t a"ifa w ah af , III, p. 416), Muj ahid (Ibn Ab H no. 602 [al-. . atim, III, . . id ] > S p. 1013, no. 5672 [al-. t a"ifa rajul ], Samarqand , II, p. 517, Tabris , XIX, . p. 9), Ibr ahm al-Nakha# (Tabar , XVIII, p. 69, Tabris , XIX, p. 9), . . al-Hasan al-Bas (M award , IV, p. 72, Tabris , XIX, p. 9), Ibn #Abb as . . .r u l , I, p. 154 ) and al-B a qir ( Tabris , XIX, pp. 9 10 ). See also (Sarakhs , Us . . M atur d , VII, p. 508; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Mutash abih, II, p. 272. 377 For the rst part cf. Tabris , XIX, p. 125 (huwa l-rajul yamsh bi. sajiyyatihi llat jubila #alayh a) > S af , IV, p. 23, Burh an, III, p. 173, no. . 5, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 132, LXIX, p. 260, Huwayz , IV, p. 26, no. 89; . . Najaf , p. 382, no. 18 (ending). L a tasbiqu yaduhu rijlahu (lit. his hand

notes

187

did not precede his leg) may mean: he walked/acted with gentle circumspection, not with reckless impetuosity. 378 Fas , p. 371, no. 1. For this tradition cf. . l, p. 314, ll. 2022, Najaf Qumm , II, p. 111 (li- al Muh ammad h af , IV, p. 5, Burh an, . . . aqqahum) > S III, p. 156, no. 1, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 20 , no. 36 , Huwayz , IV, p. 7 , no. 22 , . . Fas at, I, p. 291, no. 393 ( al Muh . l, p. 314, ll. 1417; Fur . ammad h . aqqahum); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 65. For this reading of Q 25:8 see also Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 (al-B aqir); 306. The tradition in KQ is cited (via Najaf ) in Burh an, III, p. 156, no. 3 (but reading fa-l a yasta. t # un sab lan il a wal ayat #Al ). For the ending of the tradition cf. 189. The word al-sab l at Q 25:9 does not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a; it may be a gloss. 379 For this tradition see Ibn al-Juh , . am (possibly citing KQ ) > Najaf pp. 384385, no. 26 (isn ad : Muhammad b. Jumh ur < al-Hasan b. Mah. . . ub al-Hadhdh a" [corrected by the editor to al-Khazz az] b ub < Ab u Ayy . < Ab u Bas r) > Bih ar, XXIV, p. 135, no. 8, Fas . . . l, p. 315, ll. 2123. For this reading of Q 25:74 see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 62; Qumm , I, p. 10, II, p. 117 > S af , I, p. 45, IV, p. 27, Burh an, III, p. 177, no. 1, . Huwayz , IV, p. 43, no. 139; Tabris , XIX, p. 128 (as qir a"at ahl al-bayt ); . . ami #, II, p. 155 > Huwayz , IV, pp. 43 44 , no. 144; GdQ, II, idem, Jaw . n, p. 212; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 66; cf. p. 99; Kohlberg, Qur"a Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 284. Isn ad : the emendation of al-Hadhdh a" to al-Kharr az is based on . several considerations: rst, the name Ab u Ayy ub al-Hadhdh a" is not . attested in the Rij al works (as noted by the editor of Najaf , see p. 384, note 7, p. 763, note 4); second, in the isn ad of this tradition as cited in the Bih ar the name appears as Ab u Ayy ub al-Khazz az (a variant on . b. Mahb u al-Kharr az, cf. 106*); third, al-Hasan . . ub transmitted from Ab Ayy ub al-Kharr az (see Naj ash , I, p. 97, no. 24; Modarressi, TS, p. 285). 380 Fas Ruma # may be an interpo. l, p. 315, ll. 57. The words ya #n lation. For the pejorative appellations Zufar and Ruma# as referring to #Umar see Kohlberg, Sa . aba, p. 162; Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 118. . h Al-adlam (or dul am, the black one) is another of #Umars appellations (see Muf d, Irsh ad, p. 68 [al-dul ama l-adlam a] > Bih ar, XXI, p. 17; Bih ar, . . XXXV, p. 337, LXVII, p. 62; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. 116117). The reading Zufar appears to be attested only in KQ. For the reading alth an see 382*. For an interpretation of the ful an of the verse as referring

188

notes

to #Umar see Qumm , II, p. 113 > Huwayz , IV, pp. 1112, no. 40. It is . not clear whether y a laytan (for y a waylat a laytan ) is an otherwise unattested reading of Q 25:28 or a copyists error (triggered perhaps by the y a laytan of the previous verse). See 381383. 381 Fas . l, p. 315, ll. 79. Translation: The Book (as you have it) contains a great many changes; how I hope that you will preserve the knowledge (of these changes [or: of the original text]) in the future having been given knowledge of them (or: of it) in the pastso that it will be possible to distinguish what (in the original text) was an allusion and what was not. Here, as often elsewhere, the qawm are the enemies of #Al (cf. 228); it is they who altered the original Zufar to ful an. See 380, 382, 383. 382 Fas , . am > Najaf . l, p. 315, ll. 912. For this tradition see Ibn al-Juh an, III, p. 162, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 1819, no. p. 374, no. 8, Burh . 31, XXX, p. 245, no. 111 (with mus a. tima for mus ; cf. 601). .h . af F .h . af #Al There, however, ful an is replaced not by Zufar but by al-th an another appellation of #Umar. For this latter reading see Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 65. See 380, 381, 383. a al fir: Muhammad Isn ad : Muhammad b. #Udha b. #Udh ar b. #Is . . a"in , a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim. Sayraf al-Mad . . adiq and al-K . His kit ab was transmitted by Muhammad b. Ism a # l b. Baz # (Modar. r: unidentiressi, TS, pp. 350351).Ja#far b. Muhammad al-T . . ayya ed. He may be a brother of Hamza b. Muhammad al-Tayy ar al-K uf , . . . a transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (for whom see Quhp a " , II, pp. . 241242; Ardab l , I, p. 283). Alternatively, Ja#far could be a corrup b: the reference may be to Ab l-Khat u ltion of Hamza.A bu . .t .a b Muhammad Khat b. Ab Zaynab al-Asad (d. ca. 138/755756), the . .t .a b biyya (see EI 2, art. Abu l-Khat eponymous founder of the Khat .t .a .t .a al-Asad [B. Lewis]; EIr, art. Ab ul-Kat t a b al-Asad [A. Sachedina]). .. b Zuhar Another person of this kunya is Ab u l-Khat an al. b. al-Nu#m .t .a Asad , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a" , III, p. 25; Ardab l , . adiq (Quhp I, p. 324). 383 Fas , pp. 374375, no. 9 (reading y a . l, p. 315, ll. 1213. See Najaf waylat a laytan lam attakhidh ful anan khal lan)> Bih ar, XXX, p. 245, no. 112; . r al-Yaman, Kashf, p. 30. Al-awwal and al-th cf. Ibn Mans an are Ab u .u Bakr and #Umar. See 380382.

notes

189

384 Cf. Fur at, I, p. 292, no. 394 (nu. tfa bayd a" makn una) > Bih ar, XXXV, . . pp. 360361, no. 1, XLIII, p. 145, no. 48; Ibn al-Juh a m > Najaf , p. . 377, no. 14 > Burh an, III, p. 170, no. 4, Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 361362, no. . 4; T , Am al , II, p. 114 (khalaqan nu. tfa bayd a" . tayyiba) > Burh an, III, p. . us . a r , XXII, p. 111 , no. 76 , XXXVII, p. 46 , no. 22 ; Bay ad , 171, no. 7, Bih . . II, pp. 3435; 394. See in general Rubin, Pre-existence, pp. 6774; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 103105 = Divine Guide, pp. 4041; BarAsher, Scripture, p. 139; cf. 405*. d 385 This tradition is transmitted on the authority of (i) Ibn Mas#u (Thawr, Tafs r, p. 226, no. 733; Tabar , XXIII, p. 65; M aturd, VIII, . d and p. 20; Tha#lab , VII, p. 129; R az , XXIV, p. 64); (ii) Ibn Mas#u Ibn #Abb as (Samarqand , II, p. 559; Tabris , XIX, p. 101); (iii) al-S . . adiq (Tabris , XXIX, p. 57 > Bi h a r , VII, p. 123 ). Cf. Sijist a n , Ghar b , p. 17; . . a n , V, pp. 19 20 . Nah h a s, Ma # .. 386 Fas . l, p. 316, ll. 910. For this reading (and your faithful family among them) see Bukh ar , S h ab al-tafs r ); Qumm , II, . ah . . , III, p. 388 (Kit pp. 124, 126 > S a f , IV, p. 53 , Burh a n , III, p. 191 , no. 5 , p. 192 , no. 12, . Huwayz , IV, p. 66, no. 88; Ibn Ab H . . atim, X, p. 3473, no. 19523 (Ibn #Abb as); Ibn al-Juh aqir) > Najaf , p. 395, no. 21 > Burh an, III, . am (al-B p. 191, no. 6, Bih a r , XXV, p. 213 , no. 1 ; F a kih , Akhb a r Makka , II, p. 213 . d); Tha#lab d, al-S (Ibn Mas#u (Ibn Mas#u a diq) > Tabris , XIX, pp. 188 . . 189, Najaf, p. 395, no. 20, Burh an, III, p. 191, no. 8 (missing from the printed edition of Tha#lab ); Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 44, 6667. It is not clear whether the last word is al-mukhlis n or al-mukhlas n. A similar . . n ; see Fur at, I, p. reading of this verse is wa-rah. taka l-mukhlis n/mukhla s . . 302, no. 407 (Ibn Mas#ud) > Fas . l, p. 137, ll. 810 (in some manuscripts of Fur at wa-rah. taka is followed by minhum); Tabar , XIX, p. 121 (Ibn . #Abb as, #Amr b. Murra al-Jamal [i.e. Ab u #Abdall ah #Amr b. Murra b. #Abdall ah al-Jamal al-K uf al-A#m a, d. 116/734 or 118/736; see Ibn Ha. jar, Tahdh b, VIII, pp. 102103]); Ibn al-Juh us, Sa #d, p. 106 . am > Ibn T . aw > Bih ar, XVIII, p. 216, no. 47 (missing from Najaf ). In a session held in . the presence of al-Ma"m un, #Al al-Rid . a is said to have noted that warah. taka l-mukhlis n/mukhlas n was the reading of Ubayy and appears in . . d (Ibn B the codex of Ibn Mas#u abawayh, #Uy un, I, p. 181; idem, Am al , p. 470 > S af , IV, p. 53, Burh an, III, pp. 189190, no. 1, Fas . . l, p. 137, ll. 48, p. 144, ll. 1920, p. 316, ll. 1115; Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh . af, pp. 315316; Tabar , Bish ara, p. 229; Tisdall, p. 238). In the version recorded by Ibn . Shu#ba (Tuh af an ordered Zayd b. . a adds: when #Uthm . , p. 316), al-Rid

190

notes

n he concealed (khanasa) this verse (meaning Th abit to collect the Qur"a presumably the two additional words). Cf. the reading (fa-in #as . awka) warah. taka minhum al-mukhlas n (thus vocalized by Jeery) (Q 26:216), which . d and #Al is ascribed to Ibn Mas#u (Jeery, pp. 68, 189). 387 Fas . l, p. 316, ll. 79. Cf. 388. Isn ad : #Abd al-Kar m b. #Amr: #Abd al-Kar m b. #Amr b. S . al. alih Khath#am , known as Karr am, a K ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq and azim al-K . (Modarressi, TS, pp. 137138). He also transmitted from Sulaym an b. Kh alid (e.g. Barq , I, p. 262, no. 324, Kul n , II, p. 83, no. 6, Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 194, no. 9). 388 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 123 > S af , IV, p. 43, Burh an, III, p. 187, no. 10; . 387. 389 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , pp. 386387, no. 3 > Burh an, III, . am > Najaf p. 180, no. 10, Bih ar, LIII, pp. 109110, no. 2, where this gure is . identied as #Al . The nal sentence in KQ is not found in Ibn alJuh a m. It is a paraphrase of Q 27:82 (partially cited at 399) and, taken . together with the beginning of the tradition, is probably an allusion to the eschatological role of #Al as beast of the earth (d abbat al ard ) (for this role see e.g. Sulaym, Kit a b , p. 130 > Hill , Mukhta s . . . ar, pp. 4041 > Bih a r , LIII, pp. 69 70 , no. 66 ; Fur a t, II, p. 373 , no. 503; . Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 102; Najaf, pp. 403407, nos. 711). For another eschatological tradition connected with Q 26:4 see Muf d, , III, p. 258, S a f , IV, p. 30 , Bi h a r , LII, p. 221 , no. Irsh ad, p. 359 > Irbil . . 84, Huwayz , IV, p. 46, no. 8; Tabris , I #l am, pp. 457458. . . r, #Iqd, p. 315, 390 Mustadrak, XVII, p. 310, no. 21436. See Mans .u citing al-Barq s al-Tanz l wa-l-tah r f ( isn a d : Ibn Jumh u r < Hamm ad b. . . a < Har 28 > Burh a n , III, p. 194 , no. #Is z < alS a diq); Najaf , p. 399 , no. . . 2. Cf. Qumm, II, p. 125 > Najaf, p. 400, no. 31, S af , IV, p. 55, Bih ar, . . XXXI, p. 578, no. 10; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 365, no. 19 (innam a hum qawm tafaqqah u li-ghayr al-d n fa-d u wa-ad u) > S af , IV, p. 55, Huwayz , . . . all . all IV, p. 70, no. 103; Tabris , XIX, p. 192 (from the lost part of # Ayy a sh : . u wa-tafaqqah u bi-ghayr #ilm) > S a f , IV, p. 55 , Huwayz , hum qawm ta #allam . . IV, p. 70, no. 104. Translation: Which poets (shu #ar a" ) have you ever seen being followed? By shu #ar a" He meant (not poets but) legal scholars who introduce (yush #ir un) falsehood into the hearts of men; these are the shu #ar a" who are being followed.

notes

191

391 The words il a al- #l do not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a; they may be a gloss. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 119 ( as"aluhu #an al-m ahiyya fa-yuj bun #an al-s at ); Sarakhs, Us ul, I, p. 156 (an a as"aluhu . if . #an al-m ahiyya wa-huwa l-su" al #an dh at al-shay" a-jawhar huwa am #arad . wa huwa yuj bun #an al-maniyya); Tabris , XIX, p. 145 (to Q 26 : 27 ) ( as " aluhu . n fa-yuj bun #an ghayr dh alika); Nasaf , Tafs r, III, #an m ahiyyat rabb al- # alam p. 182 ( sa"alahu #an al-m ahiyya wa-huwa yuj bu #an rub ubiyyatihi wa- ath ar s us a found in the manuscripts at the beginning of . un #ihi ). The word M the tradition may originally have been a marginal note. Translation: The only possible answer to his (i.e. Pharaohs) question was the one which Moses gave. It is an answer to a denier. If Pharaoh had acknowledged God, Moses would have answered him as one answers someone who acknowledges, and Pharaohs question would have been dierent from the one that he actually asked. 392 Fas , II, p. 125 . l, p. 317, ll. 1112. For this reading see Qumm (adding: h akadh a wa-ll ahi nazalat ) > Najaf , p. 400, S af , I, p. 45, IV, p. . ar, XXXI, p. 579, no. 10, Huwayz , IV, 57, Burh an, III, p. 194, no. 4, Bih . . pp. 7374, no. 122; Tabris , Jaw a mi # , II, p. 176 (citing this as a reading of . al-S un qir a"atuhu #al a sab l al-ta"w l ) > . adiq and adding: wa-yushbihu an yak Huwayz , IV, p. 73, no. 121; Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 285; Tisdall, p. 238 . (without h . aqqahum); Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 67. 393 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 232, no. 16582. For this tradition cf. #Ayy ash , II, p. 157, no. 56 (al-Husayn b. #Al b. Yaqt n < al-Rid . . . a, to Q 11:78) > Burh an, II, p. 231, no. 26, Bih ar, CIV, p. 29, no. 11; T , Istibs ar, III, p. . us . . 243, no. 869 (Ahmad b. Mu hammad b. # Is a < M u s a b. # Abd al-Malik, . . and al-Hasan b. #Al b. Yaqt us a b. #Abd al-Malik < unidentied . .n < M transmitter < al-Rid . a, to Q 11:78). Anal intercourse with women was reportedly allowed by the Hij s but proscribed by the #Ir aq s (see Ibn . az d a h , p. 52 ). See in general Maghen, Hardship , pp. 172 187. AlSh adh an, I . . Sharf al-Murtad ar, pp. 125127, Jaw ab at, pp. 233234) maintains . a (Intis . that Im am scholars are unanimous in allowing this practice but denies that Q 26:165166 can be cited as a proof text. Isn ad : al-H b. Yaqt n: al-Hasan b. #Al b. Yaqt n b. M us a, . asan b. #Al . . . a Baghd ad client (mawl a) of Ban u Asad or Ban u H ashim and a transmitter from al-K azim a" , II, pp. 139140; Ardab l , . and al-Rid . a (Quhp I, p. 218; Modarressi, TS, p. 197). For al-Hasans father see 484*. For . another example of al-Sayy ar transmitting from al-Hasan b. #Al b. . Yaqt n see Kul n , I, p. 369 , no. 6 > Bi h a r , IV, p. 132 ; cf. Kh u " , VI, p. . .

192

notes

64. The name Husayn b. #Al b. Yaqt n found in #Ayy ash (and in Mus. . tadrak ) is either an error or a reference to al-Hasans brother, who was a . transmitter from al-Rid a", II, p. 191; Ardabl, I, p. 249). . a (Quhp 394 According to this tradition, before his birth the Prophet wandered through the loins of prophets and believers (for this interpretation of Q 26:219 see Rubin, Pre-existence, pp. 77, 8081). Usually, prophets and believers are mentioned separately: (i) f as ab al. l nabiyy n/al-anbiy a" ; see Sulaym, Kit ab, p. 253; Qumm , II, p. 125 > S af , . a r , IX, p. 229 , no. 116 , XV, p. 3 , IV, p. 54, Burh an, III, p. 192, no. 1, Bih . no. 1, LXXI, p. 118, Huwayz , IV, p. 69, no. 97; Fur at, I, p. 304, no. . 409; Tha#lab , VII, p. 184; Tabris , XIX, p. 189 > Najaf , p. 396, no. . 24, S af , IV, p. 54, Bih a r , XVI, p. 204 , Huwayz , IV, p. 69 , no. 98. (ii) f . . . h h , p. 67 ; as l a b al-muwa h h id n (not al-mu " min n , as in KQ ); see Muf d, Ta s . .. .. . Tabris , XIX, p. 189 > Najaf , p. 396, no. 24, S af , IV, p. 54, Bih ar, XVI, . . . p. 204. Cf. 384. 395 The reading anzuru f kit ab rabb fa- at ka is ascribed to #Al and al. d is the authority Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, pp. 189, 296). Ibn Mas#u for a similar reading: anzuru f kit ab rabb thumma at ka (Jeery, p. 70; Ab u . a"il, II, p. 131, no. 652). This sentence appears as a gloss on #Ubayd, Fad . Q 27:40 in Tabar , XIX, p. 162 (from Muj ahid). For al-ism al-a #zam . . (the Greatest Name of God) see Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin (= Divine Guide), index, s.v.; Lassner, Queen of Sheba, pp. 109112; 20*. The expression every low land was lifted up and every high land was brought down for him (fa-ru #a lahu kull khafd . wa-khud . a lahu kull raf #; cf. Isaiah 40:4) is used here to describe the removal of objects that hinder movement on land. Elsewhere this (or a similar) expression is used to describe the removal of objects that block ones vision. See e.g. Ya#q ub , Ta"r kh, II, p. 65 (fa-ru #a li-ras ul all ah kull khafd wa-khu d a lahu kull raf # h att a ra " a . . . mas a ri # ahum wa-q a l ra " aytu sar r Ja # far ); Ibn B a bawayh, Ikm a l , p. 632 > . adh a l-amr rafa #a Bih ar, LII, p. 328, no. 46 (idh a tan ahat al-um ur il as ah . . . ib h ll ah tab araka wa-ta # al a lahu kull munkhafad . min al-ard . wa-khafad . a lahu kull murtafa # minh ah att a tak u n al-duny a # indahu bi-manzilat r a h atihi fa-ayyukum law . . k anat f r ah atihi sha # ra lam yub s irh a ? ). See 396 . . . 396 The words anzirn a do not appear to be recorded elsewhere . att . h as a reading of Q 27:40. See 395. b. #Uthma n: unidentied. Isn ad : Yahy . a

notes

193

397 Fas a"ir, p. 342, no. 3 . l, p. 317, ll. 1415. For this tradition cf. Bas . (from al-S a diq) > S a f , IV, p. 60 , Bi h a r , XXVII, p. 263 , no. 8, XCII, p. . . . 51, no. 17, Huwayz , IV, p. 79, no. 26; Mufd, Ikhtis as . . . , p. 287 (from alS ar, XXVII, p. 263, no. 8; R awand , Khar a"ij, II, p. 835, no. . adiq) > Bih . ut n a kull shay" see Jeery, pp. 295, 347 (al-Rab # 50. For the reading wa- b. Khuthaym, Ubayy). Elsewhere the reading of the #Uthm anic codex (with min) is retained (see e.g. the traditions cited in Bih ar, XXVII, pp. . 263264, nos. 9, 11, 12). 398 Fas atayn a D aw ud minn a . l, p. 317, ll. 1719. Cf. Q 34:10 (wa-la-qad fad . lan). 399 Fas . adiq . l, p. 317, ll. 1920. In a similar tradition, a man tells al-S that the majority/the common people/the Sunn s (al- # amma) read taklimuhum, i.e. it will wound them (tajrah . uhum). The Imam responds: ah) in the Fire of Hell! The text May God wound them (kalamahum all came down as tukallimuhum, from kal am (Najaf , pp. 407408, no. 12). See also Qumm , II, p. 130 > Burh an, III, pp. 209210, no. 3, Bih ar, LIII, . pp. 5253, no. 30, Huwayz , IV, p. 98 , no. 104 ; Tabris , Jaw a mi #, II, p. . . 195 > Fas a"a which the Imam upholds is that of . l, p. 317, l. 21. The qir the #Uthm anic codex. For the reading taklimuhum see Farr a", II, p. 300 (wa-h addathan ba # d al-mu h addith n annahu q a l tukallimuhum wa-taklimuhum ); . . . Tabar , XX, p. 16 , Na h h a s, Ma # a n , V, p. 148 (Ab u Zur # a b. # Amr b. Jar r . .. [i.e. Ab u Zur#a b. #Amr/#Umar b. Jarr b. #Abdall ah al-Bajal al-K uf; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, XII, pp. 99100]); Ibn Muhakkam, III, p. 266 . . (ba #d atur d , VIII, p. 136 (wa-qad quri"a); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 110 . uhum); M (Ibn #Abb as, Ab u Zur#a b. #Amr b. Jar r, Muj ahid); Ibn Jinn , II, p. 144, Tabris , XX, p. 247 (> Fas as, Sa#d b. Jubayr, . . l, p. 317, ll. 2122) (Ibn #Abb Muj ahid, al-Jahdar , Ab u Zur#a); Samarqand , II, p. 619 (Ab u Zur#a b. . #Umar, Ibn #Abb as); Tha#lab , VII, p. 222, Ab u l-Fut uh, . VIII, p. 423 rid (Ab u Raj a" al-#Ut ); Zamakhshar , III, p. 160 (wa-quri"a taklimuhum, .a it will wound them, i.e. by branding them); Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 86 ); R az , XXIV, p. 187; #Ukbar , p. 419; Ab u (Ibn Ab #Ubla, al-Jahdar . Hayy an, VII, pp. 9192 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, Ibn Jubayr, Ab u Zur#a, . al-Jahdar , Ab u Haywa [i.e. Ab u Haywa Shurayh d al-Ha . . . . b. Yaz . dram . al-Him s , d. Safar 203 /Aug. Sept. 818 ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 325 , no. . . . 1419], Ibn Ab #Ubla). Cf. 389*. 400 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 131 (al-h ahi wal ayat am r al-mu"min n . asana wa-ll wa-l-sayyi"a wa-ll ahi #ad awatuhu) > S a f , IV, p. 78 , Bi h a r , XXXVI, p. 81 , . .

194

notes

no. 6 ( wa-l-sayyi"a wa-ll ahi ttib a # a #d a"ihi ); Kul n , I, p. 185, no. 14 (al-h asana ma # rifat al-wal a ya etc.) > S a f , IV, p. 78 , Huwayz , IV, pp. . . . 103104, no. 127, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 726; Ibn al-Juh . am > Najaf , p. 411, nos. 1920 (al-h ayat am r al-mu"min n/ #Al ) > . asana wal a r , XXIV, pp. 42 43 , nos. 5 6 . Cf. Burh an, III, p. 213, nos. 89, Bih . 401. 401 For Q 6:160 (man j a"a bi-l-h alih a) abrogating . asana fa-lahu #ashr amth Q 27:89 see Qumm , I, p. 222 > S a f , II, p. 175 . The view that Q 6:160 . (see also Q 40:40) (fa-l a yujz a ill a mithlah a) abrogates Q 27:90 (fa-kubbat wuj uhuhum f l-n ar ) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. For a dierent view of the relationship between these two verses see Fur at, I, pp. 139140, no. 168. Cf. 400. , 402 The two terms (ajalayn) are mentioned in Q 28:28. Cf. Qumm II, p. 139 (qultu li-Ab #Abdall ah ayy al-ajalayn qad a? q al atammahum a [read . thus for atammah a] #ashra h ar, XIII, p. 29, no. 2; Tabar , . . ijaj ) > Bih . XX, p. 67 (wa-dhukira anna lladh wa ahu min al-ajalayn atammuhum a waakmaluhum a wa-dh alika l- #ashr al-h n , V, p. 414, no. 1 > Burh a n, . ijaj ); Kul III, pp. 224225, no. 1; Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 149 (fa-ruwiya annahu a atammahum a); Tabris , XX, p. 286. qad . . 403 Cf. Tabar , XX, p. 58, to Q 28:24 (shub #a min . ta # am, a quantity . of food with which one is satised). For khayr glossed as food (. ta # am) see Barq , II, p. 585, no. 78 > Bih ar, LXVI, p. 313, no. 4; #Ayy ash , II, p. . 330, no. 44 > Bih ar, XIII, pp. 303304, no. 29; Kul n , VI, p. 287, no. 5; . Nu#m an, Da # a"im, II, p. 109, no. 353. 404 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 139 > Bih ar, XIII, pp. 2930, no. 2; Tabar , . . XX, p. 69; Tha#lab , Qis a s , p. 124 , tr. Brinner, Lives , p. 296 (a somewhat . . dierent story); R awand , Qis , XIII, p. 276 (all to .ub . as . , p. 231; Qurt Q 28:29). In all of these accounts, Moses uses a rod ( #as . an), not a leaf. The verb naza #a may here mean to be in heat (cf. Lis an, s.v. nz #). Cf. Genesis 30:2543 (history of Jacob and Laban). 405 For the rst part of the paragraph see Najaf (citing the Tafs r ahl ad : ba #d abin a #an Sa # d b. al-Kha. t. t ab h than al-bayt ), p. 417, no. 8 (isn . as .h . . ad yarfa #uhu il a Ab #Abdall ah) > Burh an, III, p. 227, no. 1, Bih ar, XXVI, pp. . 295296, no. 59. For the second part see Najaf , p. 417, no. 9 > Burh a n, III, p. 227, no. 1, Bih a r , XXVI, p. 296 , no. 60 , # Amil , Mir " a t , p. 26 . The .

notes

195

message implicit in this reading of Q 28:44 (perhaps the second wa-m a of this verse should likewise be read a-wa-m a) is that Muhammad was . present with Moses (when the latter was told that Joshua would be his successor, as maintained in some traditions). According to the statement cited from al-S . adiqs epistle, wherever the Prophet was present, so was #Al . This ties in with the motif of the pre-existence of Muhammad . and the Imams; see Rubin, Pre-existence, pp. 6774; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 73145 = Divine Guide, pp. 2955; Bar-Asher, Scripture, pp. a"ir, p. 86, no. 12; 185, 193, 130140; cf. 384*. For the ending cf. Bas . 195197. b): unidentied. Isn ad : Sa# d/Sa#d (in Najaf : Sa# d b. al-Khat .t .a 406 Najaf , p. 432, no. 13. The words fa-q al bal hiya ay at bayyin at are missing both from the printed edition of Ta"w l al- ay at and from the sources that cite this work; see al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, VII, p. 127, . ar, XXIII, p. 189, no. 4. For no. 645, Burh an, III, p. 256, no. 17, Bih . d, al-Rab the reading bal hiya see Jeery, pp. 72, 297 (Ibn Mas#u # b. d; al-Farr Khuthaym); Farr a", II, p. 317 (Ibn Mas#u a" explains that hiya n); Tha#lab d, refers to the verses of the Qur"a , VII, p. 286 (Ibn Mas#u Ibn al-Samay#); Ibn #At u l-Fut uh, . IX, p. 28 (Ibn .iyya, IV, p. 322, Ab d); Qurt Mas#u , XIII, p. 354 (citing al-Farr a"). Some scholars glossed .ub at w ad at the sentence bal huwa ay at bayyin at of Q 29:49 as bal hiya ay . ih . (T u s , VIII, p. 216 ). See further Ba s a " ir , pp. 204 207 ( b a b f l-a " imma . . ut u l- #ilm wa-uthbita dh alika f s urihim) > Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 200203, . ud . nos. 3448; Kul n , I, pp. 213214, nos. 15 > S af , IV, p. 120, Burh an, . an, Ikhtil af, p. 76; #Im ad al-D n, #Uy un, III, pp. 254255, nos. 15; Nu#m p. 220. For the question about the q a"im see Kul n , I, p. 536, no. 2; T , . us Ghayba, p. 473, no. 494. 407 The f h a presumably refers to the s ur al- # alam n of Q 29:10. . ud

408 See Najaf , p. 430, no. 7 > Burh an, III, pp. 252253, no. 1, Bih ar, . states that in interpreting the spider XXXII, p. 286, no. 239. Al-Najaf "isha), this tradition provides the inner meaning as al-Humayr a" (i.e. #A . (b a. tin) of the verse. He goes on to explain that just as the spider is a frail being whose home is the frailest and most useless of homes, so too is al-Humayr a", who used her frail reasoning and poor judgment in . opposing her master (i.e. #Al ) to construct a frail home (presumably the opposition to #Al ). This home will be not only useless but will in fact bring harm upon her in this world and the next. Ka-mathal #ankab ut in

196

notes

mss. L and T is not attested elsewhere. It is not clear whether this is a scribal error or a qir a"a. 409 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , p. 434, no. 2 > Bahr , Mah . am > Najaf . an . ajja, p. 171, Burh an, III, p. 257, no. 2, Bih a r XXXI, p. 516 , no. 14 , where . this qir a"a is glossed as follows: The R um (that is, the Umayyads) have been victorious in the nearer land, and they, after their victory, will be defeated (when the Q a"im rises). For this reading see also Jeery, p. 335 (#Al , Ibn #Umar, Muj ahid, al-S , VII, p. 294 . adiq); Tha#lab , al-Hasan [possibly al-Bas ], (#Abdall ah b. #Amr, Ab u Sa# d al-Khudr . .r #Is a b. #Umar); Ab u Hayy an, VII, p. 157 (#Al, Ab u Sa#d al-Khudr , . wiya b. Qurra [i.e. Ab wiya b. Ibn #Abb as, Ibn #Umar, Mu#a u Iy as Mu#a Qurra b. Iy as b. Hil al al-Bas , d. 113/731732; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, . .r X, pp. 216217], al-Hasan); it is said to be Syrian (see Qur t ub , XIV, . . p. 5). See the discussion in Goldziher, Richtungen, pp. 1819; Blachre, Introduction, p. 102; Paret, Kommentar, p. 388. The reading ghalabat is ascribed to Ibn #Umar (see Tabar , XXI, p. 16, Nah an , V, p. . . h . as, Ma # 243), to the Prophet, to #Al (see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 116), to Ab u #Amr (see M award , IV, p. 298), to Ab u Sa# d (i.e. al-Khudr ) (see Tabar , . XXI, p. 16, Ibn Ab H ut . atim, IX, p. 3087, no. 17460 > Suy ., Durr, V, p. 290) and to others (see Tirmidh , S h .iyya, IV, p. . ah . . , XI, p. 56, Ibn #At u l-Dard a" (as cited in Ibn 327, Qurt , XIV, p. 1), but is rejected by Ab .ub Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 260 [fol 11a ll. 911]), by al-Tabar (XXI, p. 16) . and by al-T . us (VIII, p. 228). #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Ghanm is reported dh b. Jabal whether the correct to have asked the Companion Mu#a dh told him that the Prophet had reading was ghulibat or ghalabat ; Mu#a recited the word to him (aqra"an ) as ghulibat (H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. * un is ascribed to #Al , to Ibn #Umar 628, no. 3027; cf. 373 ). Sa-yughlab wiya b. Qurra (Ibn Kh and to Mu#a alawayh, p. 116). See 410, 411 410 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , p. 434, no. 1 > Burh an, III, p. 257, . am > Najaf no. 1, Bih ar, XXXI, p. 516, no. 13. For the claim that the Umayyads . are descended from the R um (Byzantines) see K uf , Istigh atha, p. 121 (to Q 30:13) > S af , IV, p. 127 (where the Istigh atha is wrongly ascribed . to Ibn M tham/Maytham). Elsewhere, Umayya is said to have been a Byzantine slave whom #Abd Shams falsely acknowledged as his son (fastalh a nafsihi ); in fact, the Umay. aqahu #Abd Shams wa-nasabahu ilayhi/il u min s m yads are not members of the Quraysh by descent (lays . am Quraysh). This report is reproduced by al-Majlis in two places in his Bih ar. In the rst (XXXI, p. 544), he cites it from the Ilz am al-naw as . . ib (a

notes

197

work attributed inter alia to #Al b. M us a Ibn T us [d. 664/1266]; . aw see Dhar #a, II, pp. 289290, no. 1170); in the second (XXXIII, p. 107), his source is an epistle on the imamate (ris ala f l-im ama) by an unidentied Im am author. For istilh aq see in general Landau-Tasseron, . Genealogical Claims, pp. 172180, 187188. See 409, 411. h Isn ad : Sa# d b. Jana d b. Jan ah , of K ufan origin, a . : Sa# . al-Azd resident of Baghd ad and a transmitter from al-K azim and al-Rid . .a (Quhp a" , III, p. 114; Ardab l , I, p. 359). His brother Ab u #Amir b. Jan ah azim l , II, p. 396). . was a transmitter from al-K . (Ardab 411 See 409, 410.

412 Fas . l, p. 318, ll. 23. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 155, 335 (Ubayy, al-S . adiq, Ibn Qays). It is not ascribed elsewhere to al-Zuhr [M. Lecker]; for al-Zuhr s (d. 124/742; see for him EI 2, art. al-Zuhr readings see Blachre, Introduction, p. 111, note 148). The reading #alayhi d (see Jeery, p. 73; Ab hayyin in ms. M conforms to that of Ibn Mas#u u Hayy a n, VII, p. 165 ; cf. Q 19 : 9 , 21 ). AlTabar (XXI, p. 35 ), al-Sijist a n . . (Ghar b, p. 18), al-Samarqand (III, p. 10), Ibn Ab Zaman n (II, p. 140), al-Tha#lab (VII, p. 300) and al-Tabris (XXI, p. 23) cite hayyin #alayhi as . a gloss on ahwan #alayhi. Translation: I said: al-Zuhr read: then He creates it a second time and it is easy for Him. He (i.e. the Imam) said: it is indeed easy for Him (and the reading should therefore be hayyin and not ahwan [easier]); the (correct) reading is as he said. See 413. at Isn ad : Ibn Asb . (d. ca. 250/864) could not have transmitted from al-B aqir; he did however transmit from al-Jaw ad, who is also known as Ab u Ja#far (see e.g. Kuln, V, p. 347, no. 2). For the Imam to be al-B aqir, a missing link after Ibn Asb at . would have to be assumed. 413 Fas ajak , II, p. 58 (ahwan is glossed as . l, p. 318, ll. 35. Cf. Kar hayyin, because no one thing is easier for God than another). See 412. 414 Fas . l, p. 318, ll. 78. A number of commentators gloss yastakhifannaka as yastazannaka (Nah an , V, p. 273; T , VIII, p. 267; . h . as, Ma # . us , XXI, p. 43; Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 165 M award , IV, p. 324; Tabris . [from al-Zajj aj]; Lis an, s.v. kh [from al-Zajj aj]; Qurt , XIV, p. 49). .ub Both verbs mean to unsettle, to excite to unsteadiness. Yu"min un (for y uqin un) in the four manuscripts of KQ is probably a scribal error: there

198

notes

are seventeen attestations of (wa/fa-) lladh na l a yu"min un as against a single attestation of alladh na l a y uqin un. 415 Fas araq u see Ibn Muj ahid, . l, p. 318, ll. 56. For the reading f p. 274, Samarqand , III, p. 12, T u s , VIII, p. 248 , M a ward , IV, p. . 313, Tabris , XXI, p. 26 , Ab u l-Fut u h, IX, p. 53 ( Hamza and al. . . ); S af , IV, p. 132. Kis a" ); Qurt , XIV, p. 32 (#Al , Hamza, al-Kis a" . .ub . The reading f araq u (for farraq u) is also attested for Q 6:159; see e.g. Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 262 (fol 10b ll. 57) (#Al ); Ibn Ja#d, Musnad, II, p. d); 769, no. 2013 (#Al ), p. 911, no. 2615 (#Al ), p. 918, no. 2636 (Ibn Mas#u #Ayy ash, I, p. 385, no. 131 (Kulayb al-Sayd aw < al-S . . adiq) (as a reading ) > Bih ar, IX, p. 208, no. 78, XXXI, pp. 583584, no. 20; Tabar , of #Al . . VIII, p. 104 (#Al ); Ibn Muj ahid, p. 274 (Hamza and al-Kis a" ); Qurt , . .ub VII, p. 149 (#Al , Hamza, al-Kis a " ). Cf. Qumm , I, p. 222 ( farraq u glossed . as f araq u) > Bih ar, IX, p. 208, no. 77, LXXII, p. 131, no. 1, Huwayz , I, . . aban/ad aban appears to have pp. 782783, nos. 361362. The word ah . r . z originated as a marginal gloss on shiya #an (cf. Tabar , XXI, pp. 42, 43, . where shiya #an is glossed as ah z a ban ). The letters h-m found in the four . manuscripts of KQ (and in Fas l ) may be an error for #-m, a common . * abbreviation of #alayhi l-sal am (cf. 574 ). 416 Al-S ahum min al. adiqs reading is reported to have been razaqn qur" an (Jeery, p. 335). For this tradition cf. Tabar , XXI, p. 101, Tabris , . . XXI, p. 84 (tataj af a jun ubuhum #an al-mad aji # [their sides shun their . couches] explained as staying up at night to pray [qiy am al-layl ]); Nah h a s, Ma # a n , V, p. 304 ( yu s all u na f jawf al-layl ). The su x pronoun .. . n (cf. Q 2:121); perhaps this in yatl unahu presumably refers to the Qur"a word should be emended to yus un (see e.g. Samarqand , III, p. 37). . all 417 Fas aduhu is one of the readings ascribed . l, p. 318, ll. 910. Mid to Ubayy (see Jeery, p. 155) and to al-S . adiq (see Jeery, p. 335; Ibn Jinn, II, pp. 169, 170 [glossing mid ad as ink]; Ibn #At .iyya, IV, p. 354 [glossing mid ad as a mas , XXI, p. 63 > S af , IV, . . . dar (increase)]; Tabris p. 150, Burh an, III, p. 279, no. 1, Huwayz , IV, p. 216, no. 93, Fas l , p. 318, . . u Hayy a n, VII, p. 186 ). l. 9; Qurt ub , XIV, p. 77 ; Ab . . 418 Fas . l, p. 112, ll. 2122. The message here and at 419422 is that the original S urat al-ahz . ab was considerably longer than what we have today. It is not clear whether the information provided in the various accounts is to be regarded as consistent, or whether each

notes

199

account preserves a dierent view on the topic. Assuming the former, the following picture emerges: the original S urat al-ahz . ab was two and two-third times longer than S urat al-baqara as we know it today (418). It equalled in length the original S urat al-baqara, which was longer than what we have of it today (421). Since the original S urat alahz a b consisted of 700 verses ( 419 ), the original S u rat al-baqara must . likewise have consisted of about this number of verses. This picture might resolve an apparent contradiction between two statements found in other sources: the rst, put in #Umars mouth, is that S urat al-baqara and S urat al-ahz a b were once of equal length ( inna l-a h z anat ta #dilu . . ab k s urat al-baqara; see Sulaym, Kit ab, p. 210; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 153 > S af , . . . tij ut , Durr, I, p. 37; similarly T , I, p. 394, Tabris , I, p. 409; cf. Suy . us . . V, p. 346); the second, on the authority of al-S urat al. adiq, is that S ahz a b was once longer than S u rat al-baqara (Ibn B a bawayh, Thaw ab, . p. 139 > Burh an, III, p. 289, no. 1, Huwayz , IV, p. 233 , no. 1 ). The . former statement could be interpreted as referring to the original text of the two S uras and the latter, as referring to the original S urat alahz a b as compared to the existing text of S u rat al-baqara. Cf. accounts . stating that S urat al-ahz urat . ab was once as long as, or longer than, S al-baqara (Shahrast an, Maf at h asikh, . , p. 117 [Ubayy]; Ibn al-Jawz, Naw , Durr, V, pp. 345, 346 [Ubayy, #Ikrima]); p. 29 [Ubayy, Muj ahid]; Suy ut . "ishas statement that during the Prophets lifetime S #A urat al-ahz . ab consisted of two hundred verses (Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a " il , II, p. 146 , no. . 700, tr. Jeery, Ab u #Ubaid, p. 62; Suy ut ., Durr, V, p. 346); the claim that the original S urat al-ahz . ab was twice as long as it is in its present d form (d a hiya) (Ibn Sh adh an, I ah . i #f m . . , p. 221); or the claim that it included three hundred verses (Shahrast an , Maf at h . , p. 118). See further Modarressi, Debates, pp. 1112, 31; Rubin, Fir ash, p. 19. Cf. 680, 692. 419 Fas . l, p. 112, ll. 2223. Cf. 418, 420422. sim al-Iya d Isn ad : al-Qa : the reference may be to either of the following: (i) Ab u l-Q asim al-Iy ad , who is known from a single isn ad in Muf d, Ikhtis a s , p. 8 > Bi h a r , XXII, p. 439 , no. 6 (Ab u l-Q a sim al-Iy ad . . . a sim b. Ism a # l al-Anb a r , who < Hish am b. S alim < al-S a diq); (ii) al-Q . appears in a number of isn ad s in Kul n and elsewhere (Kh u" , XV, p. 13, no. 9504). This latter identication is based on the assumption that alIy ad is a corruption of al-Anb ar . For an example of a corruption in the opposite direction see Kh u" , VIII, pp. 220221, no. 4653 (biography of Z ar b. #Abdall ah al-Iy ad ).

200

notes

420 Fas . l, p. 112, l. 23p. 113, l. 3. The beginning of this tradition is cited in Modarressi, Debates, p. 22, note 101. Cf. 418, 419, 421, 422. Isn ad : Ahmad b. Muhammad b. #Al : perhaps the reference is to Ab u . . l-Hasan A hmad b. Mu hammad b. # Al b. # Umar b. Rab a h al-Qall a " . . . . al-Saww aq, whose great-grandfather #Umar was a transmitter from al-S azim (Quhp a" , I, p. 155; Ardab l , I, pp. 6869). . . adiq and al-K n: Ab u Muhammad al-Hasan b. #Al b. Ab #Uthm an, Ibn Ab #Uthma . . known as Sajj ada, a K ufan transmitter from al-Jaw ad and al-H ad ; accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , II, pp. 124125; Ardab l , I, pp. 208209; Modarressi, Crisis, p. 24, note 30). 421 Fas ayat al-rajm) being . l, p. 110, ll. 15. For the stoning verse ( included in S urat al-ahz a b see e.g. Ab u # Ubayd, Fa d a"il, II, pp. 146 . . u #Ubaid, p. 62; Bayhaq , Sunan, VIII, p. 147, no. 701, tr. Jeery, Ab 211 (Ubayy on S urat al-ahz a wa-innah a la-ta #dilu s urat . ab: la-qad ra"aytuh al-baqara wa-inna f h a: al-shaykh wa-l-shaykha idh a zanay a fa-rjum uhum a lbattata nak alan min all ah wa-ll ah #az z h m), cited in Burton, Collection, . ak p. 80; Shahrast an , Maf at h , p. 117 ; Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh, pp. 3132; . ayat al-rajm Suy ut ., Durr, V, pp. 345, 346. For the dierent versions of see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 and the other sources cited in Fas . l, pp. 109115; Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 24; in general the discussion in GdQ, I, pp. 248255; Wansbrough, Quranic Studies, pp. 70, 193196, 198; Burton, Collection, pp. 7980, 8996 and index, s.v. stoning penalty; Modarressi, Debates, pp. 1011; Brunner, Koranflschung, p. 47; Gilliot, Travail, pp. 203204; EQ, art. Stoning (Dmitri V. Frolov); Introduction, p. 16. Cf. 418420, 422. a b. A#yan al-Jar sa b. A#yan: #Is r /Jurayr al-Asad , a K ufan Isn ad : #I transmitter from al-S a" , IV, p. 299; Ardab l , I, p. 649). . adiq (Quhp 422 The pronominal sux in #anhu may refer to Sayf. Cf. 418 421. 423 For this reading see Jeery, p. 157 (Ubayy, Ab u #Imr an, Mu dh). #a 424 Fas . l, p. 318, l. 19. For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 71, Zamakh d); Jeery, pp. 75, 156, 204, 273, 282, 298 shar , III, p. 251 (Ibn Mas#u d, Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as, #Ikrima, Muj ahid, al-Rab # b. Khuth(Ibn Mas#u d, Ubayy) > Ibn T aym); Farr a", II, p. 335 (Ibn Mas#u a w u s, Sa #d, p. 267; .

notes

201

Bas a"ir, p. 532, no. 1; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63; Qumm , I, p. 278, . II, p. 175 > S a f , IV, p. 165 , Burh a n , III, p. 294 , no. 20 , Bi h a r , . . XXVII, p. 243, no. 2, XXXVI, p. 7, no. 7, Huwayz , IV, p. 237, no. 16; Fur at, I, p. . dh b. Kath 103, no. 91; #Ayy ash , I, p. 237, no. 105 (Mu#a r < al-S . adiq); d, Ibn #Abb , VIII, p. 354 (Ubayy, Ibn Mas#u as); Samarqand , M atur d III, p. 45 (Ubayy); Tha#lab , VIII, p. 8 (the codex of Ubayy); T u s . , Tahdh b, IV, p. 150, no. 417; Tabris , XXI, p. 100 (Ibn Mas#ud, Ubayy, . Ibn #Abb as, al-B aqir, al-S ar, XVI, p. 306, Huwayz , IV, p. . . adiq) > Bih . 237, no. 14; Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 190 (Muj ahid, perhaps as a gloss); Hill , . Mukhtas ar , p. 85 ; Ab u Hayy a n, VII, p. 208 (the codex of Ubayy and the . . d); Bih ar, LXXIV, p. 116 (qir a"at ahl al-bayt ); #Amil , reading of Ibn Mas#u . Mir" at, p. 87 (f qur" an ahl al-bayt ). Cf. Muj ahid, Tafs r, p. 546 (huwa ab lahum as a gloss). Isn ad : Ja#far b. Muhammad : there are a number of transmitters of . "in this name, and it is not clear which of them is meant.al-Mada : there are a number of transmitters from al-S . adiq having this nisba, including Jarr ah a"in (Modarressi, TS, p. 309), Ab u Muham. al-Mad . in and his brother Had d (Modarmad Mur azim b. Hak m al-Mad a " . . ressi, TS, p. 353). 425 Fas . l, p. 319, ll. 910. See 426.

426 Fas a"a is related to accounts according . l, p. 319, ll. 1011. This qir to which #Al killed the Qurash leader #Amr b. #Abd Wadd in single combat, thereby bringing about the defeat of the unbelievers at the Battle of the Trench (yawm al-khandaq/al-ah ab) in the year 5/627 (see . z e.g. Tabar , Ta " r kh , rst series, pp. 1475 1476 ; Muf d, Irsh ad, pp. 5256; . a ll ah al-mu"min n alTabris , I #l am, pp. 91, 193195). The reading wa-kaf . d (see Jeery, p. qit al bi- #Al (or bi- #Al b. Ab T . alib) is ascribed to Ibn Mas#u 75; Ibn al-Juh , pp. 450451, nos. 1011 > Fas . am > Najaf . l, p. 137, ll. 18 23; Muf d, Irsh ad, p. 56 > Bih a r , XX, pp. 258 259 , no. 19, Fas . . l, p. 137, an, II, pp. 35, nos. 629632; Tabris , ll. 1618; T . . . us, VIII, p. 331; Hask XXI, p. 110 > Bih ar, XX, p. 205, XXXIX, p. 2, Huwayz , IV, p. 261, . . no. 61; Fatt al, Rawd , Kif aya, p. 204; Sh adh an, Fad a"il, p. . a, p. 106; Ganj . 137 > Bih a r , XXXVI, p. 115 , no. 62 ; Hill , Nahj , p. 199 ; Irbil , I, p. 324; . . Durr , V, p. 368 ; Modarressi, Debates, p. 31 , note 155 , p. 39). Suy ut , . It is rejected by al-Qurt (I, p. 84). Cf. Qumm , Tafs r, II, p. 189 > .ub Huwayz , IV, p. 261, no. 62. In addition to this reading of Q 33:25, the . Sh # reading of Q 92:1213 (see 657) is also cited as an instance of the n (see Najaf wondrous things (a # aj b) of the Qur"a , p. 808, no. 3 >

202

notes

Burh an, IV, p. 471, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 398, no. 122). This may refer . to the fact that in both readings #Al is mentioned by name. See 425. 427 For the story of F at at, I, pp. 8385, no. .imas bowl (jafna) see Fur 60; #Ayy ash , I, pp. 171172, no. 41 (Sayf < Najm < al-B aqir, to Q 3:37) > Burh an, I, p. 282, no. 9, Bih a r , XIV, pp. 197 198 , no. 4 , XLIII, p. 31, . , Khar a"ij, II, no. 38; Ibn Hamza, Th aqib, pp. 296297, no. 252; R awand . pp. 528529, no. 3 > Bih ar, XLIII, p. 27, no. 30; Ibn T us, Sa #d, pp. . aw . 9091. The tradition in KQ appears to be unique in stating that the bowl was mentioned in the original S urat al-ahz . ab. 428 Fas , p. 469, no. 39. For this reading see . l, p. 319, ll. 1617, Najaf Qumm , II, p. 198, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724; Kul n , I, p. 414, akadh a nazalat ) no. 8 (f wal ayat #Al wa [wal ayat] al-a"imma min ba #dihi h > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 (> Burh an, III, p. 340, nos. 12, Bih ar, XXXV, p. 57, no. 12), S af , IV, p. 206, Huwayz , IV, p. 309, no. . . . 257, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 213, with note 436 = Divine Guide, p. 202; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 67. 429 Fas , II, p. 197 (l a tu"dh u ras ul all ah . l, p. 319, ll. 1314. Cf. Qumm a adhaw M us a fa-barra"ahu ll ah mimm a q al u) > Bih ar, f #Al wa-l-a"imma kam . XXIII, p. 302, no. 61, Huwayz , IV, p. 308, no. 251, Fas . . l, p. 319, ll. 11 13; Kul n , I, p. 414, no. 9 (wa-m a k ana lakum an tu"dh u ras ul all ah f #Al wa-l-a"imma ka-lladh na adhaw M us a fa-barra"ahu ll ah mimm a q al u) > Najaf, p. 468, no. 38, Huwayz , IV, p. 308, no. 252. Al-Majlis provides two . alternative explanations for the traditions cited in Qumm and Kul n : (i) they reproduce the reading of the Imams; (ii) they comprise the gist of two verses: Q 33:53 and 33:69 (Bih ar, XXIII, p. 303). . 430 Fas and Sh # , cite this . l, p. 116, ll. 34. Various sources, both Sunn passage (or a variant thereof) as an example of a verse which formed n but which was later lost. For a survey of part of the original Qur"a the most important Sunn sources see GdQ, I, pp. 234242; Modarressi, Debates, p. 12; and particularly Gilliot, Verset. The question as to where in the original text this verse belonged was given dierent answers: (i) Ab u M us a al-Ash#ar is reported to have declared that this was the only verse he retained from a S ura which equalled S urat bar a "a (S ura 9) in length and severity (shidda, i.e. towards the unbelievers?); he had been made to forget all other verses of this S ura (uns tuh a) (Suy ut , . d Durr, I, p. 198 and the sources cited therein; see also Ibn Sh adh an, I a h . .,

notes

203

pp. 219221 [from Ab u M us a al-Ash#ar ]; Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 23 [from Anas]; the sources cited in Gilliot, Verset, pp. 8485 [ 25]; cf. Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, pp. 149150, no. 707, tr. Jeery, Ab u #Ubaid, . pp. 6364; Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh, p. 28; GdQ, I, pp. 239240); (ii) Ubayy is reported to have cited it as a continuation of Q 10:24 (Jeery, pp. 135, , 181; Gilliot, Verset, p. 85 [ 26]; cf. Tabar , XXX, p. 284, Qurt . .ub XX, p. 169, both to Q 102:12); (iii) the verse is reported to have formed part of S urat al-bayyina (S ura 98) (see GdQ, I, p. 240; Gilliot, Verset, p. 87 [ 30]) or (iv) of S urat al-ahz ura 33). This view is only attested . ab (S in KQ. It is cited by Modarressi (Debates, p. 31) and, via the Fas . l, by Jal al al-Dn al-Husayn al-Urmaw in a note to Ibn Sh adh an, Id ah . . ., pp. 210211. Other sources merely state that the passage was found in n but was then raised back into Heaven; see e.g. Tabar the Qur"a , I, . (all to Q 2 : 106 , citing Ab u p. 479, T u s , I, p. 394 , Tabris , I, p. 406 . . M us a al-Ash#ar ); Ibn Ab l-Had d, Shar h , XVII, p. 14 ( wa-h a dh a min al. . qur" an alladh ru #a wa-nusikhat til awatuhu), XX, p. 174 (wa-k ana f l-qur" an aya unzilat thumma ru #at ). Not all agreed that the passage in question n; some regarded it as a saying of the once formed part of the Qur"a Prophet, while others were uncertain as to whether it was a h th, a . ad nic revelation (for details see Gilliot, h th quds or part of the Qur"a . ad Verset, pp. 8182 [ 15], 84 [ 21], 8889 [ 31]). Cf. Muranyi, in Ibn um, pp. 15, 3940. See also Introduction, p. 16. Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul 431 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 196 (wa-sallim u tasl man ya #n sallim u lahu bi-lwal aya wa-bi-m a j a"a bihi ) > S af , IV, p. 201, Burh an, III, p. 335, no. 8, . Huwayz , IV, p. 300, no. 212; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 253 > Burh an, III, p. . . . tij of this verse, and 336, no. 19 (#Al declares that s all u # alayhi is the z a hir . . sallim u tasl man is the b a. tin which he explains as sallim u li-man was ahu .s . wa-stakhlafahu wa-fad a #ahida bihi ilayhi tasl man). See .d . alahu #alaykum wa-m (in Sh # terminology) (M.G.S. Hodgson); in general EI 2, art. Hudjdja . EIr, art. Hojjat (Maria Dakake). . Title Although S urat al-mal a"ika (i.e. S ura 35) is mentioned in the title, no verses from it are cited in this chapter. 432 Fas . l, p. 320, ll. 1011. (i) For the reading tabayyanat al-ins anna ljinn recorded in mss. L and B see Jeery, p. 204 (Ibn #Abb as [according to some authorities]); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 133, no. 657 (#Ikrima); . d); Ibn al-Nad Ibn Jinn , II, p. 188 (the codex of Ibn Mas#u m, Fihrist, p. 34 (Ibn Shanab udh); Tisdall, p. 239. See also Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p.

204

notes

74, no. 2, idem, #Uy un, I, p. 207, both > Bih ar, XIV, pp. 136137, no. . 1, LXIII, p. 80, no. 34, Huwayz , IV, p. 325 , nos. 3435 (al-S . . adiq cites the reading of the #Uthm anic codex and adds: wa-m a nazalat h adhihi l- aya h akadh a wa-innam a nazalat: fa-lamm a kharra tabayyanat al-ins anna ljinn etc.). (ii) A dierent qir a"a is: fa-lamm a kharra tabayyanat al-ins an law k ana l-jinn ya #lam un etc. See Jeery, pp. 157 (Ubayy [according to some authorities]), 204 (Ibn #Abb as [according to some authorities]); #Abd alr, II, p. 128 (citing a certain reading [ba #d uf ]); Sa#d Razz aq, Tafs . al-h . ur b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 61 > Fas l , p. 320 , ll. 12 14 (alS a diq); Qumm , . . I, p. 55 > S a f , IV, p. 213 , Bi h a r , LXIII, p. 279 , no. 167 ; Na h h a s, Ma # a n , .. . . V, p. 405 (the codex of Ibn Mas#ud); Tha#lab, VIII, p. 81 (Ibn Mas#ud); a"at ahl al-bayt ); Qurt , XIV, p. 281, Suy ut , Durr, T , VIII, p. 384 (qir . us .ub . V, p. 432 (Ibn #Abb as). Ibn Jinn (II, p. 188) and al-Tabris (XXII, p. . 185 > S af , IV, p. 213) give tabayyanat al-ins as the reading of Ibn #Abb as, . al-Da h h a k, # Al Zayn al# Abid n and alS a diq; this could refer to either . .. . (i) or (ii). Ab u Hayy an (VII, pp. 257258) refers to a reading ascribed to . d, Ubayy, #Al Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Mas#u b. al-Hasan (read: al-Husayn) and . . al-Da h h a k, but does not reproduce it, in keeping with his practice of . .. not citing qir a" at which deviate substantially from the generally accepted readings (ad as a # adatin a f tark naql al-sh adhdh alladh . ribu #an dhikrih . afh . an #al yukh alif al-saw ad mukh alafa kath ra). Mss. M and T reproduce the text of the #Uthm anic codex. 433 Judging by similar accounts, the underlying notion is that Sh # scholars (= quran z a hira ) are the intermediaries between the Sh # s and . the Imams (= al-qur a llat b arakn a f h a). Cf. Ibn B abawayh, Im ama, p. 140, no. 161; Ibn al-Juh a m > Najaf , pp. 472 473 , no. 2 > Burh a n , III, p. 348, . no. 6, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 235, no. 4; Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, pp. 450451 > . Burh an, III, p. 347, no. 3, Bih ar, LIII, pp. 184185, no. 15, Huwayz , IV, . . p. 332, no. 51; T , Ghayba, pp. 345346, no. 295 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , . us . a n , Ma h ajja , p. 175 , Burh a n , III, p. Was a"il, IX/1, p. 110, no. 33445, Bahr . . 347, no. 2, Bih ar, LI, p. 343, no. 1; Tabris , I #l am, p. 453; Tabris , Ih aj, . . . . tij p. 327 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, IX/1, p. 110, no. 33446; Dhar #a, VI, . p. 303. Cf. in general Kohlberg, Community, passim. 434 Al-B aqirs qir a"a of the verb included in this verse does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. The text of KQ it is unhelpful, since the manuscripts are unvocalized and record two dierent roots: fz # and frgh. In addition to the fuzzi #a of the #Uthm anic codex, the following readings are attested: (i) fazza #a (Ibn #Abb as [see Nah an , V, . h . as, Ma #

notes

205

p. 415; Qurt , XIV, p. 298]; Ibn #Amir [see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 530, .ub Samarqand , III, p. 89]; Ibn #Amir and Ya#q ub [see Tha#lab , VIII, p. 86, Tabris , XXII, p. 202, Ab u l-Fut uh, al. . IX, p. 213]); (ii) fuzi #a (Hasan . Bas [according to some authorities] and Qat ada [see Tabris , XXII, . .r p. 202 and (for al-Hasan alone) Qurt , XIV, p. 298, Ab u Hayy an, . . .ub VII, p. 266]); (iii) furigha (Zayd b. #Al [see Jeery, Zaid b. #Al , p. al-Bas [according to some authorities; see Tabar , XXII, 229]; Hasan . . .r p. 93, Ahw az , Bas , p. 442, Ab u l-Fut uh, al-Bas . IX, p. 213]; Hasan . .r . r and Qat ada [see Qurt ub , XIV, p. 298 ]); (iv) furrigha (Ibn Mas # u d [see . M atur d , VIII, p. 444]; al-Hasan al-Bas [see Nah an , V, p. . . h . as, Ma # .r 416]; #Abdall ah b. #Umar and others [see Ab u Hayy an, VII, p. 266]; . al-Bas see also Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, pp. 37, 42); (v) farragha (Hasan . .r [see Qurt , XIV, p. 298]; an unidentied reader or readers [see .ub Zamakhshar , III, p. 288]). 435 Fas ur regards the words ni #mat all ah as . l, p. 320, ll. 1416. Al-N a qir a"a (rather than a gloss). Such a reading does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. The manuscripts record two dierent readings s of the nal verb: (i) nuj az (the reading of Hamza, al-Kis a" , #A . .im in the transmission of Haf az a (the reading of the remaining . s .); (ii) yuj Seven Readers; see Ibn Muj ahid, pp. 528529; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. , VIII, p. 84; Tabris , XXII, p. 623; Samarqand , III, p. 86; Tha#lab . 195; Ab u l-Fut uh, IX, pp. 210 211 ; Ab u Hayy a n, VII, p. 261 ; Zarkash , . . I, p. 334; cf. Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, p. 36; Tabar , XXII, p. 82; Ibn . Kh alawayh, Hujja , p. 268). For a longer version of this tradition (with . the same isn ad and with the verse as in the #Uthm anic codex) see Kul n , VIII, pp. 395396, no. 596; see also idem, II, p. 274, no. 23 (on the authority of al-S . adiq). lih , a K ufan transmitter Isn ad : Jam l b. S l b. S . al-Asad . : Jam .a . alih from al-S a diq and al-K a zim. The Qumm version of his kit ab was trans. . mitted by Hasan b. Ma hb u b (Kohlberg, U s u l, p. 146 ; Modarressi, TS, . . . pp. 308309). The isn ad Ibn Mahb . ub < Jaml b. S . < Sadr/Sudayr . alih < al-B aqir is attested in Kul n , VIII, p. 144, no. 115.Sad r/Sudayr: Ab u l-Fadl r/Sudayr b. Hak m/Hukaym al-Sayraf , a K ufan trans. . . Sad . n, al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Quhp a " , III, pp. mitter from Zayn al-#Abid . 9798; Ardab l , I, pp. 350351; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 333334). 436 The words wa-innakum la-f d al do not appear to be recorded . al elsewhere as a qir a"a, but they (or words to this eect) appear as an exegetical gloss on Q 34:24 (see Farr a", II, p. 362 [wa-antum f d al . al

206

notes

mub n]; Ab u #Ubayda, Maj az, II, p. 148 [innakum f d al mub n]; Tabar , . . al XXII, p. 94 [from #Ikrima and Ziy ad]; Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 244 [from Ab u #Ubayda]; Ibn Kath r, Tafs r, III, p. 538 [from #Ikrima and Ziy ad b. Ab Maryam]). 437 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 201 > Najaf , p. 474, no. 6 (> Burh an, III, p. 350, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 169, no. 45), Huwayz , IV, p. 334, no. 56; . . , pp. 473474, no. 5 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at, Ibn al-Juh . . am > Najaf III, p. 595, no. 718, Burh an, III, p. 350, no. 3, Bih a r , XXXVII, pp. 168 . r Khumm 169, no. 45; 544* (for awqafa); in general EI 2, art. Ghad (L. Veccia Vaglieri). Translation: The Messenger of God appointed him (i.e. #Al ) (lit. caused him to stand) (as their master), and the latter (i.e. #Al ) will (in turn) appoint someone similar (as their master). Cf. 162*. 438 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , p. 478, no. 12 > Burh an, III, pp. 355 . am > Najaf 356, no. 6, Bih ar, LII, pp. 187188, no. 13. . Title As noted in ms. M, there is a citation from S urat al-mal a"ika (i.e. S ura 35) at the end of the chapter. Another citation from this S ura is found at 441. 439 Fas a mustaqarra lah a ([the sun . l, p. 321, ll. 35. For the reading l runs on] having no resting place) see Jeery, pp. 78, 159, 204, 273, 286, " b. Ab d, Ubayy, Ibn #Abb Ra300, 336, 349 (Ibn Mas#u as, #Ikrima, #At .a b ah, al-Rab # b. Khuthaym, alS a diq, # Al ); Farr a " , II, p. 377 (giving both . . l a mustaqarra and l a mustaqarrun); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a " il , II, pp. 133 134, . no. 660, Nah an , V, p. 493, Samarqand, III, p. 123 (Ibn #Abb as); . h . as, Ma # Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, p. 316 (ba #d III, pp. . . al-salaf ); Ibn Muhakkam, as); M atur d , VIII, p. 431432, M award , V, p. 17 (#Ikrima < Ibn #Abb d, 519 (f ba #d alh ur u f ); Ibn Kh a lawayh, p. 126 (the Prophet, Ibn Mas#u . . Ibn #Abb as, #Ikrima); Tha#lab, VIII, p. 128 (Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Mas#ud); d); Tabris Zamakhshar , III, p. 322 (Ibn Mas#u , XXIII, p. 22 (> S af , . . IV, p. 253, Huwayz , IV, p. 386, no. 49), Ab u Hayy an, VII, p. 321 (#Al . . a qir, alS a diq, Ibn # Abb a s, Ibn Mas # u d, # Ikrima, # A t a b. al-Husayn, al-B . . . " b. Ab Rab ah, Ibn Ab # Ubla [not in Tabris ]); Ab u l-Fut u h, IX, p. . . . d, #Amr b. D 277 (Ibn Mas#u n ar, Ibn #Abb as); Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 281 d, #Ikrima, #Al (Ibn Mas#u b. al-Husayn, al-Kis a" in the transmission . a b. Sulaym of al-Shayzar [i.e. Ab u M us a #Is an al-Hij al-Shayzar . az * al-Hanaf ; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 608 609 , no. 2490 ]). See 440 . .

notes

207

sa b. Fura t: a person of this name is reported to have Isn a d : Mu transmitted from Ibn Ab #Umayr (T , Rij al, p. 521, no. 1). Perhaps . us the correct form of the name is Muhammad b. M us a (b. al-Hasan) b. . . Fur at, as in the version recorded in Ibn B abawayhs Ma # an (see 440*). Muhammad b. M us a was a transmitter from al-H ad and al-#Askar . (Quhp a" , VI, p. 58); he is probably the same person as the member of the Ban u Fur at who was the rst of the family to hold an important administrative oce under the #Abb asid caliphs (see EI 2, art. Ibn b b. Yaz al-Fur at [D. Sourdel]).Ya#qu d b. Marthad/Murshid al H a rith : in the version recorded in Ibn B abawayhs Ma # an , the name . appears as Ya#q ub b. Suwayd b. Mazyad al-H . arith. No man of either name has been identied. 440 See #Ayy ash , II, p. 184, no. 46 (J abir b. Yaz d < al-B aqir) > Burh an, II, p. 258, no. 8, Bih a r , XXXVII, p. 293 ; Kul n , I, p. 412 , no. 3 . ad : > Huwayz , II, p. 440, no. 115; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 161, no. 4 (isn . al-Hasan b. Khurrad adh/Khurraz ad < Muhammad b. M us a b. al. . Fur at < Ya#q ub b. Suwayd < [Ab u] Ja#far [i.e. al-B aqir]); idem, Ma # an , p. 61, no. 13 (isn ad : al-Hasan b. Khurrad a dh < Mu hammad b. M u s a . . b. al-Fur at < Ya#q ub b. Suwayd b. Mazyad al-H . arith < #Amr b. Shamir < J abir b. Yaz d < al-B aqir), both > Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 293, no. 7, . , Mukhtas Huwayz , II, p. 440, no. 114; Hill . . . ar, p. 67. For the alleged derivation of am r from the root myr see also Bas a"ir, p. 512, no. 24 > Bih ar, . . XXXVII, p. 295, no. 11; T al , II, p. 319 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 38; . us, Am . Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, II, p. 174 (the Prophet tells #Al : anta wa-ll ahi am ruhum tam ruhum min #ilmika fa-yamt ar un) > Bih a r , XXXV, p. 18 , no. . ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 55. In the four manuscripts of KQ, 14; Ibn Shahr paragraphs 439 and 440 appear as a continuous text; yet it seems best to treat each paragraph as an independent unit: as can be seen from the references given here, the text of 440 is cited elsewhere separately; furthermore, each paragraph deals with a dierent subject matter. 441 Translation: God holds the heavens and the earth, lest they move (Q 35:41). He (i.e. the Imam) said: had they moved they would have become feeble, and had they become feeble they would not have equalled (in worth) a gnats wing in His kingdom. 442 Translation: Someone said to Ja#far al-S . adiq: (They claim that the moon never entirely disappears: they say that) they continue to see the waning crescent until it is replaced by the waxing crescent. The

208

notes

Imam said: They are lying: the moon is covered until nothing remains of it (i.e. it disappears from our vision completely at the end of the month, reading yuh . jar or yuh . ajjar ), and then it reappears. It is not clear who the people are who made the claim which the Imam rejected. 443 This tradition may be a gloss on Q 36:38. Cf. 444*.

444 Mustadrak, XII, pp. 148149, no. 13750. Cf. As . l Ja #far b. Muh . ammad al-Ha d ram , p. 68 ; Kul n , II, p. 455 , no. 12 > alHurr al# Amil , Was a"il, . . . II/2, p. 1120, no. 8760, Bih a r , VII, p. 325 , no. 22 ; Ibn B a bawayh, Faq h, . IV, p. 284, no. 845; idem, Am al , p. 95 > Bih ar, LXXI, p. 181, no. 35, . LXXVII, pp. 379380, no. 3; Fatt al, Rawd us, Fal ah . aw . a, p. 393; Ibn T ., p. 215 > Bih a r , LXXXVI, p. 129 , no. 1 (al-B a qir: m a min yawm ya " t # al a . bn Adam ill a q al dh alika l-yawm: an a yawm jad d wa-an a #alayka shah d faf #al yya khayran ashhad laka bihi yawm al-qiy ama fa-innaka lan tar an ba #dahu a"il, VI/1, abadan); Ibn T us, Muh asaba, p. 351 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was . aw . . p. 380, no. 21082, Bih ar, VII, p. 325, no. 20. This tradition may be a . gloss on Q 36:38. Cf. 443*. 445 Cf. the reading a-fa-l a ta #qil un ascribed to Ubayy and al-Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, pp. 159, 300). 446 Fas a ya"kul un could be re. l, p. 320, l. 23p. 321, l. 1. Wa-mimm garded as preceding the words wa-mimm a l a ya #lam un (Q 36:36) or as replacing them; the former appears more likely. Translation: (Glory be to Him who created all the pairs), of that which the earth grows, and of themselves, and of that which they eat (i.e. animals). 447 Fas . l, p. 321, ll. 67. For this reading cf. Tisdall, p. 239: and what there is behind you of the favour of the T uts, and seek not . agh unto them in the lower (worldly) life, that perchance ye may obtain mercy. The Arabic text which Tisdall translated presumably included the words fa-l a tabtagh uhum (for tattabi # uhum) f l-duny a. , II, p. 130 (to Q 27:71): wa-yaq ul un 448 Fas . l, p. 321, ll. 56. Cf. Qumm y a Muh ammad mat a h a dh a l-wa # d in kuntum s a diq n . . . 449 Fas a . l, p. 321, ll. 89. Cf. the reading ascribed to Ubayy: bi-m kuntum takfur un f l-duny a (Jeery, p. 159). The bih a tukadhdhib un of the manuscripts is presumably the result of a conation with Q 52:14.

notes

209

450 Cf. Fur at, I, pp. 353354, no. 479 (Zayd b. #Al : fa-mathal alladh na dhakarahum all ah f h adhihi l- aya mathal #Al wa-l-Hasan wa-lHusayn ); Nu #. . m an, Sharh h adhihi l- aya . , II, p. 496, no. 882 (Zayd b. #Al: mathaluhum f [printed: al-umma] mathal #Al wa-l-Hasan wa-l-Husayn ). . . 451 Fas . l, p. 320, l. 19. For the reading sa-naktubu see As . l Ja #far b. abir al-Ju#f < al-S , II, pp. Muh , p. 67 (J . d . adiq); Kuln . ammad al-Ha . ram 270271, no. 10 (Ab u Bas r < al-B aqir) > Burh an, IV, p. 6, no. 2, Bih ar, . . LXXIII, p. 321, no. 8, Huwayz , IV, p. 378, no. 24, Fas l , p. 320 , ll. 16 19 . . . In other accounts, the im am mub n of Q 36:12 is said to be #Al , who was given knowledge of all things (see Ibn al-Juh , p. 487, no. 2 . am > Najaf ar, XXIV, p. 158, no. 24; Ibn B abawayh, > Burh an, IV, pp. 67, no. 7, Bih . Am al , p. 150; idem, Ma # an , p. 95 > Najaf , pp. 487488, no. 3, Burh an, IV, p. 6, no. 6, Bih a r , XXXV, pp. 427 428 , no. 2 ; Ibn Jabr, Nahj , pp. 153 . 154; Sh adh an, Fad a " il , p. 172 ; Man s u r, # Iqd , pp. 313 314 , citing al-Barq s . . ariq, p. 55; Bay ad , I, p. 270); 270. al-Tanz l wa-l-tah f ; Burs , Mash . . r 452 Mustadrak, XIV, p. 448, no. 17244. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 207 (wal-mut #a min dh alika) > S a f , IV, p. 231 , Burh a n , III, p. 357 , no. 1, Bih ar, . . LXXI, p. 119, CIII, p. 298, no. 3, Huwayz , IV, pp. 350351, no. 26. See . 148*, 372. 453 The Umayyad governor al-Hajj usuf (d. 95/714) (see EI 2, . aj b. Y art. al-Hadjdj adj b. Y usuf [A. Dietrich], Introduction, pp. 1820) is . credited with introducing the camel-borne litter (mah amil ); . mil, pl. mah . see Mubarrad, K amil, I, p. 336 (wa-l-mah a mil innam a awwal mani ttakh . adhah a l-Hajj ut , Was a"il, p. 57 (but with the formulation: awwal . aj ) > Suy . mani ttakhadha l-mah amil al-Hajj asit , Ta"r kh W asi. t, pp. 3940 ( #Abd . aj ); W . . al sami #tu ab yaq ul awwal man #amila l-mah amil al-Ham an] q . d [i.e. b. Bay . bi-l- #Ir aq al-Hajj a j ); F a kih , Akhb a r Makka , I, p. 402 (Sufy a n: awwal mani . ttakhadha l-mah amil al-Hajj l-mah amil al. aj ), III, p. 234 (awwal man h . . ajja f . Hajj usuf ); Y aq ut, Buld an, V, p. 350; Lane, s.v. mah . aj b. Y . mil. KQ appears to be the only source in which al-Hajj amil are adduced as an . ajs mah . example of Gods mercy mentioned in Q 35:2. 454 Fas . l, p. 321, ll. 1314. See 311, 457. () l-Kind Isn ad : Abu : there are various transmitters from al-S . adiq with this nisba. None seems to have transmitted to Shu#ayb al-#Aqarq uf .

210

notes

455 Fas . l, p. 321, ll. 1011. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 80, 190, 204, d, #Al 336 (Ibn Mas#u , Ibn #Abb as, al-S an , VI, p. 51, . h . as, Ma # . adiq); Nah Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 128, Samarqand, III, p. 149, Tha#lab, VIII, p. 156 d); Zamakhshar (Ibn Mas#u , III, p. 348 (without attribution); Tabris , . d, Ibn #Abb a k, alXXIII, p. 71 (#Al , Ibn Mas#u as, Muj ahid, al-Da h h . .. A#mash, al-S af , IV, p. 275, Fas . adiq) > S . . l, p. 138, ll. 56, p. 321, ll. 1113; d, Ibn #Abb Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 316 (#Al , Ibn Mas#u as, al-Hasan, Sa# d . d, b. Jubayr, al-A#mash, Ibn Ab #Ubla); Qurt , XV, p. 104 (Ibn Mas#u .ub Ibn #Abb as, #Al ). n b. H d: Ab asim #Abd al-Rahm Isn ad : #Abd al-Rahm u l-Q . an . a . amma b. Hamm ad al-K uf, author of a kit ab which was transmitted by Mu. d hammad al-Barq (Quhp a" , IV, p. 78; Ardab l , I, pp. 449450).Ziya . al-Qand /al-Kind : Ab u l-Fadl ad b. Marw an al-Anb ar al-Qand . Ziy (the confectioner), a transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim and a . . l, p. 147; Modarressi, TS, pp. leader of the W aqifa (Kohlberg, Us .u 402403). In the manuscripts his nisba appears as al-Kind , but it is an b. likely that al-Qand is meant: thus a tradition in praise of Humr . A#yan is cited in Kishsh (p. 157) with the isn ad Muhammad b. # Is a< . Ziy ad al-Kind < al-S a diq; in some manuscripts of Kishsh , however, . the name is al-Qand (Kishsh , p. 157, note 2). The same tradition a appears in Muf d, Ikhtis as ad Muhammad b. #Is . . . , p. 192 with the isn b. #Ubayd < Ziy ad b. Marw an al-Qand < al-S ad al-Qand . adiq. Ziy transmitted from #Abdall ah b. Sin an (Ardab l , I, p. 489, Kh u" , VIII, ad (Ardab l , I, p. p. 331) and transmitted to #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Hamm . 338). 456 Fas . l, p. 323, ll. 2022. For this reading see Jeery, pp. 160, 336 (Ubayy, al-S , II, p. 226, Tabris , XXIII, p. 83 (> S af , IV, . . adiq); Ibn Jinn . p. 284, Burh an, IV, p. 38, no. 1, Huwayz , IV, p. 439, no. 122, Fas . . l, p. 323, lib l. 22), Ab u Hayy an, VII, p. 360, Tha#a , V, p. 49 (all from al-S . . adiq). 457 Fas . l, p. 321, ll. 1415. See 311, 454.

458 Jeery (p. 190), Ibn Kh alawayh (p. 129), Tha#lab (VIII, p. 174) and Ibn #At iyya (IV, p. 490 ) record a qir a " a of # Al which was added at . the end of the S ura (i.e. as a continuation of Q 37:182, or as a separate verse). They reproduce this reading as follows: qad (Ibn #At .iyya: waqul ) adhantukum bi-adh anat al-mursal n la-tus"alunna #an al-naba" al- #az . m (I inform you of what the messengers know: you will be asked about the mighty tiding) (cf. Q 78:2). According to Ibn #At .iyya (IV, p. 490), this

notes

211

d, but with #an h was also the reading in the codex of Ibn Mas#u adh a l-naba" al- #az m . A similar passage is included in an epistle which the . Prophet is said to have sent to Aktham b. Sayf (for whom see the . 2 adhantukum/addabtukum bi-adh anat /bi- ad ab article in EI [M.J. Kister]): al-mursal n wa-la-tus"alunna #an al-naba" al- #az m wa-la-ta # lamunna naba " ahu . ba #da h n (Kar ajak , II, p. 124 > Bih ar, XXII, p. 87, no. 40). . . 459 This tradition forms part of a discussion among exegetes on whether the piercing ame kills the eavesdropping devils or merely injures them (see e.g. Tabar , XIV, pp. 14, 15, Tabris , XIV, p. 16, . . Qurt .ub, X, p. 11, all to Q 15:18). Cf. 724. 460 Mustadrak, IV, p. 279, no. 4699. For the beginning cf. 311. When Juwayriya b. Asm a" accused al-S . adiq of committing errors in his speech (talh anu f kal a mika ) the Imam is said to have retorted: da #n a min sahakika . (reading thus for nahyika) h adh a enough of this useless chatter/hot air (lit. dust-raising wind) of yours (Kishsh , p. 340). The ending appears as a Prophetic tradition in Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir, III, p. 627 (< Kit ab Ja #far b. Muh ammad b. Sin a n al-Dihq a n ) > alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , VI/2, . . p. 246, no. 22684 (with al-Hurr al-#Amils comment: h adh a laysa f hi . ar, I, pp. 217218 (with al-Majlis s dhamm li-l-nah ak f hi ), Bih . w bal li-l-inhim . explication on p. 218). A similar sentiment is voiced by an anonymous authority (ba #d . al-salaf ): (the study of) grammar removes humbleness from the heart (al-nah u # min al-qalb) (Makk , Q ut, I, p. . w yudhhibu l-khush 337, cited by Goldziher, Stellung, pp. 362363, note 6). As Goldziher observes, such pronouncements reect a belief in pious circles that philologists are haughty and arrogant pedants. See further 312*. ": al-S Isn ad : Juwayriya b. Asma . adiq accused him of zandaqa; he was put to death by order of H ar un al-Rash d (r. 170193/786809) (Kishsh , p. 340). Al-Tustar (Rij al, II, pp. 756757, no. 1616) identies him as Juwayriya b. Asm a" b. #Ubayd b. Mukh ariq al-Duba # (d. 173/789 . 790); he often appears in Sunn sources, where he is usually described as a reliable transmitter (see Mizz , V, pp. 172174, no. 986 and the references given by the editor; Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, II, pp. 124125). In . these sources there is no mention of the manner of his death. al-#Amil , Ithb at, VII, p. 128, no. 461 Najaf , p. 503, no. 1. See al-Hurr . 648, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 220, no. 19 (from Najaf ). .

212

notes

462 Fas . l, p. 324, ll. 89. For this reading see Jeery, p. 349 (Ubayy, Ibn Qays). F s ur alladh na ut u l- #ilm is attested in Q 29:49. . ud Isn ad : Muhammad : he is probably Muhammad b. Sulaym an al-Day. . lam (see 3*). 463 Cf. R az , I, p. 48 (man ar ada an yatalaaza a . amma fa-innahu l . bi-l-d budda lahu min d a th aniyan). In the . amm shafatayhi awwalan thumma raf #ihim #Uthm anic codex, sukhriyyan occurs once (Q 43:32) and sikhriyyan twice (Q 23:110, 38:63). Al-S . adiqs reading does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. The vocalization given here evidently reproduces his qir a"a of Q 38:63, but not necessarily of the two other verses in which this word is attested. For the reading sukhriyyan at Q 38:63 see also Jeery, d); Ibn Muj p. 81 (Ibn Mas#u ahid, p. 556, Samarqand , III, p. 172, Hamza, al-Kis a " ); Zamakhshar , III, p. 380 T u s , VIII, p. 577 (N a # , . . (without attribution); Tha#lab , VII, p. 58, Tabris , XXIII, p. 129 (the . Medinese and K ufans except #As , XV, p. 225 (Ab u Ja#far, .im); Qurt .ub h N a#, Shayba [i.e. the Successor Shayba b. Nis ub . b. Sirjis b. Ya#q .a al-Madan , d. 130/747748 or 138/755756; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 329330, no. 1439, Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, IV, pp. 377378], al-Mufad . . dal, . ar alHubayra [i.e. Ab u #Umar Hubayra b. Muhammad al-Tamm . Abrash al-Baghd ad , a transmitter from Haf , II, . s .; see Ibn al-Jazar p. 353, no. 3781], Yahy a , al-A # mash, Hamza, al-Kis a " ); Ab u Hayy an, . . . VII, p. 389; S a f , IV, p. 307 . The reading sukhriyyan at Q 43 : 32 was . adopted by all Seven Readers (though others read sikhriyyan; see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 135 [Ibn Muhay Layl a, #Amr b. Maym un . s .in, Ibn Ab (i.e. the Successor Ab u #Abdall ah #Amr b. Maym un al-Awd al-K uf , d. , VII, ca. 75/694695; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 603, no. 2463)]; Tha#lab p. 58, Ahw az, Ibn Muh . s .in]). For the reading . ays . in, p. 327 [Ibn Muhay d); Tabar sukhriyyan at Q 23:110 see Jeery, p. 81 (Ibn Mas#u , XVIII, p. . 61 (most Medinese and K ufans); Ibn Muj ahid, p. 448, Qurt , XII, p. .ub 154 (N a#, Hamza, al-Kis a " ); Tha # lab , VII, p. 58 , Tabris , XIX, p. 177 . . (the Medinese and K ufans except #As .im). tih (with h a" al-sakt ; cf. 464 Fas . l, p. 324, ll. 57. The vocalization a #. Wright, I, pp. 90 [note], 93) is conjectural. It is supported by the reading a #. ti (exhibiting the regular imperative form), attested as a qir a"a of #Al (see Bas a"ir, p. 361, no. 1 > Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 124125, no. 2, . . XXV, pp. 329330, no. 5; Kul n , I, pp. 438439, no. 3 > Huwayz , . III, pp. 2324, no. 85, IV, p. 462, no. 63). Al-Majlis suggests that in the reading fa-mnun aw a #. ti, umnun should be understood as cut

notes

213

o/withhold or decrease (Bih ar, XXV, p. 331; cf. Lis an, s.v. mnn). Fa. mnun aw a #. ti(h) could thus be rendered as: Withhold (your knowledge from the uninitiated) or bestow (it on the initiated). See 465; cf. 466, 467. Isn ad : Fudayl al-A#war: Ab u Muhammad Fudayl b. #Uthm an al. . . Anb ar al-A#war, a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq (Mo. darressi, TS, p. 224).Abu #Ubayda al-H u #Ubayda Ziy ad . adhdha": Ab a al-Hadhdh a" (d. in or before 148/765), a K ufan transmitter from b. #Is . al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 116118), and a transmitter to Fudayl al-A # war (e.g. Bas a"ir, p. 259, nos. 3, 5, p. 510, no. 15). . . 465 Fas . adiq) added (in explica. l, p. 324, l. 7. Translation: He (i.e. al-S tion of fa-mnun aw a #. tih): God ordered (the Imams) to withhold (knowledge from the uninitiated); He said: bestow (knowledge) with restrictions or without restrictions. See 464; cf. 466, 467. 466 Fas a"at #Al ) see . l, p. 323, l. 22p. 324, l. 1. For this reading (as qir " ir , p. 387 , no. 13 > Fa s l , p. 324 , ll. 2 4 (in the version cited in Fas Bas a . . l, . #Al s reading is a #. tih); Muf d, Ikhtis a s , p. 300 . See 467 ; cf. 464 , 465 . . . 467 Fas . l, p. 324, ll. 12. See 466; cf. 464, 465. Isn ad : cf. 15*. 468 Cf. Bas a"ir, p. 270, no. 4 > Bih ar, XLVII, p. 79, no. 58, LXVIII, p. . . 118, no. 44, Huwayz , IV, p. 469, no. 80; Qumm , II, p. 243 > S af , IV, p. . . 307, Bih a r , XXX, p. 154 , no. 10 , XXXI, p. 642 , no. 160 , LXVIII, p. 13, . no. 14; Fur at, II, p. 361, no. 491; Kul n , VIII, p. 36, no. 6 (toward the ar, VIII, end) > Najaf , p. 507, no. 9, Burh an, IV, pp. 6263, no. 5, Bih . pp. 354355, no. 6, LXVIII, p. 51, no. 93; Nu#m an, Da # a"im, I, p. 77; idem, Sharh abawayh, Fad a"il, p. 64 (> Bih ar, . , III, p. 465, no. 1356; Ibn B . . VII, p. 179, no. 17) > Najaf , p. 507, no. 9 > Bih a r , XXIV, p. 259 , no. 9; . , Dal a"il, p. Mufd, Ikhtis as ar, XLVII, p. 392, no. 114; Tabar . . . , p. 103 > Bih . 132; R awand , Khar a"ij, II, p. 827, no. 40; Sh adh an, Fad a"il, p. 13; #Im ad . al-D n, #Uy un, pp. 272, 274. 469 Cf. the gloss h n l a man as , XV, p. 146, Ab u Hayy an, VII, . .ub . . (Qurt p. 369). For man as ar (escape) see e.g. Muq atil, III, p. 112, Tabar , . . as r XXIII, pp. 120, 121, Sijist an , Ghar b, p. 217, Samarqand , III, p. 158, Qurt , XV, p. 145 (all to Q 38:3). For l ata see WKAS, II, part 3, pp. .ub 1658b1661b.

214

notes

470 For an explication of qi. t. t as kit ab see Muq atil, III, p. 115; Samarqand , III, pp. 160161; Tha#lab , VIII, p. 182; T , VIII, p. 549; . us Tabris , XXIII, p. 102 (the unbelievers from Quraysh, mocking the . Prophet, ask him to hurry and bring them the books which they will read in the hereafter); Suy ut , Durr, V, p. 559 (from al-Hasan); Jal alayn, . . p. 453 (kit ab a #m alin a); Lane, s.v. Cf. Tabar , XXIII, pp. 134 ( als fa . . ah . al-makt uba), 135. 471 The last sentence is an exegesis on Q 38:32. Translation: Had Solomon prayed before (the sun) was hidden behind the veil he would have performed (the prescribed prayer) while it was still daylight (and would thus not have missed the proper time for the prayer). Cf. ash , I, p. 273, no. 259, p. 274, no. 263 (to Q 4:103). #Ayy 472 This tradition properly belongs in the next chapter. See 92, 340*.

473 Fas , p. 519, no. 23 (isn ad : Muhammad b. . . l, p. 324, l. 13. See Najaf #Al < #Amr b. #Uthm an < #Imr an b. Sulaym an < Ab u Bas r < alS a diq) . . > Burh an, IV, pp. 7879, no. 6, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 260, no. 13, Fas . . l, p. 324, ll. 912 (isn ad in Fas b. #Al < #Umar b. Sulaym an < Ab u . . l : Muhammad r < al-S Bas . . adiq). Isn ad : for Muhammad b. #Al < #Amr b. #Uthm an see also 72, 456. . The isn ad as it appears in the manuscripts is probably corrupt. The following may have occurred: rst, #Amr b. #Uthm an was wrongly copied as #Amr/#Umar b. Sulaym an; then, a copyist wrote twice b. Sulaym an; nally, the second b. Sulaym an was corrected to #an Sulaym an. 474 Fas . l, p. 324, ll. 1415. The words wa-d . rib lahum found in the manuscripts are probably the result of a conation with Q 18:32 or Q 36:13. For the reading s aliman see Jeery, pp. 82, 205, 273, 282, 301 as, #Ikrima, Muj ahid, al-Rab # b. Khuthaym); (Ibn Mas#ud, Ibn #Abb idem, Zaid b. #Al , p. 230 (Zayd); Tabar , XXIII, p. 213 (Ibn #Abb as, . some Meccan and Bas ahid, p. 562 (Ibn Kath r, .ran readers); Ibn Muj s Ab u #Amr, #A im in the transmission of Ab a n); Ibn al-Ju h a m > Najaf , . . pp. 514515, no. 10 > Burh an, IV, p. 75, no. 3, Fas l , p. 324 , ll. 18 20 . (the reading s aliman is only recorded in Fas ab, IV, p. 10 . h . as, I #r . l ); Nah (Ibn #Abb as, al-Hasan, Muj ahid, al-Jahdar , Ab u #Amr, Ibn Kath r); . . Samarqand , III, p. 184 (Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr); Tha#lab , VIII, p. 233 (Ibn #Abb as, Muj ahid, al-Hasan, Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, Ya#q ub); .

notes

215

Tabris , XXIII, p. 152 (Ibn Kath r and the Bas u . .rans except Sahl); Ab l-Fut uh, IX, p. 400 (Ibn Kath r, Ab u # Amr, Ya # q u b); S a f , IV, p. 321 . . . For this tradition cf. Qumm, II, pp. 248249 > Najaf, p. 514, Burh an, IV, p. 75, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 162163, no. 13; Kul n , VIII, p. . 224, no. 283 (beginning) > Najaf , pp. 515516, no. 13, S af , IV, p. 321, . a r , XXIV, p. 160 , no. 9 . Al-Majlis (Bih ar, Burh an, IV, pp. 7475, no. 1, Bih . . XXIV, pp. 161162) oers two interpretations of rajulan salaman/s aliman li-rajul : (i) the rst rajul is #Al and the second is the Prophet; (ii) the rst rajul is each member of the Sh #a and the second is #Al . This passage in KQ ts the latter interpretation. The saq fa (Saq fat Ban S a#ida) is the covered porch or courtyard in which Ab u Bakr was fa [G. Lecomte]; nominated to succeed the Prophet (see EI 2, art. Sak . Madelung, Succession, pp. 2843); for the Im am s, the as ab al-saq fa are .h . #Al s enemies (particularly Ab u Bakr, #Umar and Ab u #Ubayda) who conspired at that place to deprive him of his right to succeed the Prophet. Ab u Bakr is here called al-awwal not only because this was his nickname but perhaps also because he is the rst rajul mentioned in the verse. His followers are portrayed as quarrelling among themselves while showing loyalty to him (wa-hum yatawallawnahu). 475 For the readings m a"it/m a"it un see Jeery, p. 228 (Ibn al-Zubayr); idem, Zaid b. #Al , p. 230 (Zayd); Nah ab, IV, p. 11 (Ibn Mu. h . as, I #r Is a [probably # Is a b. # Umar]); Ibn Kh alawayh, hay s in, Ibn Ab Is h a q, # . . . p. 131 (Ibn al-Zubayr, Ibn Muhay a, Ibn Ab Ish , . s . aq); Ibn Jinn .in, #Is II, p. 253 (wa-quri"a); Ahw az , Bas , p. 461 (al-Hasan al-Bas ); idem, . .r . r Ibn Muh u l-Fut uh, . s . IX, p. 400 (Ibn .in); Ab . ays . in, p. 323 (Ibn Muhay Muhay s in, Ibn Ab # Ubla); cf. Vollers, Volkssprache , pp. 150151. The . . ah do not appear to be recorded words fa-dda # a ismihi and min #ind all elsewhere; they may be glosses. Wa-summiya bi-ghayr ismihi may be an allusion to #Umar, who was addressed as am r al-mu"min n (commander of the faithful) despite the fact that this title belonged to #Al alone (cf. 160). For the exegesis on Q 39:33 see Qumm, II, p. 249 (ya #n ras ul all ah is missing from the printed edition) > Najaf , p. 517, no. 17; Ibn al-Juh , p. 517, no. 18 > Burh an, IV, p. 76, no. 2; Ibn al. am > Najaf Magh azil , pp. 174175 > Ibn T a w u s, Tar a ar, XXXV, p. . . "if, p. 79 > Bih . 412, no. 9; Tabris , XXIV, p. 155 (Muj a hid, alDa h h a k < Ibn #Abb as, . . .. the Sh # Imams) > Najaf , pp. 516517, no. 16, Burh an, IV, p. 76, no. 5; Irbil , I, pp. 319320 (Muj ahid); in general Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 407423 . (chapter 21).

216

notes

476 For the derivation of h a-m m from h . . amma (to draw near) see Qur t ub , XV, p. 289 (Ka # b b. M a lik) (cf. Lane, s.v. ah . . amma [also h . amma/h . umma]: it drew near, or approached). The continuation is in all likelihood a separate, acephalous tradition. Exegetes disagree as to whether the believing man of Q 40:28 who kept his belief hidden from Pharaohs folk was himself one of Pharaohs folk, as implied in the tradition in KQ (see e.g. Tabar , XXIV, pp. 5758; Tha#lab , VIII, p. 273; T , . . us IX, p. 72; Zamakhshar , III, pp. 423424; Ab u l-Fut uh, . IX, p. 446; Qurt , XV, pp. 306307; Zarkash , III, p. 233; in general Bih ar, XIII, .ub . pp. 157165). 477 For this tradition see Najaf , p. 530, no. 11 (with bi-anna li- #Al wal aya after kafartum) > Bih a r , XXIII, p. 364 , no. 24 . See also 478 , 480 . . h Isn ad : Ibra m b. #Abd al-H d: Ibr ah m b. #Abd al-Ham d al-Asad . am . al-Bazz az, a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq, al-K a zim and al-Ri d a . . . l, p. (Quhp a" , I, pp. 5253; Ardab l , I, pp. 2325; Kohlberg, Us .u 145).al-H b. Hubaysh al-Asad , a trans. asan b. H . ubaysh: al-Hasan . . mitter from al-B aqir and al-S a diq and a transmitter to Ibr a h m b. #Abd . al-Ham d (Quhp a " , II, p. 101 ; Ardab l , I, p. 192 ). . 478 Fas ad ) see . l, p. 325, l. 13. For this tradition (with the same isn Najaf , pp. 530531, no. 12 > Burh an, IV, p. 94, no. 4, Bih a r , XXIII, . s source is p. 364, no. 25. According to Fas . l, p. 325, ll. 1013, al-Najaf Ibn al-Juh . am, but this is not indicated in the Qumm, 1407/1987 edition of Ta"w l al- ay at al-z aya normally denotes . ahira. The term ahl al-wal the Im am s (see e.g. As l Zayd al-Nars , p. 51 ; # Ayy a sh , I, p. 337, no. 170 . [Ibr ah m b. #Abd al-Ham d < al-K a zim]); but in KQ (and in Kul n , . . * see 480 ) it is evidently used to refer to the Imams (those to whom wal aya is owed). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 256 > S af , IV, p. 336. See also 477, . 480. Isn ad : Zayd b. al-H al-Anm at , a . asan: he may be Zayd b. al-Hasan . . transmitter from al-S a", III, p. 78; Ardabl, I, p. 341). . adiq (Quhp 479 Fas . l, p. 124, ll. 1720, p. 326, ll. 1014. In KQ, the words min n; these words al-mu"min n are presented as forming part of the Qur"a (XXV, p. 38, Jaw ami #, are also cited in T u s (IX, p. 144 ) and Tabris . . II, p. 424 > S af , IV, p. 367), but there it is not clear whether they . are a reading (as al-N ur would have it; see Fas . l, p. 124, l. 21, p. 326, l. 14) or a gloss. Elsewhere, li-man f l-ard is explained as referring . to the believers (Tabar , XXV, p. 8 [from al-Sudd ]; Qurt , XVI, . .ub

notes

217

p. 4 [from al-Da . h . h . ak]). A reading (or a gloss) such as that attested in KQ brings Q 42:5 into line with Q 40:7, where the angels ask forgiveness only for the believers. Some exegetes attempted to resolve the apparent contradiction between the two verses by arguing that Q 42:5 was abrogated by Q 40:7 (see Qurt , XVI, pp. 45). The .ub beginning of Q 42:5 in the version cited in KQ is attested as a tradition on the authority of al-S , XXV, p. 38 > Huwayz , IV, p. . . . adiq; see Tabris 557, no. 7: wa-ruwiya #an Ab #Abdall ah: wa-l-mal a"ika wa-man (read: min?) h un bi-h a yaftur un. Cf. Q 21:20, 39:75. . awl al- #arsh yusabbih . . amd rabbihim l h al-As Isn ad : #Abdalla amm : Ab u Mu hammad #Abdall ah b. #Abd al. . Rahm al ), a Bas . an al-As .amm al-Misma#, described as an extremist (gh .ran transmitter from disciples of al-S a" , IV, p. 25; Ardab l , . adiq (Quhp I, pp. 494495). For the isn ad #Abdall ah b. #Abd al-Rahm . an al-As .amm < Hish am b. S alim see e.g. Ibn Q ulawayh, K amil, pp. 344, 357, 426. ad and the 480 Fas . l, p. 325, ll. 67. For this tradition (with the same isn same reading, but with dh alika for dh alikum) see Kul n , I, p. 421, no. 46 >S af , IV, p. 336, Burh an, IV, p. 94, no. 5, Huwayz , IV, p. 513, no. 21. . . See also 477, 478. r: Ab r al-K Isn ad : #Al b. Mans u l-Hasan #Al b. Mans uf , a resi. .u .u , IV, dent of Baghd ad and a follower of Hish am b. al-Hakam (Quhp a" . p. 225; Ardab l , I, p. 603).al-Wal d b. S ubay h : a K u fan transmitter . . from al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, p. 391; cf. 348*). 481 As can be gathered from other sources, this forms part of the Sh # mi #r aj traditions, in which #Al plays a prominent role (see AmirMoezzi, Ascension, pp. 100105). In one of these traditions, God tells the Prophet concerning #Al : innahu mubtalan wa-mubtalan bihi ma #a ann qad nah a" (he will . altuhu wa-nah . altuhu wa-nah . altuhu wa-nah . altuhu arba #a ashy be put to the test and people will be put to the test on his account; I have given him four things) (see Qumm , II, pp. 243244 > Bih ar, XVIII, p. 374, no. 79); here, in contrast to what we nd in . KQ, God does not reveal what these things are. In a similar account, God tells Muhammad that He bestowed on #Al His knowledge and . ar, XVIII, p. forbearance ( #ilm wa-h ilm ) ( T u s , Am a l , I, p. 353 [> Bih . . . 371, no. 78], I, p. 364), or (in a variant) His knowledge and wisdom (or power of judgment) ( #ilm wa-h ) (Hill , Muh . . ukm . tad . ar, p. 147. Al-Majlis maintains [Bih ar, XVIII, p. 372] that al-Hill s source is Ibn B abawayhs . . Kit ab al-mi #r aj ; this information is not found in the printed edition of n the Muh ta d ar . . .) For (independent or suxed) pronouns in the Qur"a

218

notes

referring to something not explicitly mentioned in the text see #Amil , Mir" at, pp. 5455. For the ending see 294. 482 Najaf , p. 534, no. 3. It is not clear whether alladh na ashrak u f hi l-awwal is a qir a"a or a gloss. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 262 > S a f , IV, p. . 353, Burh an, IV, p. 106, no. 2(a) (ending); Ibn al-Juh a m > Najaf , pp. . 533534, no. 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 106, no. 2(b), Bih ar, XXIV, p. 304, no. 17; . r al-Yaman, Kashf, p. 29. Translation: Woe to the idolaters Ibn Mans .u who associated (someone else) with the rst Imam (i.e. #Al ) and did not pay the other (i.e. Ab u Bakr) that which the rst (Imam) said should be paid (i.e. the alms-tax), while disbelieving in him (i.e. in #Al ). n b. Taghlib: Ab Isn ad : Aba u Sa# d Ab an b. Taghlib b. Rab ah . alRaba# al-Bakr al-Jurayj (d. 141/758759), a prominent K ufan trans l, p. 143; van Ess, TG, I, p. 334; mitter from al-S . adiq (Kohlberg, Us .u Modarressi, TS, pp. 107116). 483 Najaf , p. 537, no. 9. See Bih ar, XXIV, p. 26, no. 2 (from Najaf ); . a f , IV, p. 359 , Burh a n , IV, p. Kul n , I, p. 220, no. 2, p. 420, no. 40 > S . 110, no. 6; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 330 > Bih a r , XXIV, p. 21 , . no. 40. 484 Perhaps the text should be emended to read ill a kull dh h . az .z . , in accordance with the qir a"a attributed to al-S a diq (see Tabris , XXIV, . . p. 23 > S af , IV, p. 361; see also 489); this would clarify the Imams . comment: huwa dh aka this is so. Isn ad : Khuzayma: unidentied. Ibn Yaqt n is not recorded as trans. mitting to a person with this or a similar-looking name (cf. Kh u" , XIII, pp. 252253).Ibn Yaqt u l-Hasan #Al b. Yaqt us a . n: Ab . .n b. M (d. 182/798), a client (mawl a) of Ban u Asad or Ban u H ashim, a high ranking ocial of the #Abb asid government and a transmitter from alS a diq and al-K a zim (Modarressi, TS, pp. 194198). For Ibn Yaqt ns . . . transmission from al-S u", XIII, pp. 249250. See also 225*, . adiq cf. Kh * 393 . 485 For an explication of al-rah m as compassionate towards His . creatures (al-rah m bi-khalqihi ) see e.g. Muq atil, III, p. 81 (to Q 36:5) . > Ibn al-Jawz , VI, p. 272; Tabar , XXVII, p. 30 (to Q 52:28); cf. 28. . See 486.

notes

219

486 This is a gloss on the qur" anan #arabiyyan of Q 41:3 (cited at 485). Wa-bi-isn adihi may have been inserted by mistake; if so, then this is not an independent tradition but a continuation of the previous one. For a #jam (not Arabic) see Q 16:103, 41:44 (twice). 487 Since no qir a"a appears to be cited here, it can be taken that the ending of this tradition is missing. 488 Cf. Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at, p. 94 = Fyzee, p. 76 > Bih ar, VII, . p. 251, no. 9 (a paraphrase of Q 24:24 which includes the words jam # jaw arih ubuhum of the manuscripts may be the . im [all their limbs]). The qul nic verses in which this word is menresult of a confusion with Qur"a aruhum (see Q 2:7, 16:108; cf. 514). tioned together with sam #uhum and abs . Jul ud (skins) is often interpreted as denoting the sexual organs (fur uj ) (Ibn Wahb, J ami #/Tafs r, p. 236 [fol 9b l. 11: jul uduhum al-fur uj ]; Qumm , II, p. 264 [wa-l-jul ud al-fur uj ] > Burh an, IV, p. 108, no. 2, Huwayz , IV, p. . 543, no. 24; Kul n , II, p. 36, no. 1 [> S af , IV, p. 356, Bih ar, LXIX, p. . . a"im, I, p. 7 [ya #n bi-l-jul ud al-fur uj wa-l-afkh adh]; 26, no. 6], Nu#m an, Da # Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, II, p. 381, no. 1627 [from #Al s was iyya to his son . Muhammad ibn al-Hanayya: ya #n bi-l-jul ud al-fur uj ] > Huwayz , IV, . . . p. 544, no. 28) or as alluding to them (kin aya) (Farr a", III, p. 16 [al-jild hun awa-ll ahu a #lamal-dhakar, wa-huwa m a kan a #anh u] > Nah ab, . h . as, I #r IV, p. 57 [q ala l-Farr a": al-jild h ahun a l-dhakar kan a ll ah #azza wa-jalla #anhu]; Tabar , XXIV, p. 106; M atur d , IX, p. 72 [wa-q ala ba #d uduhum . . uhum: jul kin aya #an al-fur uj, wa-huwa qawl al-Hasan ]; Samarqand , III, p. 223; Ibn . Ab Zaman n, II, p. 268; Tha#lab , VIII, p. 290; T , IX, p. 117 [wa-q l: . us , XXIV, p. 14 , citing al-mur ad bi-l-jul ud al-fur uj #al a. tar q al-kin aya]; Tabris . Ibn #Abb as; Ab u l-Fut uh, , II, p. 305). . X, p. 14; Zarkash 489 Fas ad , I, p. . . l, p. 326, l. 3. For the reading fa-la-najziyanna see Bay 290. For the beginning cf. Kul n , I, p. 421, no. 45 ( bi-tarkihim wal ayat #Al b. Ab T aya, p. . alib) > Fas . l, p. 326, ll. 35, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal 724; Ibn al-Juh , pp. 534535, no. 4 (fa-la-nudh qanna lladh na . am > Najaf #adh aban shad dan f l-duny a) > Burh an, IV, p. kafar u bi-tarkihim wal ayat #Al 109, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 365, no. 28, Fas . . l, p. 326, ll. 13. For the * reading ill a kull dh h a z z # a z m see 484 . For l a yasjud un li-l-shams wa-l a . .. . li-l-qamar cf. Q 41:37. Title The name #ayn-s n-q af for S ura 42 (rather than h a-m m- #ayn-s n-q af . d, V, p. or al-Sh ur a) is uncommon, though not unknown (see Ab u l-Su#u

220

notes

518 [h a-m m #ayn-s n-q af sm an li-l-s ura]; cf. Bayd , p. 638 [h a-m m #ayn. aw . . s n-q af la #allahu sm an li-l-s ura]). It is also possible that the letters h a-m m . were omitted from mss. M and T (the relevant folio in ms. L was not available to us; see Introduction, p. 48). 490 Fas , p. 550, no. 19. See Burh an, IV, p. 129, . l, p. 327, ll. 12, Najaf no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 229, no. 30, Fas . . l, p. 326, l. 22p. 327, l. 1 (from Najaf ; in Bih ar and Fas a lim a l Mu h , II, p. 278 . . l : z . ammad ). Cf. Qumm . > Burh an, IV, p. 129, no. 4, Bih a r , XXXI, pp. 580 581 , no. 14 (wa-tar a . l-z a lim n a l [in Burh a n : li- a l ] Mu h ammad h aqqahum lamm a ra " aw al# adh a b . . . an, correctly: f h adhihi l-raj #a] wa- #Al huwa l- #adh ab f h adh a l-wajh [in Burh etc.). For #Al as Gods scourge during the raj #a see #Amil , Mir" at, p. 230. 491 Fas n , I, p. 418, no. 32 (Muhammad b. . . l, p. 326, l. 21. See Kul Sin an < al-Rid a l-mushrik n bi-wal ayat #Al m a tad # uhum ilayhi . a) (kabura #al y a Muh ayat #Al ) > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107 . ammad min wal ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12), S af , IV, p. 369, Huwayz , IV, p. 563, (> Bih . . . no. 33, Fas l , p. 326 , ll. 19 21 ; Tisdall, p. 239 ; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. . 68; cf. Bas a"ir, p. 119, no. 1, p. 120, no. 4 (ending); Fur at, I, p. 285, no. . 384, II, p. 387; Bay ad , I, p. 289. The account in Kul n also ends with . the sentence: h akadh a f l-kit ab makh. t u. ta. Al-M azandar an (d. 1081/1670 1671) oers the following interpretation of this sentence: Thus (this n, or in al-lawh verse) was written down in #Al s copy of the Qur"a . almah uz (VII, p. 69 ). For Mu hsin al-Fay d (d. 1091 / 1680 ), in contrast, . . . f . the words which follow the canonical text (i.e. y a Muh ayat . ammad min wal #Al ) are an exegetical gloss written down on the margin of the book (ka-annah a makh. t u. ta f l-h ash min qab l al-quy ud wa-l-shur uh af , III, . aw . ) (W p. 922, no. 1597). If he takes book to mean the K af (rather than n) then he appears to be suggesting that h a f l-kit ab the Qur"a akadh makh. t u. ta is an interpolation. The fact that this sentence also appears in KQ renders this suggestion problematic. Mah uza t u. ta) appears . f . (for makh. both in ms. B and (according to M azandar an , VII, p. 69) in one (or several, ba #d n . See 492, 493. . ) of the manuscripts of Kul 492 The full text of the letter sent by al-Rid ah . a to his disciple #Abdall b. Jundab/Jundub is given in Qumm , II, pp. 104105 (to Q 24:35) > Bih ar, XXVI, pp. 241243, no. 5; Fur at, I, pp. 283285, no. 384; Kul n , . , Mukhta s ar , pp. 174 175 . The letter was I, pp. 223224, no. 1 > Hill . . reportedly written at the request of Ibn Jundab when he was a very

notes

221

old man (Fur at, I, p. 283); the passage cited in KQ appears (with some variations) towards its end. For this passage see also Bas a"ir, pp. 119 . 120, no. 3; Ibn al-Juh an, IV, p. . am > Najaf, pp. 543544, no. 6 > Burh 119, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 365366, no. 30; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, . p. 213, with note 437 = Divine Guide, p. 202; idem, Wal aya, pp. 724, 734. A similar account is recorded in Bas a " ir , pp. 118 119 , no. 1 (wa . a # l wa-M us a wa- #Is a wa-Ish aq wa-Ya #q ub) m a was a bihi Ibr ah m wa-Ism . .s . ayn > Huwayz , IV, p. 562, no. 22; Ibn al-Juh , p. 543, no. 5 > . . am > Najaf Burh an, IV, p. 119, no. 8, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 365, no. 29. Yahd (for yajtab . ilayhi man yash a" wa-yahd ) also appears in Bas a " ir and Kul n . For Ibr a h m . wa-Ish aq wa-Ya #q ub see Q 12:38, 38:45. See 491, 493. . 493 For Ibr ah m wa-Ism a # l wa-Ish aq wa-Ya #q ub see Q 2:136, 2:140, 3:84, . 4:163. See 491, 492. h b. Jundab/Jundub: #Abdall Isn ad : #Abdalla ah b. Jundab/Jundub alBajal , a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim . and al-Rid . adiq, al-K . a and a a" , III, pp. 274 nancial agent (wak l ) of al-K azim . and al-Rid . a (Quhp 276; Ardab l , I, pp. 479480). 494 Fas , p. 550, no. 20. See al-Hurr al-#Amil , . . l, p. 327, ll. 67, Najaf Ithb at, VII, p. 129, no. 653, Bahr , Mah an, IV, p. 129, . an . ajja, p. 197, Burh no. 2, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 229230, no. 32 (all from Najaf , i.e. with the . verse as in the #Uthm anic codex and with ilayhi said to refer to the ashi # n min al-dhull li- #Al yanzur a Q a"im). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 278 (kh . un il #Al min . tarf khaf ) > S af , IV, p. 380, Huwayz , IV, p. 586, no. 127; Ibn . . Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 215 (kh ashi # n min al-dhull yanzur a #Al . un il min . tarf khaf ) > Bih a r , XXXI, p. 574 , no. 3 . . Isn ad : see also 307, 498. , II, p. 278 > S af , IV, p. 380, 495 Fas . . l, p. 327, ll. 78. Cf. Qumm Burh an, IV, p. 129, no. 4, Huwayz , IV, p. 586 , no. 127 ( a-l a inna l-z n . . alim al/li- al Muh ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 216 (a-l a . ammad h . aqqahum); Ibn Shahr inna l-z a lim n li- a l Mu h ammad h aqqahum ) > Bi h a r , XXXI, p. 574 , no. 3 . . . . . 496 Fas . l, p. 327, ll. 810. The reading given here does not appear to be recorded elsewhere, though the notion that the single community ah (ummatan w . idatan) of this verse refers to a community of unbelievers is widely attested; see e.g. Tabar , XXV, p. 68; Kul n , II, p. 265, . no. 23 > Bih a r , LXXII, p. 28 , no. 25 ; Ibn B a bawayh, #Ilal, p. 589, . no. 33 > Burh an, IV, pp. 141142, no. 1, Bih a r , LXVII, p. 230, no. .

222

notes

42; Tha#lab , VIII, p. 333; Ab u l-Fut uh, . X, p. 87. See further Rubin, Pre-existence, p. 78 (referring to the ummatan w ah . idatan at Q 2:213). Translation: If God had acted (by making them unbelievers) they would have performed (acts of unbelief); or: If God had acted (by rewarding the people with so much wealth), they would have acted (by becoming unbelievers). l-Qa sim: there are a number of transmitters from alIsn ad : Abu S u l-Q asim b. . adiq bearing this kunya. Perhaps the reference is to Ab #Abdall ah who, according to one manuscript of Najaf , transmitted to Sayf an exegetical tradition on Q 43:44 (see Najaf , p. 562, no. 27). 497 Najaf , p. 571, no. 47. See Burh an, IV, p. 154, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, . p. 230, no. 34 (from Najaf , to Q 43:76). Only Ibn al-Juh . am (as cited in Najaf ) appears to preserve the correct text (i.e. from S urat al-zukhruf). In the four manuscripts of KQ, other verses with a similar content are recorded (Q 2:57 [or Q 7:160], Q 29:40). The additions to these verses as preserved in mss. M, T and B do not appear to be recorded elsewhere; they may be glosses. 498 Fas , p. 557, no. 13. See Burh an, IV, p. 143, . l, p. 327, ll. 1416, Najaf no. 3, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 230, no. 33 (from Najaf ). For this reading see . also Qumm , II, p. 286 > S af , IV, p. 392; Tisdall, p. 239; Bar-Asher, . Readings, p. 69. Isn ad : see also 307, 494. is the reading of Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, 499 Fas . l, p. 328, l. 19. Tashtah Hamza, al-Kis a " and # A s im in the transmission of Ab u Bakr; the rest . . of the Seven Readers read tashtah hi (Ibn Muj ahid, pp. 588589). See also Nah ab, IV, p. 120; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 668; Zamakhshar . h . as, I #r (wa-quri"a); Ibn Kh alawayh, Hujja , pp. 296 297 ; Ibn # A t iyya, V, p. 64 ; . . Tabris , XXV, p. 97 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, X, p. 102 ; Ibn al-Jawz , VII, p. 144 ; . . Qurt , XVI, p. 114; Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 27; S af , IV, p. 399 (wa. .ub . quri"a); Dutton, Notes, p. 45. For tashtah in a citation of (or reference to) this verse see #Askar , Tafs r, p. 338 > Bih ar, VIII, p. 180, no. 137, . LXXV, p. 12, no. 44; Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh af , p. 353 (in the version cited in . Bih a r , X, p. 386 , no. 1 ); Muf d, Ikhti s a s , p. 88 ; Tabris , Ih aj, p. 488 > . . . . . tij , IV, p. 399. In the codex which #Uthm an sent to Medina (mus S af . .h . af al-Mad na) the word appeared as tashtah hi ; in the codex sent to Bas .ra, it was tashtah (al-Ruhn , Muqaddim at #ilm al-qur" an, cited in Ibn T us, . aw Sa #d, p. 280). Cf. Farr a", III, p. 37, whence Beck, Kodizesvarianten, p.

notes

223

363 (wa-f mas ah na tashtah hi ); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 157, . . if ahl al-Mad . no. 717; Ibn Ab D aw ud, pp. 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 47; D an , Muqni #, pp. 107, 109 (tashtah hi in the mas ah na wa-l-Sh am, tashtah in all . . if ahl al-Mad other codices, including ahl al- #Ir aq); Cook, Codex, pp. 96, 103; idem, Stemma, p. 93; 140*, 652*. 500 According to this tradition as recorded in the manuscripts of KQ, when the Prophet said to God: These are people who believe not (Q 43:88), God wished to order the Prophet to kill them; He then brought down the verse: Bear with them and say: peace etc. (Q 43:89). This implies a change in the divine will. A dierent meaning results when the text is emended by adding min after ar ada: the Prophet would like God to order him to kill the unbelievers, but God tells him to bear with them. Cf. al-R az s statement (XXVII, p. 201) that by revealing Q 43:89 God prevented the Prophet from asking for punishment to befall them. According to some exegetes, Q 43:89 was abrogated by Q 9:5 (the sword verse) (Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 125; Samarqand , . III, p. 266; Tabris , XXV, p. 104 ; R a z , XXVII, p. 201 ; Qur t ub , XVI, . . p. 124; cf. #Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. 203 [thumma amara/umira bi qit alihim]; Tabar , XXV, p. 107 [thumma amarahu bi-qit alihim]; Nah . as, . . h Ma # an , VI, p. 391 [thumma nusikha bi-l-amr bi-l-qit al ]). sa al-Numayr Isn a d : Mu : M us a b. Ak l/Ukayl/Akyal al-Numayr , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Quhp a " , VI, p. 150 ; Ardab l , II, pp. . 271272). nic qalam (pen) is often described as the rst thing 501 The Qur"a [Cl. Huart(A. Grohmann)]). created by God (see EI 2, art. Kalam . For the account according to which God, immediately after creating the pen, ordered it to write down Q 43:4, cf. Tabar , XXV, p. 48; . Suy ut , Durr , V, p. 714 > Bi h a r , LVII, p. 371 , no. 13 . The reading #al does . . not appear to be recorded elsewhere. It seems clear that #al should be understood as referring to the Imam #Al . For such an understanding (based on la- #al of the #Uthm anic codex) see Madelung-Walker, p. 29 (Arabic) = p. 85 (English) (In the mother of the Book which is with us, he is #Al , full of wisdom); Qumm , Tafs r, II, p. 280 > Huwayz , IV, p. . a f , IV, p. 384 , Bih ar, 591, no. 4; Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , pp. 2829 > S . . XXXV, p. 373, no. 21; T , Tahdh b, III, p. 145, no. 317 (wa-ashhadu anna . us l-im am al-h ad al-rash d am r al-mu"min n alladh dhakartahu f kit abika fa-qulta wa-innahu f umm al-kit ab ladayn a la- #Al h ak m , forming part of the prayer . for the day of Ghad r Khumm), both > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III,

224

notes

p. 107 > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 58, no. 12; Sh adh an, Fad a"il, p. 172 (on the . . d); Najaf authority of Ibn Mas#u , p. 552, nos. 12; Burh an, I, p. 47, no. 4. 502 Fas ud ), 52:17 (jann at . l, p. 328, ll. 2021. Cf. Q 50:34 (yawm al-khul wa-na # m). Isn ad : Ahmad b. Muhammad : there are several scholars of this name . . who transmitted from Ibn Fad b. Muhammad . . . d . al. They include Ahmad a, Ahmad b. #Is b. Muhammad al-Barq and Ibn Ab Nas . . .r al-Bazant . (see Ardab l , I, pp. 214, 215, 217). Only the latter is known to have Shu#ayb: Ab transmitted to al-Sayy ar .Abu u Shu#ayb S alid . b. Kh . alih al-Mah as, a transmitter from al-K azim a", III, pp. . amil al-Kun . (Quhp 203204, VII, pp. 5253; Ardab l , I, p. 405, II, p. 393). For the isn ad u Shu#ayb al-Mah see Ahmad b. Muhammad < Ibn Fad . amil . . . al < Ab . d Kul n , VI, p. 440, no. 14. 503 Fas . l, p. 328, ll. 2122. For this reading see Jeery, p. 88 (Ibn d). Mas#u Isn ad : Ja#far b. Muhammad : it is not clear which of the various . transmitters of this name is meant here. None appears in the list r (cf. Kh of transmitters from Hudhayfa b. Mans u" , V, p. 225). . .u r: Ab r Bayy H u Muhammad Hudhayfa b. Mans a# . udhayfa b. Mans . . .u .u aqir and al-S a diq (Modarressi, al-S abur , a K ufan transmitter from al-B . r; yet judging TS, p. 272). The manuscripts have #Abdall ah b. Mans .u r by the works of Rij al, the only disciple of al-S . adiq called b. Mans .u is Hudhayfa. Cf. the tradition cited in T , Tahdh b, VII, p. 159, no. . . us r < al-S 705 with the isn ad Hudhayfa b. Mans . .u . adiq, which is also cited in idem, Istibs a r , III, p. 114 , no. 407 , but with #Abdall ah (instead of . Hudhayfa) b. Mans . .ur. 504 Cf. Muq atil, III, p. 205 (wa-dh alika anna l-mu"min idh a m ata bak a udihi min al-ard wa-ma s # ad # amalihi min al-sam a " wa-l a #alayhi ma # alim suj . . yabkiy an #al a l-k ar ); Tabar , XXV, pp. 124126; Kar ajak, II, p. 200 > . Bih ar, LXXXII, p. 182, no. 28 (fa-m a bakat #alayhim al-sam a" wa-l-ard . . was revealed concerning qawm Fir #awn); Tabris , XXV, p. 113; Ibn al-Jawz , . VII, p. 154 (the verse refers to al Fir #awn). 505 Fas , p. 577, no. 7. See Qumm , II, p. 295, . l, p. 329, l. 4, Najaf Kul n , VIII, p. 50, no. 11 (isn ad of Kul n : Sahl b. Ziy ad < Muhammad . b. Sulaym an al-Daylam al-Bas r [read thus for al-Mi s r ] < his father . . < Ab u Bas r < alS a diq), both > S a f , V, pp. 8 9 , Burh a n , IV, p. 169, . . .

notes

225

nos. 12, Huwayz , V, pp. 45, no. 13, Fas . . l, p. 328, l. 23p. 329, l. 6; Bih a r , XXIII, pp. 197 198 , no. 29 (from Najaf ), XCII, p. 56, no. 30 . (from Kuln). In the printed edition of Qumm (as also in the Tehran 13111313/18931895 lithograph edition used by Goldziher), there appears the reading h adh a bi-kit abin a. That this is an error is conrmed by the sources which cite al-Qumm s Tafs r, all of which (with the exception of Huwayz ) have kit abun a. Goldziher, who only had the . lithograph edition at his disposal, erred in his interpretation (Richtungen, pp. 281282; cf. Bar-Asher, Readings, pp. 42, 70). Since the tradition as it appears in KQ, in Qumm and in Kul n is unvocalized, it is not obvious where the Sh# reading deviates from the canonical text. AlMajlis in the Mir" at (XXV, p. 108 > Fas . l, p. 329, ll. 611) opts for yun. taqu; this is also his position in the Bih ar (XXIII, p. 198), and it is . shared by Muhsin al-Fay d ( S a f , V, p. 9 , W a f , III, p. 902, no. 1570). The . . . verse could thus be rendered as: This is the book (through which) the truth is pronounced unto you. A dierent reading of Q 45:29 appears to be preserved in the manuscript translated by Tisdall, p. 240 (This is Our Book, and Mohammed and the People of his House speak unto you in truth). At Q 23:62 (wa-ladayn a kit ab yan. tiqu bi-l-h . aqq), al-Qumm ar, IX, p. 226, no. 113) adds #alaykum (i.e. yan. tiqu bi-l-h (II, p. 92 > Bih . . aqq #alaykum); but there is no evidence that he (or anyone else) read yun. taqu in this verse as well. Cf. 623*. 506 Mustadrak, XV, p. 427, no. 18728. See Najaf , pp. 575576, nos. 2 3 > Burh an, IV, p. 168, nos. 23, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 384, no. 81 (without the . nal sentence). Al-Najaf s source is ostensibly al-Qumm s Tafs r but, as the editor points out, the tradition in not found there. The source was in fact probably KQ (via Ibn al-Juh and ms. M, . am). According to Najaf the Imam only wanted to strike his slave; according to mss. L, T and B, he actually hit him. For the nal sentence see also Ibn B abawayh, Khis a l , p. 104 , no. 75 , idem, Ma # a n , p. 348 , no. 1 , Hill , Mukhta s . . . ar, p. 41, az , all > Bih ar, LIII, p. 63, no. 53; Bahr . an, Mah . ajja, p. 203. Cf. Ahw . Zuhd, p. 83, no. 116 > Bih ar, XLVI, p. 92, no. 79, LXXIV, p. 142, no. 12, . XCI, p. 382, no. 7. Cf. further As , p. 70 . d . l Ja #far b. Muh . ammad al-Ha . ram (#Al Zayn al-#Abid n is angry with a hireling [aj r ] and beats him, then rues his action and asks to be hit back; when the hireling refuses, #Al pays him forty dinars as compensation). Similarly Ahw az , Zuhd, p. 84, ad al-D n, #Uy un, p. 154. no. 120 > Bih ar, XLVI, p. 92, no. 80; #Im .

226

notes

507 There seem to be two possible explanations for the fact that an exegetical tradition on a verse from S ura 11 is found in the chapter on S ura 46: (i) both Q 11:17 and Q 46:12 contain the words wa-min qablihi kit ab M us a im aman wa-rah . matan; (ii) both Q 11:17 and Q 46:10 contain the word sh ahid (witness). There is widespread agreement among Sh # exegetes that the sh ahid of Q 11:17 is #Al (see the sources cited in Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 386394 [b ab annahu s at all ah #alayhi l-shah d . . alaw wa-l-sh ahid wa-l-mashh ud ]). Most of these exegetes do not make the ahid min ban same claim for Q 46:10, where the reference is to sh isr a" l. Al-Qumm is a notable exception: in addition to identifying the sh ahid of Q 11:17 as #Al (in the printed edition of his Tafs r [I, p. 324] this identication is missing from the exegesis to S ura 11, but it is found in quotations of this passage in later sources [see S af , II, . p. 437, Bih a r , IX, p. 214 , no. 92 , XXXV, p. 387 , no. 3 ]), he cites this . identication as a proof (dal l ) that the sh ahid min ban isr a" l is also #Al (II, pp. 296297, to Q 46:10). This ts in with accounts which posit an identity between the Children of Israel and the Prophets family (see #Ayy ash , I, p. 44, nos. 43, 44 and the discussion in Bar-Asher, Judaism, pp. 2627). It may be suggested that in KQ, too, Q 11:17 is cited in the chapter on S ura 46 as part of an argument that the sh ahid in both S uras is #Al . Since this argument is not spelled out, one would have to assume that the tradition as we have it is incomplete. See 231. Maryam: Ab Isn ad : cf. Najaf , p. 578, no. 2.Abu u Maryam #Abd r b. al-Q r al-Ghaa asim b. Yahy , a K ufan transmitter from . a al-Ans .a al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 135137). 508 Fas . l, p. 329, ll. 1819, p. 330, l. 22p. 331, l. 1. This includes the following: (i) the circumstances which led to the revelation of Q 48:12; (ii) the Prophet never committed any sins but bore the sins of his (i.e. #Al s) followers; (iii) some words (presumably wa-m a adr m a yuf #al b wa l a bikum at Q 46:9) were added to the text of the Qur"an; (iv) the person who added these words was Ziy ad; (v) the Im am reading of Q 46:9. For (i) and (v) see Najaf , p. 578, no. 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 172, no. 4, Bih ar, . XXIV, p. 320, no. 30; for (ii) see 517, cf. 214; (iii) and (iv) do not appear to be recorded elsewhere and are not pronounced by the Imam; they may be an interpolation. Ziy ad may be Ziy ad b. Ab hi (on whom see ad should perhaps the article in EI 2 [I. Hasson]); alternatively, Ziy be emended to Ibn Ziy ad, i.e. #Ubaydall ah b. Ziy ad, the Umayyad governor of #Ir aq who is reported to have introduced many additions to

notes

227

n (see Introduction, p. 18; cf. D the Qur"a an , Muqni #, p. 105). According to some exegetes, Q 46:9 was abrogated by Q 48:12 (see Zuhr , N asikh, p. 33, Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 240 [fol 19a ll. 610], Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh, p. 73 and the discussion in Ibn al-#Arab , N asikh, pp. 201206). 509 Fas . adiq, . l, p. 330, ll. 1011. For this reading see Jeery, p. 350 (al-S un for fa-yaqd u); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65 (al-K azim), with fa-yaqd . . . Tabris , XXVI, p. 42 (al-S azim) (fa-yaqd u), both > S af , V, . . . adiq and al-K . . p. 28 (fa-yaqd u n ), Huwayz , V, p. 41 , no. 64 ( fa-yaq d u n ), Fa s l , p. 330 , ll. 11 . . . . 13 (fa-yaqd u ); Najaf , p. 589 , no. 16 (alS a diq) ( fa-yaq d u ) > Burh a n , IV, p. . . . 190, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 387, no. 93. See 510. . 510 See 509. Isn ad : al-H : #Ubaydall ah b. #Al b. Ab Shu#ba al-Halab , a . alab . K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq (Modarressi, TS , pp. 380 382 ). For the . isn ad Ibn Ab #Umayr < Hamm ad b. #Uthm an < #Ubaydall ah al-Halab . . see idem, TS, pp. 338, 381. 511 Fas , . am > Najaf . l, p. 330, ll. 67. For this tradition see Ibn al-Juh p. 585, no. 13 (beginning; isn ad : Ibn Ab #Umayr < Hamm ad b. #Is a . < Muhammad al-Halab [read: #Ubaydall ah al-Halab ; see Modarressi, . . . TS, p. 338] < al-S an, IV, p. 189, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 320, . adiq) > Burh . no. 31. F-(t)-s-l-. ttum could be read as either fa-tasalla. ttum or fa-sulli. ttum; tum (you were m-l-ktum could be either malaktum or mulliktum. Tuwull given power/authority) is cited as the qir a"a of #Al (Nah ab, IV, . h . as, I #r p. 187; idem, Ma # an , VI, pp. 482483; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 140; Tabris , . XXVI, p. 40; Qurt ub , XVI, p. 245 ). It is also recorded as the reading . of Ruways (i.e. Ab u #Abdall ah Muhammad b. al-Mutawakkil al-Lu"lu" . al-Bas , d. 238/852853, a transmitter from Ya#q ub al-Ha ; see . dram .r . un, Ibn al-Jazar , II, pp. 234235, no. 3389; GAS, I, p. 13) (Ibn Ghalb II, p. 684), of Ibn Ab Ish a q and of Ya # q u b (i.e. alHa dram ) in the . . . transmission of Ruways (Qurt .ub, XVI, p. 245). According to the version in Ibn al-Juh asids . am, Q 47:22 was revealed concerning the #Abb and Umayyads (nazalat h adhihi l- aya f ban #ammin a ban l- #Abb as waban Umayya); according to other traditions, it refers to the Umayyads (M atur d , IX, p. 279; Tha#lab , IX, p. 35; Najaf , p. 589, no. 16 > ar, XXIII, p. 387, no. 93) or to the H ashim s Burh an, IV, p. 189, no. 4, Bih . and Umayyads (Ibn al-Juh , p. 585, no. 12 > Burh an, IV, p. . am > Najaf 186, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 385386, no. 89, XXXVI, p. 159, no. 138 . [middle]; Qurt , XVI, p. 245). See 512; cf. 598. .ub

228

notes

512 Fas . l, p. 330, ll. 89. This does not appear to be recorded elsewhere as a reading of the Prophet. See 511; cf. 598. 513 Fas , p. 583, no. 6. See Burh an, IV, p. 182, no. . l, p. 330, l. 2, Najaf 2, Bih a r , XXIII, p. 385 , no. 87 , XXXVI, p. 158 , no. 138 (from Najaf ). . For this reading see also Qumm , II, p. 302 > Najaf , p. 584, no. 7, S a , . f V, p. 22, Burh an, IV, p. 182, no. 1, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 87, no. 14, Huwayz , . . V, p. 31, no. 21, Fas . l, p. 329, l. 22p. 330, l. 1; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 70. In the version of Qumm cited in Najaf , S af , Bih ar and Huwayz , . . . the reading f #Al is followed by the comment: ill a annahu kushi. ta l-ism n]). (but the name [of #Al ] was removed [from the Qur"a 514 Fas a"ika lladh na . taba #a ll ah #al a . l, p. 330, ll. 45. See Q 16:108 (ul * ); cf. 488 . qul ubihim wa-sam #ihim wa-abs a rihim . a" il a ll ah wa-ll ah huwa l-ghan 515 See 109*. Cf. Q 35:15 (antum al-fuqar al-h d ). . am 516 Fas , II, p. 301 > Najaf , . l, p. 329, l. 22. For this reading see Qumm p. 583, no. 4, S af , V, p. 21, Burh an, IV, p. 180, no. 1, Bih ar, XXXVI, pp. . . 8687, no. 14, Huwayz , V, p. 27, no. 8, Fas . . l, p. 329, ll. 2022; Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 70. ub sh #at #Al ) > Burh an, IV, p. 195, 517 See Najaf , p. 593, no. 4 (dhun no. 8, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 273, no. 57. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 314 > S af , . . V, p. 37, Huwayz , V, p. 54 , no. 13 ; Ibn B a bawayh, # Ilal , p. 175 , no. . 1; idem, Ma # an , pp. 334335, no. 1 (the Prophet tells #Al : inna ll ah a l wa-dh alika tab araka wa-ta # al ah dhun ub sh #atika thumma ghafarah . ammalan qawluhu #azza wa-jall: li-yaghra laka ll ah m a taqaddama min dhanbika wa-m a ta"akhkhara); Burs , Mash ariq, p. 126 (Ibn #Abb as: inna ll ah h ammala ras u lahu . dhun ub man ah n wa-l- akhir n ikr aman li- #Al fa. abba #Aliyyan min al-awwal yah a #anhum ikr aman lahum fa-ghafarah a ll ah ikr aman li-Muh . miluh . ammad ). See 508, 518; cf. 214. 518 Mustadrak, XII, pp. 145146, no. 13740. See Najaf , p. 593, no. 5 , XXVII, p. 137 , no. 138 (the Prophet addresses # Al ); 517. > Bih a r . 519 Fas . l, p. 331, ll. 34. For this reading see Jeery, p. 166 (Ubayy). Cf. the reading aktharuhum ban u Tam m l a ya #qil un which is ascribed to d (T lib Ibn Mas#u u s , IX, p. 342 > Fa s l , p. 139 , ll. 1819; Tha#a , V, p. . .

notes

229

269) and to al-Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, p. 304). In Qumm (II, p. 318) the text reads: wa-hum ban u Tam m, which looks like a gloss; but in the citation in Bih ar, XVII, p. 28, no. 3 and Fas . . l, p. 331, l. 11, wahum does not appear. Cf. further Qurt , XVI, pp. 309310; Suy ut , .ub . Durr, VI, p. 90. Translation: They turned to a verse from the book of God and erased it (by altering its original wording) (fa-daras uha). Cf. Qurt u (Q 7:169) is glossed as they erased. .ub, VII, p. 312, where daras See 521. Isn ad : The name Jarr ah . of ms. M may have been produced after the words #an Har z were mistakenly written down twice, their second . ah occurrence then being corrupted to #an Jarr .. 520 The identity of the brethren (ikhw an, cf. Q 49:10) is not revealed, but the reference may well be to #Al s opponents at the Battle of the Camel (see Kul n , VIII, p. 180, no. 202 > Burh an, IV, p. 207, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 366, no. 92, Huwayz , V, p. 85, no. 25; for a Zayd . . view cf. Bust , Bah . th, p. 147). These opponents are regarded by the Im am s as bugh at (rebels against the legitimate ruler). The problem in n both parties are associating them with Q 49:9 is that in the Qur"a referred to as believers (al-mu"min n), whereas for the Im am s the bugh at ad, pp. 6870, 7478). Al-Tabris are unbelievers (see Kohlberg, Jih . attempts to overcome this diculty by stating that naming both parties believers does not prove that either or both remain in a state of belief once they commence ghting (XXVI, p. 89). Al-Majlis seems to reject such an analysis: for him, the fact that Q 49:9 speaks of believers means it can hardly be taken to refer to those who fought against #Al (Bih ar, XXXII, pp. 328329). Translation: This verse was revealed . concerning us and our brethren. There was a dispute concerning this aair (i.e. leadership of the community), but (eventually) one (i.e. the erring) party ("a) will revert to the truth. The emendation f hi > "a was proposed by Michael Cook. 521 Fas is a reference to 519. The . th al-Barq . l, p. 331, ll. 45. Had point put to al-S m judges is in line . adiq about a preponderance of Tam with reports that there were numerous Tam m s who held government m b. positions under the Umayyads and #Abb asids (see EI 2, art. Tam Murr [M. Lecker]). 522 See Kul n , I, p. 426, no. 71 (the latter part) > S af , V, p. 50, . Bih a r , XXIII, pp. 379 380 , no. 67 , Huwayz , V, pp. 82 83 , no. 15; cf. . .

230

notes

al-Majlis s discussion in Bih ar, LXIX, pp. 241242. For the rst part of . this tradition see Qumm , II, p. 319. 523 For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 74, Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 202, . Ab u l-Fut uh, X, p. 277 (Ibn Mas # u d); Je ery, pp. 93 , 166 , 190 , 250, 264, . d, Ubayy, #Al 305, 336 (Ibn Mas#u , Sa# d b. Jubayr, Tal ha b. Mus . . .arrif, al-Rab# b. Khuthaym, al-S u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, pp. 136137, . adiq); Ab . , III, p. 335, Ibn al-Jawz , VII, p. 237 (the caliph no. 673, Samarqand Ab u Bakr on his death-bed); Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, p. 37; Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (al-S , II, p. 324; Tabar , XXVI, . . adiq); Qumm p. 160, Nah ab, IV, p. 225, Zamakhshar, IV, p. 7, Qurt , XVII, . h . as, I #r .ub d, Ab p. 12, Zarkash , I, pp. 335336 (Ibn Mas#u u Bakr); Ibn Jinn , II, p. 283 (Ab u Bakr on his death-bed, Sa# d b. Jubayr, Tal Ibn . ha); . , V, p. 348; T , IX, p. Kh alawayh, p. 144 (Ab u Bakr, Ubayy); M award . us d, the ahl al-bayt ); Ibn #At 365 (Ab u Bakr, Ibn Mas#u iyya, V, p. 161 (the . d, Ibn Jubayr, Tal codex of Ibn Mas#u u Bakr); Tabris , XXVI, p. . ha, . Ab . 105 (Sa# d b. Jubayr, Tal af , V, p. 61, Huwayz , V, p. . ha, . the Imams) > S . . 111, no. 27; Tabris , Jaw a mi # , II, p. 516 (the Imams); Shnizer, Qur " an, p. . 140. For interpretations of this qir a"a see Tabar , XXVI, pp. 160 161, . Ibn Jinn, II, pp. 283284. d, Tal 524 Ibn Mas#u d . ha . and al-S . adiq are said to have read yya maz (Jeery, pp. 93, 336). For this tradition cf. As l Husayn b. # Uthm a n , pp. 109 . . 110; Ahw az, Zuhd, p. 155, no. 269 (> Bih ar, VIII, p. 198, no. 194), p. 160, . no. 282 (> Bih ar, LVII, p. 346, no. 37); Qumm , II, p. 326 ( fa-yakhluqu . ll ah khalqan yawma"idhin yamla"u bihim al-janna) > Burh an, IV, p. 228, no. 1, , VIII, p. 133 , no. 38 , pp. 292 293 , no. 35 , Huwayz , V, pp. 114115, Bih a r . . no. 40. The expression . t ub a lahum (a good nal state shall be their lot) occurs at Q 13:29. 525 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 324 > S af , V, p. 62, Huwayz , V, p. 112, no. . . 32; Fur at, II, p. 437, no. 577 > Bih ar, VII, pp. 334335, no. 19, XXXVI, . p. 74, no. 27; Hask an , II, pp. 189190, no. 895 > Tabris , XXVI, p. . . a r , XXXVI, p. 75 . Al-A # mash is reported 111 > Najaf , p. 609, no. 3, Bih . to have declared that the verse was revealed as follows: y a Muh . ammad y a #Al alqiy a f jahannam kull ka ar #an d (Fur at, II, pp. 439440, no. 580 > Bih ar, VII, p. 335, no. 20, XXXVI, pp. 7475, no. 28; cited in Bar. Asher, Readings, p. 71). 526 Cf. Tabar , XXVI, p. 149 (on the authority of Qat ada). .

notes

231

527 For the notion that the Imams receive additional knowledge every Friday see Bas a"ir, pp. 130132 (b ab m a yuz ad al-a"imma f laylat al. jumu #a min al- #ilm al-mustaf ad ); Kuln, I, pp. 253254 (b ab f anna l-a"imma #alayhim al-sal am yazd ad un f laylat al-jumu #a); Kohlberg, Community, p. 28; Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, pp. 180181 = Divine Guide, pp. 7172. sim b. #Abd al-Rahm n: he is probably al-Q Isn ad : al-Qa asim b. #Abd . a ashim (Ardabl, II, pp. 1718), from whom al-Sayy ar al-Rahm . an al-H transmits in Barq , II, p. 526, no. 758. 528 Fas , p. 614, no. 1 (h akadh a nazalat ) > . l, p. 331, l. 23. See Najaf Burh an, IV, p. 230, no. 1, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 162, no. 143. Cf. Qumm , II, . p. 329 > Najaf , p. 614, no. 2, Burh an, IV, p. 230, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXV, . has ya #n f #Al , p. 351, no. 37, Huwayz , V, p. 121, no. 6. Al-Qumm . making this a gloss. 529 Cf. Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 (fa-inna li-l-z n al Muh . am. alim mad h aban d una dh alika wa-l akinna akthar al-n as l a ya #lam un) > . aqqahum #adh Bih ar, LIII, p. 117, no. 144, Fas . . l, p. 332, ll. 78. Cf. also 535, 536, where a dierent reading is recorded. See also Tisdall, p. 240 (Verily for those who have wronged Mohammeds family of their due there shall be punishment besides that; but verily most of them know [it] not). As Tisdall only provides a translation, it cannot be established which of un these two readings of Q 52:47 was cited in the Arabic text. The ya #qil of the manuscripts is probably the result of a conation with one of the verses ending in aktharuhum l a ya #qil un, i.e. Q 5:103, 29:63, 49:4. 530 Mustadrak, VIII, p. 11, no. 8929. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 330 > Bih ar, . XCIX, p. 6, no. 7; Kuln, IV, p. 256, no. 21 > S af , V, p. 74, Burh an, IV, p. . 237, no. 1; Ibn B abawayh, Am al , p. 411; idem, #Ilal, p. 133; idem, Faq h, abawayh, II, p. 130, no. 550 (ending) > Burh an, IV, p. 237, no. 3; Ibn B Ma # an , p. 212 > Bih ar, XCIX, p. 17, no. 61; Ibn B abawayh, Tawh d, . . p. 177 > Bih ar, XVIII, p. 349, no. 60. In all of these sources, rr u il a . ll ah (ee unto God) is glossed as h u il a (bayt) all ah (perform the . ujj pilgrimage to [the house of] God). 531 Sh # exegetes often explain the various opinions (qawl mukhtalif ) of Q 51:8 as referring to the wal aya (see the references in 532*). This verse does not appear to be mentioned elsewhere as abrogated. The abrogating verse is perhaps Q 11:119 (Save those on whom your Lord has mercy, i.e. the Sh # s); cf. 533. This could be seen as an instance

232

notes

of takhs s a" which, like takhs s . . (cf. 335*, 533*) or of istithn . . , in some cases replaced naskh in later terminology. Isn ad : #Al : the reference may well be to #Al b. al-Nu#m an (for whom * aw ud b. Farqad see 15 ), who is often recorded as transmitting from D (see e.g. Kul n , II, p. 249, no. 1, III, p. 157, no. 5, IV, p. 428, no. 6). For such a transmission in KQ see 34, 37, 148, 560, 608, 637. 532 See Bas a"ir, p. 78, no. 5 > Burh an, IV, p. 231, no. 3; Qumm , . II, p. 329 > Burh an, IV, p. 231, no. 4, Bih a r , XXXI, p. 649 , no. 185 , . XXXVI, p. 169, no. 156; Kul n , I, p. 422, no. 48 > Najaf , p. 615, no. af , V, p. 69, Burh an, IV, p. 231, no. 2, Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 378379, 3, S . . no. 63, Huwayz , V, p. 122, no. 11; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 96 . > Bih a r , XXIII, p. 368 , no. 38 ; Bay a d , I, p. 290 . According to these . . traditions, those who a-f-k from the wal aya will be turned away from Paradise. The vocalization of the verb in question may be either uka (to be turned away) or afaka (to turn away). The latter seems to make better sense; this in turn suggests that the Sh # reading at Q 51:9 was afaka (rather than uka, as in the #Uthm anic codex). For this reading ada); Zamakhshar , IV, p. 14 (Sa# d b. see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 145 (Qat Jubayr); R az, XXVIII, p. 170. r, #Iqd, p. 315, citing al-Barq 533 For the entire paragraph see Mans s .u al-Tanz l wa-l-tah r f . For a fuller version of the rst half see alHimyar , . . Kit ab al-dal a"il (for which see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 139, no. 98) > Irbil , II, p. 416 > Bih ar, V, p. 318, no. 18, XLVII, p. 148, no. 203. . For Q 51:56 being abrogated by Q 11:118119 see Kit ab Durust, p. 162 , V, p. 132, no. 60; (tilka qabla h adhihi ); Qumm , II, p. 331 > Huwayz . #Ayy ash, II, p. 164, no. 83 > S af , V, p. 75, Burh an, II, p. 241, no. 8, . Huwayz , V, pp. 132133, no. 61; Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 10. According to . al-Majlis (Bih ar, V, p. 318), this is in fact bad a", takhs s . . . (specication, cf. n (elucidation). For the gloss li-l-ikhtil af see M atur d , 335*, 531*) or taby VI, p. 200 (wa-q ala q a"il un: li-l-ikhtil af khalaqahum ill a man rah . ima rabbuka); cf. Kar ajak , II, pp. 220221. 534 See 537.

535 Fas , II, p. 333 > S af , V, pp. 8283, . . l, p. 332, ll. 34. See Qumm Burh an, IV, p. 243, Huwayz , V, p. 143, no. 38 (rst part); Ibn al-Juh . . am an, IV, p. 243, no. 1, (possibly citing KQ ) > Najaf , p. 620, no. 8 > Burh Bih ar, XXIV, p. 229, no. 31. Cf. 529, 536. .

notes 536 Fas . l, p. 332, l. 4. Cf. 529, 535.

233

537 The reading wa-atba #n ahum dhurriyy atihim dhurriyy atihim is re corded on the authority of Ibn #Abb as (see Tabar , XXVII, p. 24) and . Ab u #Amr (idem, XXVII, p. 26; Ibn Muj ahid, p. 612; Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 695; Samarqand , III, p. 352; Tabris , XXVII, p. 28 ; Ab u l-Fut u h, . . X, p. 316; Qurt alawayh, Hujja , pp. 305 . .ub, XVII, p. 66). See also Ibn Kh ahum dhurriyy atihim). 306; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 244 (wa-atba #n For wa-atba #n ahum see Jeery, p. 351 (#Al , Zayd b. #Al ); idem, Zaid b. #Al , p. 232 (Zayd); S af , V, p. 79. For alh a bihim dhurriyy atihim see . . aqn Tabar , XXVII, p. 26 (most Medinese readers); Nah ab, IV, p. 256 . . h . as, I #r (the Medinese); Ibn Muj ahid, p. 612; Tabris , XXVII, p. 28 (N a#, Ibn . #Amir). For this tradition see Kul n , III, p. 249, no. 5 (> Huwayz , V, . abawayh, Faq h, III, p. 316, no. 1537, idem, pp. 139140, no. 22), Ibn B Tawh d, p. 394, no. 7, all > S af , V, p. 79; cf. Tabar , XXVII, p. 26 . . . (Ibn #Abb as: where both ancestors and their progeny were believers, God will honour the ancestors by having the progeny join them in the same place in heaven, even if the deeds of the latter fell short of the deeds of the former) (wa-in qas aluhum #an a #m alihim takrimatan . arat a #m minn a li- ab a"ihim); T , XXVII, p. 30 > Bih ar, V, p. . us, IX, p. 408; Tabris . . u bi-daraj at ab a"ihim wa-in qas 289 (Ibn #Abb as: innahum al-b aligh un ulh . arat . iq a #m aluhum takrimatan li- ab a"ihim). See 534. 538 This tradition is in line with the view of some exegetes according to which the adb ar al-suj ud and idb ar al-nuj um refer to two of the ve prescribed daily prayers. For adb ar al-suj ud as referring to the maghrib prayer see e.g. Samarqand , III, p. 339. For idb ar al-nuj um as referring to the morning prayer see e.g. Ibn Wahb, J ami #/Tafs r, p. 172 (fol 25b l. 16) (s at al-s , XXVII, pp. 3940 (this is al-Tabar s own . . . al . ubh . ); Tabar ar al-nuj um s al a t al-fajr ); Qur t , opinion); Zamakhshar , IV, p. 27 (idb .ub . XVII, p. 80; Suy ut , Durr , VI, p. 152 ; cf. Bi h a r , LXXXII, p. 329 . In . . contrast, many Im am and Sunn scholars regard these two expressions as referring to supererogatory prayers. See e.g. Himyar , p. 81 > Bih ar, . . LXXXVII, p. 88, no. 6 (al-S an allat an ba #da l-maghrib hum a . adiq: al-rak #at adb ar al-suj ud wa-l-rak #at an allat an ba #da [sic] l-fajr idb ar al-nuj um); Qumm , a q al adb ar al-suj ud q al arba # raka # at ba #da l-maghrib II, p. 333 ( #an al-Rid . wa-idb ar al-nuj um rak #at an qabla s at al-s , V, p. 143, no. . . al . ubh . ) > Huwayz 38 (latter part); Kul n , III, p. 444, no. 11 (qultu lahu [i.e. Zur ara to alB aqir] wa-idb ar al-nuj um q al rak #at an qabla l-s ub h qultu wa-adb a r al-suj ud . . , V, p. 144 , no. q al rak #at an ba #da l-maghrib) > S a f , V, p. 65 , Huwayz . .

234

notes

42; Ibn Muhakkam, IV, pp. 208 ( #an #Al q al su"ila ras ul all ah #an adb ar . al-suj ud fa-q al: hum a l-rak #at an ba #da s al a t al-maghrib, wa-su " ila # an idb a r al. nuj um fa-q al: hum a l-rak #at an qabla s at al-s an , Ghar b, p. . al . ubh . ), 233; Sijist ar, XVI, 23 (from #Al ); T , IX, p. 375; Tabris , XXVI, p. 117 (> Bih . us . . p. 208, LXXXII, p. 328), XXVII, p. 38 (> Huwayz , V, p. 143, no. . 40); Ab u l-Fut uh, X, pp. 285 286 ; R a wand , Fiqh , I, p. 86; Qurt , . .ub XVII, p. 25; Suy ut ., Durr, VI, p. 131; Ardabl, Zubda, pp. 6162. Of the Seven Readers, Ibn Kath r, N a# and Hamza read wa-idb ar al-suj ud at . Q 50:40 (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 607); at Q 52:49, Ya#q ub [i.e. al-Ha ] . dram . in the transmission of Zayd read wa-adb ar al-nuj um (T u s , IX, p. 419 ; . Tabris , XXVII, pp. 3536). The readings of the Imams do not seem to . be recorded. 539 See Najaf , p. 616, no. 1 > Burh an, IV, p. 240, no. 1, Bih ar, XXVII, . p. 138, no. 140. A similar tradition is cited in connection with Q 28:46; see Fur at, I, p. 316, no. 426 > Bih ar, XIII, p. 362, no. 80, XXIV, p. 266, . no. 30; Ibn al-Juh , p. 417, no. 10 > Burh an, III, pp. 227228, . am > Najaf a r , XXVI, p. 296 , no. 61 ; Ibn B a bawayh, Thaw ab, pp. 3031, no. 1, Bih . no. 2 > Bih a r , III, p. 12 , no. 24 ; Muf d, Ikhti s a s , p. 109 > Bi h ar, LXVIII, . . . . p. 64, no. 116. n: he is probably #Al Isn ad : #Al b. Sulayma b. Sulaym an b. Rash d/ Rushayd, a Baghd ad transmitter from al-H ad (Quhp a" , IV, p. 198; Ardab l , I, p. 584). abawayh, #Ilal, pp. 276277, no. 1 540 Fas . l, p. 332, ll. 810. See Ibn B (isn ad : al-Hasan b. Ma hb u b < M a lik b. #Uyayna [evidently an error . . for #At iyya] < Hab b al-Sijist a n ) > S a f , V, p. 86, Burh an, IV, p. 249, no. . . . 5, Bih ar, III, pp. 315316, no. 11, XVIII, p. 364, no. 70. For this reading . ar, see also Jeery, p. 167 (Ubayy); Qumm , II, p. 334 > S af , V, p. 86, Bih . . IX, p. 240, no. 139, Fas l , p. 332 , l. 12 . Cf. alS a diqs description of the . . mi #r aj : thumma mad a fa-tad an a fa-tadall a fa-k ana q ab qawsayn aw adn a etc. . (#Ayy ash, I, p. 158, no. 530 [to Q 2:285] > Burh an, I, p. 268, no. 8, Bih ar, LXXXIV, p. 120, no. 19). Tad an a usually means to approach one . another, but it can also be used in the sense of to draw near (as in idh a l-laylu tad an a, see Lis an, s.v. qyd ), i.e. as a synonym of dan a. Cf. in general van Ess, Vision. lik b. #Atiyya Isn ad : Ma : Ab u l-Husayn M alik b. #At . . . .iyya al-Ahmas al-Bajal , a K ufan transmitter from al-S ab was transmitted . adiq. His kit by Hasan b. Mahb . . ub (Modarressi, TS, pp. 316317).

notes

235

541 Fas . l, p. 332, ll. 1314. For this reading (as for those who have disbelieved, there shall come upon them a calamity) see Jeery, p. 167 (Ubayy). Cf. Q 12:107, 88 (al-Gh ashiya):1. 542 Najaf , p. 623, no. 5. See Burh an, IV, p. 245, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIV, . p. 323, no. 34 (from Najaf ). This tradition (without the nal sentence) forms part of a lengthy account in Kul n , VIII, p. 380, no. 574 (see * af , V, p. 85, Burh an, IV, p. 244, no. 2, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 321, no. 347 ) > S . . 38, XXIV, p. 368, no. 94, Huwayz , V, p. 146, no. 10. Al-Kul n s text . includes the sentence uqsimu bi-qabd / bi-qabr Mu h ammad idh a qubi d . . . a (I swear by the death/grave of Muhammad when he dies). It is however . highly unlikely that God should swear by the death of the Prophet. What is probably the correct version is recorded in Najaf : m a futintum ill a bi-bughd a l Mu h ammad idh a ma d a (you were only put to the test by . . . hatred for the family of Muhammad after he had passed away). A . scribe presumably miscopied m a futintum ill a bi-bughd a bi. as uqsimu ill a was subsequently dropped in order for the sentence to qabd . ; the ill make sense. The corresponding sentence in the manuscripts of KQ is likewise corrupt. For the ending cf. #Ayy ash , I, p. 160, no. 531 (m a k anat wal ayatuhu ill a min all ah mush afahatan li-Muh ar, XVIII, p. . ammad s . ) > Bih . 403, no. 106. For mush afaha see also 95. 543 For the ending cf. T , IX, p. 426 (wa-l-ma #n a m a z agha bas . us . ar Muh a. tagh a); Tabris , XXVII, p. 48. The reading kadhdhaba . . ammad wa-m (Q 53:11) that appears in ms. T is ascribed to Ibn #Amir in the transam b. #Amm ar (i.e. Ab u l-Wal d Hish am b. #Amm ar mission of Hish al-Sulam al-Dimashq , d. ca. 245/859860; see Ibn al-Jazar , II, pp. 354356, no. 3787) (Ibn Muj ahid, p. 614, Qurt , XVII, p. 93). It is .ub also recorded on the authority of Ab u Ja#far al-Q ari", al-Hasan al-Bas , . .r s #A im al-Ja hdar ( Tabar , XXVII, p. 49 , Na h h a s, I # r a b , IV, pp. 267 268 , . . . . . Tha#lab , IX, p. 139) and Ibn Miqsam (see Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 27) and is further mentioned in Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 237, #Ukbar , p. 489. . 544 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , pp. 623624, no. 6 (with roughly the . am > Najaf same isn ad as at 547) > Burh an, IV, p. 245, no. 10, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 323, . no. 35. The matn of Ibn al-Juh a ms text begins as follows: lamm a awqafa . ras ul all ah s r al-mu"min n #alayhi l-sal am yawm al-ghad r (cf. 437) iftaraqa . am l-n as thal ath raq etc.

236

notes

545 The reading jannahu (concealed him) (for jannatu) is ascribed to #Al (see Ibn Kh alawayh, pp. 146147, esp. p. 146, l. -1; Tha#lab , IX, p. 144; Zamakhshar, IV, p. 29; Tabris , XXVII, p. 45 > Huwayz , . . V, p. 156, no. 45; according to Ab u l-Fut uh, and . X, pp. 342343, #Al Anas read ajannahu), as well as to al-S u l-Dard a" (Tabris , . . adiq and Ab Jaw ami #, II, p. 538 > Huwayz , V, p. 156 , no. 46 ). It is also recorded . (Tha#lab , IX, p. on the authority of Muhammad b. Ka#b al-Quraz . . 144, Ab u l-Fut uh, u Hurayra, Ibn al-Zubayr and others, . X, p. 342), Ab "isha (see Ibn Jinn but is said to have been rejected by #A , II, p. 293; Samarqand , III, p. 360; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 29; Ibn #At iyya, V, p. 199; . R az, XXVIII, p. 252; Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 157). Al-Nah ab, IV, . . h . as (I #r p. 271) calls it an anomalous reading (qir a"a sh adhdha, cf. 84*) and adds that it was rejected by Sa#d b. Ab Waqq as as and Ibn #Umar. ., Ibn #Abb For this reading see also Ibn al-Jawz , VII, p. 288. See 546, 547. 546 See 545, 547.

547 For the beginning cf. Ibn al-Juh , Muh . am > Hill . . tad . ar, p. 125 (> Bih a r , XVIII, p. 302 , no. 6 ), Najaf , p. 625 , no. 8 > Burh a n, IV, p. 250, . no. 11, Bih ar, XVIII, p. 410, no. 122. In this tradition, the carpet is said . to be made of chrysolite and pearls; according to the parallel sources, it is made of gold. See 545, 546. s al-Qas n : Ab u l-Fadl Isn ad : For the isn ad cf. 544*.al-#Abba .aba . #Abb as b. #Amir b. Rab ah an al-Thaqaf, a transmitter from . al-Qas .ab disciples of al-S a" , III, p. 247; Ardab l , I, pp. 431432). He . adiq (Quhp transmitted the kit ab of D aw ud b. al-Hu s ayn (Modarressi, TS, p. 214). . . wu d b. al-H Da u s ayn : a K u fan transmitter from alS a diq and al-K azim . . . . (Modarressi, TS, pp. 214215). 548 This tradition is unusual in that it identies the shi #r a (Sirius) of Q 53:49 as the star which fell down at #Al s home, thus signalling his election as Muhammads successor. In other accounts the star in . question is the najm of Q 53:1 (which gave its name to the S ura); see e.g. Ibn B abawayh, Am al , pp. 505506 > Najaf , p. 622, no. 3, Burh an, IV, pp. 244245, nos. 47, Bih a r , XXXV, pp. 272 273 , no. 1 ; Ibn B a bawayh, . , p. 621, Am al , pp. 523524 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 10, Najaf no. 2, Burh an, IV, p. 244, no. 3, Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 273274, no. 2; Ibn . al-Magh azil , pp. 172173; idem, p. 192 > Ibn T us, Tar . aw . a"if, pp. 2223.

notes

237

549 For the reading kh ashi #an abs aruhum (Q 54:7) see Tabar , XXVII, . . p. 90 ( # ammat qurr a" al-K ufa wa-ba #d al-ba s riyy n ); Ibn Muj a hid, p. 618, . . Samarqand, III, p. 370, Ibn al-Jawz, VII, p. 292, Qurt .ub, XVII, p. 129 (Ab u #Amr, Hamza, al-Kis a" ); M atur d , IX, p. 444 (Ibn #Abb as); . s ra ); Ibn Kh a lawayh, Nah h a s, I # r a b , IV, p. 287 ( ahl al-K u fa wa-ahl al-Ba .. . Hujja , p. 310; Tha#lab , IX, p. 163 (Ibn #Abb as, Ya#q ub, Hamza, al. . Kis a", Khalaf [i.e. Ab u Muhammad Khalaf b. Hish am al-Asad al. Baghd ad , a transmitter of the qir a"a of Hamza and one of the Ten . Readers, d. 229/844; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 272274]); Zamakhshar , IV, p. 36 (wa-quri"a, cf. Lane, Commentary, p. 137); Tabris , XXVII, p. 63 . s u #Amr, Ya#q ub, (the #Ir aq s except #A u l-Fut uh, . X, p. 367 (Ab .im); Ab Hamza, al-Kis a" ); Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 173 (Ibn #Abb as, Ibn Jubayr, . . Muj ahid, al-Jahdar , Ab u #Amr, Hamza, al-Kis a" ). Cf. kh ashi #atan abs a. . . ruhum, which is attested in Q 68:43 and Q 70:44 and is also recorded d, as a reading of Q 54:7 (see Jeery, pp. 95, 167, 305, 326 [Ibn Mas#u Ubayy, al-Rab # b. Khuthaym, al-A#mash (according to some author ud, p. 72, M atur d , IX, ities)]; Tabar , XXVII, p. 90, Ibn Ab D aw . d]; Ibn Kh p. 444, Samarqand , III, p. 370 [Ibn Mas#u alawayh, p. 147 d]; Tha#lab d, Ab [Ubayy, Ibn Mas#u , IX, p. 163 [Ibn Mas#u u Raj a"]). This tradition properly belongs in the next chapter. 550 The notion that the Hour mentioned at Q 54:1 (or the Day of Reckoning mentioned at Q 21:1, see 351) was postponed as a result of a change in the divine decree (bad a" ) does not appear to be attested elsewhere. For the expression bad a li-ll ah see 351, 619. 551 Fas . l, p. 156, ll. 1619. For this tradition (with some variations) ar, VIII, see Fur at, II, pp. 461462, no. 604 (Maysara < al-Rid . a) > Bih . pp. 353354, no. 3, XCII, p. 56, no. 31, Fas . l, p. 156, ll. 1216; Ibn B abawayh, Fad a"il, pp. 100102, no. 43 > Bih ar, VII, pp. 273274, no. . . 45, VIII, p. 360, no. 28; Najaf (citing Ibn B abawayh), pp. 638639, no. 20 > Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 275276, no. 61, LXVIII, p. 144, no. 91, #Amil , . Mir" at, p. 37; Burh an, IV, p. 268, no. 2 > Fas . l, p. 156, l. 19p. 157, l. 3. All include the reading minkum. Al-Najaf does not name the work by Ibn B abawayh from which he quotes; as his text is identical to that of Fad a"il al-sh #a, this may well be the work in question. The source of the . tradition recorded in the Burh an is given as Bish ar at al-sh #a (Bish arat alsh #a according to Fas abawayh. This title is not listed among . l ) by Ibn B Ibn B abawayhs works (and is missing from the Dhar #a). The text in the Burh an is also found in Ibn B abawayhs Fad a " il al-sh #a, raising the .

238

notes

possibility that Bish ar at/Bish arat al-sh #a and Fad a"il al-sh #a are two titles . of the same work. Al-Najaf (p. 639, no. 20, ending) does not identify Ibn Arw a, merely referring to him as one of the leaders of error (ah al ). As noted by al-Majlis (Bih ar, VIII, p. 354, no. 3 . ad a"immat al-d . al . [bay an]), the reference is to #Uthm an; Arw a bint Kurayz b. Rab #a was the third caliphs mother (see Tabar , Ta " r kh , rst series, p. 3055 ; Ibn . Hazm, Jamhara, pp. 7475; Fas . . l, p. 157, ll. 34; Madelung, Succession, pp. 78, 190). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 345 (l a yus"al #an dhanbihi q al minkum ay min al-sh #a) > S a f , V, p. 112 . . d: Ahmad Isn ad : Ahmad b. H b. Hamm ad al-Marwaz , a trans. . amma . . mitter from al-Jaw ad (Quhp a", I, pp. 109111; Ardabl, I, pp. 4849) and an immediate authority of al-Sayy ar (T , Tahdh b, II, p. 214, no. . us 837). a"ir (belonging at 552 Fas . . l, p. 333, ll. 910. For this reading see Bas the end of p. 356, no. 8, but missing from the printed edition) > Burh an, IV, p. 268, no. 3 (but reading kuntum), Fas . l, p. 333, ll. 17 (but reading tas lay a ni for i s lay a h a ); Sa # d b. # Abdall a h, N asikh, p. 64 (but . . reading kuntum tam ut an f h a) > Fas l , p. 333 , ll. 11 13 ; Qumm , II, p. . , XXVII, p. 94 (al-S 345 > Bih ar, XXX, p. 175, no. 33; Tabris . . adiq) > . S af , V, p. 112, Huwayz , V, p. 196, no. 47. Similar readings are ascribed . . d (see Jeery, p. 96 [kuntum to Ibn Mas#u a bih a tukadhdhib an tas an . lay l a tam ut an f h a wa-l a tuh yay a n/ta h yay a n ]) and to al-Rab # b. Khuthaym . . (see Jeery, p. 306 [kuntum bih a tukadhdhib an tas anih a l a tam ut an f h a . lay a tuh an/tah an]). The two persons referred to are Ab u Bakr wa-l . yay . yay and #Umar (see Himyar , p. 12 [ya #n l-awwalayn]; Qumm , II, p. 345 . [ya #n Zurayqan wa-Habtar [ an ]]; cf. Bar-Asher, Scripture , p. 115 , note 107). . According to KQ, the entire S ura was revealed concerning them; this presumably refers to the expression fa-bi-ayy al a" rabbikum a tukadhdhib ani, which occurs 31 times (cf. 553). See 557. Isn ad : cf. 586. , V, 553 See Kul n , I, p. 217, no. 2 > Najaf , pp. 634635, no. 10, S af . p. 108, Burh an, IV, p. 264, no. 3, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 59 , no. 36 , Huwayz , V, . . p. 190, no. 13; cf. Qumm , II, p. 344 > Najaf , p. 634, no. 9, Burh an, IV, p. 264, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 173, no. 161, Huwayz , V, pp. 189190, . . no. 12; Ibn al-Juh , p. 633, no. 6 > Burh an, IV, p. 264, no. 1, . am > Najaf u Bakr Bih ar, XXIV, p. 59, no. 34, p. 309, no. 12. The reference is to Ab . and #Umar; cf. 552.

notes

239

554 Fas . l, p. 333, ll. 1315. The reading wa-khafad . a (lowered) is re d (see GdQ, III, p. 74; Jeery, p. 96; corded on the authority of Ibn Mas#u Tabar , XXVII, p. 118; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 44; Ibn #At . .iyya, V, p. 224) and al-Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, p. 306). For the reading al-lis an (the needle [of a balance]) see GdQ, III, p. 74, Ibn Kh alawayh, pp. 148149 d); Jeery, pp. 96, 306 (Ibn Mas#u d, al-Rab (Ibn Mas#u # b. Khuthaym); Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 17; WKAS, II, part 1, p. 624b. d b. Ish q: D wu aw ud b. Ish a", author of a Isn a d : Da .a . aq al-Hadhdh . kit ab (Ardab l , I, p. 302) and a direct authority of Ahmad al-Barq (e.g. . Barq , II, p. 504, no. 640).Ja#far b. Qurt : Ja # far b. Qur t al-Muzan , . . a K ufan transmitter from al-S a", II, p. 35; Ardabl, I, p. . adiq (Quhp 155).al-Mugh ra b. Tawba: al-Mugh ra b. Tawba al-Makhz um , a azim (Quhp a" , VI, p. 117; K ufan transmitter from al-S . . adiq and al-K Ardab l , II, p. 255). 555 Mustadrak, IV, p. 181, no. 4436. Cf. 556.

556 Mustadrak, IV, p. 181, no. 4437. See Kul n , III, p. 429, no. 6 > Bih a r , XCII, p. 306 , no. 3 , Huwayz , V, p. 187 , no. 5; T , Tahdh b, . . us . III, p. 8, no. 25 > al-Hurr al-#Amil, Was a"il, II/2, p. 755, no. 7378. . al-#Amil , Was a"il, Cf. Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab, p. 146, no. 2 > al-Hurr . II/2, p. 756, no. 7380, Bih a r , XCII, p. 306 , no. 2 ; H a kim, Mustadrak , II, . . p. 283, no. 3818; Tabris , XXVI, p. 23 (to Q 46 : 29 ) > Bi h a r , XVIII, . . p. 78, Huwayz , V, p. 22, no. 37, pp. 187188, no. 6; Ibn Shahr ash ub, . Man aqib, I, p. 47; Ibn Kath r, Tafs r, IV, p. 271; Suy ut , Durr, VI, pp. 189 . 190 (the Prophet tells his Companions that they should emulate the jinn who, whenever they heard the verse fa-bi-ayy al a" rabbikum a tukadhdhib ani, would respond: l a wa-l a bi-shay" min al a"ika rabban a nukadhdhibu, our Lord, we deny none of your favours); 555. 557 Fas , p. 12 > Burh an, IV, p. 269, no. . . l, p. 333, ll. 1011. See Himyar 6, Bih ar, XXX, p. 175, no. 32, XCII, p. 48, no. 6, Fas . . l, p. 332, l. 21p. kuntum 333, l. 1 (the same isn ad as in KQ ), reading: h adhihi jahannam allat (according to Burh an, Bih a r and Fa s l : kuntum a ) bih a tukadhdhib a n fa-s a . . . lay f h a l a tam ut an f h a wa-l a tuh yay a n/ta h yay a n , adding: ya # n l-awwalayn (i.e. . . Ab u Bakr and #Umar). See 552. 558 Cf. Bas a"ir, p. 356, no. 8 (> S af , V, p. 112), Muf d, Ikhtis as . . . . , p. 298, both > Burh an, IV, pp. 268269, nos. 34, Bih a r , LII, pp. 320 321, no. . 26.

240

notes

559 Fas . l, p. 334, ll. 78, Mustadrak, VIII, p. 122, no. 9217. For this tradition (but without the words idh a mu. tirtum) see Qumm , II, p. 349 (isn ad : Ab an b. Taghlib < #Abd al-A#l a al-Tha#lab [Huwayz : al. Taghlib ] < Ab u #Abd al-Rahm ) > S af , V, pp. 129130, . an al-Sulam . Burh an, IV, p. 283, no. 1, Bih ar, IX, p. 241, no. 141, LVIII, pp. 313314, . , V, p. 227, no. 100; Ibn Mardawayh no. 1, XCII, p. 50, no. 12, Huwayz . > Suy ut ar, LVIII, p. 328, no. 20. For the reading ., Durr, VI, p. 234 > Bih . shukrakum see also Jeery, pp. 191, 206, Nah ab, IV, p. 344, Ibn . h . as, I #r Kh alawayh, p. 151 (#Al , Ibn #Abb as); Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 138, no. . 678, Ibn Ab Zaman n, II, p. 386, T u s , IX, p. 512 (Ibn #Abb as); Sa#d b. . #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (al-S , XXVII, . . adiq); Ibn Jinn, II, p. 310, Tabris p. 129 (> Huwayz , V, p. 227, no. 99) (the Prophet, #Al , Ibn #Abb as); . Qumm , II, pp. 349350 (al-S a r , XCII, p. 50 , no. 12 ; Tabar , . . adiq) > Bih . XXVII, p. 208, Ibn al-Jawz , VII, p. 339 (#Al ); Tha#lab , IX, p. 222, M award , V, p. 465, Ab u l-Fut uh, , . XI, p. 27 (the Prophet); Zamakhshar , wa-q l hiya qir a"at ras ul all ah); Y aq ut, Udab a", V, p. 115 (Ibn IV, p. 59 (#Al Shanab udh). For the ending (mu. tirn a bi-naw" kadh a etc.) see also Tabar , . XXVII, pp. 208209 (citing various authorities); Ibn Ab H a tim, X, . p. 3234, no. 18806 (the Prophet); Tabris , XXVII, p. 132 (Ibn #Abb as); . Suy ut ., Durr, VI, p. 235 (citing various sources, on the authority of Zayd , b. Kh alid al-Juhan ) > Bih ar, LVIII, p. 329, no. 23; al-Hurr al-#Amil . . Was a"il, V, p. 272, no. 15054 (a h ad th quds , cited from various sources); . a" (Ch. Pellat). See 561. Fas . l, p. 24, l. 3. Cf. in general EI 2, art. Anw Isn ad : #Abd al-A#la: #Abd al-A#l a b. #Amir al-Tha#lab (in some sources, erroneously, al-Taghlib ) al-K uf , who transmitted from Ab u #Abd al-Rahm a n al-Sulam and Mu hammad ibn alHanayya (Ibn . . . #Abd Hajar, Tahdh b, VI, pp. 9495; Modarressi, TS, pp. 46, 58).Abu . al-Rahm u #Abd al-Rahm ah b. Hab b al. an al-Sulam: Ab . an #Abdall . n (Barq Sulam , a K ufan disciple of #Al and a q ari" of the Qur"a , Rij al, p. 5; Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, V, pp. 183184; Ardab l , I, p. 481, II, p. 397). . 560 Fas ah, N asikh, p. 66, Tabris , . . l, p. 333, ll. 1617. See Sa#d b. #Abdall XXVII, p. 119, both > Fas . l, p. 333, ll. 1721. For this reading see also d, #Al , Ibn #Abb as, al-S Jeery, pp. 97, 191, 206, 336 (Ibn Mas#u . adiq); Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, p. 37; Qumm , II, p. 348 (al-S a diq) > S a f . . , V, p. 122, Huwayz , V, p. 215 , no. 43 ; Tabar , XXVII, p. 180 , M a tur d , IX, . . p. 493, Samarqand , III, p. 393, Tha#lab , IX, p. 207 (> Ibn T us, . aw Bin a", pp. 101102), M award , V, p. 454, Qurt , XVII, p. 208 (#Al ); .ub a n, VIII, p. 206 ( # Al , alS a diq, Ibn Mas # u d); Zarkash , I, p. Ab u Hayy . . 335; Shnizer, Qur" an, p. 140. According to some accounts, when #Al

notes

241

heard a man reciting wa-. talh ud (serried acacias [or plantains]) . mand . he corrected this to wa-. tal # mand u d . (compact spathes). The man (or nic text accordingly those present) suggested that #Al change the Qur"a (a-l a tughayyiruhu/a-wa-l a nuh a/tuh a); but #Al responded: . awwiluh . awwiluh n can no longer be disturbed and changed today (inna lThe Qur"a qur" an l a yuh aju l-yawm wa-l a yuh , XXVII, pp. 180181, . . awwalu) (Tabar cited in Goldziher, Richtungen, p. 36; M aturd, IX, p. 493; Tha#lab , , XXVII, p. 119 [wa-rawat IX, p. 207; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 54; Tabris . al- # amma] > S af , V, p. 112, Bih ar, VIII, p. 109, Huwayz , V, p. 215, no. . . . 44; Ab u l-Fut uh, XI, p. 14 ; R a z , XXIX, p. 143 ; Qur t , XVII, p. . .ub 208; cf. Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 151, Tha#alib, V, p. 364). According to one interpretation, #Al thought his reading to be the correct one but did n because it contradicted the accepted not wish to enter it in the Qur"a consonantal skeleton of the text (li-mukh alafat m a rasmuhu mujma # #alayhi ) (Qurt ub , XVII, p. 208 ). . 561 Fas . l, p. 334, ll. 910. See 559.

562 A longer version of this tradition is preserved in #Ayy ash , II, p. 237, no. 54 (Muhammad b. H ashim < unidentied transmitter < al. B aqir) > Burh an, II, p. 323, no. 11, Bih ar, X, p. 156, no. 5, Huwayz , V, . . p. 221, no. 64. In these sources, the Imam recites the verses according to the #Uthm anic codex. However, in the version cited from #Ayy ash in Huwayz , II, p. 557, no. 142, the reading of Q 56:54 is thumma innahum . la-sh arib un, as in KQ. The innahum before la- akil un is not recorded elsewhere. shim: al-T mentions two disciples of alIsn ad : Muhammad b. Ha . us . S b. H ashim al-T (Rij al, p. 303, no. . . a" . adiq of this name: (i) Muhammad 364); (ii) Muhammad b. H ashim al-Qurash mawl ahum K uf (Rij al, p. . 303, no. 371; both names cited in Quhp a" , VI, pp. 6667; Ardab l , II, p. 212; Kh u" , XVIII, p. 337, nos. 1197611977). 563 Fas uh . l, p. 334, ll. 1011. Fa-r . (spirit) is vocalized (evidently by l . This reading is ascribed to the Prophet al-N ur ) in ms. L and in Fas . (Tirmidh , S a h h , XI, p. 58 [for fa-raw h uh , Awliy a", p. . . . . read fa-r . ]; Tirmidh 384; H a kim, Mustadrak , II, p. 613 , no. 2978 , p. 633 , no. 3043 ; Tha # lab , . IX, p. 224; M award , V, p. 466; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 60). According to Ibn Jinn (II, p. 310) and al-Tabris (XXVII, p. 133 > S af , V, p. . . included, in 130, Fas l , p. 334 , ll. 11 12 ), those who followed this qir a " a . addition to the Prophet, Ibn #Abb as, al-B aqir, Qat ada, al-Da h h a k and . ..

242

notes

Hasan al-Bas (the latter is also mentioned in Tabar , XXVII, p. 211, . . .r Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 286 , Samarqand , III, p. 398 , Zamakhshar , . IV, p. 60). See further Sijist an, Ghar b, p. 100; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 152 (the Prophet and Ya#q ub [i.e. al-Ha ]); Ibn Ghalb un, II, p. 710 . dram . (Ruways [i.e. a transmitter from Ya#q ub al-Ha dram , see 511*]); Ibn . . Ab Zaman n, II, p. 386; Ahw az , Bas , p. 507 (al-Hasan al-Bas ); Ibn . .r . r #At Ibn #Abb as and others); Ab u l-Fut uh, . . XI, .iyya, V, p. 254 (al-Hasan, p. 28 (al-Hasan, Qat ada, Ya#q ub); #Ukbar , p. 497 (wa-yuqra"u bi-fath . . al r a" wa-d ammih a ); Qur t ub , XVII, p. 232 (the Prophet, Ibn # Abb a s and . . others); Jeery, Ibn Miqsam, p. 27 (Ibn #Abb as, al-Hasan, some of the . Bas .rans, Ibn Miqsam). Cf. 564. 564 It is not clear whether r-w-h . should be vocalized as in the #Uthm anic codex (i.e. rawh ) or as at 563 (i.e. r uh abawayh, #Iq ab, . . ). Cf. Ibn B p. 251, no. 17 > Bih a r , XXVII, p. 235 , no. 50 (al-B a qir: inna # aduww # Al . l a yakhruju min al-duny ah a yajra #a jur #a min al-h m). . att . am Title Although S urat al-mumtahana (i.e. S ura 60) is mentioned in the . title, no verses from it are cited in this chapter. 565 Fas . l, p. 334, ll. 1213. For this reading see Jeery, p. 169 (Ubayy). l-ard a f l-sam a" ). Cf. Q 10:61 (f . wa-l sim b. Sulayma n: al-Q Isn ad : al-Qa asim b. Sulaym an al-Baghd ad , a K ufan transmitter from al-S ab was trans. adiq and his disciples. His kit mitted by al-Husayn b. Sa# d through al-Nadr . . b. Suwayd (Modarressi, TS, p. 359).Muyassir/Maysar: he is Muyassir/Maysar/Maysara b. #Abd al-#Az z al-Nakha# al-Mad a"in Bayy a# al-Zut , a K ufan transmit.t . a" , VI, pp. ter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq; predeceased al-S . adiq (Quhp 170171; Ardab l , II, pp. 284286). 566 It is unclear whether the reading ascribed here to al-S . adiq is yuz un (as in the #Uthm anic codex) or yaz un (thus read by Ibn . ahir . z . ahar #Amir, Hamza and al-Kis a" ; see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 628; T , IX, p. 540; . . us Tabris , XXVIII, p. 4; Bayd , p. 719). . . aw 567 Fas , p. 678, no. 3 > . am > Najaf . l, p. 334, ll. 1617. See Ibn al-Juh Burh an, IV, p. 316, no. 15, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 222, p. 6; added by the editor . of Sulaym (Kit ab, p. 469) from Ibn al-Juh n . These sources . am and Kul agree with ms. M in reading wa-zulm a l Mu h ammad ; in Kul n (at VIII, . . p. 63, no. 21 > S a f , V, p. 156 , Huwayz , V, p. 284 , no. 46 , Fa s . . . l, p. 334,

notes

243

l. 17), the reading cited from #Al on the authority of Sulaym b. Qays is f zulm a l Mu h ammad , as in mss. L and B. Cf. Tisdall, p. 240 ( and . . fear God [being ware of] wronging Mohammed). For Q 59:7 cf. 125, 204. Isn ad : al-H : the isn ad of this tradition is also . asan b. Muhammad . attested in Ibn a Bist a m, Tibb , p. 140 (whence it was added by the . . editor of Sulaym [Kit ab, p. 476]); Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , p. 374, no. 45. There al-Hasan b. Muhammad is identied as al-H ashim , i.e. al. . Hasan b. Muhammad b. al-Fadl b. Ya # q u b b. Sa # d b. Nawfal b. al. . . H a rith b. # Abd al-Mu t t alib, who transmitted from al-Ri d a (Quhp a " , II, . .. . p. 153; Ardabl, I, p. 226).Aban b. Ab #Ayyash: the rst transmitter of Kit ab Sulaym b. Qays (d. 138/755756) (Modarressi, TS, pp. 8586). l Sulaym b. Qays al-Hila : the purported author of a kit ab bearing his name and allegedly a K ufan disciple of #Al (EI 2, art. Sulaym b. Kays . [Moktar Djebli]; Modarressi, TS, pp. 8286). 568 The words min al-nakhl should perhaps be added after kull shay". For l na as any palm tree except the (kind known as) #ajwa (or: the kind bearing the #ajwa dates) see e.g. Farr a", III, p. 144 (Ibn #Abb as: fa kull shay" min al-nakhl siw a l- #ajwa huwa l-l n); Bukh ar, S h . ah . . , III, p. 347 (Kit ab al-tafs r ); Tabar , XXVIII, pp. 3233; Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 320; . . , XXVIII, p. 26 Sijist an , Ghar b, p. 173; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 81; Tabris . > Bih a r , XX, p. 161 ; Qur t ub , XVIII, p. 8 ; Schller, Palmen, pp. 324 . . 328; WKAS, II, part 4, p. 2114a, ll. 34. This is one of ve denitions of l na current in the exegetical literature (see Schller, Palmen, pp. 323334). The word #ajwa is used both for a particular kind of palm tree and for its dates; these dates are regarded as being of an exceptionally high quality (see Schller, Palmen, p. 325, with note 21). 569 Cf. Ibn al-Juh , p. 677, no. 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 314, . am > Najaf no. 5, Bih a r , XXIII, pp. 258 259 , no. 7 . According to al-Majlis (Bih ar, . . XXIII, p. 259), this is the inner/esoteric interpretation of the verse aya). (ta"w l li-ba. tn al- 570 The word s at found in the manuscripts may be the result of . adaq a conation with the following verse (Q 58:13: a-ashfaqtum an tuqaddim u bayna yaday najw akum s at ). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 357 (isn ad : Ahmad b. . . adaq Ziy ad < al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. Sam a#a < Safw an < Ibn Musk an . . . < Ab u Bas r < al-S , Kif aya, p. 118; Irbil , I, p. 312. . . adiq); Ganj

244

notes

571 Fas ad (begin. l, p. 334, ll. 1819. In a tradition with the same isn ning with Safw a n b. Ya hy a ), this verse is cited as it appears in the . . #Uthm anic codex; see Ibn al-Juh a n, . am > Najaf, p. 689, no. 8 > Burh IV, p. 329, no. 1, Bih ar, LI, p. 60, no. 59. The version of the #Uthm anic . codex is also cited in a tradition which al-Tabris (XXVIII, p. 62) cites . from the lost part of #Ayy ash (isn ad : #Imr an b. M tham/Maytham < #Ab aya < #Al). However, in the text of the Majma # as cited in Huwayz , . V, p. 318, no. 31, ras ulahu is replaced by #abdahu, thus agreeing with KQ. 572 Fas . l, p. 335, ll. 1516. See 573, 575.

573 Fas u ilayh a li-lladh na . l, p. 335, ll. 1617. For the reading ins . araf ttaqaw see Jeery, p. 170 (Ubayy); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 63 (alS d, Ikhtis as aqir tells J abir al-Ju#f : h akadh a . adiq); Muf . . , pp. 124125 (al-B an, IV, p. 335, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 400, no. 126, nazalat ) > Burh . XXXI, p. 616, no. 90, LXXXIX, p. 278, no. 24. See also Qumm , II, p. 367 (ya #n li-lladh na ttaqaw) > S a f , V, p. 176 , Fa s l , p. 335 , ll. 13 15 . . (both without ya #n ). For the reading ins u ilayh a see Tabris , XXVIII, . . araf p. 78 (al-S af , V, p. 175, Bih ar, XXII, p. 60, LXXXIX, p. . adiq) > S . . 131. Cf. R awand , Fiqh, I, p. 138 (infad u glossed as ins u). See 572, .d . . araf 575. d (in the tradition cited in the apparaIsn ad : Ja#far al-Ahmar b. Ziya . tus from Najaf): he is probably Ab u #Abdall ah Ja#far b. Ziy ad al-Ahmar . al-K uf , a transmitter from al-S a" , II, p. 27; Ardab l , I, p. . adiq (Quhp ad, VII, 152), died in 167/783784 (al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , Ta"r kh Baghd . pp. 150152; Dhahab , Ta"r kh al-isl am, X, pp. 104105 and the references given by the editor). 574 Fas . l, p. 335, ll. 45. The letters h-m found in the four manuscripts of KQ (but missing from Fas . l ) may be an error for #-m, a common abbreviation of #alayhi l-sal am (cf. 415*). Later copyists, unaware that h-m was an error, added the words #alayhi l-sal am in full. For the read d, Ubayy, #Umar); ing fa-md u see Je ery, pp. 101 , 170 , 221 (Ibn Mas #u . M alik, Muwa. t. ta", I, p. 106, no. 13, Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 254 (fol 13a ll. 23), #Abd al-Razz aq, Mus annaf , III, p. 207 , nos. 53485350, . Sh a# , Umm, I, p. 336, Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 139, no. 679 (> [with . ut , Durr, VI, pp. 327328), Bukh ar , S h other sources] Suy . . ah . . , III, p. 352 (Kit ab al-tafs r ), al-Muttaq al-Hind , Kanz, II, pp. 592593, no. 4808, p. 593, no. 4809, p. 597, nos. 48214822 (#Umar); Yahy am, . a b. Sall

notes

245

Tas ar f, p. 309, #Abd al-Razz aq, Mus . . annaf, III, p. 207, no. 5346, Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 353 , Samarqand , III, p. 448, Ibn Ab Zaman n, II, . d); Muj p. 416, T awand, Fiqh, I, p. 132 (Ibn Mas#u ahid, . us, X, p. 8, R d); #Abd al-Razz Tafs r, p. 659 (Ubayy, Ibn Mas#u aq, Tafs r, II, p. 291 d, Ibn #Umar); Sa#d b. #Abdall (Ibn Mas#u ah, N asikh, p. 63 (al-S . adiq); Tabar , XXVIII, pp. 100 , 101 (Ibn Mas # u d, # Umar, Ab u l# Aliya); Ibn . Kh alawayh, p. 156 (Ibn Mas#ud, #Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr); Ibn Jinn, II, d, Ibn #Abb pp. 321322 (#Al , #Umar, Ibn Mas#u as, Ubayy and others); Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist, p. 34 (Ibn Shanab udh) > Y aq ut, Udab a ", V, p. 115; Muf d, Ikhtis a s , p. 123 (al-B a qir tells J a bir al-Ju # f that fa . . f ) > Burh an, IV, md u is the correct reading and that fa-s #aw is a tah . . r p. 335, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 400, no. 126, XXXI, p. 616, no. 90, . LXXXIX, p. 277, no. 24; Tha#lab , IX, p. 311, Ab u l-Fut uh, . XI, p. 151 d); Ibn #At (#Umar, Ibn Mas#u iyya, V, p. 309 ( # Umar, # Al , Ubayy, Ibn . d and others); Zamakhshar Mas#u , IV, p. 105 (#Umar, Ibn #Abb as, Ibn d and others); Tabris d, #Al Mas#u , XXVIII, p. 75 (Ibn Mas#u , #Umar, . aqir, al-S af , V, p. 174, Burh an, IV, Ubayy, Ibn #Abb as, al-B . adiq) > S . p. 334, no. 6, Bih a r , LXXXIX, p. 126 , Huwayz , V, p. 325 , no. 30; . . lib d, Ibn #Umar, Ibn Tha#a , V, pp. 430431 (#Umar, #Al , Ibn Mas#u #Abb as, Ibn al-Zubayr). Al-Qurt (XVIII, p. 102) maintains that fa.ub md u is an exegetical gloss (wa-j a"iz qir a"at al-qur" an bi-l-tafs r f ma #rid . . altafs r ). Isn ad : Zayd: he is either Zayd b. Jahm/Juhaym al-Hil al (for whom * * an b. Yahy see 290 ) or Zayd al-Shah . h . am (for whom see 63 ). Safw . a . transmitted Zayd al-Shah ab (Modarressi, TS, p. 402) and also . h . ams kit transmitted from Zayd b. Jahm/Juhaym (Ardab l , II, p. 341). 575 Fas a) are Ab u Bakr . l, p. 335, ll. 1819. The two of them (hum and #Umar; cf. the explanation given by al-B aqir to J abir al-Ju#f : al-bay # (tracking) of Q 62:9 is al-awwal, and the lahw (diversion) and tij ara (merchandise) of Q 62:11 are bay #at al-awwal wa-l-th an (recognizing ar, the authority of Ab u Bakr and #Umar) (Muf d, Ikhtis as . . . , p. 124 > Bih XXIV, p. 400, no. 126, LXXXIX, p. 278, no. 24). For the reading wabtagh u fad ah see Muf d, Ikhtis as aqir tells J abir al-Ju#f : . l all . . , p. 124 (al-B h akadh a nazalat ) > Bih a r , XXIV, p. 400 , no. 126 , LXXXIX, p. 278 , no. . 24. See 572, 573, 576.

246

notes

576 Fas alika cf. Fur at, . l, p. 335, ll. 1920. For innahu laysa yuqra"u ka-dh I, p. 78, no. 52 (laysa yuqra"u h akadh a/kadh a) > Bih a r , XCII, p. 56 , no. 29 . . See 575. 577 Fas na marra). . l, p. 336, ll. 12. Cf. Q 9:80 (in tastaghr lahum sab # For the Prophet asking Gods forgiveness seventy times a day see e.g. Kul n , II, pp. 504505, no. 5. See 578. f alIsn ad : Muhsin b. Ahmad al-Ku : Ab u Ahmad Muhsin . b. Ahmad . . . . Bajal al-Qays al-K uf , a transmitter from al-Rid a (Quhp a " , V, p. 96 ; . Ardab l , II, pp. 4142). 578 Fas . l, p. 336, ll. 23. See 577.

579 Fas . l, p. 336, ll. 78. For this reading see Jeery, p. 171 (Ubayy). See 580, 581. 580 Fas . l, p. 336, ll. 89. See 579, 581. q b. Muhammad Isn ad : Masru : Masr uq b. Muhammad al-K uf , a . . transmitter from al-S a diq (Ardab l , II, p. 228 ). For the isn a d see 582 . . 581 Fas . l, p. 336, l. 9. The Imam quotes Q 64:15 in order to show why the previous verse should be read without min: just as Q 64:15 refers to all children, so too does Q 64:14. The words awl adukum wa-amw alukum recorded in mss. L, T and B appear to be a scribal error rather than a qir a"a. See 579, 580. 582 For references to Muhammad as dhikr (mostly in connection with . Q 65:1011) see Bas a"ir, p. 512, no. 26 > Bih ar, XVI, p. 101, no. 39; . . ar, XVI, p. 90, no. 20; Madelung-Walker, Qumm , II, p. 375 > Bih . pp. 2829 (Arabic) = pp. 8485 (English); Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 2; Ibn B abawayh, Am al , p. 476; idem, #Uy un, I, p. 187 > S a f , V, p. 191; Ab u . l-Fut uh, ash ub, Man aqib, I, p. 150 > Bih ar, XVI, . XI, p. 189; Ibn Shahr . , p. 102, no. 40; Tabar , Bish ara, p. 234; Tabris , XXVIII, p. 113; Hill . . . Mukhtas ar , pp. 67 68 > Burh a n , III, pp. 28 29 , no. 1 ; Najaf , p. 325 , no. . 3. Cf. M atur d , X, p. 71 (samm ahu dhikran). Isn ad : see 580. 583 Cf. Kul n , V, p. 328, no. 1, VI, p. 54, nos. 2, 3 (nothing is more hateful to God than . tal aq).

notes

247

584 Fas . l, p. 337, ll. 68. For this tradition see the references given in 225*. See 225, 585. Isn ad : Ibn #Urwa al-Tam m : al-Haytham b. #Urwa al-Tam m , a K ufan transmitter from al-S b. al-Hakam . . adiq and a transmitter to #Al (Quhp a" , VI, pp. 244245; Ardab l , II, p. 320). 585 See 225, 584.

586 Fas . l, p. 336, ll. 1516. For this reading see GdQ, III, p. 75 (Ibn d); Jeery, pp. 103, 191, 328 (Ibn Mas#u d, #Al Mas#u , al-A#mash); idem, ah, N asikh, p. 65 (al-B aqir Zaid b. #Al, p. 233 (Zayd); Sa#d b. #Abdall and al-S alawayh, p. 158 (#Al , al. adiq) > Fas . l, p. 337, ll. 23; Ibn Kh A#mash); Tabar , XXVIII, p. 161, Zamakhshar , IV, p. 127, Ibn al. lib Jawz , VIII, p. 81, Ab u Hayy a n, VIII, p. 286 , Tha #a , V, p. 451 (Ibn . d). Cf. Tabar Mas#u , XXVIII, p. 161 (Ibn # Abb a s, alDa an), . . h . h . ak, Sufy n, II, p. 429, Tha#lab , IX, p. 346, M award , VI, p. Ibn Ab Zaman 40, T , X, p. 47, Qurt , XVIII, p. 188, Bay ad , III, p. 168 > Bih ar, . us .ub . . XXII, p. 246, no. 17, where s aghat is glossed as z a ghat (deviated). In . As l # A s im b. Humayd , p. 27 , the reading is s aghat ; it is z a ghat , however, . . . . in the version cited from the As . l in Fas . l (p. 337, l. 1). See 587, 588, 590. Isn ad : cf. 552. 587 Fas . l, p. 336, l. 16. See 586, 588, 590.

588 Fas . l, p. 336, ll. 1619. The reference is perhaps to the Umayyad caliph Marw an b. al-Hakam (d. 65/685), who is said to have assisted . in the recension of the Qur"an during #Uthm ans caliphate (see EI 2, art. Marw an I b. al-Hakam [C.E. Bosworth]). Some readings are . ascribed to him (see e.g. Qurt ub , IV, p. 308, to Q 3:188). The dispute . "isha (d. 58/678) over the correct reading of between Marw an and #A Q 66:4 does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. For the events which are said to have led to the revelation of Q 66:34 see EI 2, art. Haf aghat . s .a (L. Veccia Vaglieri). Some exegetes regard s . aghat and z as synonymous (see 586*). The implication here, in contrast, is that s . ughuww/s . aghw/s . ighw (inclination, i.e. to that which is not right) is a less serious oence than zaygh (deviation). In a similar vein, Muj ahid is said to have declared: We used to think that (the oence alluded to in) His words fa-qad s ubukum a was of little consequence (shay" . aghat qul d: hayyin), until I heard (or: until we found in) the reading of Ibn Mas#u

248

notes

in tat ub a il a ll ah fa-qad z aghat qul ubukum a (Muj ahid, Tafs r, p. 665; Tabar , . XXVIII, p. 161). See 586, 587, 590. 589 Fas , Jaw ami #, II, p. . . l, p. 337, ll. 45. For this reading see Tabris 626 (al-K azim) > S a f , V, p. 195 , Huwayz , V, p. 371 , no. 13 , Fas . . . . l, p. 337, ll. 34. Contrast Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 65 (reading, with the #Uthm anic codex: wa-in taz a #alayhi ) (al-K azim). Sh # exegetes . . ahar maintain that the dual form in taz a har a # alayhi (they supported one . "isha and Haf another against him) refers to #A a; the reading ta z a har u . s . . (in the plural) is explained by Muhsin al-Fay d as referring to # A " isha, . . Haf af , V, p. 195). For the background see Bar. s .a and their fathers (S . Asher, Scripture, pp. 4445. Cf. 592. ami #, II, 590 Fas , Jaw . . l, p. 336, ll. 1920. For this tradition see Tabris p. 626 (al-S a diq); Turay h , II, pp. 1033 1034 (for al-shatm read al-samm , . . . poisoning); cf. 128. For the reading z aghat see 586588. 591 Fas , XVIII, pp. .ub . l, p. 337, ll. 1113. For this reading see Qurt 203204 (Ubayy). Qat ada adduces fa-nafakhn a f jaybih a (we breathed into the opening of her garment) as a gloss on fa-nafakhn a f hi ; see #Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. 303; Tabar , XXVIII, p. 172; T , X, p. 54. . . us , II, p. 49 (fa-nafakha f jaybih a fa-h Cf. Muq atil, III, p. 380; Qumm . amalat * a); Ab . bi- #Is u l-Fut uh, XI, p. 204 ; Robinson, Christ , pp. 156 158 ; 592 . 592 Najaf , p. 701, no. 10. The words taz a #al a allude to Q 66:4. . aharat See Najaf , p. 700, no. 7; cf. 589*. For the passage on Ruqayya (the [W. Prophets daughter and #Uthm ans wife; see EI 2, art. Rukayya . Montgomery Watt]; Madelung, Succession, pp. 363365) cf. Najaf, pp. 700701, no. 8 > Burh an, IV, p. 358, no. 1, Bih ar, XXX, pp. 257258, no. . 119 (where Fir#awn is said to refer to #Uthm an, as in 600). In some Sh # accounts #Uthm an (or Na#thal, as he is sometimes called; see BarAsher, Scripture, p. 117) is accused of beating his wife Ruqayya to death (see Qumm , II, p. 423 [to Q 90:5; for y-q-t-l read Na#thal] > Bih ar, IX, . p. 251, no. 157, XXIV, p. 282, no. 8; Kul n , III, pp. 251253, no. 8 > Bih ar, XXII, pp. 160162, no. 22; cf. Kul n , III, p. 236, no. 6 > Bih ar, . . VI, p. 261, no. 102, XXII, pp. 163164, no. 23; Bih a r , XXXI, p. 174 ). . For the ending (on F at ar, Musnad, V, p. 223, no. 1829 (the .ima) see Bazz Prophet: inna F a. tima ah a fa-h ah dhurriyyatah a #al a l-n ar ); .s . anat farjah . arrama ll Uy u n , II, p. 63 , no. 264 Ibn #Ad , Du # af a " , V, p. 1714 ; Ibn B a bawayh, # . (> Bih ar, XLIII, p. 20, no. 6, p. 231, no. 5, XCVI, p. 223, no. 17), p. .

notes

249

236, no. 4 (> Bih ar, XLIII, p. 231, no. 6); Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an , pp. . 104105, no. 1, p. 105, nos. 23 > Bih a r , XLIII, p. 230 , no. 2 , p. 231, . nos. 34, XCVI, p. 222, no. 15; al-Khat ad, Ta"r kh Baghd ad, .b al-Baghd III, p. 54 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 325 > Bih ar, XLIII, p. 232, . a. tima no. 7, Huwayz , V, pp. 377378, no. 48 (the Prophet declares: inna F . ah s anat farjah a fah arrama ll a h dhurriyyatah a # al a l-n a r ). See also R a wand , .. . Khar a"ij, I, p. 281, no. 13 > Bih ar, XLVI, p. 185, no. 51 (from al-S . adiq). . 593 Fas , p. 707, no. 10 (but with yuj ru . l, p. 337, ll. 1316. See Najaf a r , XCII, pp. 55 56 , l-k ar n for yuj rukum) > Burh an, IV, p. 365, no. 2, Bih . * no. 27. See 596; cf. 623 . 594 Fas . l, p. 337, ll. 2223. A similar reading (with the comment: kadh a unzilat ) is cited by al-S n , I, p. 421, no. 45 > Ibn . adiq in Kul Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 (> Bih a r , XXXV, p. 57, no. 12), Najaf , . pp. 707708, no. 12, S af , V, p. 205, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 378, no. 60, . . Huwayz , V, p. 385, no. 36, Fas . . l, p. 276, l. 23p. 277, l. 3, p. 337, ll. 20 22, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724 (fa-sa-ta #lam un [in some versions: + man huwa f d al a l mub n ] y a ma # shar al-mukadhdhib n h . . aythu anba"tukum [in Ibn Shahr ash ub: at akum] ris alat rabb f wal ayat #Al wa-l-a"imma min ba #dihi [in Najaf : + fa-abaytum wa-kadhdhabtum fa-sa-ta #lam un] man huwa f d al . al mub n). ar, 595 Najaf , pp. 708709, no. 15. See Burh an, IV, p. 367, no. 6, Bih . XXIV, pp. 100101, no. 3 (from Najaf ). See also #Al b. Ja#far, Mas a"il, p. 327, no. 815; Kul n , I, pp. 339340, no. 14 > S af , V, p. 206, Huwayz , . . V, p. 386, no. 37; Nu#m an , Ghayba, pp. 257258, no. 17 (latter half); r, #Iqd, p. 316, citing the Naw Mans adir al-h u Ja#far al-Ash#ar .u . ikma of Ab al-Qumm (for which see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 299, no. 469) (in all these sources #Al b. Ja#far cites his brother M us a al-K azim); . Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al, p. 339 (#Al b. Ja#far < al-K azim < alS a . . diq) > Bih ar, LI, p. 53, no. 30. Cf. the following exegetical comment by . al-B aqir: in as amukum gh a"iban #ankum l a tadr un ayna huwa fa-man . bah . a im ya"t kum bi-im am z a hir (see Ibn B a bawayh, Im a ma , pp. 115116, no. 105; . al, p. 317 > Bih a r , LI, p. 52 , no. 27 , Huwayz , V, p. Ibn B abawayh, Ikm . . 387, no. 41); see also Qumm , II, p. 379 (in as ba h a im a mukum gh a " iban fa. . man ya"t kum bi-im am mithlihi ) > S af , V, p. 205, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 100, no. 1, . . LI, p. 50, no. 21; T , Ghayba, p. 158, no. 115, p. 160, no. 117. . us

250

notes

596 Fas , p. 707, no. 11 (but . l, p. 338, l. 1. For this reading see Najaf with wa-man ma #akum for jam #an) > Burh an, IV, p. 365, no. 3, Bih ar, XCII, . p. 56, no. 28, Fas . l, p. 337, ll. 1720. See 593. 597 For this reading see Qumm , II, p. 380 (adding: h akadh a nazalat ) > Bih a r , XXX, p. 161 , no. 20 , Fa s l , p. 337 , l. 23 . Sa # d b. # Abdall ah (N asikh, . . anic codex, but in the version p. 63) reproduces the text of the #Uthm cited from Sa#d in Fas . l (p. 338, ll. 23) the reading is identical to that found in KQ and Qumm . See 598. 598 Fas , p. 712, no. 5 (with the verse as . l, p. 338, ll. 12. See Najaf in the #Uthm anic codex) > Burh an, IV, p. 370, no. 7, Bih ar, XXX, pp. . 258259, no. 121. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 308 (to Q 47:22) > Huwayz , V, . p. 40, no. 59; Qumm , II, p. 380 (to Q 68:56) > Bih a r , XXX, p. 161, . no. 20; Kul n , VIII, p. 103, no. 76, p. 239, no. 325 > Bih a r , XXX, p. . 161, no. 21, XXXI, p. 533, no. 40. For the reading tuwull tum cf. 511, 512; as the manuscripts are unvocalized, it is not certain that this is the reading here. In KQ, the nal sentence (they are better than you and kindlier to their kindred) appears to be spoken by #Al ; in the other sources cited here, the speaker is #Umar. In a similar account, #Al tells nic al-shajara al-mal # #Umar that the Qur"a una refers to the Umayyads (cf. 299), to which #Umar retorts: ban u Umayya khayr minka wa-aws . al li-l-rah . im (#Ayy ash , II, p. 297, no. 94 [#Al b. Sa# d < al-S a diq] > Turay h , II, p. . . . 930, Burh an, II, p. 425, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXI, p. 525, no. 27, Huwayz , III, . . pp. 179180, no. 277). See 597. Isn ad : al-A#mash: Sulaym an b. Mihr an al-A#mash al-Asad (d. 148/ n reader, a transmitter from 765), Sh # scholar, traditionist and Qur"a al-S a" , III, p. 169; EIr, art. A#ma s [E. Kohlberg]; cf. 343). . adiq (Quhp Title Sa"ala, though less common than sa"ala s a"il, is also attested as a as is reported to have stated: nazalat name of S ura 70. Thus Ibn #Abb s urat sa"ala bi-Makka (Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. 415). . 599 For this tradition see Najaf , p. 714, no. 1 > Burh an, IV, p. 375, no. 1, Bih a r , XXX, p. 260 , no. 123 . Cf. 600 . . 600 Cf. Najaf , p. 714, no. 2 > Bih ar, XXX, p. 260, no. 124. For . the identication of Fir#awn with #Uthm an see 592*. In the version of Qumm cited in S af , V, p. 218, Burh an, IV, p. 375 and Bih ar, XXXI, p. . . 639, no. 149, the mu"tak at are identied with Bas ra and the kh a. ti"a with .

notes

251

"isha). In the printed edition of Qumm ful ana (i.e. #A (at II, p. 384) the word ful ana is missing, in yet another instance of censorship (cf. 54*). For the application of the term s ah . . ib al-silsila (he who is in chains, cf. wiya see Sulaym, Kit Q 69:32) to Mu#a ab, p. 307, where #Al refers to him in this way > Tabris , I h tij a j , p. 285 , Bi h a r , XXXIII, p. 156 , no. 421; . . . Kul n , IV, pp. 243244, no. 1 > S a f , III, p. 371 , Bi h a r , XXXIII, p. 171, . . no. 448, Huwayz , III, p. 481, no. 45, V, p. 409, no. 45; Najaf, p. 719, . ar, XXXIII, p. 170, no. 446. Cf. 599. no. 13 > Bih . 601 Fas , p. 723, no. 2. See Kul n , I, p. 422, no. . l, p. 338, l. 12, Najaf 47 (isn ad : #Al b. Ibr ahm < Ahmad b. Muhammad [= al-Sayy ar ?] < . . Muhammad b. Kh alid [i.e. al-Barq ] < Muhammad b. Sulaym an < his . . father < Ab u Bas r < al-S ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 106 . . adiq) > Ibn Shahr 1 , Bi h a r , XXXV, p. 57, no. (> S a f , V, p. 224 , Burh a n , IV, p. 381 , no. . . 12), Huwayz , V, p. 411 , no. 5 , Fa s l , p. 338 , ll. 6 8 , cited in Bar-Asher, . . Readings, p. 71; Nu#m an, Sharh , pp. 723 . , I, p. 241, no. 260; Najaf 724, no. 3 (possibly from KQ via Ibn al-Juh an, IV, p. 382, . am) > Burh no. 5, Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 176, no. 63, Fas . . l, p. 338, ll. 1012. For this reading see also Kul n , VIII, pp. 5758, no. 18, cited in Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 214, with note 438 = Divine Guide, p. 202, tr. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya, p. 724. Im am traditions refer to a book of heavenly origin bearing the title mus h af F a tima (see Kohlberg, Scriptures, pp. 302303; .. . Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 187 = Divine Guide, p. 74). This book, said to have been dictated to F at .ima by an angel following her fathers death, n (see Kohlberg, is reported to have contained nothing from the Qur"a Scriptures, p. 303). Now KQ (like the parallel tradition in Kul n , VIII) refers to a verse found in mus h af F a t ima . It is thus clear that the .. . reference here is not to the book known by this title, but rather to n (cf. 382*). F at .imas copy of the Qur"a 602 Mustadrak, XV, p. 249, no. 18141. The words il a l-aqs a do not . appear to be recorded elsewhere as a qir a"a; they may be a gloss. For the notion of ajal (xed term of life on earth) see EI 2, art. Adjal (I. Goldziher-W. Montgomery Watt); EQ, art. Fate (Ahmet T. Karamustafa). According to the view presented in the tradition cited in KQ, God determines for each person two points in time, at one of which he will die. The wicked will die at the earlier of the two points, while God will prolong the life of the righteous until the later date. The earlier date of death (or the shorter term, al-ajal al-adn a) refers to nic ajal, while the later date of death (or the longer term, the Qur"a

252

notes

nic ajal musamman. For al-ajal al-adn al-ajal al-aqs a) refers to the Qur"a a/al. aqs a see T u s , X, p. 133 , Tabris , XXIX, p. 66 (to Q 71 : 4 ). Al-ajal al-aq s a . . . . is sometimes called al-ajal al-a. twal (R az, XXX, p. 120; Bayd . aw, p. 761). 603 For Wadd and Suw a# see Paret, Kommentar, p. 490; Hawting, Idolatry, index. 604 Fas ur , basing himself on ms. L, regards . l, p. 338, ll. 2122. Al-N a " a . According to mss. M, T and B, these Adam wa-Haww a " as a qir . words are a gloss on w alidayya. This is also the anonymous view (wa q l ) cited in Tabris , XXIX, p. 73, Najaf , p. 726. Elsewhere the view . that w alidayya refers to Adam and Eve is ascribed to #Al al-Rid . a (see Ibn T us, Farh a , p. 130 [to Q 71 : 28 ] > alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , V/3, . aw . . p. 298, no. 19435, Bih a r , C, p. 262 , no. 14 ). Al# Ayy a sh (II, pp. 234 235, . no. 46 > S a f , III, p. 95 , Burh a n , II, p. 321 , no. 3 ) records a tradition on . the authority of either al-B aqir or al-S a) according to . adiq ( #an ah . adihim which Abrahams words ighr l wa-li-w alidayya (Q 14:41) refer to Adam and Eve (q al Adam wa-Haww a" ) (cf. 271). Eve is not mentioned in the . #Uthm anic codex. 605 Fas , p. 728, no. 3. See Burh an, IV, . l, p. 338, l. 22p. 339, l. 1, Najaf 1 4 (from Najaf ). p. 393, no. 4, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 29 , no. 7 , Fa s l , p. 339 , ll. . . For al-. tar qa as referring to al-wal aya see e.g. As l Ja # far b. Mu h ammad al. . Ha , p. 63; Kul n , I, p. 220, no. 1 > S af , V, p. 236, Burh an, IV, p. . d . . ram 392, no. 1; Bay ad , I, p. 289. Translation of the last sentence: (If they . tread the right path [i.e. of loyalty to the Imams]) we would give them to drink of water in abundance without thereby putting them to the test. Cf. 623*. n b. Muslim: a K Isn ad : Marwa ufan transmitter from al-S . adiq and his disciples (Modarressi, TS, p. 319). 606 In mss. L and T there are shaddas over both the z ay and the m m (i.e. al-muzzammil, conforming to the #Uthm anic codex), but these may have been introduced by a copyist. It is thus unclear whether the qir a"a cited here is al-muzzammil, al-muzammal or al-muzammil. These last two readings are ascribed to #Ikrima (for al-muzammal [he who is wrapped (in his robes), or he who is burdened (with the Prophetic mission)] see Tha#lab , X, p. 59, Ibn #At az , XXX, p. 151, .iyya, V, p. 386, R Qurt ub , XIX, p. 32 ; for al-muzammil [he who wraps (himself)] see . Ibn Jinn , II, p. 335, Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 163, R az , XXX, p. 151; al-

notes

253

Tabris [XXIX, p. 90] does not indicate the vocalization of the second . m m). Both readings are cited by al-Zamakhshar (IV, p. 174) without attribution. 607 The reading al-mudaththar is ascribed to #Ikrima (see Zamakhshar , IV, p. 180, R az , XXX, p. 151, Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 362), though . he is also said to have read al-mudaththir (see Ibn Jinn , II, p. 335, Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 164, Tabris , XXIX, p. 90, R az , XXX, p. 151). . 608 It is not clear whether al-S a"a at Q 74:5 was al-rujz (as in . adiqs qir the #Uthm anic codex) or al-rijz (as read by six of the Seven Readers; see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 659). The reconstruction of the text is conjectural. For q and Nasr see Q 71:23. See in general Hawting, Idolatry, Yagh uth, Ya#u pp. 113116. Isn ad : For #Al b. al-Nu#m an < D aw ud b. Farqad see 531*. 609 Fas . l, p. 339, ll. 1314. The reading said here to be recorded in the n; see Kohlberg, Scriptures, Kit ab #Al (i.e. #Al s recension of the Qur"a p. 301, note 27, Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin, p. 187 = Divine Guide, p. 74) is d (see Qurt ascribed elsewhere to Ibn Mas#u , XIX, p. 67); cf. Q 7:188 .ub (la-stakthartu min al-khayr ). Cf. the reading wa-l a tamnun tastakthir (without min al-khayr ) which is recorded on the authority of al-Hasan (see Ibn . Jinn , II, p. 337 [with a grammatical explanation of this qir a"a], Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 434, Tha#lab , X, p. 70, Ahw az , Bas , p. 536). A . . r d is wa-l a tamnun an tastakthira (see second reading ascribed to Ibn Mas#u GdQ, III, p. 76, Jeery, p. 105, Tabar , XXIX, p. 150, Ibn Kh alawayh, . p. 164, Tha#lab , X, p. 70, Zamakhshar , IV, p. 181, Ibn #At iyya, V, p. . 393, Qurt a"a of .ub, XIX, p. 69). This is also reported to be the qir Ubayy (see Jeery, p. 174, Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 433) and of al-Rab # b. . Khuthaym (see Jeery, p. 310). b b. Ja#far: Ya#q Isn ad : Ya#qu ub b. Ja#far b. Ibr ah m al-Ja#far , a trans mitter from al-K azim . (Ardabl, II, p. 346). 610 See Najaf , p. 732, no. 2; Burh an, IV, p. 400, no. 2 (ending). Cf. Kul n , I, pp. 342343, no. 30 > Bahr , Mah an , . an . ajja, p. 238; Nu#m Ghayba, p. 273, no. 40 > Najaf , p. 732, no. 1 (see editors note), Burh an, r IV, p. 400, no. 2 (beginning), Bih ar, LI, pp. 5758, no. 49; Ibn Mans .u . , al-Yaman, Kashf, p. 25; Ibn B abawayh, Im ama, p. 123, no. 121; Kishsh pp. 169170 > Bih a r , II, pp. 70 71 , no. 29 ; Ibn B a bawayh, Ikm a l , pp. . 337338; T , Ghayba, p. 164, no. 126 > Bih ar, LII, p. 284, no. 11. . us .

254

notes

Translation: When a trumpet is blown in the Q a"ims ear He (i.e. God) will remember him and will allow him (wa-adhina lahu) to rise (or: he [i.e. the Q a"im] will remember it [the duty to rise] and will be given permission [wa-udhina lahu] to rise). 611 See Qumm , II, p. 396 > Burh an, IV, p. 402, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, . p. 331, no. 55, XLIII, p. 23, no. 16, Huwayz , V, p. 458, no. 22. Many . exegetes take the sux -h a in innah a to refer to Hell. According to this tradition, however, it refers to F at .ima, who on the Day of Judgment will be the cause of a great calamity (ih a l-kubar ) (for those who deprived . d her of her rights; see al-Majliss explanation, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 331, no. . 55 [bay an]). In another account, this sux is said to refer to the wal aya ); see Kul n , I, p. 434, no. 91 > Najaf , p. 737, no. 7, Bih ar, (loyalty to #Al . XXIV, p. 338, no. 59. 612 See Tabris , Mishk at, p. 50 > Bih ar, LXX, pp. 286287, no. 9, . . Mustadrak, XI, p. 265, no. 12954 (as a h th quds ); Tha#lab , X, p. 80, . ad Ab u Nu#aym, Hilya , VIII, p. 243 , no. 12038 , Qur t ub , XIX, p. 91 (as . . a gloss on Q 74:56 by the K ufan ascetic Muhammad b. al-Na dr . . al H h ala . arith). Cf. Tirmidh, S .ub, XIX, p. 91 (q . ah . . , XII, p. 229 > Qurt ll ah #azza wa-jalla: an a ahl an uttaq a fa-mani ttaq an fa-lam yaj #al ma # il ahan fa-an a ahl an aghra lahu). Title Hal at a is an alternative name for al-ins an. 613 Fas amahu see Najaf , p. 739, . l, p. 339, ll. 1415. For the reading im , no. 1 > Burh an, IV, p. 406, no. 1, Bih a r , XXIV, p. 327 , no. 42 ; Najaf . p. 739, no. 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 406, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 327, no. 43. . In the latter tradition the verse is interpreted as follows: yur d an yafjura am r al-mu"min n #alayhi l-sal am ya #n yak duhu. Al-N ur evidently regarded the yak duhu of ms. L as an error for bi-kaydihi (by his deceit). His emendation has been followed here. Isn ad : al-H : Khalaf b. Hamm ad is not recorded as transmitting . alab . from any scholar with this nisba (cf. Kh u" , VIII, pp. 406409). It is therefore not clear which Halab is meant here. . ud, Sunan, I, pp. 614 Mustadrak, IV, p. 180, no. 4435. Cf. Ab u D aw 233234, no. 884 (b ab al-du # a" f l-s at ); Ibn al-Durays, Fad a"il, p. 31, no. . . al . 13 (idh a qara"ta sabbih i sma rabbika al-a # l a [Q 87 : 1 ] wa-idh a qara"ta a. laysa dh alika bi-q adir #al a an yuh yiya l-mawt a [Q 75 : 40 ] fa-qul subh anaka . .

notes

255

wa-bal a); Tabar , XXIX, p. 201, XXX, p. 151; Ibn Muhakkam, IV, . . p. 445; Tha#lab , X, p. 92 (when Q 75:40 was revealed, the Prophet said: subh anaka wa-bal a praise be to You and You are indeed [able to . quicken the dead]); Bayhaq , Asm a", p. 21 (when Q 75:40 was revealed, the Prophet said: bal a); Tabris , XXIX, p. 134 (subh anaka ll ahumma wa. . bal a) > S a f , V, p. 258 ; Ibn Kath r, Tafs r , IV, p. 452 ; Suy u t , . Durr, VI, p. . 479 and the sources cited therein; 643. 615 Fas a"an bi-m a is attested seven times in the . l, p. 340, ll. 12. Jaz #Uthm anic codex. Juna da: the reference could be to Ab Isn ad : Abu u Jun ada al-A#m a, a transmitter from al-K azim (Quhp a" , VII, p. 20; Ardab l , II, pp. . 373374). According to al-Tustar (Rij al, XI, p. 262, no. 174) and alM amaq an (V, p. 9), he may be identical with Ab u Jun ada al-Sal ul (for u" (XXII, pp. 107108, no. 14080) tends to bewhom see 145*); al-Kh lieve that these are two dierent persons. See also 239*.Muhammad . b. Ja#far: this may be Ja#far al-S b aj (d. Sha#b an . adiqs son, known as D 203/Feb. 819), who (in 199/814815 or 200/815816) led a short-lived J ar ud Zayd revolt in the Hij un and, after its sup. az against al-Ma"m pression, was well treated by the caliph (Tabar , Ta"r kh, third series, pp. . 989995; al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , Ta"r kh Baghd ad, II, pp. 113115; Muf d, . a r , XLVII, pp. 243 244 , no. 2 ). He is credited Irsh ad, pp. 286287 > Bih . l, p. 129, note 4) which he transwith a text (nuskha; cf. Kohlberg, Us .u mitted from his father (Quhp a", V, p. 177; Ardab l , II, p. 86; cf. Tabar , . Ta"r kh, third series, p. 989 [k ana yarw l- #ilm #an ab hi ]). On the basis of this identication, #an ab hi #an Ab #Abdall ah has been emended to #an ab hi Ab #Abdall ah. ar, 616 See Najaf , p. 754, no. 1 > Burh an, IV, pp. 417418, no. 1, Bih . XXX, p. 262, no. 126. Al-Najaf has the same isn ad and matn as the four manuscripts of KQ, but with wa-l-r abi # between al-th alith and alkh amis, and ending with bi-am r al-mu"min n wa-l-a"imma #alayhim al-sal am (instead of bi-rusulihi ). While al-awwal, al-th an and al-th alith are regularly identied with the rst three caliphs respectively, the aliases al-r abi # and al-kh amis are less common. In one instance, the identity of those to whom these aliases refer can be established with the help of a tradition dealing with the events at Ghad r Khumm. This tradition is recorded in two versions: the rst includes the real names and the second, the aliases. According to the rst version, after the Prophets address nominating #Al as his successor, the rst to clasp the Prophets hand

256

notes

(or: the hand of the Prophet and of #Al ) (s afaq u) were Ab u Bakr, #Umar, . #Uthm an, Tal ha and al-Zubayr. They were followed by the rest of . . r (Ghul the Muh ajir un and Ans am Khall, Fad a"il am r al-mu"min n [for .a . which see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar, p. 155, no. 128] > Ibn T us, Yaq n, . aw p. 360; Tabar , Kit a b al-wal a ya [for which see Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar , . 304 ). In the pp. 178181, no. 171] > Ibn Jabr, Nahj, p. 112, Bay ad , I, p. . second version, these ve names are replaced by al-awwal wa-l-th an wa l-th alith wa-l-r abi # wa-l-kh amis (Tabris , Ih aj, p. 66 > S af , II, p. 167 [to . . . tij Q 5:67], Bih ar, XXXVII, p. 217, no. 86). Cf. also Kul n , II, p. 600, no. . 8; Ibn Mans u r al-Yaman, Kashf , p. 10 ( al-r a bi # Tal h a ). Al-r abi #, however, is . . . on occasion used to refer to a person other than Tal ash , I, . ha; . see #Ayy abir < al-B aqir) > Bih ar, XXX, p. 217, no. 81, Fas p. 279, no. 286 (J . . l, p. 326, ll. 56, where those who believed and then disbelieved (alladh na aman u thumma kafar u) (Q 4:137) are said to be hum a (i.e. Ab u Bakr and #Umar) wa-l-th alith wa-l-r abi # wa- #Abd al-Rah an wa-Tal . h . m . a. For further enumerations see Qumm , II, p. 449 > Bih ar, XXX, pp. 406407, no. 3 . (to Q 113:1) (in the printed edition of Qumm , the words al-awwal wa-lash , II, p. 243, no. 19 th an wa-l-th alith wa-l-r abi # are censored out); #Ayy (Ab u Bas r < alS a diq) > Bi h a r , XXX, p. 233 , no. 97 . In sum, here the . . . fourth and the fth may well be Tal . ha . and al-Zubayr, but this is not entirely certain. For a dierent interpretation of Q 77:1619 see Kul n , I, p. 435, no. 91 > Bih a r , XXIV, p. 339 , no. 59 ; Najaf , p. 754 , no. 2 . . s: Ab Isn ad : al-#Abba u l-Fadl as b. Ma#r uf, a Qumm client . al-#Abb an b. #Abdall ah al-Ash#ar and a transmitter (mawl a) of Ja#far b. #Imr from al-Rid ad (Quhp a" , III, pp. 250251; Ardab l , I, pp. . a and al-H 433434). For his transmission from Ism a# l (i.e. Ab u Hamm am Ism a# l b. Hamm am) see Ardab l , I, p. 104. 617 Najaf , p. 755, no. 4. See Burh an, IV, p. 418, no. 2, Bih ar, XXX, . p. 262, no. 127 (both from Najaf ). 618 For the reading yatadhakkar see Jeery, p. 145 (Ubayy, Ab u Nah k, d al-N b. D aw ud/Du"a aj alAb u l-Mutawakkil [i.e. the Successor #Al Bas , d. 102/720721 or 108/726727; see Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b, VII, p. . .r 318]); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 86, Zamakhshar , II, p. 518, Qurt ub , XI, p. . 131 (Ubayy). For this and the following tradition cf. Qumm , II, p. 398 (lam yakun f l- #ilm wa-l a f l-dhikr wa-f h th akhar: k ana f l- #ilm wa-lam . ad yakun f l-dhikr ) > Burh an, IV, p. 410, no. 8, Huwayz , V, p. 468, no. 8 . n , I, p. 147, no. 5; Madelung, EIr, art. Bad a", at (to Q 76:1); Kul p. 354b. See the discussion in Tabris , XXIX, p. 141 ; M a zandar an , .

notes

257

IV, p. 244; Turay h , I, pp. 640641; Tab a" , M z an, XX, pp. 136 . . . at .ab 137. According to al-S a diqs interpretation, Q 76 : 1 (lam yakun shay"an . madhk uran) refers to a stage at which mans creation formed a part of Gods knowledge but did not yet form a part of His dhikr. This word is n, and this is presumably what occasionally used to refer to the Qur"a is meant here: at the stage referred to in Q 76:1, mans creation was n. Q 19:67 refers to a still earlier stage. not yet mentioned in the Qur"a The account at 619 claries that at this earlier stage mans creation was a part neither of Gods knowledge nor of His dhikr. The change from the situation described in Q 19:67 to the one described in Q 76:1 came about as a result of bad a" (cf. 351). Al-S . adiqs interpretation of these two verses conforms to the view of Hish am b. al-Hakam and his . school, according to which God does not know things before they come into existence (because knowledge of the future existence of the nonexistent is impossible). That the dhikr is not eternal poses no problem n as kal since according to early Sh # doctrine the Qur"a am all ah is muh uq (uncreated) (cf. Kohlberg, . dath (originated in time), not ghayr makhl Bar a"a, p. 159; Madelung, Contribution, pp. 123124; van Ess, TG, I, pp. 373374). 619 See 618. For the expression bad a li-ll ah see 351, 550.

Title #Amma yatas a"al un and kuwwirat are alternative names for al-naba" and al-takw r respectively. 620 For tur abiyyan see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, pp. 6162; Qumm , aban q ala tur abiyyan ay #alawiyyan) > Huwayz , V, p. 496 , no. II, p. 402 (tur . 35 (but with q ala tur abiyyan omitted); Nu#m an , Tafs r, p. 27 (cited in BarAsher, Readings, p. 72), with the canonical tur aban interpreted as an instance of tah f ; #Al b. Ahmad al-K uf (d. 352/963), Kit ab al-radd #al a . . r ahl al-tabd l > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 110 (erroneously printed u las tur aban) > Bih ar, XXXV, p. 60, no. 12, Fas . l, p. 340, ll. 910; Ab . Fut uh, aban); Fas . XI, p. 379 (erroneously printed as tur . l, p. 24, l. 5. Cf. Ibn al-Juh , p. 761, no. 10 > Burh an, IV, p. 423, no. 1, Bih ar, . am > Najaf . VII, p. 194, no. 58, XXIV, p. 262, no. 19 (with the verse cited according to the #Uthm anic codex). For tur abiyyan (belonging to the party of Ab u Tur ab, i.e. of #Al ) see Kohlberg, Ab u Tur ab, p. 351. Cf. 621. rija: Ab ru n b. Kha u l-Hasan H ar un b. Kh arija, a K ufan Isn a d : Ha . transmitter from al-S a diq. Ya hy a b. # Imr a n alHalab (for whom see . . . 38*) transmitted from him (Modarressi, TS, pp. 249250).

258

notes

621 See Najaf , p. 761, no. 11 (but with the verse as in the #Uthm anic codex) > Burh an, IV, p. 423, no. 2, Bih a r , VII, p. 194 , no. 59 , XXIV, pp. . 262263, no. 20. Cf. 322, 620. 622 Al-s ahira, when understood as a toponym, is often said to be a place in Syria or a mountain near Jerusalem at which the Resurrection will take place (see e.g. Tabar , XXX, pp. 3738, Qurt , XIX, p. . .ub 200). It does not appear to be identied elsewhere with al-K ufa or with al-dhirwa/al-dhurwa al-h a" (the red peak). . amr #Abd al-Rahm n al-H " al-A#raj: Ab u #Abd alIsn ad : Abu . a . adhdha Rahm ub b. #At a" al-A#raj, a transmitter from al. an Ayy . .iyya al-Hadhdh S a" , I, p. 246; Ardab l , I, p. 112, II, p. 397). . adiq (Quhp 623 Fas th may be incomplete: in similar . l, p. 341, ll. 12. This h . ad traditions, both the Im am reading and the reading of the #Uthm anic codex are given, with the Imam pointing out that the latter is the result of tah f (see 505, 593, 605; cf. 663). Here the verse is cited only once. . r Since the dierence between the two readings is in this case limited to the vocalization, and since the manuscripts are unvocalized, it cannot be established which reading is being cited. If it is the Im am reading, then this is presumably tus a and tulahh a, corresponding to what is . add ascribed to al-B aqir elsewhere (see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 169; Ibn Jinn , II, p. 352, with an explanation at pp. 352353; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 218; Tabris , XXX, p. 29 > S af , V, p. 285, Huwayz , V, p. 510, no. 6, Fas . . . . l, p. 341, ll. 23). For the reading tulahh a see also Jeery, p. 176 (Ubayy) (but according to Ibn al-Jawz , VIII, p. 201, Ubayys reading was tulh a). 624 Fas . l, p. 341, ll. 78. The reading al-mawadda (here and at 629) only appears in ms. M. For this reading see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, n , I, p. 294, no. 10; Murtad a , Am a l , IV, p. 190 ( fa-amm a man p. 62; Kul . qara"a al-mawadda bi-fath al-m m wa-l-w a w fa# al a anna l-mur a d al-ra h . . im wa-l-qar aba); Tabris , XXX, pp. 38, 39 (al-B aqir, al-S as) . . adiq, Ibn #Abb > Najaf , p. 765, no. 1, Burh an, IV, p. 431, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 255, . Huwayz , V, p. 514, no. 8; Turay h , III, p. 1898 (wa- #an al-S adiq: wa-idh a . . . . l-mawadda su"ilat, bi-fath al-m m wa-l-w a w ). For a defense of the reading . al-mawadda see Fas . l, p. 342, l. 9p. 343, l. 5. See also the discussion in Bar-Asher, Readings, p. 45; idem, Scripture, pp. 105, 193, note 295. See 625, 626, 629.

notes

259

625 See Najaf , p. 767, no. 10 > Burh an, IV, p. 432, no. 13, Bih ar, . XXIII, p. 255, no. 6; Fas l , p. 341 , ll. 17 18 (probably from Najaf ). Cf. . Ibn Q ulawayh, K amil, p. 134, no. 155 (nazalat f l-Husayn b. #Al ) > Bih ar, . . XLIV, p. 220, no. 13, Fas . l, p. 342, ll. 68. See 624, 626, 629. 626 Fas , p. 766, no. 4 (from which it was . l, p. 341, ll. 89. See Najaf added by the editor of Sulaym [Kit ab, p. 470]) > Burh an, IV, p. 432, no. 15, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 255, no. 7; Tabris , XXX, p. 39; Najaf , p. 766, no. . . 2 > Burh an, IV, p. 431, no. 2, Bih a r , XXIII, p. 255 , no. 7 ; Turay h , III, . . . p. 1898. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 407 (man qutila f mawaddatin a) > S a f , V, p. . , V, 291, Burh an, IV, p. 432, no. 8, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 254, no. 1, Huwayz . . p. 515, no. 14; Fur at, II, p. 542, no. 693 > Bih ar, XXIII, p. 256, no. 10; . Bar-Asher, Scripture, p. 106. See 71*, 624, 625, 629. h b. al-Qa sim: #Abdall Isn ad : #Abdalla ah b. al-Q asim b. al-H . arith al Ha dram known as al-Ba t al, a transmitter from al-K a zim who joined . . . . the W aqifa after the death of the Imam (Modarressi, TS, pp. 155 l-H 157).Abu : there are three K ufan transmitters from . asan al-Azd al-S a diq of this name: (i) Ab u lHasan/ Husayn #Amr/#Umar b. Shad. . . a " , IV, p. 261; Ardab l , d ad al-Azd (T u s , Rij a l , p. 254 , no. 501 ; Quhp . I, pp. 622623, 635); (ii) Ab u l-Hasan Miskn al-Azd al-Zaydal (T . . us, Rij al, p. 316, no. 585; Quhp a" , VI, p. 88; Ardab l , I, p. 229); (iii) Ab u l-Hasan Thuwayr b. # Im a ra/ # Amm a r al-Azd ( T u s , Rij a l , p. 161 , no. 12 ; . . Quhp a" , p. 304; Ardab l , I, p. 142). 627 Fas . l, p. 343, ll. 56. For the reading bi-zan . n see Jeery, pp. 108, d, Ibn #Abb 207, 225, 229, 233, 252, 284 (Ibn Mas#u as, Zayd b. Th abit, "isha, Sa# Ibn al-Zubayr, #A d b. Jubayr, Muj ahid); Muq atil, III, p. 457; d, Ibn al#Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. 353 (the Prophet, Ibn Mas#u Zubayr); Tabar , XXX, pp. 8283 (Ibn #Abb as, Sa# d b. Jubayr and . others); Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 478 (#Abd al-Rahm . . an al-A#raj [i.e. the ud #Abd al-Rahm , Successor Ab u D aw . an b. Hurmuz al-A#raj al-Madan d. 117/735 or 119/737; see Ibn al-Jazar, I, p. 381, no. 1622] and the K ufans); M atur d , X, p. 438; Ibn Muj ahid, p. 673 (Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, al-Kis a" ); Nah ab, V, p. 163 (Ibn #Abb as, #Abdall ah b. . h . as, I #r "isha, Ibn Kath al-Zubayr, #A r, Ab u #Amr, al-Kis a" ); Ibn Kh alawayh, (Ibn Mas # u d, Ibn Kath r, Ab u Hujja , p. 336 ; Samarqand , III, p. 552 . #Amr, al-Kis a" ); H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. 636, no. 3050 (the Prophet); d, #Urwa b. al-Zubayr, #Umar Tha#lab , X, pp. 142143 (Ibn Mas#u b. #Abd al-#Az z, Ibn #Abb as in the transmission of Sa# d b. Jubayr); d); Tabris Zamakhshar , IV, p. 225 (the codex of Ibn Mas#u , XXX, p. .

260

notes

43 (Ibn Kath r, al-Kis a" , the Bas u l-Fut uh, . XII, p. .rans except Sahl); Ab d and others); Ibn al-Jawz 10 (Ibn Mas#u , VIII, p. 212 (Ibn Kath r, Ab u #Amr, al-Kis a", Ruways); Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 426. Cf. Ibn Wahb, . J ami #/ #Ul um, pp. 263264 (fol 10a ll. 16), Muf d, Sarawiyya, p. 84 > Bih a r , XCII, p. 75 , where both zan n and d an n are cited. According to . . . a j changed eleven words an account in Ibn Ab D aw ud (p. 118), al-Hajj . (h anic codex (far less than is imputed to him elsewhere; . arf ) in the #Uthm see Introduction, pp. 1920); one was zan n. . an . n, which he changed to d See 628. Isn ad : There seems to be just one other tradition where Zur ara transmits to his brother Humr an (T ar, IV, p. 201, no. 755 = . . us, Istibs . idem, Tahdh b, X, p. 5, no. 15; noted in Kh u" , VIII, p. 452). It is much more common for Zur ara to transmit to a son of Humr an (usually . Muhammad or Hamza). . . 628 Fas . l, p. 343, ll. 67. For zan . n in the sense of muttaham (sus pected) see Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 263 (fol 10a l. 5); Tabar , XXX, . pp. 8283; Sijist an , Ghar b, p. 137; M atur d , X, p. 438; Muf d, Sarawiy ya, p. 84 > Bih ar, XCII, p. 75; Tha#lab , X, p. 143; Tabris , XXX, p. 43. . . See 627. r b. H 629 Fas ad : Mans . azim .u . l, p. 341, ll. 910. For this tradition (isn aqir) see Najaf , p. 766, no. 5 (but reading al-maw" uda) > < rajul < al-B Burh an, IV, p. 432, no. 16, Bih ar, XXIII, p. 255, no. 8. See also Najaf , . p. 766, no. 3, citing Qumm (but it is not found in the printed edition). See 624626. 630 The statement m a li-ll ah naba" a #zam minn (God has no tiding . mightier than me) is occasionally cited from #Al on the authority of alRid , II, p. 401 > Burh an, IV, p. 419, no. 4, Bih ar, XXXVI, . a; see Qumm . a r , p. 1, no. 2; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 80 > Bih . XXXVI, p. 3, no. 7. In a somewhat dierent formulation it is also cited from #Al on the authority of al-B aqir; see Bas a"ir, pp. 7677, no. 3 > Burh an, IV, . p. 419, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVI, pp. 12, no. 3; Fur at, II, pp. 533534, . nos. 685686 > Hask a n , II, p. 317 , nos. 1072 1073 ; Kul n , I, p. 207, . , Burh a n , IV, p. 419 , no. 1. no. 3 > Najaf , p. 757, no. 1, S a f , V, p. 273 . Title Infa. tarat and inshaqqat are alternative names for al-in. t ar and alinshiq aq respectively.

notes

261

631 Fas , XXX, p. 51 > Burh an, IV, p. 436, no. . . l, p. 343, l. 8. See Tabris 2, Bih a r , VII, p. 95 , Fa s l , p. 343 , l. 9 ( # Amr b. Shamir < J abir < al-B aqir: . . inna l-amr yawma"idhin wa-l-yawm kullahu/kulluhu li-ll ah). Cf. Q 3:154 (inna l-amr kullahu [kulluhu in the reading of Ab u #Amr] li-ll ah). 632 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 216, Tabar , XXIII, p. 20, Tabris , XXIII, p. . . al ). In ms. B the nal word 33 (all to Q 36:56) (al-ar a"ik al-surur #alayh a l-h . ij is written in a larger script, has a shadda above the j m, and is followed by bn. The scribe evidently took al-h -j-a-l to be the beginning of the next . tradition, with a (non-existent) al-Hajj a l b. Dh-r# a as its transmitter. . n b. Sa lim: #Abd al-Rahm Isn ad : #Abd al-Rahm alim b. #Abd . a . an b. S r, a K al-Rahm ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and . an al-Ashall al-#At .t .a al-S a" , IV, p. 79; Ardab l , I, pp. 450451). . adiq (Quhp tabaq is glossed as 633 Cf. Tabris , XXX, p. 69, where . tabaqan #an . . amran ba #da amr ; thus also al-Hasan (i.e. al-Bas ) (Qurt , XIX, p. 279). . .r .ub nic verb may be la-tarkabanna (since al-rajul is a noun in the The Qur"a singular) or la-tarkabunna (since the denite article in al-rajul indicates the genus [li-ta #r f al-jins; cf. Wright, II, p. 318, note]). The latter is attested in the #Uthm anic codex. For la-tarkabanna see Ibn Muj ahid, p. 677 (Ibn Kath r, Hamza and al-Kis a" ); Nah ab, V, p. 188 (Ibn . . h . as, I #r d, al-Sha#b #Abb as, Ibn Mas#u , Muj ahid, al-A#mash, Hamza, al-Kis a" ); . , Ibn Muh ay s in , p. 384 ; Tabris , XXX, p. 69 (Ibn # Abb a s); Ibn Ahw az . . . #At r, Hamza, al-Kis a" and others); Qurt , . .iyya, V, p. 459 (Ibn Kath .ub d, Ibn #Abb XIX, p. 278 (Ab u #Amr, Ibn Mas#u as, Ab u l-#Aliya, Masr uq "isha Masr [i.e. Ab u #A uq b. al-Ajda# al-Hamd an al-K uf , a disciple of d, d. 63/682683; see Ibn al-Jazar Ibn Mas#u , II, p. 294, no. 3591], Ab u u W a"il Shaqq b. Salama al-K uf al-Asad, d. 82/701; see W a"il [i.e. Ab Ibn al-Jazar , I, p. 328, no. 1429], Muj ahid, al-Nakha# , al-Sha#b , Ibn Kath r, Hamza, al-Kis a" ). See 634. . Isn ad : Zur#a: Ab u Muhammad Zur#a b. Muhammad al-Ha , a . . . dram . K ufan transmitter from al-S azim aqifa . who joined the W . adiq and al-K after al-K azims death. Zur#a accompanied Sam a#a b. Mihr an (for . am of the mosque of the whom see 78*) and succeeded him as im Ha d a rima in K u fa (Kohlberg, U s u l, p. 147 ; Modarressi, TS, p. 403). . . . 634 This may be an allusion to those who switched their allegiance from #Al to the rst three caliphs and then thought that this is as it ought to be (fa-yar a annahu ka-dh alika). Thus, in a gloss on Q 84:19 alB aqir is said to have told his disciple Zur ara: After their Prophet died,

262

notes

did not this community journey on from stage to stage concerning the matter of so-and-so, so-and-so and so-and-so? (a-wa-lam tarkab h adhihi l-umma ba #da nabiyyih a. tabaqan #an . tabaq f amr ful an wa-ful an wa-ful an?) (see Qumm , II, p. 413 > S af , V, p. 306, Burh an, IV, p. 444, no. 6, Bih ar, . . XXVIII, p. 9, no. 13; Kul n , I, p. 415, no. 17 > S a f , V, p. 306 , Burh a n, . IV, p. 444, no. 7, Bih a r XXIV, p. 350 , no. 64 , XXXI, p. 609 , no. 70 , . , V, p. 539, no. 21). See 633. Huwayz . 635 According to one interpretation of Q 83:2936, the believers are #Al and his followers (see Hask an , II, p. 328, no. 1085; Tabris , XXX, . . p. 61; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 233 > Bih ar, XXXIX, p. 224, . no. 1). 636 Fas . l, p. 343, ll. 1011, 13. As can be seen from the apparatus to this and the following tradition, there are several possible readings of Q 85:4: (i) bin a qutila as ab al-ukhd ud (the people of the trench .h . were killed because of us). Here the as ab al-ukhd ud are presumably .h . # s), who were punished the enemies of the believers (i.e. of the Sh for their cruelty towards them (for as ab al-ukhd ud as unbelievers see .h . 2 ud [R. Paret]; in e.g. Qurt . ab al-ukhd .h .ub, XIX, p. 294, EI , art. As general EQ, art. People of the Ditch [R. Tottoli]; DC, art. Gens dUkhd ud [Genevive Gobillot]). (ii) bim a qutila as ab al-ukhd ud (why .h . [or how] were the people of the trench killed?). The as h a b ud . . al-ukhd here could be either the evildoers or the believers. (iii) bim a qatala as ab .h . al-ukhd ud (why [or how] did the people of the trench kill?). (iv) qatala as ab al-ukhd ud. Support for this qir a"a is found in a tradition according .h . to which a man recited Q 85:4 in the version of the #Uthm anic codex (qutila as ab al-ukhd ud ) but was corrected by al-S . adiq, who recited: q.h . ab al-ukhd ud (R awand , Qis ar, XIV, p. t-l as . as . , p. 247, no. 291 > Bih . .h . 439, no. 2). Al-Majlis suggests that the Imams reading was qatala, and that the as ab al-ukhd ud are the unbelievers (Bih ar, XIV, p. 440 [bay an]). .h . . According to Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 66, the reading of the Imam was q-t-l (presumably qatala) as ab al-ukhd ud ; in the version of Sa#d cited .h . ab al-ukhd ud. For the in Fas l , p. 343 , l. 14 , the reading is bi-m a q-t-l as . .h . reading al-khud ud see 637*. Ill a annahum aman u does not appear to be recorded elsewhere; it resembles the reading ill a an aman u, for which see Jeery, p. 176 (Ubayy); Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 64 > Fas . l, p. 343, l. 15 (al-S . adiq). See 637, 638. s Isn ad : #A : unidentied. Perhaps the correct form of the .im al-Qumm s nisba is al-Dabb ; the reference would then be to #A an . .im b. Sulaym

notes

263

al-K uz /al-Dabb , a Bas . .ran transmitter from al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 211212). 637 Fas ud (sing. khadd, a syn. l, p. 343, ll. 1112. The reading al-khud onym of ukhd ud, see Lane, s.v.) attested in ms. B is in fact ascribed to al-S . adiq (Jeery, p. 337). See 636, 638. 638 Fas . l, p. 343, ll. 1516. See 636, 637. Isn ad : for Khalaf b. Hamm ad < H ar un b. Kh arija see 620. . 639 Fas a"u is indicated . l, p. 343, l. 16. That the reading here is wa-l-sam in ms. T, where a d . amma is written above the nal hamza. The Imams name is omitted from the manuscripts, but he may well be al-S . adiq, since this reading is ascribed to him elsewhere (see Jeery, p. 337; according to Jeery, this is also the reading of Ibn Qays and Ab u Ha n [i.e. Ab u Ha n #Uthm an b. #As al-K uf , d. 127/744 . s . s . . .im al-Asad 745 or 132/749750; see Ibn al-Jazar , I, pp. 505506, no. 2094]). As noted by Jeery, the reading wa-l-sam a"u entails maintaining the raf # throughout Q 86:1112. This reading presumably means that the text does not comprise an oath. Translation: The heaven of the returning n] is rain and the earth splitting with verdure ([witness that] this [Qur"a a conclusive word). See 640, 641. 640 Fas . l, p. 343, l. 17. See 639, 641.

641 It is not clear whether the reading intended here is the same as at 639 (and 640). For the tradition cf. Qumm , II, p. 416 > S af , V, p. . 314, Burh an, IV, p. 449, no. 3. The interpretation of raj # as rain (ma. tar ) is said to have been adopted by most exegetes (see Tabris , XXX, p. 84; . Qurt , XX, p. 10). .ub 642 This reading is ascribed to Ubayy (see Jeery, p. 177).

643 Mustadrak, IV, p. 180, no. 4434. See Tabris , XXX, p. 85 > S af , . . V, p. 318. Cf. Muj ahid, Tafs r, p. 722 (the Prophet tells the believers to ana rabb l-a #l a after reciting Q 87:1); #Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. say subh . 367 (after reciting Q 87:1 Ibn #Abb as would say: subh ana rabb l-a #l a); Ab u . D aw ud, Sunan, I, p. 233, no. 883; Qumm , II, p. 416; Tabar , XXX, p. . 151 (after reciting Q 87:1 the Prophet, #Al , Ibn #Abb as and Ibn #Umar I # r a b , V, p. 204; Ibn Shu#ba, would say: subh a na rabb l-a # l a ); Na h h a s, .. .

264

notes

Tuh , X, p. 183; Tabris , XXX, p. 85 > Mustadrak, IV, . . af, p. 84; Tha#lab p. 182, no. 4440; Ibn Kath r, Tafs r, IV, p. 499. For sabbih . i sma rabbika Ubayy read subh ana rabb (Jeery, p. 177, Qurt .ub, XX, p. 14), as did . #Al , Ibn #Umar and Ibn al-Zubayr (Jeery, pp. 191, 229). Cf. 614*. d, but 644 Fas . l, p. 343, ll. 1921. This reading is ascribed to Ibn Mas#u for Q 56:16 (see Tabar , XXVII, p. 173 > Suy ut . ., Durr, VI, p. 219). Cf. the reading muttaki" n f h a n a #im n which is recorded (for Q 88:16) on the authority of Tal # b. Khuthaym (see Jeery, pp. 266, 311) and . ha, . al-Rab the K ufan Mans u r b. al-Mu #tamir (d. 133/750751; see Ibn al-Jazar , II, . ut , pp. 314315, no. 3662; for his reading see Qurt . .ub, XX, p. 34; Suy Durr, VI, p. 574, citing Ibn al-Anb ar , al-Mas ah n . . if ). The reading muttaki" f h a n a #im n f h a is ascribed to Sa# d b. Jubayr (see Jeery, p. 252; Suy ut , . Durr, VI, p. 574). See 645. h al-Ka hil Isn ad : #Abdalla : Ab u Muhammad #Abdall ah b. Yahy . . a al-K ahil , a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim . (Kohlberg, . adiq and al-K l, pp. 143, 155; Modarressi, TS, pp. 162163). Us .u 645 Fas . l, p. 343, l. 21. See 644.

646 A dierent Sh # reading of this verse is wa- #Aliyyan h abuhum (Ibn . is Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 107; reproduced as wa- #alayn ah abuhum in . is Bih a r , XXXV, p. 59 , no. 12 ). Sunn exegetes take this nal verse of S ura . 88 to mean that on the Day of Resurrection the unbelievers will return to God to be judged by Him (see e.g. Tabar , XXX, p. 167; Qurt , . .ub XX, p. 38); and this is also the position of some Im am exegetes (e.g. T , X, p. 339; Tabris , XXX, p. 98). Other Im am s, in contrast, . us . maintain that it is the Imams (according to 646, the ahl al-bayt ) who will act as judges, but they dier as to whom the Imams will judge: according to some, it will be all of mankind (al-khalq) (see 647; Fur at, II, pp. 551552, no. 706; Kul n , VIII, p. 162, no. 167 > S a f , V, p. 323 , . Huwayz , V, p. 568, no. 30; Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, II, p. 279 > Bih ar, . . CII, p. 129, no. 4 [inna ilayn a iy ab h adh a l-khalq wa- #alayn a h abuhum]; . is Najaf , pp. 789792, nos. 811, emphasizing #Al s role as determining the fate of every person [qas m al-janna wa-l-n ar ]); according to others, it will be the Sh # s (see Ibn al-Juh , pp. 788789, nos. 47). . am > Najaf 647 See 646.

notes

265

648 Fas a Muh . l, p. 343, l. 22p. 344, l. 1. For il . ammad wa-ahl baytihi see Kul n , III, pp. 127128, no. 2 > S a f , V, p. 328 , Burh an, IV, pp. 460461, . no. 2, Bih ar, VI, p. 196, no. 49, LXI, p. 48, no. 24, Huwayz , V, p. 577, . . no. 28, Fas u #a (unhindered; . l, p. 344, ll. 610; the reading ghayr mamn cf. Q 56:33) does not appear to be recorded elsewhere. For further at, II, pp. 553554, no. 708 > Fas readings of Q 89:2730 see Fur . l, p. 344, ll. 14; Ibn B abawayh, Fad a"il, p. 74 > Najaf, pp. 796797, no. 9, . Burh an, IV, p. 461, no. 10, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 94, no. 7. . 649 Khuliqa (for khalaqn a) attested in mss. L, T and B is not recorded elsewhere and may be a scribal error (brought about perhaps by khuliqa l-ins an at Q 4:28, 21:37). Kabad is usually taken to mean distress (see WKAS, I, p. 18b), but is also glossed as istiq ama (in addition to KQ see 62 ) or intis ab (both meaning e.g. Tabris , XXX, p. 118 , Qur t ub , XX, p. . . . straightness) (see Barq , II, p. 304, no. 14 > Bih a r , LX, p. 342, no. 23; . Qumm , II, p. 422 > Bih ar, IX, p. 251, no. 157; Tabar , XXX, p. 197; . . M atur d , X, p. 531; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 495, no. 1; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 254). It does not appear to be explained elsewhere as . t ul (length, height). Isn ad : Since al-Q asim b. Yahy . a transmitted only from his grandfaasim b. Yah a #an #Al is in all likether al-Hasan b. R ashid (see 29*), al-Q . . y lihood an error. In contrast, the isn ad al-Q asim b. Muhammad < #Al . b. Ab Hamza < Ab u Ba s r is widely attested (see e.g. Kul n , I, p. 178 , . . no. 6, III, p. 303, no. 9, p. 340, no. 11). The text has been emended accordingly. 650 Mustadrak, VII, pp. 247248, no. 8162, XVI, p. 246, no. 19750. For this tradition see Kul n , IV, p. 4, no. 10 (ending) (Muhammad b. . a"il, #Umar b. Yaz d < Ab u l-Hasan al-Rid al-#Amil , Was . . . a) > al-Hurr IV/1, p. 261, no. 12281, Huwayz , V, p. 582, no. 19. Cf. Barq , II, p. 389, . no. 20; Kul n , IV, p. 52, no. 12 > S a f , V, p. 331 . Cf. 651 . . Isn ad : Muhammad b. #Umar b. Yaz d: Muhammad b. #Umar b. Yaz d . . Bayy a# al-S abur , a transmitter from al-K azim and al-Rid a" , . . a (Quhp VI, pp. 1213; Ardab l , II, pp. 164165). 651 Najaf , p. 799, no. 6. See Burh an, IV, p. 465, no. 9, Bih ar, XXIV, . p. 281, no. 3 (both from Najaf ). Cf. Qumm , II, p. 422 (al- #aqaba ala"imma man s a fakka raqabatahu min al-n ar ); Fur at, II, p. 558, no. . a #idah 714; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, II, p. 155 (fakk raqabatihi ya #n wal ayat am r al-mu"min n fa-inna dh alika fakk raqabatihi ). Cf. Kul n , I, p. 422, no. 49

266

notes

(fakk raqaba glossed as wal ayat am r al-mu"min n), pp. 430431, no. 88. For the twin concepts of wal aya and bar a"a (allegiance to the Imams and dissociation from their enemies) see Kohlberg, Bar a"a, pp. 145151. Cf. 650. Isn ad : for the isn ad Muhammad b. #Umar < Ab u Bakr al-Ha < . . dram . al-S a diq (in Najaf ) see also 654 . . 652 Fas . l, p. 344, ll. 1213. For this reading see Jeery, p. 178 (Ubayy); idem, Zaid b. #Al , p. 235 (Zayd); Ibn Muj ahid, p. 689, Samarqand , an , p. 223, Qurt ub , XX, p. 80 (N a # , Ibn # Amir); Tabar , III, p. 586, D . . XXX, p. 216 ( # ammat qurr a" al-Hij am wa-kadh alika dh alika . az wa-l-Sh f mas ah , X, p. 215 (ahl al-Hij am wa-ka-dh alika . az wa-l-Sh . . ihim); Tha#lab a z ); Ibn huwa f mas a h ihim ); Na h h a s, I # r a b , V, pp. 239 240 ( ahl alHij . . . . . Kh alawayh, Hujja , pp. 344 345 ; D a n , Muqni # , pp. 108 ( ma s a h if ahl al . . . Mad na wa-l-Sh am), 109; Ibn #At iyya, V, p. 489 (N a # , Ibn # Amir, al-A # raj, . ahl al-Hij na wa-l-Sh am); Tabris , . . az, Ubayy, the codices of ahl al-Mad XXX, p. 124 (ahl al-Mad na, Ibn #Amir, mas ah na wa-l-Sh am) . . if ahl al-Mad >S af , V, pp. 334335; Ab u l-Fut uh, . XII, p. 102 (the Medinese and Ibn . #Amir); Ibn al-Jawz , VIII, p. 273 (Ab u Ja#far, N a#, Ibn #Amir, mas ah . . if ahl al-Mad na wa-l-Sh am); #Ukbar, p. 541 (wa-quri"a -l-f a" #al a annah a li-l#a. tf min ghayr muhla, i.e. there is an uninterrupted connection between two events, cf. Wright, I, pp. 290291, Lane, s.v. [the letter] f a", p. 2321b); Ab u Hayy a n, VIII, p. 476 (Ubayy, al-A # raj, N a # , Ibn # Amir); . a Cook, Codex, pp. 96, 103; idem, Stemma, p. 93. See 653. Fa-l of mus na vs. wa-l a of mus .h . af al-Mad .h . af al-Bas . ra is one of the dierences between the two codices noted by al-Ruhn (Muqaddim at #ilm al-qur" an > Ibn T a w u s, Sa # d , p. 280 ; cf. Farr a " , III, pp. 269 270 , whence Beck, . Kodizesvarianten, p. 362; Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 157, no. 717; Ibn . Ab D aw ud, pp. 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 47; 140*, 499*). 653 Fas . l, p. 344, ll. 1314. See 652. j: al-Salt Isn ad : S b. al-Hajj al-K uf , a . ajja . aj al-Sayraf . alt b. al-H . . transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S a" , III, p. 222; Ardab l , . adiq (Quhp I, p. 417). 654 Mustadrak, IV, p. 220, no. 4539. For al-S adisiyya see . adiq at al-Q also 682. S urat al-shams (comprising 15 verses) is said to have been revealed immediately before S urat al-bur uj (comprising 22 verses). See il , pp. 33 34 , no. 17 ( # Umar b. H ar un < #Uthm an b. Ibn al-Durays, Fa d a " . . #At a " < his father [i.e. # A t a " al-Khur a s a n ] < Ibn # Abb a s); Ibn al-Nad m, . .

notes

267

Fihrist, p. 28 (citing Muj ahid); Tabris , XXIX, p. 139 (to Q 76:110); . Shahrast an , Maf at h , pp. 129 , 130 ; Zarkash , I, p. 193. There are sev. n to eral views on the relationship between the portions of the Qur"a be recited in the rst and the second rak #as (prayer units): (i) The impli cation of Ab u Bakr al-Ha s question is that the portion of the . dram . n recited in the rst rak #a should be longer than the portion Qur"a recited in the second rak #a. This view was upheld by various Sunn scholars (see T , Khil af, I, p. 338) and was endorsed by some Im am s . us ab ta. tw l qir a"at al(see e.g. al-Shah d al-Awwal, Dhikr a, III, p. 343 [istih . b rak #a al- ul a #al a l-th aniya]). The Im am position as laid out by al-T is . us that the portion of the Qur"an recited in each of the two rak #as may be of equal length (yaj uz an yusaww a bayna l-rak #atayn f miqd ar al-s uratayn allatayn tuqra" an f him a ba #da l-h amd ) ( T u s , Khil a f , I, pp. 338 339 ). (ii) Al. . Shah d al-Awwal refers to the principle that a S ura that is closer to the beginning of the mus .h . af is to be recited before one that is farther from the beginning. He maintains that although such a principle is scholars, it seems to be supported by traditions listunknown to Im am ing the S uras which should be read out in each rak #a (wa-amm a kawn al-s ura al-th aniya ba #da l- ul a #al a tart b al-mus h af fa-l a ta # rifuhu l-a s h a a .. . . b fa-l yukrahu #indahum al-taqd m wa-l-ta"kh r, na #am al-riw ay at al-mutad . ammina lil-ta #y n gh alibuh a #al a tart b al-qur" an) (Dhikr a, III, p. 344). (iii) The posi tion upheld by the Imam in his reply to Ab u Bakr al-Ha is . dram . that S uras which were revealed earlier are to be recited before those which were revealed later. This only tallies with the principle referred to by al-Shah d al-Awwal if it is assumed that the Imam was refer n and that he upheld ring to the original arrangement of the Qur"a the doctrine that this arrangement followed a chronological order (cf. 96*). h Isn ad : See 651*.Ibra m b. Nas ah m b. Nas a# al.r: Ibr .r b. al-Qa#q Ju#f , a K ufan transmitter from al-S a diq and al-K a zim (Quhp a " , I, p. . . 76; Ardab l , I, p. 36). 655 For the reading all ahu kh aliqu al-dhakari see Jeery, p. 354 (Ubayy, Ibn Qays, Ab u Mijlaz). See 656, 659. Isn ad : al-Ahwal : the reference is probably to Ab u Ja#far Muhammad . . Sayraf al-Ahwal known b. #Al b. al-Nu#m an b. Ab Turayfa al-Bajal al. . . n (or Mu"min) al-T as Shayt . aq, a prominent mutakallim and a trans.a mitter from Zayn al-#Abid n, al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (van Ess, TG, I, pp. n b. Sina n: 336342 and index; Modarressi, TS, pp. 338339).Sina Sin an b. Sin an mawl a Quraysh Ab u #Abdall ah al-Shayb an al-Azraq

268

notes

m, a transmitter from al-B Bayy a# al-Ta aqir and al-S l , I, . #a . adiq (Ardab p. 388; see the discussion in Kh u" , IX, pp. 323325, no. 5575). 656 Fas . l, p. 344, l. 17. See 655, 659.

657 Fas , p. 808, no. 3 (isn ad : Muhammad . . l, p. 344, ll. 1920. See Najaf b. Kh alid al-Barq < Y unus b. Zaby an [read: Y unus b. #Abd al-Rah. . ar < al-S a n, m an?] < #Al b. Ab Hamza < Fayd . . adiq) > Burh . b. Mukht at > IV, p. 471, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 398, no. 122; 426*, 658. Cf. Fur . Fas l , p. 345 , ll. 6 7 , where inna # alayn a la-l-hud a is followed by inna # Aliyyan . al-hud a, which al-N ur takes to be a reading (in the printed edition of Fur at, at II, p. 567, no. 727 the text reads: inna #Aliyyan h adh a [sic] alhud a); Sh adh an, Fad a " il > Fa s l , p. 139 , l. 18 ( inna # Aliyyan la-l-hud a) (the . . printed edition of Sh adh an, p. 172 [in the chapter on #Al s names] has the version of the #Uthm anic codex). Cf. also 659. 658 Fas . l, p. 344, ll. 2021. See 657.

659 Fas , p. 808, no. 4 (isn ad : Muhammad . . l, p. 344, ll. 1719. See Najaf b. Urama < al-Rab# b. Bakr [read: b. Zakariyy a] < Y unus b. Zaby an < . al-S an, IV, p. 471, no. 5, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 398399, no. 123; . adiq) > Burh . Najaf , pp. 808809, no. 5 > Bih ar, XXIV, p. 399, no. 124. Cf. Q 53:45 . (wa-annahu khalaqa l-zawjayn al-dhakar wa-l-unth a). It is not clear whether al- akhira wa-l- ul a is a continuation of Q 92:3 or a Sh # reading wa-li- #Al * of Q 92:13 (cf. 657). See 655 , 656. : al-Rab Isn ad : al-Rab # b. Zakariyya # b. Zakariyy a al-Warr aq, a K ufan author of a kit ab which was transmitted by Muhammad b. . * Urama (for whom see 155 ); he was accused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" , III, pp. 89; Ardab l , I, pp. 316317). 660 Mustadrak, VII, p. 280, no. 8222. See Najaf , p. 809, no. 7 (possibly citing KQ via Ibn al-Juh an, IV, pp. 471472, no. 6, Bih ar, . am) > Burh . XXIV, pp. 4647, no. 19. For al-h a (at Q 92:6, 92:9) glossed as al. usn wal aya see Qumm , II, p. 426 > Bih ar, XXIV, p. 44, no. 8; cf. Fur at, . a yur du shay"an etc. cf. Kul n , IV, II, pp. 567568, nos. 727728. For l pp. 4647, no. 5, T , Tahdh b, IV, p. 109, no. 316. For al-ashq a glossed . us as ful an see Qumm >S af , V, p. 338, Burh an, IV, p. 470, no. 1, Bih ar, . . VIII, p. 314, no. 87, Huwayz , V, p. 592, no. 16. In the printed edition . of Qumm (at II, p. 426) the word ful an has been suppressed. Al-Majlis a r , VIII, p. 314 ) identies him as al-th a n , i.e. # Umar; but judging by (Bih .

notes

269

the version in KQ, the reference is to Ab u Bakr. The reading yazzakk a (Q 92:18) given in ms. M is ascribed to al-Hasan b. # Al b. alHasan b. . . al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. #Al b. Ab T alawayh, p. 174, where . . . alib (Ibn Kh the name is given incorrectly; see for him Ibn Sa#d, Mutammim, p. 385; #Ubaydal , Tahdh b, p. 62; T , Rij al, p. 166, no. 3 [for al-Husayn . us . read al-Hasan] > Quhp a " , II, p. 126). For #Al as the one who gave . zak at while bowing down in prayer (Q 5:55) see e.g. Tabar , VI, pp. . an, Ikhtil af, p. 97; Samarqand , I, p. 400; Ibn B abawayh, 288289; Nu#m #Uy un, I, p. 44; Muf d, #Ukbariyya, pp. 4849; Zamakhshar , I, p. 624; Qurt , VI, pp. 221, 222; in general Bih ar, XXXV, pp. 183206 (b ab .ub . nuz ul ayat innam a waliyyukum all ah f sha"nihi #alayhi l-sal am); see further Lalani, Thought, pp. 5860. According to al-Hill (Nahj, p. 172), there is a . who, during prayer, consensus that Q 5:55 was revealed concerning #Al gave his ring to a needy person. 661 Mustadrak, IV, p. 163, no. 4382. S ura 94 is known by a number of names, including al-sharh . , a-lam nashrah . (as in the title of this chapter) and a-lam nashrah laka (as in this tradition, according to mss. M, L and . T); see Paret, Kommentar, p. 553. For the view that S uras 93 and 94 should be regarded as a single S ura see Rid . a, Fiqh, p. 112 > Mustadrak, IV, p. 164, no. 4384; Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at, p. 98 = Fyzee, p. 85; idem, , X, pp. 371, Am al , p. 573 > Bih ar, X, p. 395; Murtad ar, p. 44; T . us . a, Intis . . 412413; idem, Istibs a r , I, pp. 317 318 , nos. 4 , 5 ; Shahrast a n , Maf at h . . , p. d these were regarded as one S 160 (in the codex of Ibn Mas#u ura); R az , XXXII, p. 3 > Suy ut , Itq an, I, p. 228; al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, . . pp. 743745, nos. 73287337; Modarressi, Debates, p. 30. For the view that these two S uras (as also S uras 105 and 106) should be combined in abawayh, Am al , p. 573 one rak #a during the prescribed prayers see Ibn B > Bih ar, X, p. 395; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, I, p. 200, no. 922; Tabris , . . XXX, pp. 140141, 197 (from #Ayy ash ) > S a f , V, p. 345 , Huwayz , V, p. . . 593, no. 3; Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir, I, p. 220; al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, . al-Bazant , p. 744, no. 7332 (from #Ayy ash and Ahmad b. Muhammad . . . al-J ami #). Cf. 699, 700. Isn ad : the two isn ad s cited here appear separately at 699, 700 (except that Ab u l-#Abb as is replaced by Shajara Akh u Bash r al-Nabb al). 662 Cf. Tabris , XXX, p. 136 (from Ibn #Abb as) > Bih ar, XVI, p. 136; . . Rubin, Beholder, pp. 116120, 250252 and the sources cited therein.

270

notes

663 Fas . l, p. 345, ll. 1216. This is the only example in KQ of a Bedouin, rather than an Imam, pointing out the correct reading of a nic verse. Translation of inn Qur"a la-anfasu bi-mithlika etc.: I would not wish to see someone with your eloquence and intelligence who does not master anything of Gods book. A part of the reading cited in KQ is cited and discussed by al-Shar f al-Murtad . a, who states: There is a reading of this verse with raf #: a-lam yajidka yat m fa-a-w-y wa-wajadaka d all fa-h-d-y, meaning that the orphan found him (i.e. the Prophet) and . so did the erring (person) (Tanz h, p. 106 > Bih ar, XVII, p. 92). Al. Murtad a adduces several reasons for rejecting this reading: it is little . known (ghayr ma #r ufa); it is (stylistically) ugly; it distorts the original meaning of the verse. He does not say how the verbs in this qir a"a are vocalized. The clue is to be found in the reading wa-wajadaka d all fa-h-d-y ascribed to al-Hasan b. #Al (#Iy ad, a", II, pp. 9596; . . Shif . al-M award [VI, p. 294] and al-Qurt ub [XX, p. 99 ] only mention . al-Hasan). Al-M award , al-Q ad #Iy ad all take the . . . and al-Qurt .ub verb to mean ihtad a bika, thus indicating that the reading in question is fa-hudiya. It follows that the other two verbs are to be vocalized accordingly, yielding the following: Did not an orphan nd you and betake himself (to you) for refuge (fa-aw a)? did not an erring (person) nd you and become guided (by you) (fa-hudiya)? did not a destitute person nd you and become rich (through you) (fa-ughniya)?. The text of KQ has been vocalized accordingly. The readings d all and fa-hudiya . are noted by Andrae (Muhammed, p. 135), who is cited by Goldziher (Richtungen, pp. 284285) and, via Goldziher, by Birkeland (p. 31); see further the discussion in Rubin, Beholder, p. 92. For Q 93:68 see in general Birkeland, pp. 2333; Paret, Kommentar, p. 513; Rubin, Beholder, pp. 9096, 117, 177, 200, 229; Saleh, Formation, pp. 137139, 142143. Cf. 623*. Isn ad : Sa# d b. Samura b. Jundab/Jundub: Sa# d/Sa#d b. Samura b. Jundab/Jundub al-Faz ar , a son of the Companion Samura b. Jundab (d. 59/679) (Bukh ar , Ta"r kh, II/2, p. 57, no. 1950; Ibn Hajar, Ta #j l, p. . 148). 664 Fas a takhar (do not scold) . l, p. 345, ll. 1718. For the reading fa-l d, al-Rab see Jeery, pp. 110, 311 (Ibn Mas#u # b. Khuthaym); #Abd al ba #d uf ); Sijist an , Ghar b, Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. 379 (q ala Ma #mar f . al-h . ur p. 61; Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 175, idem, I #r ab, p. 122, Samarqand , III, p. d); Tabar 664 (Ibn Mas#u , XXX, p. 233, Ibn Ab H . . atim, X, p. 3444, d); Tha#lab no. 19379, Suy ut , Durr , VI, p. 612 (the codex of Ibn Mas#u , .

notes

271

X, p. 229, Tabris , XXX, p. 134 (al-Nakha# , al-Sha#b , the codex of . d); Ab Ibn Mas#u u l-Fut uh, XII, p. 115 (al-Nakha # , al-Sha #b ); Ab u . d, Ibr Hayy an, VIII, p. 482 (Ibn Mas#u ahm al-Nakha# [in the edition, . erroneously, al-Taym ]); Paret, Kommentar, p. 513; WKAS, I, p. 405b. 665 Najaf , p. 812, no. 4. See Burh an, IV, p. 475, no. 4, Bih ar, XXXVI, . p. 135, no. 91 (both from Najaf). The manuscripts are unvocalized, but the reading being cited is probably fa-ns . ib (raise). This reading is aqir (Nu#m an, Sharh , I, p. 245, no. 270), to Zayd b. #Al ascribed to al-B . (Jeery, Zaid, p. 286) and to al-S a diq (Je ery, p. 337 ; Ab u H a tim, . . Z na, III, p. 258 > Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 23; cf. S af , V, . p. 344), and is mentioned by several Sunn scholars. The Andalusian author Ab u Bakr Ibn al-#Arab (d. 543/1148), for example, attributes it to one or more innovators (wa-min al-mubtadi #a; see Ibn al-#Arab , Ah k a m , IV, p. 1949 > Qur t ub , XX, p. 109 ). His fellow Andalusian, . . # reading and renIbn #At .iyya (d. 546/1151), maintains that it is a Sh ders the Sh # interpretation of Q 94:7 as: when you have completed the matter of the prophethood, raise a successor (idh a faraghta min amr al-nubuwwa fa-ns ib khal fa ; cf. 666 ). He dismisses this as an irreg. ular/anomalous reading not supported by any scholar (Ibn #At .iyya, V, p. 498 > Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 484). Al-Zamakhshar (d. 538/1144), . too, identies fa-ns # reading and regards it as a repre. ib as a Sh hensible innovation (wa-min al-bida # m a ruwiya #an ba #d ad . al-r . a annahu qara"a fa-ns ad ; see Zamakhshar, IV, p. 267 > S af , V, p. . . ib bi-kasr al-s . 345). Al-Majlis sees in this reference to a Sh # bid #a an example of al-Zamakhshar s anti-Sh # bias; he does not deny, however, that the Sh # reading might indeed be ins . ib. At the same time he suggests that there is no need to postulate such a qir a"a: the canonical ins . ab could also mean raise (rather than exert yourself ). Anticipating an objection that such a meaning is not attested in the lexica, al-Majlis states that these books do not include every dialectal variation (fa-inna kutub al-lugha lam tashtamil #al a jam # al-lugh at ) (see Bih ar, XXXVI, pp. 135136). . For another Im am criticism of al-Zamakhshar s statement see Jaz a"ir , N ur, p. 66. Some Im am traditions interpret Q 94:7 as referring to Ghad r Khumm and explain the verb ins . ib/ins . ab as meaning to raise, but without discussing how it should be vocalized (see e.g. Kul n , I, p. 294, no. 10; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 23). Min h . ajjika (or min nubuwwatika at 666) may be either a qir a"a or an exegetical gloss. Cf. 666668.

272

notes

666 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 429 (fa-idh a faraghta min nubuwwatika fa-ns . ib/fans ab # Aliyyan ) > S a f , V, p. 344 , Burh a n , IV, p. 475 , no. 12 , Bi h a r , XXXVI, . . . p. 134, no. 87, Huwayz , V, p. 605, no. 15; Ibn al-Juh , pp. . . am > Najaf 811812, no. 1 > Burh an, IV, pp. 474475, no. 2, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 135, . ar : no. 91 (fa-idh a faraghta min nubuwwatika fa-ns . ib/fa-ns . ab #Aliyyan; in Bih . * , 667 , 668 . + was iyyan ); 665 . 667 The reading fa-ns . abba (lit. pour forth or descend) does not appear to be recorded in other Sh # texts. It was, however, known to Ab u Bakr Ibn al-#Arab , who dismisses it as that of one (or several) ignoramuses (wa-qara"ah a ba #d al fa-ns d al-b a" ) . al-juhh . abba bi-tashd (Ibn al-#Arab , Ah am, IV, p. 1949 > Qurt , XX, p. 109). According .ub . k to him, fa-ns . abba here means hasten (to return) to your place (fajidda [Qurt ub : + f l-ruj u #] il a baladika). Ibn #At . .iyya (V, pp. 497498) ) attribute this qir a"a to an unidentied and Ab u Hayy a n (VIII, p. 484 . group (qawm). Ibn Kh alawayh (p. 175) ascribes the reading f-a-n-s . -b (presumably fa-ns . adiq and . abba, though the verb is not vocalized) to al-S explains it as fa-rji # il a l-Mad na. The connection between this verse and the Tab uk expedition (for which cf. 217*) appears to be made only in KQ. Cf. 665, 666, 668. 668 Fas , p. 812, no. 5. For the reading fa. l, p. 345, ll. 2223, Najaf ns ib/fa-n s ab # Aliyyan li-l-wal a ya see Fur at, II, p. 573, no. 735 > Bih ar, . . . XXXVI, p. 134, no. 89; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 23 > Burh a n, IV, p. 475, no. 7, Bih ar, XXXVI, p. 134, no. 90 (fa-idh a faraghta min . aya). Cf. Hask an , duny aka [Burh an: d nika] fa-ns . . ab #Aliyyan li-l-wal . ib/fa-ns II, p. 349, nos. 11161117, 1119 (where fa-ns ib/fa-n s ab is glossed as . . r, #Iqd, p. 316, citing the Naw ins aya); Mans adir .u . ib/ins . ab #Aliyyan li-l-wal al-h u Ja#far al-Ash#ar al-Qumm . Cf. 665667. . ikma of Ab Isn ad : #Al b. al-S ab which was transmitted by . alt: the author of a kit ; Ardab l , I, p. 587). Muhammad al-Barq (Quhp a " , IV, p. 202 . 669 Fas . l, p. 345, ll. 1820. This reading presumably replaces two verses of the #Uthm anic codex (Q 94:56). The statement lam yakun #usr w ah id yaghlibu yusrayn (one hardship never vanquishes two [instances . of] ease), which is here attributed to al-S . adiq, is reminiscent of the pronouncement l a yaghlibu/lan yaghliba #usr yusrayn which is ascribed to a number of authorities: (i) the Prophet (e.g. #Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r, II, p. 380; Tabar , XXX, pp. 235 , 236 > Ibn Kath r, Tafs r , IV, p. 525 ; Ibn . #At iyya, V, p. 497 ; Tabris , XXX, p. 143 > S a f , V, p. 344 ; Maghen, . . .

notes

273

Hardship, p. 53); (ii) Ibn #Abb as (Farr a", III, p. 275, Ibn Kh alawayh, I #r ab, p. 127 [l a yaghlibu yusrayn #usr w ah id ]; Fur a t, II, pp. 574 575 , no. 739 [ wa. l a yaghlibu #usr w ah ash ub, Mutash abih, II, p. 143); (iii) . id yusrayn]; Ibn Shahr d (e.g. Lis Ibn Mas#u an, s.v. #sr ); (iv) certain unnamed authorities (e.g. Ibn Ab H , III, p. 594; Ibn Kath r, . atim, X, p. 3446, no. 19396; Samarqand a yaghlibu #usr w ah id # usrayn ithnayn ]). See in general Tafs r, IV, p. 525 [l . Saleh, Formation, pp. 134137; Maghen, Hardship, p. 53. This pronouncement is also included in a letter which the caliph #Umar reportedly wrote to Ab u #Ubayda when the latter was besieged by the Byzan tines (Tabar , IV, p. 221 > Ibn Kath r, Tafs r, I, p. 447 [to Q 3:200]; . Zamakhshar, F a"iq, III, p. 421; Lis an, s.v. #sr ). Translation of the last sentence: The rst yusr consists in your having (sustenance); the second yusr consists in your having someone to provide you (with sustenance). Title Lam yakun is an alternative name for al-bayyina. 670 Fas a" (or S n a" ) see GdQ, . l, p. 346, ll. 1213. For the reading Sayn d); Jeery pp. 110, 222, 267, 312, 354 (Ibn Mas#u d, III, p. 76 (Ibn Mas#u #Umar, Tal ha, al-Rab # b. Khuthaym, # Al ); idem, Zaid, p. 286 (Zayd . . b. #Al ); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 176, Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. 620, al-Muttaq . d); Ibn al-Hind , Kanz, II, pp. 591592, no. 4805 (#Umar, Ibn Mas#u Kh alawayh, I #r ab, p. 128, Tha#lab , X, p. 239 (#Umar); Ibn #At .iyya, V, p. d); a n, VIII, p. 486 ( # Umar, Tal ha, alHasan, Ibn Mas#u 499, Ab u Hayy . . . . Tabris , XXX, p. 146 (#Umar, al-K azim) > Huwayz , V, p. 606, no. 3; . . . Ibn al-Jawz , VIII, p. 288 (#Al , Sa#d b. Ab Waqq as u l-#Aliya and ., Ab d, Ab Ab u Mijlaz read Sayn a" ; Ibn Mas#u u l-Dard a" and Ab u Haywa . alread S n a" ). The Imam Ab u l-Hasan (i.e. M us a al-K azim or #Al . . Rid . ur . a) is said to have insisted that the correct reading at Q 95:2 is T Sayn a"/S n a", not T n n (see Fur at, II, pp. 577578, no. 742 [> Bih ar, . ur S . XXIV, pp. 107108, no. 16], p. 578, no. 743 [al-K azim], p. 579, no. 745 . [al-K azim]; Ibn al-Juh , p. 814, no. 4 [al-Rid an, IV, . . am > Najaf . a] > Burh an, II, pp. 351352, p. 477, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, pp. 105106, no. 15; Hask . . nos. 11211122). In the #Uthm anic codex T a" is attested once, at . ur Sayn Q 23:20. Cf. 672. 671 Fas at, II, p. 578, no. . l, p. 346, ll. 1314. For this reading see Fur 743; Ibn al-Juh , p. 815, no. 4 > Burh an, IV, p. 477, no. . am > Najaf 4, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 106, no. 15 (i.e. the continuation of the tradition . a q al fa-man [read mentioned at 670); Hask an , II, p. 352, no. 1122 (innam . thus for fa-m a] yukadhdhibuka). In these traditions, al-d n is said to refer

274

notes

to #Al . Some exegetes and grammarians are said to have glossed fa-m a as fa-man; see Farr a", III, p. 277; Nah h a s, I # r a b , V, p. 259 (citing al-Farr a " .. and al-Akhfash but rejecting their interpretation); T . us, X, pp. 376377 (Qat ada, al-Hasan al-Bas , #Ikrima); Tabris , XXX, p. 148 (Muj ahid, . . .r lib Qat ada); Tha#a , V, p. 607 (Qat ada). This is the interpretation which al-Tabar prefers (Tabar , XXX, p. 249). . . 672 For al-t n wa-l-zayt un as referring to al-Hasan and al-Husayn and . . u r Sayn a " /S n a " /S n n as referring to # Al see Fur a t, II, pp. 577 579 , T . nos. 742745; Hask a n , II, pp. 351 352 , nos. 1121 1123 ; Ibn Shahr a sh u b, . Man aqib, III, p. 394 > S af , V, p. 346, Bih ar, XLIII, p. 291, no. 54, . . Huwayz , V, p. 607, no. 7; Najaf , pp. 813814, nos. 1, 2, 4 (> Bih ar, . . XXIV, pp. 105106, nos. 1315), 3 (> Burh an, IV, p. 477, no. 5). Cf. Ibn r al-Yaman, Kashf, p. 24 (al-t Mans n wa-l-zayt un are al-Hasan and al. .u Husayn, T u r S n n is Mu hammad, al-balad al-am n is # Al ); Samarqand , . . . III, p. 595 (al-t n is #Al , al-zayt un is F at n n are al-Hasan and . . ur S .ima, T al-Husayn). Al-balad al-am n does not appear to be recorded elsewhere . as a reference to F at .ima; instead, this expression is explained as referring to Mecca, to the Prophet, or to the Imams. For al-ins an as refer ring to Ab u Bakr see Ibn al-Juh . am > Najaf, p. 814, no. 4 (here called Ab u Fas l) > Burh an, IV, p. 477, no. 4, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 106, no. 15; Ibn . . Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, III, p. 394 (here called al-awwal, as in KQ ). In Qumm , II, p. 429, al-ins an is identied as Zurayq (here probably Ab u * Bakr, though this nickname is more often applied to #Umar [cf. 299 ]; in the version of Qumm as cited in Burh an, IV, p. 478, no. 10, Bih ar, . XXIV, p. 105, no. 12, LX, p. 284 and Huwayz , V, p. 607 , no. 10 . the person in question is al-awwal, while in the version cited in Bih a . r, XXXI, p. 588, no. 6 he is Zurayq [al-awwal]). The emendation al-shy-u-(k)h > al-sawkh (sinking) was proposed by Wilferd Madelung. Cf. 670. 673 For the opening verses of S ura 96 see Rubin, Beholder, pp. 105 108. #Az a"im (or #az a"im al-suj ud ) is the name given to four of the sajda passages (cf. 358*). These are Q 32:15, 41:3738, 53:62 and 96:19; the S uras in which they occur are also known as #az a"im (see Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 234 [fol 20b ll. 1820], p. 230 [fol 22a l. 2222b l. 1] [ #az a"im al-suj ud arba #: alif-l am-m m tanz l wa-h a-m m wa-l-najm wa-qra" bi. a-m m al-sajda smi rabbika]; Kul n , III, p. 317, no. 1 [wa-l- #az a"im arba #: h . wa-tanz l (i.e. tanz l al-sajda) wa-l-najm wa-qra" bi-smi rabbika] > al-Hurr . al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, p. 880, no. 7837; Nu#m an, Da # a"im, I, p. 215; Ibn

notes

275

B abawayh, Khis al, p. 230, no. 124 [in the chapter entitled al- #az a"im allat . yusjad f h a arba # suwar ]; Murtad a , Inti s a r , p. 43 ; Bayhaq , Sunan , II, p. . . 315; Lane, s.v.). According to some, the dierence between the #az a"im and other sajda passages is that bowing down is obligatory in the case of the #az a"im, whereas it is only optional (Nu#m an, Da # a"im, I, p. 215) or recommended (mustah abb ) (Ardab l , Zubda , pp. 132 133 ) in the case . al , p. 575 > Bih ar, X, p. 397) maintains of the rest. Ibn B abawayh (Am . that when the believer recites any of the #az a"im passages he is required not only to prostrate himself (as in a regular sajda) but also to recite a special prayer. The N as s right to succeed .iba are persons who deny #Al the Prophet or who manifest hatred for #Al and the ahl al-bayt. Cf. 675. 674 Fas h a laylat al-qadr ([a thousand . l, p. 347, ll. 1315. For laysa f months] which do not include the laylat al-qadr , i.e. months other than Ramad n , I, p. 248, no. 4 > Burh an, IV, p. 483, no. 5, Bih ar, . an) see Kul . XXV, p. 80, no. 67. Al-N ur (Fas . l, p. 347, ll. 9, 14) regards this expression in KQ and Kul n as a qir a"a. Elsewhere it appears as an exegetical gloss; see e.g. Tabar , XXX, p. 259 (on the authority of Qat ada). For . the reading bi-kull amr see Najaf, p. 819, no. 4 (qultu: min kull amr, q al: bi-kull amr; qultu: h adh a l-tanz l? q ala: na #am) > Burh an, IV, pp. 487488, no. 25, Bih ar, XXV, p. 97, no. 71, Fas . . l, p. 347, l. 23p. 348, l. 2. It also appears as an exegetical gloss; see e.g. Fur at, II, p. 581, no. 746; Tabris , . XXX, p. 162. Cf. 677, 678. 675 These verses are often interpreted as referring to Ab u Jahl (e.g. Tabar , XXX, pp. 255 257 ; Tha # lab , X, p. 246 ; Tabris , XXX, p. 153). . . For the ending cf. Q 96:1516. Cf. also 673, 676. a al-Sayraf sa : #Umar b. #Is Isn ad : #Umar b. #I Akh u #Udh ar, a trans. mitter from al-S a diq (Quhp a " , IV, p. 263 ; Ardab l , I, p. 636 ). Muham. . mad b. #Udh ar (for whom see 382*) was #Umars brothers son. 676 Cf. Qumm , II, p. 430 (referring to al-Wal d b. al-Mugh ra) > S af , V, p. 340, Burh an, IV, p. 479, no. 2, Bih a r , IX, p. 252 , no. 158, . . LXXXII, p. 201. For al-Wal d b. al-Mugh ra (Ab u Jahls paternal uncle) see EI 2, s.v. (K.V. Zettersteen). Cf. 675. 677 Najaf , p. 820, no. 8 (rst half). See Burh an, IV, p. 487, no. 20, Bih a r , XXV, p. 70 , no. 59 (from Najaf ). Cf. Najaf , p. 817, no. 2 (isn ad : . Muhammad b. Jumh u r < Safw a n < # Abdall a h b. Musk a n < Ab u Ba s r . . .

276

notes

< al-S ar, XXV, p. 96, no. 69. Al-Hasan b. #Al is similarly . . adiq) > Bih . reported to have interpreted Q 97:3 as referring to the one-thousand month rule of the Umayyads (see Tabar , XXX, p. 260; Tha#lab , X, p. . 257; Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. 629 and the sources cited therein). See further . the introduction (muqaddima) of Zayn al-#Abid n, S fa, p. 11 > S af , III, . ah . . h ar, p. 201, Fas l , p. 347 , ll. 9 13 ; Qumm , II, p. 431 > S a f , V, p. 352 , Bi . . . XCVII, p. 14, no. 23; Muhammad b. #Al b. Ibr ahm, Kit ab al- #ilal > . Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 52, no. 43; Kul n , IV, p. 159, no. 10 > Huwayz , IV, . . pp. 6566, no. 87; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 36; Tabris , Ih aj, . . tij p. 276. Cf. 674, 678. 678 Fas , p. 820, no. 8 (second half). See . l, p. 347, ll. 1719, Najaf an, IV, p. 487, no. 20, Bih a r , XXV, p. 70, no. 59 (from Najaf ). Burh . In some versions of Najaf , min #ind rabbihim is taken as a gloss on bi ds qir idhn rabbihim. Ibn Mas#u a"a is recorded as min #ind rabbihim #al a Muh al Muh . ammad wa- . ammad bi-kull amr (see Jeery, p. 110). According to Jeery, this reading replaces bi-idhn rabbihim min kull amr. Cf. Tisdall, p. 240 (During it the Angels and the Spirit descended, with the permission of their Lord, upon Mohammed and the family of Mohammed from every matter). Cf. 674, 677. 679 This forms part of a longer pronouncement which the Prophet is reported to have made during his last illness. See Fur at, II, pp. 585 586, no. 755 > Bih ar, XXII, p. 458, no. 4; Ibn al-Juh , p. 831, . am > Najaf . an, IV, pp. 489490, no. 1, Bih ar, XXIII, pp. 389390, no. no. 3 (> Burh . 99, LXVIII, p. 53, no. 95), pp. 831832, no. 4 (> Burh an, IV, p. 490, no. 2, Bih a r , XXIII, p. 390 , no. 100 , XXVII, pp. 130 131 , no. 121, LXVIII, . pp. 5354, no. 96), pp. 832833, no. 5 (> Burh an, IV, p. 490, no. 3, Bih ar, . XXIV, pp. 263264, no. 22, XXXI, pp. 658659, no. 214, LXVIII, p. , Mustarshid, p. 354; T , Am al , I, p. 257 > S af , V, 54, no. 97); Tabar . . us . p. 355; Hask a n , II, pp. 358 361 , nos. 1130 1135 ; Tabris , Mishk a t , p. . . 95; Khw arizm, Man aqib, pp. 265266, no. 247 > Irbil, I, p. 307; Hill , . Muh , II, p. 432. . tad . ar, p. 126. Cf. Qumm d 680 Fas adh an, I ah . l, p. 118, ll. 34. Cf. Ibn Sh . . , pp. 221222 (warawaytum anna S urat lam yakun [i.e. S ura 98] k anat mithl S urat al-baqara qabla an yad #a minh a m ad a #a wa-innam a baqiya m a f ayd n a minh a tham an . . ay at aw tis # ay at ); Bas a"ir, pp. 246247, no. 8 > Bih ar, XLIX, p. 46, no. . . n , II, p. 631, no. 16 > S af , I, p. 36; 41, XCII, pp. 5051, no. 16; Kul . Kishsh , p. 492 > Quhp a" , I, pp. 158159, Bih a r , XCII, pp. 54 55, no. .

notes

277

22; Tabar , Dal a"il, p. 187; R awand , Khar a"ij, II, pp. 719720, no. 23; . Modarressi, Debates, p. 27. Cf. 418, 692. 681 For this tradition cf. Najaf , p. 831, no. 2 > Bahr , Mah . an . ajja, p. 257, Burh an, IV, p. 489, no. 1, Bih a r , XXIII, p. 370 , no. 44 (with al . Majlis s explanatory comment). 682 Fas a" of yurahu is vocalized (twice). . l, p. 348, ll. 1718. In Fas . l, the y For this reading (will have it shown to him) see Jeery, p. 337 (Ibn #Abb as, Zayd b. #Al , al-S ); . adiq); idem, Zaid, p. 286 (Zayd b. #Al idem, Ibn Miqsam, p. 31 (Ibn Miqsam); Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 177 (#Al b. al-Husayn, Zayd b. #Al , #As ar un [i.e. . .im in the transmission of H Ab u #Abdall ah H ar un b. M us a al-A#war al-Bas , d. before 200/815 .r 816; see Ibn al-Jazar , II, p. 348, no. 3763], Ibn #Abb as); Tha#lab , Hasan X, p. 266 (Kh alid b. Nash t [a transmitter from Anas and al. . s al-Bas ; see Ibn Ab H . atim, Jarh .r .im al. , III, p. 350, no. 3896], #A Jahdar ); Zamakhshar , IV, p. 276 (Ibn #Abb as, Zayd b. #Al ); Tabris , . . s XXX, p. 168 (al-Kis a" [according to some transmissions], #A im in . the transmission of Ab an, #Al ) > Fas u l-Fut uh, . . l, p. 348, ll. 1819; Ab XII, p. 148, Ibn al-Jawz, VIII, p. 306 (#As .im in the transmission of s riw aya #an #A , XX, p. 151 (alAb an); R az , XXXII, p. 58 (f .ub . im); Qurt Jahdar , al-Sulam , # Is a b. # Umar, # A s im in the transmission of Ab an); . . Ab u Hayy a n, VIII, p. 498 (alHusayn b. # Al , Ibn # Abb a s and others); . . S af , V, p. 358. See 683. For al-S adisiyya see also 654. . adiq at al-Q . Isn ad : al-Nadr an (al. a b. #Imr . (b. Suwayd) often transmits from Yahy , 174 , 248 , 595 . Halab ); see e.g. 38 , 168 . 683 See 682.

684 Although no exact parallels to the two accounts in KQ appear to be recorded, there are similar stories of #Al stopping earthquakes. This is said to have occurred (i) during the rule of Ab u Bakr and/or that of #Umar; (ii) during #Al s rule. For (i) see Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 556, no. 8 > S af , V, pp. 357358, Burh an, IV, pp. 493494, no. 1, Bih ar, . . XLI, p. 254, no. 14, XCI, p. 151, no. 9, Huwayz , V, p. 648 , no. 7 ; Ibn . aqib, II, p. Hamza, Th aqib, pp. 273274, no. 238; Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man . 324 > Bih ar, XXV, p. 379, no. 28; Najaf , pp. 836837, no. 4 (> Burh an, . IV, p. 494, no. 6), pp. 837838, no. 5 (> Burh an, IV, p. 494, no. 7, Bih ar, . XLI, p. 272, no. 27). For (ii) see Rad , Kha s a " i s , p. 27 ; Najaf , p. 835 , no. . . . 1 (> Burh an, IV, p. 494, no. 3, Bih ar, XLI, p. 271, no. 25 [rst part]), pp. .

278

notes

835836, no. 2 (> Burh an, IV, p. 494, no. 4, Bih ar, XLI, p. 271, no. 25 . [second part]), p. 836, no. 3 (> Burh an, IV, p. 494, no. 5). Translation of law k anat hiya hiya: If this earthquake had been the one (mentioned in n). the Qur"a 685 The reading ka-l-s uf (attested only in ms. M) is ascribed to Ibn . Mas#ud (see GdQ, III, p. 77; Jeery, p. 111; Bukh ar , S h . ah . . , III, p. 384 alawayh, p. 178; idem, [Kit ab al-tafs r ]; Nah ab, V, p. 280; Ibn Kh . h . as, I #r I #r ab, p. 161; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 279; Ibn #At az , .iyya, V, p. 517; R XXXII, p. 69), to al-Rab # b. Khuthaym (Jeery, p. 312), to Sa# d b. Jubayr (Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 143, no. 692; Ibn #At .iyya, V, p. . 517) and to Ibn Shanab udh (Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist, p. 34 > Y aq ut, Udab a", V, p. 115). See also Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil, p. 37; Zarkash , I, p. 335; Shnizer, Qur" an, p. 140. Ibn Muhakkam (IV, p. 528) and Ibn Ab . ds reading as ka-l-s Zaman n (II, p. 537) render Ibn Mas#u u f al-a h mar . . . 686 S ura 100 is known both as al- # adiy at and wa-l- # adiy at (see Paret, Kommentar, p. 553). On the merits of reciting this S ura see Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab, p. 154 > S a f , V, p. 365 , Bi h a r , VII, p. 298 , no. 39, . . XCII, p. 335, no. 1; Daylam, A #l am, p. 384 (man qara"a s urat al- # adiy at a ba #athahu ll ah ta # al a ma #a am r al-mu"min n yawm alwa-admana qir a"atah qiy ama kh as ana min rufaq a"ihi ). Cf. Rid . a, Fiqh, p. 124 (the two .s . atan wa-k at and al-Q S uras al-#Adiy ari#a are to be recited during the prayer of #as . r ). See 687. dam: Zakariyy b. A Isn ad : Zakariyya a b. Adam b. #Abdall ah b. Sa#d al-Ash#ar al-Qumm , a transmitter from al-Rid a and al-Jaw ad (Quh. , III, pp. 5657; Ardab l , I, pp. 330331). p a" 687 See 686.

688 This may refer to the account according to which #Umar/Zufar (and before him Ab u Bakr) was rebuked by the Prophet for retreating in the face of the enemy at W ad al-Y abis. This event occasioned the diy revelation of S urat al-#a at (see Qumm , II, pp. 434439 > Najaf , pp. 844849, no. 5, S a f , V, pp. 361 365 , Burh a n , IV, pp. 495 497 , no. 1 , . Bih a r , XXI, pp. 67 74 , no. 2 , Huwayz , V, pp. 652 655 , no. 4 ; Fur a t, II, . . pp. 599603, no. 761; referred to in Jarrar, Sources, p. 115). Isn ad : al-H : a person of this name is known from a . asan al-Qumm single tradition in Kul n (I, p. 419, no. 38), in which he transmits from al-S s b. #Abdall ah (see Kh u" , VI, p. 180, no. 3233). . adiq via Idr

notes

279

689 Najaf , pp. 850851, no. 4, Hill , Mukhtas . . ar, p. 204, ll. 25. See Bih a r , LIII, p. 107 , no. 135 (from alHill s Mukhta s an, IV, p. 503, . . . ar ); Burh no. 8, Bih ar, XXIV, p. 56, no. 27 (from Najaf). This is the rst of three . traditions which al-Hill cites from KQ (see Introduction, p. 36). Cf. . Barq , II, p. 400, no. 83 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, VIII/1, p. 445, no. . a f , V, p. 369 , Bi h a r , VII, p. 272, no. 39, XXIV, 3; Qumm , II, p. 440 > S . . p. 52, no. 6, Huwayz , V, pp. 663664, no. 17; Kul n , VI, p. 280, no. 3 . >S af , V, p. 371, Bih ar, XLVII, pp. 4041, no. 48, Huwayz , V, p. 662, . . . no. 12. Cf. 693. l h b. Nujayh n : #AbdalIsn ad : #Abdalla h /al-Thuma . /Naj . al-Yama l ah b. Nujayh/Naj h al (p. 225, no. . . is mentioned twice in al-T . uss Rij 43, p. 228, no. 94) as a disciple of al-S . adiq. He may be identical with #Abdall ah b. Ja#far b. Nujayh/Naj h , who is also listed as a . . al-Madan disciple of al-S a diq ( T u s , Rij a l , p. 228 , no. 96 ; al-M amaq an [III, p. . . 175, no. 6792] and al-Tustar [Rij al, VI, pp. 298299, no. 4245] only /al-Thum al might be a adduce the latter name). The nisba al-Yam an corruption of al-Madan . 690 Hill , Mukhtas ar, LIII, p. 107, no. 135 (from . . ar, p. 204, l. 5. See Bih . al-Hill ayana (seeing with . s Mukhtas . ar ). It is not clear whether the mu # the eye) should be taken as a gloss on #ilm al-yaq n (Q 102:5) (as in al-Hill s Mukhta s ar ) or on # ayn al-yaq n (Q 102 : 7 ) (as in mss. L, T and . . B and Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 530 ). Support for the former is found . in Barq, I, p. 247, no. 250 (al-Barq < Muhammad b. Ab #Umayr < . qawl all ah: law ta #lam una #ilm al-yaq n q al: Hish am b. S alim < al-S . adiq f al-mu # ayana) > S a f , V, p. 369 , Burh a n , IV, p. 501 , no. 1 , Bi h a r , LXX, p. . . 176, no. 31. az, p. 282, 691 Hill , Mukhtas al-#Amil , Iq . . . ar, p. 204, l. 6. See al-Hurr . Bih ar, LIII, p. 107, no. 135 (both from al-Hill s Mukhtas , p. . . . ar ); Najaf ad : ba #d a s h a bin a < Mu hammad b. # Al < # Umar b. # Abd 850, no. 1 (isn . . .. al-#Az z < #Abdall ah b. Nujayh/Naj h an < al-S an, . . al-Yam . adiq) > Burh IV, p. 501, no. 2, Bih ar, LIII, p. 120, no. 156. . 692 Fas urat . l, p. 348, ll. 2022. The Imam makes two claims about S al-tak athur, neither of which appears to be recorded elsewhere. The rst is that it was originally longer than it is today; such a claim is known to have been made about other S uras (see e.g. 418, 680). The second is that S urat al-tak athur contained that which people need. # m a yah aj ilayhi l-n as) A similar claim (using the expression kull/jam . t

280

notes

n and the J was made concerning both the Qur"a ami#a (a scroll seventy cubits long dictated by the Prophet and written down by #Al ). For the n see e.g. Kuln, I, p. 199, no. 1, Nu#m Qur"a an, Ghayba, p. 315, Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh . a made in . af, p. 322 (part of a pronouncement which al-Rid Marw); for the J ami#a see e.g. Bas a " ir , p. 143 , no. 6 , p. 145 , no. 19; cf. . Kohlberg, Scriptures, pp. 300301. d, Isn ad : Muhammad b. Ab l-H us a al-K azim . . asan: a son of M . (Muf Irsh ad, p. 303, whence Ardab l , II, p. 204; Tabris , I #l am, p. 312; Ibn . Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, IV, p. 324). 693 Najaf , p. 851, no. 5. See Burh an, IV, p. 503, no. 10, Bih ar, XXIV, . p. 57, no. 28 (from Najaf ). Judging by the version preserved in the four manuscripts of KQ, at some stage of the transmission this tradition immediately followed 689. s/Ibn #Ayya sh (see the apparatus): unidentied. Isn ad : Ibn #Abba 694 Fas . adiq (including wa. l, p. 349, ll. 34. For this reading of al-S #amil u l-s a li h a t of the # Uthm a nic codex) see Qumm , II, p. 441 > Burh a n, . . IV, p. 505, no. 3, Huwayz , V, p. 666 , no. 6 , Fa s l , p. 348 , l. 23 p. 349 , . . l. 2. For the reading wa-innahu f hi il a akhir al-dahr see Sa#d b. #Abdall ah, N asikh, p. 66 > Fas , XXX, p. 290 (#Al , see 696*); . . l, p. 349, ll. 56; Tabar d, #Al Ibn #At ); Tabris , XXX, p. 186 (Ibn Mas#u ) > . .iyya, V, p. 520 (#Al S a f , V, p. 372 , Bi h a r , LXVII, p. 59 , Huwayz , V, p. 666 , no. 4 ; Suy ut , . . . . d, #Al); Fas Durr, VI, p. 667 (Ibn Mas#u . l, p. 23, ll. 2223. Jeery (p. 111) d: (i) wa-l- #as quotes two readings ascribed to Ibn Mas#u a . r la-qad khalaqn a lladh na aman u wa-taw as aw l-ins an li-khusr wa-innahu f hi il a akhir al-dahr ill . bi-l-taqw a wa-taw as m, . aw bi-l-s . abr (thus also GdQ, III, p. 77, Ibn al-Nad Fihrist, p. 29, both citing the codex of Ibn Mas#ud); (ii) wa-l- #as . r inna lins an la-f khusr wa-innahu la-f hi il a akhir al-dahr ill a lladh na aman u (thus Ibn Ab D aw ud, p. 55). See also Tha#lab , X, p. 284, Ab u l-Fut uh, . XII, d: inna l-ins p. 164 (Ibn Mas#u an la-f khusr wa-innahu f hi il a akhir al-dahr ); 695, 696. Isn ad : al-H u #Abdall ah al-Husayn b. Zayd . usayn: he may well be Ab . b. #Al b. al-Husayn known as Dh u l-Dam#a, son of the eponymous . founder of the Zaydiyya (for whom see Modarressi, TS, pp. 280283). There are several isn ad s in which Khalaf b. Hamm ad transmits from . him (e.g. Kul n , V, p. 151, no. 5, VIII, p. 153, no. 143; Ibn B abawayh, Tawh d, p. 275, no. 1). . 695 Fas . l, p. 349, l. 4. See 694, 696. Isn ad : see 39*.

notes

281

696 Fas is said to have recited Q 103:12 as . l, p. 349, ll. 56. #Al follows: wa-l- #as r wa-naw a " ib al-dahr inna l-ins an la-f khusr wa-innahu f hi il a . akhir al-dahr (Tabar , XXX, p. 290; Tha#lab, X, p. 284; al-Muttaq al . Hind , Kanz, II, p. 601, no. 4848). This combines the reading given here with the one at the beginning of 694. A dierent reading ascribed to #Al is wa-l- #as a"ib al-dahr la-qad khalaqn a l-ins an li-khusr wa-innahu . r wa-naw a"il, II, p. 143, no. 693). For wa-lf hi il a akhir al-dahr (Ab u #Ubayd, Fad . #as a"ib al-dahr as a reading of #Al see Ibn Kh alawayh, p. 179; . r wa-naw H ub , XX, p. 180; Suy ut , . akim, Mustadrak, III, p. 393, no. 4024; Qurt . . Durr, VI, p. 667; Modarressi, TS, p. 3, note 7 (citing KQ ). Cf. Qurt ub . , I, p. 81 (from Ibn al-Anb ar). KQ appears to be the only Im am source in which this reading is preserved. See 694, 695. Isn ad : the isn ad is problematic: if, as the sources tell us, Ab an b. Taghlib died in 141/758759 (see 482*), then he could hardly have transmitted from al-K azim . (unless it is assumed that the transmission took place before al-K azim became Imam). Cf. Modarressi, TS, pp. . 109110. 697 Translation: The name by which God likes best to be addressed is y a kar m (oh noble one). The expression ah a" il a ll ah usually . abbu l-asm means the name(s) which God likes best (see Kister, Names, p. 8 and passim). In Sh # texts, these names are frequently said to be #Al , Hasan, Husayn and F a t ima; in Sunn texts they are often # Abdall a h . . . and #Abd al-Rahm . an. Mu#alla : unidentied. He may be identical with Ab Isn ad : Abu u l Mu#all a, who transmits from al-S a diq in a tradition recorded in Kul n , . a al S a " igh : unidentied. VII, p. 422, no. 4.Yahy . . 698 For the expression yawm uq ma am r al-mu"min n (on the day the Prince of the Believers was nominated, i.e. at Ghad r Khumm) see Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab, p. 102, no. 2 > al-Hurr al# Amil , Was a"il, IV/2, p. . 325, no. 13803, Bih ar, XCVII, p. 112, no. 7; Tabar , Bish ara, p. 241. . . 699 Mustadrak, IV, pp. 163164, no. 4383(a). S ura 105 is known by a number of names, including al-f l (as in the title of this chapter) and a-lam tara (as in this tradition); see Paret, Kommentar, p. 554. For the view that S uras 105 and 106 should be regarded as a single S ura see Rid . a, Fiqh, pp. 112113 > Mustadrak, IV, p. 164, no. 4384; Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at, p. 98 = Fyzee, p. 85; idem, Thaw ab, p. 156; idem, Am al , p. 573 > Bih a r , X, p. 395 ; Murta d a , Inti s a r , p. 44 ; T u s , X, pp. 371 , 412; . . . .

282

notes

Tabris , XXX, pp. 140141, 197 (from #Ayy ash ) > S af , V, pp. 345, 378, . . Huwayz , V, p. 669 , no. 4 ; Daylam , A # l a m , p. 385 ; Suy ut , Itq an, I, . . p. 228; al-Hurr al-#Amil, Was a"il, II/2, pp. 743744, nos. 73317336; . Modarressi, Debates, p. 30. Ubayy is said not to have separated between them (lam yafs a) in his codex (see Tabris , XXX, . . il baynahum a f , V, p. 378 , alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , II/ 2 , p. 744 , no. 7334, p. 197 > S . . Bih ar, LXXXV, p. 47, no. 37, Fas az, XXXII, p. 98; . . l, p. 147, ll. 45; R Qurt , XX, p. 200; Ibn Hish am, Mughn , p. 276; Suy ut , Itq an, I, p. .ub . 228; cf. Zamakhshar , IV, p. 287); this means that in his mus h af . . the last verse of S ura 105 was immediately followed by the beginning of S ura 106, without an intervening basmala (see Jeery, p. 179; Paret, Kommentar, p. 523). See 700; cf. 661*. Bash l: Shajara b. Maym Isn ad : Shajara Akhu r al-Nabba un b. Sanj ar Akh u Bash r al-Nabb al, a K ufan transmitter from al-B aqir and al-S . adiq (Modarressi, TS, pp. 191192). 700 Mustadrak, IV, p. 164, no. 4383(b). See 699; cf. 661*.

701 Fas ur regards both y a Muh . l, p. 349, ll. 89. Al-N . ammad and #Amr b. al- #As , p. . as readings. For the tradition cf. Qumm, II, p. 445 > Najaf 859, no. 6, S af , V, pp. 383384, Burh an, IV, p. 515, no. 3, Bih ar, XVII, . . pp. 209210, no. 14. For an identication of the hater (sh ani" ) as #Amr s b. al-#A see also Sulaym, Kit a b , p. 278 > Bi h a r , XXXIII, p. 224, no. . . s 513 (#Al declares that this verse was revealed concerning #Amr b. al-#A . after he had called the Prophet abtar [without posterity, lit. cut o] following the death of the Prophets son Ibr ah m). Cf. 704. 702 For al-kawthar as a pond (h , XXX, p. 323; . . awd . ) see e.g. Tabar Tabris , XXX, p. 206; Ibn Sh adh an, Mi"at manqaba, p. 89 (manqaba no. . 37); Qurt , XX, p. 217; Najaf , p. 755, no. 4 (to S urat al-mursal at). See .ub d (A.J. Wensinck), art. Kawthar (J. Horoin general EI 2, art. Haw . . vitzL. Gardet). For the various meanings given to kawthar see Birkeland, pp. 5675; Gilliot, Embarras; Saleh, Formation, pp. 119124; Introduction, pp. 910. la: Fad Isn ad : Fad ub al-Azd , a transmitter from al-K azim .a . . ala b. Ayy and al-Rid a . His kit a b was transmitted by Mu hammad al-Barq (Quh. . p a" , V, pp. 1718; Ardab l , II, pp. 24). He also transmitted from alQ asim b. Burayd (Kh u" , XIV, p. 293).

notes

283

703 For al-kawthar as a river (nahr ) see e.g. Tabar , XXX, pp. 320321, . 323325; Sijist an , Ghar b, p. 167; M atur d , X, p. 627 (cf. Introduction, p. 9); Ibn B abawayh, Am al , p. 200; Ibn Ab Zaman n, II, p. 547; Tha#lab , X, pp. 308309; Tabris , XXX, p. 205 > S af , V, p. 382; Ibn . . , Dal a"il, Shahr ash ub, Man aqib, II, p. 161; Tabar , Bish ara, p. 5; Tabar . . p. 44 (from a dream which F at ima had shortly after the Prophets . death); Qurt , XX, pp. 216217; Najaf , p. 857, no. 4; Suy ut , Durr, .ub . VI, pp. 686689; idem, Mufh at, p. 214. During the mi #r aj the Prophet . am reportedly drank from this river (Qumm , II, p. 10 > Bih ar, XVIII, p. . 327, no. 34) and was informed by Gabriel that the river was his (h adh a nahruka) (Ibn al-Juh us, Yaq n, p. 291 > Najaf, p. 270, . am > Ibn T . aw no. 2, Bih ar, XVIII, p. 392, no. 98, XXXVII, p. 315, no. 46). For the . h j ) of the river al-kawthar see Tabar an , Musnad . . awd . as a tributary (khal al-sh amiyy n, I, p. 76, no. 95. s 704 For an identication of the hater (sh ani" ) as al-#A a"il see . b. W Tabar , XXX, pp. 328329; Tha#lab , X, p. 313; Qurt , XX, p. 222. . .ub s In one account, al-#A a"il calls the Prophet abtar (Bal adhur , Ans ab, . b. W V, p. 337). Cf. 701. 705 Fas . l, p. 349, ll. 1011, Mustadrak, IV, p. 179, no. 4428. For the d). This reading reading qul li-lladh na kafar u see Jeery, p. 112 (Ibn Mas#u was severely criticized by Ab u Bakr Ibn al-Anb ar (d. 328/940) (see Qurt , I, p. 82, XX, p. 226). For a #budu ll ah wa-l a ushriku bihi shay"an .ub cf. Q 13:36. This sentence, as well as l akin a #budu ll ah mukhlis n . an lahu d ( 709 , 712 ) (711) and the shorter a #budu ll ah (706) and a #budu ll ah wah dahu . do not appear to be recorded elsewhere as qir a" at ; they may be glosses. For a #budu ll ah rabb cf. 710*. The status of the thrice-repeated sentence d n l-isl am is not always clear. At 705707 it may be regarded as a reading. In contrast, at 709711 it constitutes part of a formula which the believer should recite after completing the S ura; in other words, it does not form part of the Qur"an. Similar questions arise with regard to S ura 112; see 717*. 706 Fas . l, p. 349, ll. 1113, Mustadrak, IV, p. 179, no. 4429. Cf. 705*.

707 Mustadrak, IV, p. 179, no. 4430. Cf. Qumm , II, p. 446 > Bih ar, . XCII, p. 340, no. 4; 705*. hir: al-T Isn ad : #Abd al-Qa mentions two disciples of al-S . us . adiq of this name: (i) #Abd al-Q ahir b. Muhammad b. Qays al-Asad al-K uf ; .

284

notes

(ii) #Abd al-Q ahir who transmitted from J abir (Rij al, p. 239, nos. 251, 252). 708 Mustadrak, IV, p. 191, no. 4461. Cf. Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab, pp. 156157 > S a f , V, p. 386 , alHurr al# Amil , Was a " il , II/ 2 , pp. 811 812, . . no. 7593; Tabris , XXX, p. 208 > S a f , V, p. 386 . . . wiya b. #Amma r: Ab wiya b. #Amm ar alIsn ad : Mu#a u l-Q asim Mu#a Duhn , a K ufan transmitter from al-S azim . (Modarressi, . adiq and al-K TS, pp. 327332). 709 Mustadrak, IV, pp. 179180, no. 4431. Cf. 705*, 710, 711, 712*. Isn ad : The isn ad recurs at 719.al-H n: Ab u Muham. akam b. Misk . mad (or Ab u #Abdall ah) Hakam b. Misk n al-A#m a, a K ufan transmit. l, p. 144; Modarressi, TS, pp. 236 ter from al-S . adiq (Kohlberg, Us .u mir b. Judha #a: #Amir 238).#A b. #Abdall ah b. Judh a#a al-Azd , a K ufan , I, pp. 427 transmitter from al-S a" , III, p. 239; Ardab l . adiq (Quhp 428). 710 Mustadrak, IV, p. 180, no. 4432. For this tradition see Himyar , p. . 31 (reading a #budu rabb for a #budu ll ah rabb ) > Bih ar, XCII, p. 339, no. 1, . Huwayz , V, p. 688, no. 20. Cf. 705*, 709, 711. . 711 Mustadrak, IV, p. 180, no. 4433(a). For this tradition see Tabris , . XXX, p. 208 (but reading wa-l akinn for l akin). Cf. Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un, II, p. 181 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, p. 756, no. 7382, Bih ar, . . XLIX, pp. 9495, no. 7, LXXXV, p. 33, no. 23 (whenever al-Rid .a nished reciting S urat al-jahd [one of the names of S u ra 109 ; see e.g. . ar, XCII, p. 339] he would say: rabb ll ah wa-d n l-isl am S af , V, p. 385, Bih . . three times); 705*, 709, 710. 712 Mustadrak, IV, p. 180, no. 4433(b), p. 191, no. 4462. The sentence a #budu ll ah wah . dahu presumably forms the end of Q 109:2, as at 709. n (meaning For the notion that S ura 109 equals one fourth of the Qur"a that the reward for reciting it equals the reward for reciting one fourth n) see e.g. Ab of the Qur"a u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 74, nos. 509510; . Ibn al-Durays, Fa d a " il , p. 125 , no. 296 (the Prophet declares: man qara"a . . h qul y a ayyuh a l-k ar un fa-ka-annam a qara"a rub # al-qur" an); Tirmidh , S . ah . ., XI, p. 22; Kul n , II, p. 621, no. 7 > S af , V, p. 386; Ibn B abawayh, . #Uy un, II, p. 36 (after reciting this S ura the Prophet would declare: qara"tu lakum thulth al-qur" an wa-rub #ahu) > Bih ar, XCII, p. 339, no. 2; .

notes

285

Zamakhshar , IV, p. 293; Tabris , XXX, p. 208; R az , XXXII, p. . 127 (man qara"ah a fa-ka-annam a qara"a rub # al-qur" an); Saleh, Formation, p. ura as bar a"a min al-shirk (dissociation from 107; cf. 722*. For this S polytheism) see e.g. Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, p. 73, no. 507; Ibn al. Durays, Fa d a " il , p. 128 , no. 305 ; Ab u D aw ud, Sunan, IV, p. 313, no. . . 5055; Kul n , II, p. 626, no. 23; Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, I, p. 297, no. 1356; H . akim, Mustadrak, II, p. 274, no. 2121, III, p. 400, no. 4035 (the Prophet); T , Tahdh b, II, p. 116, no. 437; Zamakhshar , IV, p. . us aban #an ras ul all ah (this [S ura] was 293. The sentence wa-nazalat jaw revealed as an answer on behalf of the Prophet) may refer to the account according to which Quraysh made various suggestions to the Prophet, and God responded to each of them on the Prophets behalf by revealing a verse of this S ura; see Qumm , II, pp. 445446 > Bih a r , IX, pp. 253 254 , no. 161 , XCII, p. 340 , no. 4, Huwayz , V, p. . . 688, no. 21. Similarly M award , VI, p. 357 (fa-s a ra h arf al-amr f h adhihi . . l-s ura wa-s urat al-ikhl as a nazalat . wa-l-mu #awwidhatayn matluwwan li-annah jaw aban) > Qurt , XX, p. 226 ( #an al-M award : nazalat jaw aban). Cf. .ub 705*. 713 Cf. Ibn al-Juh a #al a l-q a"im [to . am (yawm al-fath . yawm tuftah . al-duny Q 32:29]) > Najaf , p. 445, no. 9 > Burh an, III, p. 289, no. 1. Whereas KQ follows the #Uthm anic codex, the reading in Sa#d b. #Abdall ah (N asikh, p. 66) is: idh a j a"a fath all a h wa-l-na s r . This reading is ascribed . . to Ibn #Abb as (see Jeery, p. 208; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 294; Suy ut , Durr, . VI, p. 696). d (see 714 Fas . l, p. 349, l. 15. This reading is ascribed to Ibn Mas#u GdQ, III, p. 77; Jeery, p. 112; Tabar , XXX, p. 336; Nah ab, V, p. . . h . as, I #r 305; Ibn Kh alawayh, I #r ab, p. 222; M award , VI, p. 365; Zamakhshar , lib IV, p. 296; Ab u Hayy an, VIII, p. 526; Tha#a , V, p. 636). See also . Jeery, pp. 180, 313, 329 (Ubayy, al-Rab # b. Khuthaym, al-A#mash); ab al-tafs r ), Tabar , XIX, p. 121, XXX, Bukh ar, S . . ah . h . , III, p. 388 (Kit p. 337, Qurt , XIV, p. 312, XX, p. 234 (al-A#mash); Ibn Ab H . atim, .ub IX, p. 2825, no. 16011 (in the exegesis to Q 26:214, a tradition on the authority of Ibn #Abb as); Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist, pp. 29 (the codex of d), 34 (Ibn Shanab Ibn Mas#u udh) > Y aq ut, Udab a", V, p. 115; Tha#lab , X, p. 324, Tabris , XXX, p. 220, Ab u l-Fut uh, , . . XII, p. 205, Qurt .ub d, Ubayy); Qurt , I, p. 84 (anonymous); Paret, XX, p. 236 (Ibn Mas#u .ub ntext, pp. 6677. Kommentar, pp. 528529; Fck, Qur"a

286

notes

715 For the beginning see 716*. Hamm alat al-h tab (the wood car. . a. rier) is often interpreted metaphorically as meaning that Ab u Lahabs wife used to calumniate the Prophet in order to stoke the re of hatred against him; see e.g. Tabar , XXX, p. 339; Zamakhshar , IV, p. 297; . Qurt ub , XX, p. 239 . See in general Rubin, Ab u Lahab; the article . Ab u Lahab in EI 2 (W. Montgomery Watt), EQ (A. Rippin), DC (Meir M. Bar-Asher). 716 According to Jeery (p. 180), Ubayy added the following verse between Q 111:1 and 111:2: h alafa l-bayt al-wad # #al a l-bayt al-raf # fa. . shughila (read: fa-tasaala) bi-nafsihi thumma shughila (read: safula or tasaffala) (he allied himself with the lowly house [i.e. the Umayyads] against the lofty house [i.e. the H ashim s] so he abased himself and became ignoble). Judging however by the two traditions cited in KQ (here and at 715), this is a gloss on Q 111:1 rather than a separate verse. Neither the interpretation of tabba as tasaala nor the claim that tabba in the sense of to become ignoble is a word in Syriac (or in Hebrew, if ms. T is emended to bi-l- #ibr aniyya) seems to be recorded elsewhere. (Cf. in general Radtke, Syrisch, passim.) The word al-awwal is occasionally added after al-B aqirs kunya in order to distinguish him from the ninth Imam al-Jaw ad, who is at times referred to as Ab u Ja#far al-Th an . This aqir is referred to as Ab u Ja#far is the only instance in KQ where al-B al-Awwal. 717 Fas . l, p. 349, ll. 2123, Mustadrak, IV, p. 178, no. 4424. The question of whether expressions relating to S ura 112 such as those found n is taken up at 717719 are to be regarded as part of the Qur"a in several sources. In one account, al-Rid . a tells a disciple that he should recite S ura 112 as the people do, adding: kadh alika ll ah rabb kadh alika rabb (Kul n , I, p. 91, no. 3). Al-N ur (Fas l , p. 349 , l. 21 ) takes . n. this to be a hint ( m a" ) that these words form part of the Qur"a Another account, in contrast, appears to convey the opposite message. It describes how S ura 112 was revealed to the Prophet: God began by ah al-s revealing the rst two verses (qul huwa ll ah ah . ad all . amad ) and then stopped (amsaka). The Prophet recited of his own accord (min tilq a" nafsihi ): all ah ah ad all a h als amad all a h al-w a h id al-a h ad als amad . Then God . . . . . revealed the next two verses (lam yalid wa-lam y ulad wa-lam yakun lahu kufuwan ah . ad ) before stopping again. The Prophet recited of his own accord: kadh alika ll ah rabbun a (Barq , II, pp. 323324, no. 64 > Bih ar, . LXXXII, p. 273, no. 20; cf. Kul n , III, pp. 485486, no. 1 [where

notes

287

the Prophet recites al-w ah . id al-ah . ad al-s . amad after the rst two verses and kadh alika ll ah (Huwayz : + rabb ) kadh alika ll ah rabbun a after the next . two] > Huwayz , III, p. 117, no. 23; Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal, p. 334, no. . 1 > Bih ar, XVIII, p. 367, no. 72, LXXXII, p. 267, no. 15). It would . appear that words which the Prophet uttered of his own accord can n; after all, one of the accusations not have formed part of the Qur"a which the polytheists levelled against the Prophet was precisely that expressions which he claimed to be divine revelations were in fact his own (see e.g. #Askar , Tafs r, p. 154 > Bih ar, IX, p. 176, no. 4, XVII, p. . , XIX, p. 87 [to Q 25:4]). Cf. 215, no. 20, XCII, p. 30, no. 33; Tabris . Qurt # .ub, I, pp. 8485, where a certain personpresumably a Sh is accused of having read Q 112:12 as all ah al-w ah . id al-s . amad. Ibn ds reading is recorded as al-w Mas#u ah . id instead of al-s . amad (Blachre, Coran, II, p. 124, note 2) or as al-w ah id instead of a h ad . . (Jeery, p. 113). Al-A#mashs reading is similarly said to have been qul huwa ll ah al-w ah . id (Zamakhshar , IV, p. 298). Similar questions arise with regard to S ura 109; see 705*. h ris: Ibr Isn ad : Ibra m b. Muhammad b. Fa ah m b. Muhammad b. . . F aris al-N s ab ur , a transmitter from al-H ad and al-#Askar (T u s , Rij a l, . p. 410, no. 11, p. 428, no. 10). Ibr ahms father appears never to be cited, and it is therefore likely that the words Ibr ah m b. have been omitted from the manuscripts.Ahkam b . B ashsh a r : Ahkam/A hlam . . . b. Bashsh ar al-Marwaz al-Kulth um , a transmitter from al-Jaw ad; ac, I, pp. 8384; Ardab l , I, p. 39). cused of extremism (ghuluww) (Quhp a" 718 Fas ur s proposed emendation . l, p. 349, l. 23p. 350, l. 1 (with al-N of this tradition, at ll. 13). Qul huwa ll ah ah ad . is one of the names of S ura 112 (see Paret, Kommentar, p. 554). Cf. the reading qul huwa ll ah al lib w ah , V, p. 638). The Prophet is . id al-s . amad ascribed to #Umar (Tha#a said to have referred to this S ura as all ah al-w ah , . id al-s . amad (Tirmidh Durr , VI, pp. 711 712 [citing Ibn Hanbal, alS a h h , XI, p. 24 ; Suy u t , . . . . . Bukh ar and Ibn al-Durays] > Bih ar, XCII, p. 358, no. 23). Cf. 717, . . 719. Isn ad : #Uyayna: the reference may be to #Uyayna/#Utayba/#Utba b. Maym un al-Bajal al-Qas an , a transmitter from al-S a" , .ab . adiq (Quhp IV, pp. 128, 309; Ardab l , I, pp. 532, 656). 719 Fas . l, p. 349, ll. 1618, Mustadrak, IV, pp. 178179, no. 4425. Cf. 717, 718. ad : the isn ad recurs at 709. Isn

288

notes

720 Mustadrak, IV, p. 179, no. 4426. Here and at 722, the words kadh alika ll ah rabbun a/rabb are explicitly said to be pronounced after n. Cf. S ura 112 has been recited; thus they do not form part of the Qur"a al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, pp. 754755, nos. 73757376 (kadh alika . ll ah rabb ). 721 Mustadrak, IV, p. 178, no. 4423, p. 179, no. 4427. Cf. Kul n , II, p. 616, no. 12 > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, II/2, p. 754, no. 7373, p. 856, . no. 7748; Kul n , III, p. 314, no. 11 (yukrahu an yuqra"a qul huwa ll ah ah . ad f nafas w ah id ) (reading [the S u ra] Qul huwa ll a h a had in a single breath . . [i.e. without pausing] is reprehensible) > al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il, . II/2, p. 785, no. 7490; T , X, p. 432 (the Prophet used to pause at the . us end of each verse of this S ura). Cf. 720, 722. 722 Mustadrak, IV, p. 192, no. 4463. S ura 112 is said to have been revealed when the polytheists (or the Jews) asked Muhammad to state . Gods lineage (unsub lan a rabbaka) (see Tirmidh , S h . ah . . , XII, p. 260; Ibn Fad a"il, p. 156, no. 333 [q al u nsub lan a rabbaka fa-at ahu Jibr l al-Durays, . . bi-h adhihi l-s ura qul huwa ll ah ah ad etc.]; Qumm , II, p. 448 > S a f , V, . . p. 390; Tabar , XXX, p. 343 [from Qat ada] > Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. . . 705; Kul n , I, p. 91, no. 1 > S af , V, p. 390, Huwayz , V, p. 706, no. . . 47; Ibn Muhakkam, IV, p. 543 ; Ibn B a bawayh, Taw h d , af , V, . . . p. 93 > S p. 390, Bih a r , III, p. 220 , no. 9 ; Ibn Ab Zaman n, II, p. 551 ; H a kim, . . Mustadrak, III, p. 403, no. 4039; Tabris , XXX, p. 228; Suy ut , Durr, . . VI, p. 704); hence one of the names of S ura 112 is S urat nisbat al-rabb (The Lords lineage) (see e.g. Ibn B abawayh, Faq h, I, p. 212, no. 949, p. 297, no. 1356; T , Tahdh b, II, p. 116, no. 437; Tabris , XXX, p. . us . , Mak arim, pp. 281, 288; Bih ar, XC, p. 53). The name S urat 222; Tabris . . al-rabb given in the manuscripts of KQ appears to be unknown (it is not among the twenty names enumerated by al-R az [XXXII, pp. 161 162]) and is probably an error for S urat nisbat al-rabb. For the latter half of the tradition cf. Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um, p. 286 (fol 21b ll. 7 8), Ab u #Ubayd, Fad a"il, II, pp. 7578, nos. 512520 (this S ura equals . n [ta #dilu thulth al-qur" one third of the Qur"a an]; whoever recites this n, etc.); Ibn al-Durays, a"il, p. S ura has recited a third of the Qur"a Fad . . 108, no. 242 (the Prophet declares concerning this S ura: thulth al-qur" an aw ta #diluhu); Zarkash , I, p. 445; cf. T , Tahdh b, II, p. 127, no. 482 . us (qul huwa ll ah ah an); Qurt , XX, p. 247; Burs , .ub . ad ta #dilu thulth al-qur" Mash ariq, p. 56; Najaf , pp. 860862, nos. 14 > Bih a r , XXXIX, p. 270 , . alawayh, p. 182, where no. 46, p. 288, nos. 8183; cf. 712*. Cf. Ibn Kh

notes

289

the Prophet is quoted as declaring: man qara"a ll ah ah . ad fa-innahu ya #dilu l-qur" an kullahu; Saleh, Formation, p. 107. Cf. 720, 721. See also Tirmidh , S h . ah . . , XI, p. 22. 723 For this tradition see Tabris , XXX, p. 239 (with the addition of . f nafsika after fa-qul ) > Bih a r , LXIII, p. 246, Huwayz , V, p. 717, no. 11; . . Tabris , Jaw ami #, II, p. 799. The text is also recorded on the authority . of Ibn #Umar (see Suy ut , Durr, VI, p. 716 [from Ibn al-Anb ar ] > Bih ar, . . XCII, p. 369, no. 10). 724 Akhbath al-shay a. t n (the most wicked devil) is often identied with al-raj m (Satan); see Qumm , I, p. 390 (to Q 16:98) > Bih ar, . LXIII, p. 195, no. 4, p. 234, no. 74; #Ayy ash , II, p. 270, no. 67 (Sam a#a < al-S af , III, p. 155, Bih ar, LXIII, p. 255, no. 122, XCII, p. . adiq) > S . . 215, no. 15, Huwayz , III, p. 85 , no. 225; #Ayy ash , II, p. 270, no. 68 . (al-Halab < al-S ar, XCII, p. 215, no. 16, Huwayz , III, p. . . . adiq) > Bih . 85, no. 226. For the meteors which pursue eavesdropping devils see Q 15:1618, Q 37:610; cf. 459. 725 nic shay. For the Qur"a t an as referring to #Umar/Zufar see 276*.

LIST OF WORKS CITED


Abbott, Rise: Nabia Abbott, The Rise of the North Arabic Script and its Kur anic . " Development, Chicago, 1939. Abbott, Studies: Nabia Abbott, Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri, Chicago, 1957 1972. n #Abd al-Razz aq, Mus aq b. Hamm am al-San (d. 211/ . #a . annaf : #Abd al-Razz 827), al-Mus b al-Rahm , Beirut, 13901392/ . . an al-A#zam . . annaf, ed. Hab 19701972. n #Abd al-Razz aq, Tafs r : #Abd al-Razz aq b. Hamm am al-San , Tafs r, ed. . #a Mus t af a Muslim Mu hammad, Riy a d, 1410 / 1989 . . .. . #Abdall ah b. Wahb, see Ibn Wahb. Ab u D aw ud, Sunan: Ab u D aw ud Sulaym an b. al-Ash#ath al-Sijist an (d. 275/ 889), Sunan, ed. Muhammad Muhy al-D n #Abd al-Ham d, Cairo, n.d. . . . Ab u l-Fut uh: al al-D n Ab u l-Fut uh az (. rst half of 6th/12th century), . Jam . R Tafs r rawh an wa-r uh an, ed. Ab u l-Hasan Sha#r an and #Al Akbar . . al-jin . al-jan r Ghaa , Tehran, 13961398/19761978. Ab u H na: Ab u H b. Hamd an al-R az (d. 322/934), Kit ab . atim, Z . atim Ahmad . . al-z na f l-kalim at al-isl amiyya al- #arabiyya, III, ed. Husayn b. Fay d All a h . . al-Hamd an , Cairo, 19571958; III, ed. #Abdall ah Sall um al-S amarr a" , in idem, al-Ghuluww wa-l-raq al-gh aliya f l-h ara al-isl amiyya, Baghdad, 1372/ . ad . 1972. Ab u Hayy an: Ab u Hayy an Muhammad b. Y usuf al-Andalus al-Gharn at . . . . (d. 745/1344), Tafs r al-bah . t, ed. #Adil Ahmad #Abd al-Mawj ud and . . r al-muh . #Al Muhammad Mu#awwad, . . Beirut, 1422/2001. Ab u Nu#aym, Hilya : Ab u Nu#aym Ahmad b. #Abdall ah al-Is an (d. 430/ . . .fah 1038), Hilyat al-awliy a", ed. Mus t af a # Abd al-Q a dir # A t a , Beirut, 1418 /1997. . .. . d: Ab d al-#Im Ab u l-Su#u u l-Su#u ad (d. 982/1574), Tafs r al- #All ama Ab l-Su # ud Irsh ad al- #aql al-sal m il a maz ay a l-kit ab al-kar m, Cairo, 1347/19281929. a"il : Ab u #Ubayd al-Q asim b. Sall am (d. 224/838839), Fad a"il Ab u #Ubayd, Fad . . al-qur" an wa-ma # alimuhu wa- ad abuhu, ed. Ahmad b. #Abd al-W ahid . . al-Khayy at , al-Muhammadiyya (Morocco), 1415/1995. . . Ab u #Ubayd, N asikh: Ab u #Ubayd al-Q asim b. Sall am, Kit ab al-n asikh wa-lmans ukh, ed. with a commentary by John Burton (English title: Ab u #Ubaid al-Q asim b. Sall ams K. al-n asikh wa-l-mans ukh), Cambridge, 1987. Ab u #Ubayda, Maj az: Ab u #Ubayda Ma#mar b. al-Muthann a (d. 210/825826), d Sazg Maj az al-qur" an, ed. Muhammad Fu"a n (= Fuat Sezgin), Cairo, I, . 1374/1954, II, 1381/1962. Adang, Writers: Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm , Leiden, 1996. . Afand -Z adah, Shaw adhdh: #Abdall ah b. Muhammad al-Isl amb ul al-Hanaf . . Y al-mad#u usuf Afand -Z adah (d. 1167/1754), Ris ala f h ukm al-qir a " a bi-l.

292

list of works cited

qir a" at al-shaw adhdh, ed. #Umar Y usuf #Abd al-Ghan Hamd an and Taghr d . Muhammad #Abd al-Rahm an, #Amm an, 1425/2004. . . an Hamd . Ahw az , Bas : al-Hasan b. #Al al-Ahw az (d. 446/1055), Mufradat al-Hasan al. . . r Bas r , ed. # Umar Y u suf # Abd al-Ghan Hamd an, #Amm an, 1427/2006. . . Ahw az , Ibn Muh b. #Al al-Ahw az , Mufradat Ibn Muh . . ays . in: al-Hasan . ays . in alMakk , ed. #Umar Y usuf #Abd al-Ghan Hamd an, #Amm an, 1428/2007. . Ahw az , Zuhd : al-Husayn b. Sa# d al-Ahw az (d. after 300/913), al-Zuhd, ed. . Jal al al-D n #Al al-Sagh r, Beirut, 1413 / 1993 . . Alfaric, Ecritures: Prosper Alfaric, Les critures manichennes, Paris, 19181919. #Al b. Ja#far, Mas a"il : #Al b. Ja#far b. Muhammad (d. ca. 220/835), Mas a"il #Al . b. Ja #far, Beirut, 1410/1990. Ambros, Analyse: Arne A. Ambros, Die Analyse von Sure 112: Kritiken, Synthesen, neue Anstze, Der Islam, 63, 1986, pp. 219247. #Amil , Mir" at : Ab u l-Hasan b. Muhammad T al-Is an (d. after . . . ahir al-#Amil .fah 1140/17271728), Muqaddimat tafs r mir" at al-anw ar, Qumm, 1393/1973. Am n, A #y an: Muhsin al-Am n (d. 1371/1952), A #y an al-sh #a, Beirut, 1406/1986. . Amir-Moezzi, Ascension: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, LImam dans le ciel: ascension et initiation (aspects de lim amologie duodcimaine III), Le voyage initiatique en terre dIslam, ed. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Louvain Paris, 1996, pp. 99116, repr. in idem, La religion discrte: croyances et pratiques spirituelles dans lislam shi #ite, Paris, 2006, pp. 135150. Amir-Moezzi, Divine Guide: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, The Divine Guide in Early Sh #ism: The Sources of Esotericism in Islam, tr. David Streight, Albany, 1994. Amir-Moezzi, Guide divin: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Le guide divin dans le sh #isme originel: aux sources de lsotrisme en Islam, ParisLagrasse, 1992. Amir-Moezzi, Rexions: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Rexions sur une volution du shi#isme duodcimain: tradition et idologisation, Les retours aux critures: fondamentalismes prsents et passs, ed. velyne Patlagean et Alain Le Boulluec, LouvainParis, 1993, pp. 6381. r: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Al-Sa r al-Qumm Amir-Moezzi, Sa . a . a (m. 290/902903) et son Kit ab bas a " ir al-daraj a t , Journal Asiatique , 280 , 1992 , . pp. 221250. Amir-Moezzi, Wal aya: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Notes propos de la wal aya imamite (aspects de limamologie duodcimaine X), Journal of the American Oriental Society, 122, 2002, pp. 722741, repr. in idem, La religion discrte: croyances et pratiques spirituelles dans lislam shi #ite, Paris, 2006, pp. 177207. Amir-Moezzi-Jambet, Sh #isme: Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi and Christian Jambet, Quest-ce que le sh #isme?, Paris, 2004. Amir-Moezzi-Kohlberg, Rvlation et falsication: Mohammad Ali AmirMoezzi and Etan Kohlberg, Rvlation et falsication: introduction ldition du Kit ab al-qir a" at dal-Sayy ar , Journal Asiatique, 293, 2005, pp. 663722. Andrae, Muhammed : Tor Andrae, Die Person Muhammeds in Lehre und Glauben seiner Gemeinde, Stockholm, 1917. Andrae, Origines: Tor Andrae, Les origines de lIslam et le Christianisme, tr. Jules Roche, Paris, 1955.

list of works cited

293

Anon., Alq ab: anonymous (5th/11th century), Kit ab alq ab al-ras ul wa- #itratihi, in Majm u #a naf sa, Qumm, 1406/19851986. Ardab l : Muhammad b. #Al al-Ardab l (. late 11th/17th century), J ami # al. ruw at, Qumm, 1403/19821983. Ardab l , Zubda: Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Muqaddas al-Ardab l (d. 993/ . . 1585), Zubdat al-bay an f ah am al-qur" an, ed. Muhammad al-B aqir al-Bihb ud , . . k [Tehran], 1990. #Askar , Madrasatayn: Murtad , al-Qur" an al-kar m wa-riw ay at al. a al-#Askar madrasatayn, Tehran, 14161420/19961999. #Askar , Tafs r : al-Hasan b. #Al al-#Askar (d. 260/873) (attrib.), Tafs r, Qumm, . 1409/1988. As a" b. Raz n: Mukhtas a" b. Raz n, in Us ul . . l #Al . ar As . l #Al . s s As : As ab) #A al-Hann a. t, in Us ul. . . . . l #A . im b. Humayd . l (Kit . im b. Humayd . As b. #Uthm an: As ab) Husayn b. #Uthm an b. Shar k, in Us ul . . . . l Husayn . l (Kit . As : As ab) Ja #far b. Muh . d . l Ja #far b. Muh . ammad al-Ha . ram . l (Kit . ammad b. Shurayh . alHa , in Us ul . . d . ram . As a: As ab) Muh a al-Ha , . d . l Muh . ammad b. al-Muthann . l (Kit . ammad b. al-Muthann . ram in Us ul . . As : As ab) Zayd al-Nars , in Us ul . . l Zayd al-Nars . l (Kit . Asmussen, Manichaean Literature: J.P. Asmussen, Manichaean Literature: Representative Texts Chiey from Middle Persian and Parthian Writings, New York, 1975. Astar ab ad , Manhaj al-maq al : Muhammad b. #Al al-Astar ab ad (d. 1026/1617), . Manhaj al-maq al f tah q ah al al-rij al, Tehran, 13061307/18891890. . q . w d al-#Ayy #Ayy ash : Muhammad b. Mas#u ash (d. early 4th/10th century), Tafs r, . ed. H ashim al-Ras ul al-Mahall , Qumm, 1380/19601961. . at Baalbaki, Treatment: Ramzi Baalbaki, The Treatment of qir a" at by the Second and Third Century Grammarians, Zeitschrift fr arabische Linguistik, 15, 1986, pp. 1132, repr. in The Qur" an: Formative Interpretation, ed. Andrew Rippin, Aldershot, 1999, art. IX. Baarda, Harmonization: Tjitze Baarda: : Factors in the Harmonization of the Gospels, Especially in the Diatessaron of Tatian, Gospel Traditions in the Second Century: Origins, Recensions, Text, and Transmission, ed. William L. Petersen, Notre Dame, 1989, pp. 133154. Bahr , Mah ashim b. Sulaym an al-Bahr al-Katk an (d. 1107/1695 . an . an . ajja: H 1696 or 1109/16971698), al-Mah ajja f m a nazala f l-q a " im al-h . . ujja, ed. Muhammad Mun r al-M l an , Beirut, 1413/1992. . Bal adhur , Ans ab: Ahmad b. Yahy adhur (d. 279/892), Ans ab al-ashr af, . . a al-Bal m #Uqla, Beirut, 1422/2001; V, ed. IV/2, ed. #Abd al-#Az z al-D ur and #Is .a Ihs as, Beirut, 1417/1996. . an #Abb Bar-Asher, Judaism: Meir M. Bar-Asher, #Al meqom ha-yahadut ve-hayehudim ba-sifrut ha-datit shel ha-shi#a ha-qduma (On the Place of Judaism and the Jews in the Religious Literature of the Early Sh #a), Pe #amim, 61, 5754/1994, pp. 1636 (Hebrew). Bar-Asher, Readings: Meir M. Bar-Asher, Variant Readings and Additions of the Im am -S #a to the Quran, Israel Oriental Studies, 13, 1993, pp. 3974. Bar-Asher, Scripture: Meir M. Bar-Asher, Scripture and Exegesis in Early Im am Shiism, Leiden, 1999.

294

list of works cited

Barq : Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barq (d. 274/887888 or 280/893894), Ki. . t ab al-mah asin, ed. Jal al al-D n al-Husayn al-Muhaddith, Tehran, 1370/1950. . . . Barq , Rij al : Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barq , Kit ab al-rij al, ed. K azim al. . . M usaw al-May amaw , Tehran, 1342sh./1963. r al-Qumm Bas a"ir : Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Sa (d. 290/902903), Bas a"ir . . . a . . al-daraj at, ed. Muhsin K uc agh al-Tabr z , Qumm, 1404/1984. ab . Bay ad : #Al b. Muhammad al-Bay ad al-#Amil (d. 877/14721473), al-S a. t al. . . . ir mustaq m il a mustah iqq al-taqd m , ed. Mu hammad al-B aqir al-Bihb ud , Teh. . ran, 1384/19641965. Bayd : #Abdall ah b. #Umar al-Bayd (d. ca. 710/1310), Anw ar al-tanz l wa. aw . aw asr ar al-ta"w l, Constantinople, 1329/1911. Bayhaq , Asm a" : Ahmad b. al-Husayn al-Bayhaq (d. 458/1066), al-Asm a" wa-l. . s at, ed. Muhammad Z ahid al-Kawthar , Cairo, 1358/1939. . . if Bayhaq , Sunan: Ahmad b. al-Husayn al-Bayhaq , al-Sunan al-kubr a, Hyderabad, . . 13441356/1925192619371938. Bayhom-Daou, Knowledge: Tamima Bayhom-Daou, The Imams Knowledge and the Quran According to al-Fadl adh an al-N s ab ur (d. 260 . b. Sh A.H./874 A.D.), Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 64, 2001, pp. 188207. Bazz ar, Musnad : Ahmad b. #Amr al-Bazz ar (d. 292/904905), al-Bah . . r al-zakhkh ar al-ma #r uf bi-Musnad al-Bazz ar, ed. Mahf ah, Bei. uz . al-Rahm . an Zayn All rut, 14091418/19881997. Beck, #Arabiyya: Edmund Beck, #Arabiyya, Sunna und #Amma in der Koranlesung des zweiten Jahrhunderts, Orientalia, N.S., 15, 1946, pp. 180 224. Beck, Kodex: Edmund Beck, Der #utm anische Kodex in der Koranlesung des zweiten Jahrhunderts, Orientalia, N.S., 14, 1945, pp. 355373. r, Beck, Kodizesvarianten: Edmund Beck, Die Kodizesvarianten der Ams .a Orientalia, N.S., 16, 1947, pp. 353376. Bell, Qur" an: Richard Bell, The Qur" an: Translated, with a Critical Re-arrangement of the Surahs, Edinburgh, 1937. Bellamy, Emendations: James A. Bellamy, Some Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 113, 1993, pp. 562573. Bellamy, Letters: James A. Bellamy, The Mysterious Letters of the Koran: Old Abbreviations of the Basmalah, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 93, 1973, pp. 267285. van Berchem, Matriaux: Max van Berchem, Matriaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum, ii: Syrie du sud, Jrusalem Ville, Cairo, 1922. Bih ar : Muhammad B aqir al-Majlis (d. 1110/1699), Bih ar al-anw ar, Tehran, . . . 13761394/19561974. Birkeland: Harris Birkeland, The Lord Guideth: Studies on Primitive Islam, Oslo, 1956. ar : Ab ar al-b B r un , Ath u Rayh r un (d. after 442/1050), al-Ath aqiya #an . an al-B al-qur un al-kh aliya, ed. C.E. Sachau, Leipzig, 1878. B r un , Chronology: Ab u Rayh r un , The Chronology of Ancient Nations, tr. . an al-B C. Edward Sachau, London, 1879.

list of works cited

295

BL : Etan Kohlberg, Belief and Law in Im am Sh #ism, Aldershot, 1991. Blachre, Coran: Rgis Blachre (tr.), Le Coran, Paris, 1949. Blachre, Histoire: Rgis Blachre, Histoire de la littrature arabe, Paris, 1952 1966. Blachre, Introduction: Rgis Blachre, Introduction au Coran, new edition, Paris, 1959, repr. Paris, 2002. Blachre, Mahomet : Rgis Blachre, Le problme de Mahomet, Paris, 1952. Blau, Bedouins: Joshua Blau, The Role of the Bedouins as Arbiters in Linguistic Questions and the Mas"ala az-Zunb uriyya, Journal of Semitic Studies, 8, 1963, pp. 4251, repr. in idem, Studies in Middle Arabic and its Judaeo-Arabic Variety, Jerusalem, 1988, pp. 135144. von Bothmer, Wege: Hans-Caspar Graf von Bothmer, Karl-Heinz Ohlig, Gerd-Rdiger Puin, Neue Wege der Koranforschung, Magazin Forschung. Universitt des Saarlandes, 1, 1999, pp. 3346. Bravmann, Background: Meir M. Bravmann, The Ancient Arab Back nic Concept al-Gizyatu ground of the Qur"a #an yadin, Arabica, 13, 1966, pp. 307314, 14, 1967, pp. 9091, 326327. Bravmann, Islam: M.M. Bravmann, The Spiritual Background of Early Islam, Leiden, 1972. n IX-29: M.M. Bravmann, propos de Qur"a n IX-29, Bravmann, Qur"a Arabica, 10, 1963, pp. 9495. Brinner, Lives: William M. Brinner (tr. and annotated), #Ar a"is al-maj alis f qis . as . al-anbiy a" or Lives of the Prophets, Leiden, 2002. Brockett, Value: Adrian Brockett, The Value of the Haf . s . and Warsh Trans n, Approaches to the History of the missions for the Textual History of the Qur"a Interpretation of the Qur" an, ed. A. Rippin, Oxford, 1988, pp. 3145. Brunner, Falsication: Rainer Brunner, La question de la falsication du Coran dans lexgse chiite duodcimaine, Arabica, 52, 2005, pp. 142. Brunner, Koranflschung : Rainer Brunner, Die Schia und die Koranflschung, Wrzburg, 2001. Bukh ar , S h b. Ism a# l al-Bukh ar (d. 256/870), al-J ami # al-s h . . ah . . : Muhammad . ah . ., ed. L. Krehl, Leiden, 18621908. Bukh ar , Ta"r kh: Muhammad b. Ism a# l al-Bukh ar , al-Ta"r kh al-kab r, Beirut, . 1407/19861987. Burh an: H ashim b. Sulaym an al-Bahr al-Katk an (d. 1107/16951696 or . an 1109/16971698), Kit ab al-burh an f tafs r al-qur" an, Tehran, 13741375/1954 1955. Burs , Mash ariq: Rajab al-Burs (8th/14th century), Mash ariq anw ar al-yaq n f (h aq a " iq ) asr ar am r al-mu"min n, Beirut, n.d. . Burton, Collection: John Burton, The Collection of the Qur" an, Cambridge, 1977. Burton, Cranes: John Burton, Those Are the High-Flying Cranes, Journal of Semitic Studies, 15, 1970, pp. 246265, repr. in The Qur" an: Formative Interpretation, ed. Andrew Rippin, Aldershot, 1999, art. XVII. Busse, Islam: Heribert Busse, Der Islam und die biblischen Kultsttten, Der Islam, 42, 1966, pp. 113147. Bust , Bah u l-Q asim Ism a# l b. Ahmad al-Bust (d. early 5th/11th cen. . th: Ab tury), Kit ab al-bah th # an adillat al-takf r wa-l-tafs q ( Investigation of the Evidence for .

296

list of works cited

Charging with kufr and sq), ed. with an introduction by Wilferd Madelung and Sabine Schmidtke, Tehran, 2003. Caetani, Annali : Leone Caetani, Annali dellIslam, Milano, 19051926. Cahen, Coran IX-29: Claude Cahen, Coran IX-29, Arabica, 9, 1962, pp. 7679. Calder, Umm : Norman Calder, The Umm in Early Islamic Juridic Literature, Der Islam, 67, 1990, pp. 111123. Casanova, Mohammed : Paul Casanova, Mohammed et la n du monde: tude critique sur lislam primitif, Paris, 19111913. Caskel, see Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel. Caspar, Textes: R. Caspar, Textes de la tradition musulmane concernant la tah f (falsication) des critures, Islamochristiana, 6, 1980, pp. 61104. . r Chabbi, Seigneur : Jacqueline Chabbi, Le seigneur des tribus: lislam de Mahomet, Paris, 1997. Cole, Clerics: Juan Cole, Shi#i Clerics in Iraq and Iran, 17221780: The l Akhb ar -Us Conict Reconsidered, Iranian Studies, 18, 1985, pp. 334. .u Comerro, Esdras: Viviane Comerro, Esdras est-il le ls de Dieu?, Arabica, 52, 2005, pp. 165181. Cook, Codex: Michael Cook, A Koranic Codex Inherited by M alik from his Grandfather, Graeco-Arabica, 78, Athens, 2000, pp. 93105, repr. in idem, Studies in the Origins of Early Islamic Culture and Tradition, Aldershot, 2004, art. XII. Cook, Commanding Right : Michael Cook, Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought, Cambridge, 2000. Cook, Dogma: Michael Cook, Early Muslim Dogma: A Source-Critical Study, Cambridge, 1981. Cook, Koran: Michael Cook, The Koran: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, 2000. Cook, Muhammad : Michael Cook, Muhammad, Oxford, 1983. Cook, Opponents: Michael Cook, The Opponents of the Writing of Tradition in Early Islam, Arabica, 44, 1997, pp. iiii, 437530, repr. in idem, Studies in the Origins of Early Islamic Culture and Tradition, Aldershot, 2004, art. X. Cook, Stemma: Michael Cook, The Stemma of the Regional Codices of the Koran, Graeco-Arabica, 910, Athens, 2004, pp. 89104. Coulson, Succession: N.J. Coulson, Succession in the Muslim Family, Cambridge, 1971. Crone, Problems: Patricia Crone, Two Legal Problems Bearing on the n, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 18, 1994, Early History of the Qur"a pp. 137. Crone, Slaves: Patricia Crone, Slaves on Horses: The Evolution of the Islamic Polity, Cambridge, 1980. Crone, Trade: Patricia Crone, Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, Princeton, 1987. Crone-Cook, Hagarism: Patricia Crone and Michael Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World, Cambridge, 1977. Crone-Hinds, Gods Caliph: Patricia Crone and Martin Hinds, Gods Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam, Cambridge, 1986. Crone-Zimmermann, S alim: Patricia Crone and Fritz Zimmermann, The Epistle of S alim ibn Dhakw an, Oxford, 2001.

list of works cited

297

Crow, Husayn: Douglas Karim Crow, The Death of al-Husayn b. #Al and . . Early Sh # Views of the Imamate, Al-ser at, 12, 1986, pp. 71116, repr. in Sh #ism, ed. Etan Kohlberg, Aldershot, 2003, art. III. Cuypers, Analyse: Michel Cuypers, Une analyse rhtorique du dbut et de la n du Coran, Al-Kit ab, pp. 233272. Cuypers, Lecture: Michel Cuypers, Une lecture rhtorique et intertextuelle de la sourate al-Ikhl as . , Mlanges de lInstitut Dominicain dEtudes Orientales, 25 26, 2004, pp. 141175. DA: Die dunklen Anfnge: Neue Forschungen zur Entstehung und frhen Geschichte des Islam, ed. Karl-Heinz Ohlig and Gerd-R. Puin, Berlin, 2005. Dam r , Hayaw an: Muhammad b. M us a al-Dam r (d. 808/1405), Hay . . . at alh ayaw a n al-kubr a , Cairo, 1353 / 1934 1935 . . D an : #Uthm an b. Sa# d al-D an (d. 444/1053), Kit ab al-tays r f l-qir a" at al-sab #, ed. O. Pretzl, Istanbul-Leipzig, 1930. D an , Muqni #: #Uthm an b. Sa# d al-D an , al-Muqni # f ma #rifat mars um mas ah . . if ahl al-ams a r , ed. Mu hammad A hmad Dahm an, Damascus, 1403/1983. . . . Daylam , A #l am: al-Hasan b. Ab l-Hasan al-Daylam (8th/14th century), A #l am . . al-d n f s at al-mu"min n, Beirut, 1409/1988. . if DC : Dictionnaire du Coran, ed. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Paris, 2007. Droche, Colonnes: Franois Droche, Colonnes, vases et rinceaux sur quelques enluminures dpoque omeyyade, Comptes Rendus de lAcadmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, JanuaryMarch 2004, pp. 227264. Droche, Livre: Franois Droche, Le livre manuscrit arabe: prludes une histoire, Paris, 2004. Droche, Manuscrits: Franois Droche, Les manuscrits du Coran: aux origines de la calligraphie coranique, Paris, 1983. Droche, Sicle: Franois Droche, Les manuscrits arabes dats du IIIe/ IXe sicle, Revue des Etudes Islamiques, 5557, 19871989, pp. 343379. Dhahab , Ta"r kh al-isl am: Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Dhahab (d. 748/1348), . . Ta"r kh al-isl am wa-wafay at al-mash ah r wa-l-a #l am, ed. #Umar #Abd al-Sal am Tadmur , Beirut, 14071424/19872004. a Buzurg al-Tihr Dhar #a: Muhammad Muhsin (d. 1389/1970), al-Dhar #a . . Agh . an il a tas an f al-sh #a, Beirut, 1403/1983. . Dozy, Vtements: R.P.A. Dozy, Dictionnaire dtaill des noms des vtements chez les Arabes, Amsterdam, 1845. Dutton, Notes: Yasin Dutton, Some Notes on the British Librarys Oldest Qur"an Manuscript (Or. 2165), Journal of Qur"anic Studies, 6, 2004, pp. 4371. EI 2: Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, Leiden, 19602004. EIr : Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, London, 1982. Elad, #Abd al-Malik: Amikam Elad, Why Did #Abd al-Malik Build the Dome of the Rock? A Re-examination of the Muslim Sources, Bayt alMaqdis: #Abd al-Maliks Jerusalem, ed. Julian Raby and Jeremy Johns, Oxford, 1992, pp. 3358. Elad, Jerusalem: Amikam Elad, Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship, Leiden, 1995. n: Joseph Eliash, The Sh n: A ReconsideraEliash, Sh #ite Qur"a #ite Qur"a tion of Goldzihers Interpretation, Arabica, 16, 1969, pp. 1524.

298

list of works cited

EQ : Encyclopaedia of the Qur" an, general editor Jane Dammen McAulie, Leiden, 20012006. van Ess, TG : Josef van Ess, Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert Hidschra, Berlin and New York, 19911997. van Ess, Vision: Josef van Ess, Le Mi #r ag et la vision de Dieu dans les premires spculations thologiques en Islam, Le voyage initiatique en terre dIslam, ed. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, LouvainParis, 1996, pp. 2756. Fah aris Bih ar al-anw ar : Fah aris Bih ar al-anw ar li-l- #all ama al-Majlis , ed. Muhsin . . . al-Kh atam , Beirut, 1412/1992. F akih , Akhb ar Makka: Muhammad b. Ish akih (d. after 272/885886), . . aq al-F Akhb ar Makka, ed. #Abd al-Malik b. #Abdall ah b. Duhaysh, Mecca, 1419/ 1998. Falaturi, Schia: Abdoljavad Falaturi, Die Zwlfer-Schia aus der Sicht eines Schiiten: Probleme ihrer Untersuchung, Festschrift Werner Caskel, Leiden, 1968, pp. 6295. F aris : al-Hasan b. Ahmad al-F aris (d. 377/987), al-Ighf al, ed. #Abdall ah b. . . #Umar al-H ah m, al-Zahr an, 1420/1999. . ajj Ibr . Farr a": Yahy ad al-Farr a" (d. 207/822), Ma # an al-qur" an, I, ed. Ahmad . a b. Ziy . Y usuf Naj at and Muhammad #Al al-Najj ar, Cairo, 1374/1955; II, ed. Mu. hammad #Al al-Najj ar, Cairo, n.d.; III, ed. #Abd al-Fatt ah a# l Shalab , . . Ism Cairo, 1972. Fas b. Muhammad Taq al-N ur al-Tabars /Tabris (d. 1320/1902), . . . . . l : Husayn Fas t ab f tah f kit ab rabb al-arb ab, lith., n. pl. [Tehran], 1298/1881. . l al-khi. . r Fatt al, Rawd b. al-Hasan al-Fatt al al-N s ab ur (d. 508/1114 . . . a: Muhammad 1115), Rawd a #iz n , Najaf, 1386 / 1966 . . at al-w . Fayd, ul : Muhsin al-Fayd ash an (d. 1091/1680), al-Us ul al-as la, ed. Jal al . . Us . al-K . . . al-D n al-Husayn al-Urmaw al-Mu haddith, Tehran, 1390/1970. . . Fayd, af : Muhsin al-Fayd ash an , al-W af , ed. Diy n al-Husayn . . a" al-D . . W . al-K al-#All ama al-Is an , Is an, 1412/19911992. .fah .fah Fedeli, Manuscripts: Alba Fedeli, Early Evidences of Variant Readings in nic Manuscripts, DA, pp. 293316. Qur"a . Fleischhammer, Quellen: Manfred Fleischhammer, Die Quellen des Kit ab al-ag an , Wiesbaden, 2004. Freitag, Seelenwanderung : Rainer Freitag, Seelenwanderung in der islamischen Hresie, Berlin, 1985. Friedmann, Prophecy: Yohanan Friedmann, Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ah . mad Religious Thought and its Medieval Background, Berkeley, 1989. Friedmann, Tolerance: Yohanan Friedmann, Tolerance and Coercion in Islam, Cambridge, 2003. ntext: Johann W. Fck, Der Qur"a ntext und seine Exegese Fck, Qur"a im Wandel der Zeiten, in idem, Vortrge ber den Islam: aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben und um einen Anmerkungsteil ergnzt von Sebastian Gnther, Halle, 1999, pp. 5278. Fur at: Fur at b. Ibr ah m al-K uf (d. ca. 300/912), Tafs r Fur at al-K uf , ed. Muhammad al-K azim, Beirut, 1412/1992. . . Fyzee: Asaf A.A. Fyzee, A Sh #ite Creed, London, 1942. Ganj , Kif aya: Muhammad b. Y usuf al-Ganj al-Sh a# (d. 658/1260), Kif ayat .

list of works cited

299

al-. t alib f man aqib #Al b. Ab T H ad al-Am n , Beirut, . . alib, ed. Muhammad 1413/1993. Garcin de Tassy, Chapitre: M. Garcin de Tassy, Chapitre inconnu du Coran, Journal Asiatique, 13, 1842, pp. 431439. GAS : Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Leiden, 19671984. GdQ : Theodor Nldeke, Friedrich Schwally, G. Bergstrsser and O. Pretzl, Geschichte des Qor ans, 2nd edition, Leipzig, 19091938. Gil, Creed: Moshe Gil, The Creed of Ab u #Amir, Israel Oriental Studies, 12, 1992, pp. 947. Gil, Opposition: Moshe Gil, The Medinan Opposition to the Prophet, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 10, 1987, pp. 6596. Gilliot, Embarras: Claude Gilliot, Lembarras dun exgte musulman face un palimpseste: M atur d et la sourate de lAbondance (al-Kawthar, sourate 108), avec une note savante sur le commentaire coranique dIbn al-Naq b (m. 698/1298), Words, Texts and Concepts Cruising the Mediterranean Sea: Studies on the Sources, Contents and Inuences of Islamic Civilization and Arabic Philosophy and Science Dedicated to Gerhard Endress on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday, ed. Rdiger Arnzen and Jrn Thielmann, Leuven, 2004, pp. 3369. Gilliot, Exgse: Claude Gilliot, Exgse, langue et thologie en Islam: lxgse coranique de Tabari, Paris, 1990. Gilliot, Travail: Claude Gilliot, Le Coran, fruit dun travail collectif ?, AlKit ab, pp. 185231. Gilliot, Verset: Claude Gilliot, Un verset manquant du Coran ou rput tel, En hommage au pre Jacques Jomier, o.p., ed. Marie-Thrse Urvoy, Paris, 2002, pp. 73100. Gimaret, Lecture: Daniel Gimaret, Une lecture mu #tazilite du Coran: le Tafs r dAb u #Al al-Djubb a" (m. 303/915) partiellement reconstitu partir de ses citateurs, LouvainParis, 1994. Gimaret and Monnot, see Shahrast an , Religions. Gleave, Exegesis: Robert Gleave, Shi#ite Exegesis and the Interpretation of n 4:24, University Lectures in Islamic Studies, 2, 1998, pp. 79112. Qur"a Goitein, Background: S.D. Goitein, The Historical Background of the Erection of the Dome of the Rock, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 70, 1950, pp. 104108. Goldfeld, Prophet: Isaiah Goldfeld, The Illiterate Prophet (nab umm ): An Inquiry into the Development of a Dogma in Islamic Tradition, Der Islam, 57, 1980, pp. 5867. Goldziher, Introduction: Ignaz Goldziher, Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, tr. Andras and Ruth Hamori, Princeton, 1981. Goldziher, Muslim Studies: Ignaz Goldziher, Muslim Studies, ed. S.M. Stern, tr. C.R. Barber and S.M. Stern, London, 19671971. Goldziher, Richtungen: Ignaz Goldziher, Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung, Leiden, 1920. Goldziher, Stellung: Ignaz Goldziher, Stellung der alten islamischen Orthodoxie zu den antiken Wissenschaften, Abhandlungen der kniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1915, 1916, pp. 346, reproduced in his Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Joseph Desomogyi, Hildesheim, 19671973, V, pp. 357400.

300

list of works cited

Goldziher, Vorlesungen: Ignaz Goldziher, Vorlesungen ber den Islam, Heidelberg, 1910. Grabar, Formation: Oleg Grabar, The Formation of Islamic Art, New Haven and London, 1973. Graham, Divine Word : William A. Graham, Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam, The Hague, 1977. Graham, Scripture: William A. Graham, Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, Cambridge, 1987. Gramlich, Urvertrag: Richard Gramlich, Der Urvertrag in der Koranauslegung (zu Sura 7, 172173), Der Islam, 60, 1983, pp. 205230. Gribetz, Bedfellows: Arthur Gribetz, Strange Bedfellows: Mut #at al-nis a" and Mut #at al-h . ajj, Berlin, 1994. Grith, Muhammad: Sidney H. Grith, The Prophet Muhammad: His . . Scripture and his Message according to the Christian Apologies in Arabic and Syriac from the First Abbasid Century, La vie du prophte Mahomet: colloque de Strasbourg, octobre 1980, ed. T. Fahd, Paris, 1983, pp. 99146, repr. in The Life of Muh . ammad, ed. Uri Rubin, Aldershot, 1998, art. XV. Grohmann, Dating: Adolf Grohmann, The Problem of Dating Early ns, Der Islam, 33, 1958, pp. 213231. Qur"a Grohmann, Papyri : Adolf Grohmann, Arabic Papyri from Hirbet el-Mird, Leuven, 1963. Gnther, Commandments: Sebastian Gnther, O People of the Scripture! Come to a Word Common to You and Us (Q. 3:64): The Ten Commandments and the Qur"an, Journal of Qur"anic Studies, 9, 2007, pp. 2858. Gnther, Maq atil : Sebastian Gnther, Quellenuntersuchungen zu den Maq atil a. tT n des Ab u l-Fara g al-Is an (gest. 356/967), Hildesheim, 1991. . alibiyy . fah Gnther, Results: Sebastian Gnther, New Results in the Theory of Source-Criticism in Medieval Arabic Literature, al-Abhath, 42, 1994, pp. 3 15. Haider, Sectarian Identity: Najam Iftikhar Haider, The Birth of Sectarian Identity in 2nd/8th Century K ufa: Zaydism and the Politics of Perpetual Revolution, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton, 2007. H b. Muhammad al-H s ab ur (d. 405/ . akim, Mustadrak : Muhammad . . . akim al-N 1014), al-Mustadrak #al a l-s h u #Abdall ah #Abd al-Sal am b. Mu. ah . . ayn, ed. Ab hammad #All ush, Beirut, 14181419/1998. . b as a Fighter against Hakim, Satan: Avraham Hakim, #Umar b. al-Khat .t .a Satan, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 31, 2006, pp. 3457. Halab , Taqr b: Taq (al-D n) b. Najm (al-D n) Ab u l-Sal (d. 447/ . . al-Halab . . ah 10551056), Taqr b al-ma # arif, ed. F aris Tabr ziy an al-Hass u n, n. pl., 1417/ . 19961997. Halm, Gnosis: Heinz Halm, Die islamische Gnosis, Zurich and Munich, 1982. Halm, Schatten: Heinz Halm, Das Buch der Schatten, Der Islam, 55, 1978, pp. 219265, 58, 1981, pp. 1586. Hartmann, Handschriften: Martin Hartmann, Die arabisch-islamischen Handschriften der Universittsbibliothek zu Leipzig und der Sammlungen Hartmann und Haupt, Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie, 23, 1909, pp. 235266. Hask an : #Ubaydall ah b. #Abdall ah al-H an (d. after 470/1077 . . akim al-Hask .

list of works cited

301

1078), Shaw ahid al-tanz l li-qaw a #id al-tafd l, ed. Muhammad B aqir al-Mah. . . m ud , Beirut, 1393/1974. Hawting, Dynasty: Gerald R. Hawting, The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661750, 2nd edition, London, 2000. Hawting, Idolatry: Gerald R. Hawting, The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam, Cambridge, 1999. Hawting, Origins: Gerald Hawting, The Origins of the Muslim Sanctuary at Mecca, Studies on the First Century of Islamic Society, ed. G.H.A. Juynboll, Carbondale and Edwardsville, 1982, pp. 2347. n and Had Hawting, Role: Gerald Hawting, The Role of Qur"a . th in the Legal Controversy about the Rights of a Divorced Woman during her Waiting Period ( #idda), Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 52, 1989, pp. 430445. Haytham , Majma #: #Al b. Ab Bakr al-Haytham (d. 807/1405), Majma # al, zaw a"id wa-manba # al-faw a"id, ed. Muhammad #Abd al-Q adir Ahmad # At . . .a Beirut, 1422/2001. Hengel, Gospels: Martin Hengel, The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ, London, 2000. Hibar , Tafs r : al-Husayn b. al-Hakam al-Hibar al-K uf (d. 286/899), Tafs r, . . . . ed. Muhammad Ri d a alHusayn , Beirut, 1408 / 1987 . . . . Hibat All ah, N asikh: Hibat All ah b. Sal ama al-Baghd ad (d. 410/1019), al-N asikh wa-l-mans ukh, Cairo, 1387/1967. Hill , Ajwiba: al-Hasan b. Y usuf Ibn al-Mut (d. 726/1325), Ajwibat . . . .ahhar al-Hill al-mas a"il al-muhann a"iyya, Qumm, 1401/1980. Hill , Khul as b. Y usuf Ibn al-Mut , Khul as al, . . . .ahhar al-Hill . a: al-Hasan . at al-aqw Tehran, 1310/18921893. Hill , Muh b. Sulaym an al-Hill (d. after 802/13991400), al. . . . tad . ar : al-Hasan Muh ta d ar , Najaf, 1370 / 1951 . . . Hill , Mukhtas b. Sulaym an al-Hill , Mukhtas a"ir al-daraj a t, . . . . ar : al-Hasan . ar bas . Najaf, 1370/1950. Hill , Nahj : al-Hasan b. Y usuf Ibn al-Mut , Nahj al-h . . . .ahhar al-Hill . aqq wa-kashf al-s idq , ed. # Ayn All a h alHasan al-Urmaw , Qumm, 1414 / 1995 . . . Himyar : #Abdall ah b. Ja#far al-Himyar (d. after 297/909910), Qurb al-isn ad, . . Najaf, 1369/1950. Hinds-Sakkout, Letter: M. Hinds and H. Sakkout, A Letter from the Governor of Egypt to the King of Nubia and Muqurra Concerning EgyptianNubian Relations in 141/758, Studia Arabica et Islamica: Festschrift for Ih an . s #Abb as, ed. Wad ad al-Q ad , Beirut, 1981, pp. 209229. . Hollister, India: J.N. Hollister, The Shi #a of India, London, 1955. Hopkins, Review: Simon Hopkins, review of Luxenberg, Lesart, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 28, 2003, pp. 377380. Hopkins, Studies: Simon Hopkins, Studies in the Grammar of Early Arabic, Oxford, 1984. Horovitz, Himmelfahrt: Josef Horovitz, Muhammeds Himmelfahrt, Der Islam, 9, 1919, pp. 159183. Hujjat , Kashsh af : Muhammad B aqir Hujjat , Kashsh af al-fah aris wa-was af al. . . .s . makh. t u. t at al- #arabiyya f maktab at F aris I, [Tehran], 1370sh./1991.

302

list of works cited

al-Hurr al-#Amil , Fus ul : Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil (d. 1104/ . . . . . 1693), al-Fus ul al-muhimma f us ul al-a"imma, Najaf, 1378/19581959. . . az: Muhammad az min al-Hurr al-#Amil , Iq b. al-Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil , al-Iq . . . . . . al-haj #a bi-l-burh an #al a l-raj #a, ed. H ashim al-Ras ul al-Mahall a t , Qumm, . 1381/1962. al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at : Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil , Ithb at al. . . . hud at bi l-nus us at, Qumm, 13781379/19581959. . . wa-l-mu #jiz al-Hurr al-#Amil , Was a"il : Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hurr al-#Amil , (Tafs l) . . . . . was a"il al-sh #a il a tah s l mas a " il al-shar # a , Beirut, 1403 / 1983 . .. Hussain, Occultation: Jassim M. Hussain, The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam, London, 1982. Huwayz : #Abd #Al b. Jum#a al-Huwayz (d. 1112/17001701), Tafs r n ur al. . thaqalayn, ed. H ashim al-Ras ul al-Mahall , Qumm, 1412/19911992. . at Ibn #Abd al-Barr, Ist # ab: Y usuf b. #Abdall ah Ibn #Abd al-Barr (d. 463/1071), alIst # ab f ma #rifat al-as ab, ed. #Al Muhammad al-Baj aw , Cairo, 1380/1960. . .h . Ibn Ab D aw ud: #Abdall ah b. Sulaym an Ibn Ab D aw ud al-Sijist an (d. 316/ 928929), Kit ab al-mas ah . . if, ed. Arthur Jeery, Cairo, 1355/1936 (in the same volume as Jeerys Materials). Ibn Ab l-Had d, Sharh d b. Hibat All ah Ibn Ab l-Had d (d. . . . . : #Abd al-Ham 656/1258), Sharh nahj al-bal a gha , ed. Mu hammad Ab u l-Fa dl Ibr a h m, Cairo, . . . 13781383/19591964. Ibn Ab H Ibn Ab H az . atim: #Abd al-Rahm . an b. Muhammad . . atim al-R (d. 327/938), Tafs r al-qur" an al- #az al-Tayyib, al. . . m, ed. As#ad Muhammad Riy ad, . 1417/1997. Ibn Ab H Ibn Ab H az , . atim, Jarh . an b. Muhammad . . atim al-R . : #Abd al-Rahm , Beirut, 1422/2002. al-Jarh l, ed. Mus a #Abd al-Q adir #At .t .af .a . wa-l-ta #d Ibn Ab Shayba, Mus ah b. Muhammad Ibn Ab Shayba (d. 235/ . . annaf : #Abdall 849), al-Kit ab al-mus annaf , ed. Mu hammad # Abd al-Sal a m Sh ah n, Beirut, . . 1416/1995. Ibn Ab Zaman n: Muhammad b. #Abdall ah Ibn Ab Zaman n al-Marr (d. . 399/10081009), Tafs r Ibn Ab Zaman n wa-huwa Mukhtas ar r Yah a b. . tafs . y Sall am, ed. Muhammad Hasan Muhammad Hasan Ism a# l and Ahmad . . . . . Far d al-Mazyad , Beirut, 1424/2003. Ibn #Ad , Du a" : #Abdall ah b. #Ad al-Jurj an al-#Uqayl (d. 365/976), al-K amil . #af f d u # af a " al-rij a l , Beirut, 1404 / 1984 . . Ibn al-#Arab , Ah am: Muhammad b. #Abdall ah Ibn al-#Arab (d. 543/1148), . . k Ah am al-qur" an, ed. #Al Muhammad al-Baj aw , Beirut, n.d. . . k Ibn al-#Arab , N asikh: Muhammad b. #Abdall ah Ibn al-#Arab , al-N asikh wa-l. mans ukh f l-qur" an al-kar m, ed. Zakariyy a #Umayr at, Beirut, 1418/1997. Ibn al-Ash#ath, Ash #athiyy at : Muhammad b. Muhammad Ibn al-Ash#ath (d. . . after 350/961), al-Ash #athiyy at, Tehran, 1370/1951. Ibn al-#At a"iq , N asikh: #Abd al-Rahm Ibn al-#At a"iq al-Hill . an b. Muhammad . . (8th/14th century), al-N asikh wa-l-mans ukh, ed. #Abd al-H ad al-Fadl , Najaf, . 1390/1970. Ibn al-Ath r, Nih aya: al-Mub arak b. Muhammad Ibn al-Ath r (d. 606/1210), al. Nih aya f ghar b al-h th wa-l-athar, ed. T al-Z aw and Mahm . ahir Ahmad . . ud . ad Muhammad alTan a h , Cairo, 1383 1385 / 1963 1965 . . . .

list of works cited

303

Ibn #At b. Gh alib b. #At (d. 546/1151), al. .iyya: #Abd al-Haqq .iyya al-Andalus Muh z f tafs r kit ab all ah al- #az z, ed. #Abd al-Sal am #Abd al-Sh af . arrar al-waj Muhammad, Beirut, 1413/1993. . Ibn B abawayh, Am al : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh (d. 381/991), al-Am al , . Najaf, 1389/1970. Ibn B abawayh, Fad a"il : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Fad a"il al-sh #a, ed. . . . with a Persian translation Am r Tawh d , Tehran, 1380sh./2002. . Ibn B abawayh, Faq h: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Man l a yah . .d . uruhu lfaq h, ed. Hasan al-M usaw al-Khars an, Najaf, 1376/1957. . Ibn B abawayh, Hid aya: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, al-Hid aya, Qumm, . 1377/1958. Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Ikm al al-d n wa-itm am . al-ni #ma f ithb at al-raj #a, Najaf, 1389/1970. Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, #Ilal al-shar a"i #, Najaf, . 1385/1966. Ibn B abawayh, Im ama: #Al b. al-Husayn Ibn B abawayh (d. 329/940941), al. Im ama wa-l-tabs . ira min al-h . ayra, Qumm, 1404/19831984. Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, #Iq ab al-a #m al, ed. . Husayn al-A#lam , Beirut, 1403/1983 (with his Thaw ab al-a #m al, continuous . pagination). Ibn B abawayh, I #tiq ad at : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Ris alat al-i #tiq ad a t, . Tehran, 1317/18991900. Ibn B abawayh, Khis al : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, al-Khis al, Najaf, . . . 1391/1971. Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Ma # an al-akhb a r, . Najaf, 1391/1971. Ibn B abawayh, Tawh d : Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Kit ab al-tawh d, ed. . . . H ashim al-Husayn alTihr a n , Qumm, 1398 / 1978 . . . Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, Thaw ab al-a #m al, . ed. Husayn al-A#lam , Beirut, 1403/1983 (with his #Iq ab al-a #m al, continuous . pagination). Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn B abawayh, #Uy un akhb ar al-Rid a, . . Najaf, 1390/1970. Ibn al-Durays, Fad a"il : Muhammad b. Ayy ub b. al-Durays al-Bajal (d. 294/ . . . . 906907), Fad a " il al-qur " a n , ed. Ghazwa Budayr, Damascus, 1408/1997. . Ibn al-Ghad : Ahmad b. al-Husayn Ibn al-Ghad (. rst half of 5th/11th . . . a"ir . a"ir century), al-Rij al, ed. Muhammad Rid al-Jal al , Qumm, 1421/ . . . a al-Husayn 2000. Ibn Ghalb un: T un al-Halab (d. 399/1008 . ahir b. #Abd al-Mun#im Ibn Ghalb . 1009), al-Tadhkira f l-qir a" at, ed. #Abd al-Fatt ah ra Ibr ah m, Medina, . Bah . 1410/1990. Ibn Hajar, Is aba: Ahmad b. #Al Ibn Hajar al-#Asqal an (d. 852/1449), al-Is aba . . . . . f tamy z al-s a h a ba , ed. # Al Mu hammad al-Baj a w , Cairo, 1970 1972 . . . . Ibn Hajar, Lis an: Ahmad b. #Al Ibn Hajar al-#Asqal an , Lis an al-m z an, Beirut, . . . 14071408/19871988. Ibn Hajar, Tahdh b: Ahmad b. #Al Ibn Hajar al-#Asqal an , Tahdh b al-tahdh b, . . . Hyderabad, 13251327/19071909.

304

list of works cited

Ibn Hajar, Ta #j l : Ahmad b. #Al Ibn Hajar al-#Asqal an , Ta #j l al-manfa #a bi. . . zaw a"id rij al al-a"imma al-arba #a, Hyderabad, 1324/1906. Ibn Hamza, Th aqib: Muhammad b. #Al al-T al-ma#r uf bi-Ibn Hamza (6th/ . . . us . 12th century), al-Th aqib f l-man aqib, ed. Nab l Rid an, Qumm, 1412/ . a #Alw 19911992. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad : Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241/855), Musnad, Beirut, 1413/ . . . 1993. Ibn al-Haytham, see Madelung-Walker Ibn Hazm, Jamhara: #Al b. Ahmad Ibn Hazm (d. 456/1064), Jamharat ans ab . . . al- #arab, ed. #Abd al-Sal am Muhammad H ar un, Cairo, 1382/1962. . r Ibn Hish am, Mughn : #Abdall ah b. Y usuf Ibn Hish am al-Ans (d. 761/1360), .a Mughn al-lab b #an kutub al-a # ar b, ed. M azin al-Mub arak and Muhammad . #Al Hamd All ah, Damascus, 1392/1972. . Ibn Hish am, S ra: #Abd al-Malik b. Hish am (d. 218/833), al-S ra al-nabawiyya, ed. Muhammad Muhy al-D n #Abd al-Ham d, Cairo, 1971. . . . Ibn al-#Ibr , Ta"r kh: Ab u l-Faraj b. H ar un Ibn al-#Ibr (Bar Hebraeus) (d. 685/ n S 1286), Ta"r kh mukhtas , Beirut, 1890, repr. . an .u . alih . ar al-duwal, ed. Ant Tehran, 1370sh./1991. r Ibn Idr Ibn Idr s, Sar a"ir : Muhammad b. Mans s al-Hill (d. 598/1202), Kit ab . . .u al-sar a"ir, Qumm, 1417/19961997. Ibn Jabr, Nahj : #Al b. Y usuf b. Jabr (or Jubayr) (7th/13th century), Nahj al- m an, ed. Ahmad al-Husayn , Mashhad, 1418/19971998. . . Ibn Ja#d, Musnad : #Al b. al-Ja#d al-Jawhar (d. 230/845), Musnad, ed. #Abd alMahd b. #Abd al-Q adir b. #Abd al-H ad , Kuwayt, 1405/1985. Ibn al-Jawz : #Abd al-Rahm Ibn al-Jawz (d. 597/1201), Z ad al-mas r f . an b. #Al #ilm al-tafs r, ed. Ahmad Shams al-D n, Beirut, 1422/2002. . Ibn al-Jawz , Mawd u # at : #Abd al-Rahm Ibn al-Jawz , Kit ab al-mawd u # at, . an b. #Al . . ed. #Abd al-Rahm a n Mu hammad # Uthm a n, Medina, 1386 1388 / 1966 . . 1968. Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh: #Abd al-Rahm Ibn al-Jawz , Naw asikh al-qur" an, . an b. #Al Zahw ed. al-D an b. Mun r Al , Sayd a and Beirut, 1422/2001. . Ibn al-Jazar : Muhammad b. Muhammad Ibn al-Jazar (d. 833/1429), Gh ayat . . al-nih aya f . tabaq at al-qurr a", ed. G. Bergstrsser, Cairo, 1352/1933. Ibn Jinn : #Uthm an b. Jinn (d. 392/1002), al-Muh taby n wuj uh shaw adhdh . tasab f al-qir a" at wa-l- d ah a, I, ed. #Al al-Najd N as m al-Najj ar . .if, #Abd al-Hal . . #anh and #Abd al-Fatt ah a# l Shalab , Cairo, 1386/1966; II, ed. #Al al-Najd . Ism N as ah a# l Shalab , Cairo, 1389/1969. . Ism .if and #Abd al-Fatt Ibn al-Juh b. al-#Abb as Ibn al-Juh . am: Muhammad . . am (d. after 328/939940), Ta"w l m a nazala min al-qur" an al-kar m f l-nab wa- alihi, the excerpts preserved in Najaf . Ibn al-Kalb -Caskel: Werner Caskel, Gamharat an-nasab: das genealogische Werk des Hi s am ibn Muh ammad al-Kalb , Leiden, 1966. . Ibn Kath r, Bid aya: Ism a# l b. #Umar b. Kath r (d. 774/1373), al-Bid aya wa-lnih aya, Beirut, 1413/1993. Ibn Kath r, Tafs r : Ism a# l b. #Umar b. Kath r, Tafs r, Cairo, 1342/1923. Ibn Kh alawayh: al-Husayn b. Ahmad Ibn Kh alawayh (d. 370/980981), . . Mukhtas ar f shaw a dhdh al-qur " a n min kit a b al-bad # , ed. G. Bergstrsser, Leipzig . and Cairo, 1934.

list of works cited

305

Ibn Kh alawayh, Hujja : al-Husayn b. Ahmad Ibn Kh alawayh, al-Hujja f l-qir a" at . . . . S al-sab #, ed. #Abd al-#Al alim Makram, Beirut, 1971. Ibn Kh alawayh, I #r ab: al-Husayn b. Ahmad Ibn Kh alawayh, I #r ab thal ath n s ura . . min al-qur" an al-kar m, ed. #Abd al-Rah m Mahm . . ud, Cairo, 1360/1941. Ibn Khallik an, Wafay at : Ahmad b. Muhammad Ibn Khallik an (d. 681/1282), . . Wafay at al-a #y an, ed. Ihs as, Beirut, 19681972. . an #Abb Ibn al-Magh azil : #Al b. Muhammad Ibn al-Magh azil (d. 483/1090), Man aqib . ahl al-bayt (published as Man aqib am r al-mu"min n), Beirut, 1400/1980. r al-Yaman, Kashf : Ja#far b. Mans r al-Yaman (d. ca. 346/957) Ibn Mans .u .u (attrib.), Kit ab al-kashf, ed. Rudolf Strothmann, London, 1952. Ibn Muhakkam: H ud b. Muhakkam al-Huww ar (3rd/9th century), Tafs r kit ab . . all ah al- #az z, ed. B alh a j b. Sa # d Shar f , Beirut, 1990. . Ibn Muj ahid: Ahmad b. M us a Ibn Muj ahid (d. 324/936), Kit ab al-sab #a f l. qir a" at, ed. Shawq D f, Cairo, 1400/1980. . Ibn al-Nad m, Fihrist : Muhammad b. Ish m (d. 380/990), Kit ab . . aq Ibn al-Nad al-hrist, ed. Rid a Tajaddud, Tehran, 1391 /1971. . Ibn al-Qift , Inb ah: #Al b. Y usuf Ibn al-Qift (d. 646/1248), Inb ah al-ruw at . . #al a anb ah al-nuh at, ed. Muhammad Ab u l-Fadl ah m, Cairo and Beirut, . . Ibr . 1406/1986. Ibn Q ulawayh, K amil : Ja#far b. Muhammad Ibn Q ulawayh al-Qumm (d. 368/ . 978), K amil al-ziy ar at, Beirut, 1418/1997. Ibn Qutayba, Mushkil : #Abdall ah b. Muslim Ibn Qutayba (d. 276/889), Ta"w l mushkil al-qur" an, ed. Ahmad Saqr, Cairo, 1393/1973. . . Ibn Sa#d, Mutammim: Muhammad b. Sa#d (d. 230/845), al-Tabaq at al-kubr a: al. . qism al-mutammim li-t abi # ahl al-Mad na wa-man ba #dahum, ed. Ziy ad Muham. r, Medina, 1408/1987. mad Mans .u Ibn Sa#d, Tabaq at : Muhammad b. Sa#d, al-Tabaq at al-kubr a, Beirut, 13761388/ . . . 19571968. Ibn Shabba, Ta"r kh: #Umar b. Shabba (d. ca. 262/875), Ta"r kh al-Mad na, ed. Fah m Muhammad Shalt ut, Beirut, 1410/19891990. . d Ibn Sh adh an, I ah adh an al-N s ab ur (d. 260/873) (attrib.), al. b. Sh . . : al-Fadl d I a h , ed. Jal a l al-D n alHusayn al-Urmaw , Tehran, 1392/1972. . . . Ibn Sh adh an, Mi"at manqaba: Muhammad b. Ahmad Ibn Sh adh an al-Qumm . . (d. after 412/10211022), Mi"at manqaba, ed. Nab l Rid an, Qumm, . a #Ulw 1413/1993. Ibn al-Shah d al-Th an , Tah r : Hasan b. Zayn al-D n al-Shah d al-Th an . . r (d. 1011/16021603), al-Tah r al-T us , ed. Muhammad Hasan Tarh n , . . . . aw . r Beirut, 1408/1988. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Ma # alim: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn Shahr ash ub (d. 588/1192), . Ma # alim al- #ulam a", Najaf, 1380/1961. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn Shahr ash ub, Man aqib al Ab . T . alib, Beirut, 1405/1985. Ibn Shahr ash ub, Mutash abih: Muhammad b. #Al Ibn Shahr ash ub, Mutash abih . al-qur" an wa-mukhtalifuhu, Qumm, 1410/1990. Ibn Shu#ba, Tuh b. #Al Ibn Shu#ba (. mid-4th/10th century), . . af : al-Hasan Tuh ul #an al al-ras ul, Beirut, 1394/1974. . af al- #uq Ibn T us, Bin a" : Ahmad b. M us a Ibn T us (d. 673/12741275), Bin a" al. aw . . aw

306

list of works cited

maq ala al-f a. timiyya f naqd ala al- #uthm aniyya, ed. Ibr ah m al-S amarr a" , . al-ris #Amm an, 1985. Ibn T us, Fal ah b. M us a Ibn T us (d. 664/1266), Fal ah a"il, Tehran, . aw . aw . : #Al . al-s 1382/1962. Ibn T us, Farh m b. Ahmad Ibn T us (d. 693/1294), Farh . aw . . aw . a: #Abd al-Kar . at Shab al-ghar f ta #y n qabr am r al-mu"min n, ed. Tahs n Al b al-M usaw , n. pl., . 1419/1998. Ibn T us, Muhaj : #Al b. M us a Ibn T us, Muhaj al-da #aw at wa-manhaj al. aw . aw #ib ad at, ed. Husayn al-A#lam , Beirut, 1414/1994. . Ibn T us, Muh asaba: #Al b. M us a Ibn T us, Muh asabat al-mal a"ika al-kir am, . aw . aw . . ed. H ad Hasan al-Qubays , Tur athun a, 12/12, 1417/1996, pp. 321386. . Ibn T us, Sa #d : #Al b. M us a Ibn T us, Sa #d al-su # ud, Najaf, 1369/1950. . aw . aw Ibn T us, Tar b. M us a Ibn T us, al-Tar ma #rifat madh ahib al. aw . aw . a"if : #Al . a"if f taw a"if, Qumm, 1400/19791980. . Ibn T us, Yaq n: #Al b. M us a Ibn T us, al-Yaq n bi-khtis as an a #Al bi. aw . aw . . mawl r imrat al-mu"min n, ed. Muhammad B aqir al-Ans and Muhammad S . . .a . adiq r al-Ans , Beirut, 1410/1989. .a ami # (Die KoranexIbn Wahb, J ami #/Tafs r : #Abdall ah b. Wahb (d. 197/812), al-G egese), ed. and annotated Miklos Muranyi, Wiesbaden, 1993. ami # (Die Koranwissenschaften), Ibn Wahb, J ami #/ #Ul um: #Abdall ah b. Wahb, al-G ed. and annotated Miklos Muranyi, Wiesbaden, 1992. m, Tibb m al-N Ibn a Bist and #Abdall ah Ibn a Bist s ab uriyy an . . : al-Husayn .a .a (. late 3rd/9th century), Tibb al-a"imma, ed. Muhsin #Aq l, Beirut, 1414/ . . 1994. #Im ad al-D n, #Uy un: Idr s b. al-Hasan #Im ad al-D n al-Qurash (d. 872/1468), . #Uy un al-akhb ar wa-fun un al- ath ar, IV, ed. Mus a Gh alib, Beirut, 1406/1986. .t .af a al-Irbil Irbil : #Al b. #Is (d. 693/1294), Kashf al-ghumma f ma #rifat al-a"imma, Beirut, 1405/1985. Is an , Agh an : Ab u l-Faraj al-Is an (d. 356/967), Kit ab al-agh an , ed. #Abd .fah .fah al-Am r #Al Muhann a and Sam r J abir, Beirut, 1415/1995. #Iy ad, a" : al-Q ad #Iy ad us a al-Yah (d. 544/1149), al-Shif a" bi-ta #r f .s . Shif . . b. M .ub h uq u q al-mu s t af a , Cairo, 1369 / 1950 . . .. Ja#fariy an, H : Ras ul Ja#fariy an, al-H f rij al al-sh #a al-im amiyya li. aw . aw Ibn Ab Tayy al-Halab , Tur athun a, 17/1, 1422/2001, pp. 106160. . . Ja#fariy an, Shadhar at: Ras ul Ja#fariy an, Shadhar at min kutub mafq uda liMuhammad b. Bahr , Tur athun a, 21/34, 1426/2005, pp. 792. . . al-Ruhn Ja#fariy an, Ukdh uba: Ras ul Ja#fariy an, Ukdh ubat tah f al-qur" an bayna l-sh #a wa-l. r sunna, Tehran, 1985. Jafri, Origins: S. Husain M. Jafri, The Origins and Early Development of Shi #a Islam, London, 1979. J ahi an: #Amr b. Bahr ahi an wa-l-taby n, ed. . z, . Bay . al-J .z . (d. 255/868869), al-Bay #Abd al-Sal am Muhammad H ar un, Cairo, 1388/1968. . Jal alayn: Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Mahall (d. 864/1459) and #Abd al-Rah. . . . m an b. Ab Bakr al-Suy ut (d. 911/1505), Tafs r al-Jal alayn, Damascus, 1420/ . 1999. Jambet, see Amir-Moezzi. Jarrar, Sources: Maher Jarrar, S rat ahl al-kis a": Early Sh # Sources on

list of works cited

307

the Biography of the Prophet, The Biography of Muh . ammad: The Issue of the Sources, ed. Harald Motzki, Leiden, 2000, pp. 98153. Jaz a"ir , N ur : Ni#mat All ah b. #Abdall ah al-Jaz a"ir (d. 1112/1701), N ur al-anw ar f sharh als a h fa al-sajj a diyya , Beirut, 1420 / 2000 . . . . Jean Damascne, Ecrits: Jean Damascne, Ecrits sur lIslam, Paris, 1992. Jeery: Arthur Jeery, Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur" an, Leiden, 1937. Jeery, Ab u #Ubaid: Arthur Jeery, Ab u #Ubaid on the Verses Missing from n, The Moslem World, 28, 1938, pp. 6165. the Qur"a n Readings of Ibn Miqsam, Jeery, Ibn Miqsam: Arthur Jeery, The Qur"a Ignaz Goldziher Memorial Volume, I, ed. Samuel Lwinger and Joseph Somogyi, Budapest, 1948, pp. 138. Jeery, Variant Text: Arthur Jeery, A Variant Text of the F atiha, Moslem . World, 29, 1939, pp. 158162. Jeery, Vocabulary: Arthur Jeery, The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur" an, Baroda, 1938. n Readings of Zaid b. #Al Jeery, Zaid: Arthur Jeery, The Qur"a , Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 16, 1936, pp. 249289. n Readings of Zaid b. Jeery, Zaid b. #Al : Arthur Jeery, Further Qur"a #Al , Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 18, 19391940, pp. 218236. J l an , Ghan a"im: Ab u l-Q asim al-J l an al-F adil (d. 1231/18151816 . al-Qumm or 1233/18171818), Ghan a"im al-ayy am f mas a"il al-h al wa-l-h am, ed. #Ab. al . ar b as Tabr ziy an, Qumm, 1417/19961997. Juynboll, Qurr a": G.H.A. Juynboll, The Qurr a" in Early Islamic History, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 16, 1973, pp. 113 129. n Reciter on the Battleeld Juynboll, Reciter: G.H.A. Juynboll, The Qur"a and Concomitant Issues, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, 125, 1975, pp. 1127. Kah n, Beirut, . h . ala: #Umar Rid . h . ala (d. 1428/2007), Mu #jam al-mu"allif . a Kah 1414/1993. Kahle, Readers: Paul E. Kahle, The Arabic Readers of the Koran, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 8, 1949, pp. 6571. Kar ajak : Muhammad b. #Al al-Kar ajak (d. 449/1057), Kanz al-faw a"id, ed. . #Abdall ah Ni#ma, Beirut, 1405/1985. Kazem-Beg, Observations: M rz a Alexandre Kazem-Beg, Observations sur le Chapitre inconnu du Coran, Journal Asiatique, 14/2, 1843, pp. 373427. Kessler, #Abd al-Malik: Christel Kessler, #Abd al-Maliks Inscriptions in the Dome of the Rock: A Reconsideration, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1970, pp. 214. Khas b , Hid aya: al-Husayn b. Hamd an al-Khas b (d. 346/957 or 358/969), . . . . al-Hid aya al-kubr a, Beirut, 1406/1986. al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , J ami #: Ahmad b. #Al al-Khat b al-Baghd ad (d. 463/ . . . 1071), al-J ami # li-akhl aq al-r aw wa- ad ab al-s ami #, ed. Mahm . ud al-Ta . h . h . an, Riy ad, . 1403/1983. al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , Ta"r kh Baghd ad : Ahmad b. #Al al-Khat b al-Baghd ad , . . . Ta"r kh Baghd ad, Cairo, 1349/1931.

308

list of works cited

Kh u" : Ab u l-Q asim al-M usaw al-Kh u" (d. 1413/1992), Mu #jam rij al al-h th, n. . ad pl., 1413/1992. Kh u" , Bay an: Ab u l-Q asim al-M usaw al-Kh u" , al-Bay an f tafs r al-qur" an, Beirut, 1395/1975. Khurramsh ah , Qur" an: B. Khurramsh ah , Qur" an pa z uh , Tehran, 1376sh./1997. Khw ans ar , Rawd at : Muhammad B aqir al-M usaw al-Khw ans ar (d. 1313/ . . 1895), Rawd at al-jann at, Beirut, 1411/1991. . Khw arizm , Man aqib: al-Muwaaq b. Ahmad al-Makk al-Khw arizm (d. 568/ . 11721173), al-Man aqib, ed. M alik al-Mahm , Qumm, 1411/19901991. . ud Kinberg, Lexicon: Naphtali Kinberg, A Lexicon of al-Farr a"s Terminology in his Qur" an Commentary, Leiden, 1996. a Kis a" , Ma # an : #Al b. Hamza al-Kis a" (d. 189/805), Ma # an al-qur" an, ed. #Is . a, Cairo, 1998. Shah . ata #Is Kishsh : Muhammad b. #Umar al-Kishsh (. rst half of 4th/10th century), . Rij al (the abridged version by Ab u Ja#far al-T ), Najaf, n.d. . us n, IX/29): An Attempt at Kister, #An yadin: M.J. Kister, #An yadin (Qur"a Interpretation, Arabica, 11, 1964, pp. 272278. n, Kister, Fragment: M.J. Kister, On an Early Fragment of the Qur"a Studies in Judaica, Karaitica and Islamica Presented to Leon Nemoy on his Eightieth Birthday, ed. Sheldon R. Brunswick, Ramat-Gan, 1982, pp. 163166, repr. in idem, Society and Religion from J ahiliyya to Islam, Aldershot, 1990, art. VI. Kister, Haddith u: M.J. Kister, Haddith u #an ban isr a" la wa-l a haraja: A . . . Study of an Early Tradition, Israel Oriental Studies, 2, 1972, pp. 215239, repr. in idem, Studies in J ahiliyya and Early Islam, London, 1980, art. XIV. : M.J. Kister, L Kister, L a taqra"u a taqra" u l-qur" ana #al a l-mus n wa-l a .h . ayy tah u l- #ilma #ani-l-s n: Some Notes on the Transmission of Had . th, . mil . ah . ayy Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 22, 1998, pp. 127162. Kister, Names: M.J. Kister, Call Yourselves by Graceful Names, Lectures in Memory of Professor Martin M. Plessner, Jerusalem, 1975, pp. 325, repr. in idem, Society and Religion from J ahiliyya to Islam, Aldershot, 1990, art. XII. Al-Kit ab: Al-Kit ab: la sacralit du texte dans le monde de lIslam, ed. D. de Smet, G. de Callatay and J.M.F. van Reeth, Bruxelles and Louvain, 2004. Kit ab Durust : Kit ab Durust b. Ab Mans ur al-W asi. t , in Us ul . . . Kbert, Gottesepitheton: R. Kbert, Das Gottesepitheton as . -s . amad in Sure 112,2, Orientalia, N.S., 30, 1961, pp. 204205. Kohlberg, Ab u Tur ab: Etan Kohlberg, Ab u Tur ab, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 41, 1978, pp. 347352, repr. in BL, art. VI. Kohlberg, Antediluvian: Etan Kohlberg, Some Sh # Views of the Antediluvian World, Studia Islamica, 52, 1980, pp. 4166, repr. in BL, art. XVI. Kohlberg, Bar a"a: Etan Kohlberg, Bar a"a in Sh # Doctrine, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 7, 1986, pp. 139175. Kohlberg, Community: Etan Kohlberg, Imam and Community in the PreGhayba Period, Authority and Political Culture in Shi #ism, ed. Said A. Arjomand, Albany, 1988, pp. 2553, repr. in BL, art. XIII. Kohlberg, Jih ad: Etan Kohlberg, The Development of the Im am Sh # Doctrine of jih ad , Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, 126, 1976, pp. 6486, repr. in BL, art. XV.

list of works cited

309

Kohlberg, Muhaddath: Etan Kohlberg, The Term muh . . addath in Twelver Sh #ism, Studia orientalia memoriae D.H. Baneth dedicata, Jerusalem, 1979, pp. 3947, repr. in BL, art. V. Kohlberg, Muslim Scholar : Etan Kohlberg, A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work: Ibn T us and his Library, Leiden, 1992. . aw Kohlberg, Praise: Etan Kohlberg, In Praise of the Few, Studies in Islamic and Middle Eastern Texts and Traditions in Memory of Norman Calder, ed. G.R. Hawting, J.A. Mojaddedi and A. Samely, Oxford, 2000, pp. 149162. n: Etan Kohlberg, Some Notes on the Im Kohlberg, Qur"a amite Attitude to n, Islamic Philosophy and the Classical Tradition: Essays Presented to R. the Qur"a Walzer, ed. S.M. Stern, A. Hourani and V. Brown, Oxford, 1972, pp. 209 224. Kohlberg, R ada: Etan Kohlberg, The Term R ada am Sh # Us. . in Im age, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 99, 1979, pp. 677679, repr. (with a dierent pagination) in BL, art. IV. Kohlberg, Sa am Sh # Views on the S a. aba: Etan Kohlberg, Some Im . h . ah . ba, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 5, 1984, pp. 143175, repr. in BL, art. IX. Kohlberg, Scriptures: Etan Kohlberg, Authoritative Scriptures in Early Im am Sh #ism, Les retours aux critures: fondamentalismes prsents et passs, ed. velyne Patlagean et Alain Le Boulluec, LouvainParis, 1993, pp. 295 312. Kohlberg, Shah d: Etan Kohlberg, Dmut ha-navi Muhammad ke-shahid . (The Image of the Prophet Muhammad as a shah d ), Studies in Early Islam: . Papers Honouring Meir J. Kister on his Ninetieth Birthday, Jerusalem, 5765/2005, pp. 4571 (Hebrew). Kohlberg, Taqiyya: Etan Kohlberg, Taqiyya in Sh # Theology and Religion, Secrecy and Concealment: Studies in the History of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Religions, ed. Hans G. Kippenberg and Guy G. Stroumsa, Leiden, 1995, pp. 345380. Kohlberg, Thought: Etan Kohlberg, Aspects of Akhb ar Thought in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Eighteenth-Century Renewal and Reform in Islam, ed. N. Levtzion and J.O. Voll, New York, 1987, pp. 133160, repr. in BL, art. XVII. l: Etan Kohlberg, Al-us Kohlberg, Us ul al-arba #umi"a, Jerusalem Studies in .u . Arabic and Islam, 10, 1987, pp. 128166, repr. in BL, art. VII. Kohlberg, Walad zin a: Etan Kohlberg, The Position of the walad zin a in Im am Sh #ism, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 48, 1985, pp. 237266, repr. in BL, art. XI. Kohlberg, see Amir-Moezzi. K uf , Istigh atha: #Al b. Ahmad al-K uf (d. 352/963), al-Istigh atha f bida # al. thal atha, Beirut, 1408/1987, repr. Sargodha, n.d. K uf , Man aqib: Muhammad b. Sulaym an al-K uf al-Q ad (. early 3rd/9th . . century), Man aqib al-im am am r al-mu"min n #Al b. Ab T . . alib, ed. Muhammad B aqir al-Mahm , Qumm, 1412/1991. . ud Kul n : Muhammad b. Ya#q ub al-Kul n (d. 329/941), al-K af , Tehran, 1375 . 1377/19551957.

310

list of works cited

L ah j , Tadhkirat al-a"imma: Muhammad B aqir al-L ah j (d. after 1085/1674 . 1675), Tadhkirat al-a"imma, Tehran, 1331/1913 (as a work of al-Majlis ). Lalani, Thought : Arzina R. Lalani, Early Sh # Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muh aqir, London, 2000. . ammad al-B Lammens, Qoran: Henri Lammens, Qoran et tradition: comment fut compose la vie de Mahomet?, Recherches des Sciences Religieuses, 1, 1910, pp. 27 51. Landau-Tasseron, Alliances: Ella Landau-Tasseron, Alliances Among the Arabs, Al-Qan. tara, 26, 2005, pp. 141173. Landau-Tasseron, Genealogical Claims: Ella Landau-Tasseron, Adoption, Acknowledgement of Paternity and False Genealogical Claims in Arabian and Islamic Societies, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies,