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BS 1881 : Part 103 : 1983

UDC 666.972.017 : 691.32: 620.1

British Standards Institution. No par of this publication may be photocopied prior permission in writing of BSI.

British Standard

Testing concrete
Part 103. Method for determination of compacting factor

Essais du bton Partie 103. Mthode de dtermination du degr de compactibilit Prfverfailren fr Beton Teil 103. Verfahren zur Bestimmung des Verdichtungsfaktors

British Standards Institution

BS 1881 : Part 103 : 1983

Page Foreword Committees responsible Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Scope Definitions Apparatus Sampling Preparing the sample for test Procedure 1 1 1 1 2 2 Inside front cover Back cover 7. Calculation and expression of results 8. Report Table 1. Essential dimensions of the compacting factor apparatus Figure 1. Compacting factor apparatus 2 1 Page 3 3

This Part of this British Standard, prepared under the direction of the Cement, Gypsum, Aggregates and Quarry Products Standards Committee, is a revision of clause 3 of BS 1881 : Part 2 : 1970. Together with Parts 102, 104, 106 and 107, this Part of BS 1881 supersedes BS 1881 : Part 2 : 1970, which is withdrawn. An alternative method for determination of compacting factor is given in DD 90. In the conventional method described in this Part, the compacting factor IS determined from the masses of the partially compacted and fully compacted concrete. In the methodt given in DD 90, the compacting factor is determined by measuring the depth of the concrete which falls through the hoppers into the cylinder after it has been compacted by vibration. Four methods of determining the workability of concrete are given in BS 1881, these being the slump, compacting factor, Vebe and flow. The methods are appropriate to concrete mixes of different workability as follows:



Very low Low Medium High Very high

Vebe time Vebe time, compacting factor Compacting factor, slump Compacting factor, slump, flow Flow*

There are no unique relationships between the values yielded by the four tests. Relationships depend upon such factors as the shape of the aggregate, the sand fraction and the presence of entrained air. This test is not suitable for concrete having a measured compacting factor less than 0.70 nor more than 0.98. No estimate of repeatability or reproducibility is given in this Part of this British Standard. Reference should be made to BS 5497 : Part l-for further information on the determ ination of repeatability and reproducibility. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself

confer immunity from legal obligations.

In course of preparation.
TAM C.T. Compactins facts o f concrete 10, No. 5. May 1976. pp 27 and 30.

BS 1881 Part 103 : 1983

British Standard

Testing concrete
Part 103. Method for determination of compacting factor

1. Scope
This Part of this British Standard describes a method for determination of compacting factor of concrete of low, medium and high workability. The method applies to plain and air-entrained concrete, made with lightweight, normal weight or heavy aggregates having a nominal maximum size of 40 mm or less but not to aerated concrete, no-fines concrete and concrete which cannot be compacted by vibration alone.
NOTE. The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed on the inside back cover.

3.7 Scales or balance, capable of weighing up to 25 kg to an accuracy of 10 g or better. 3.8 Compacting bar or vibrating hammer or table. Compacting bar made out of steel bar weighing 1.8 kg, 380 mm long and having a ramming face 25 mm square, or suitable vibrating hammer or table.

4. Sampling
Obtain the sample of fresh concrete by the procedure given in BS 1881 : Part 101. Commence the determination of compacting factor as soon as possible after sampling.

2. Definitions
For the purposes of this Part of this British Standard the definitions given in BS 5328 and BS 1881 : Part 101 apply.

Table 1. Essential dimensions of the compacting factor apparatus

Detail Dimension Preferred apparatus Al ternative apparatus

3. Apparatus
3.1 Compacting factor apparatus. Compacting factor apparatus consisting of two conical hoppers mounted above a cylinder; its essential dimensions are shown in table 1 and figure 1. The hopper and cylinder shall be of rigid construction made of metal not readily attacked by cement paste. The interior surfaces shall be smooth and free from projections such as protruding rivets and shall be free from dents. The rim of the cylinder shall be machined to a p!ane surface at right angles to its axis. The lower ends of the hoppers shall have tightly fitting hinged trap doors made of rigid non-corrodable metal plate, 3 mm thick. The doors shall have quick release catches which allow them to swing rapidly to a position at which they are caught by retaining catches which hold them clear of concrete falling through the bottom of the hopper. The frame in which the hoppers and cylinder are mounted shall be of rigid construction and shall firmly locate them in the relative positions indicated in table 1. The cylinder shall be easiiy detachable from the frame. 3.2 Steel floats Two plasterers steel floats. 3.3 Scoop, as described in 3.1 of BS 1881 : Part 101 : 1583. 3.4 Sampling tray, 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 50 mm deep made from minimum 1.6 mm thick non-corrodible metal. 3.5 Square mouthed shovel, size 2 in accordance with BS 3388. 3.6 Tamping rod, made out of straight steel bar of circular cross section, 16 mm diameter, 600 mm long with both ends hemispherical.

Upper hopper A: Top internal diameter, D bottom internal diameter, E Internal height, F Lower hopper 3: Top internal diameter, G Bottom internal diameter, H Internal height, J 240 2 1302 240 2 229 2 127 2 229 2 203 5 260 2 1302 280 2 254 2 1272 279 2

Distance between bottom of upper 200 5 hopper A and top of lower hopper B, K Distance between bottom of tower 200 5 hopper 8 and top of cyiinder C, L
Cylinder C:

203 5

150 1 External diameter, M Internal height, N 285 1 Radius between wall and base, P 20

1521 305 1 -

*Owing to current availability, apparatus having the dimensions given in this column may be used until 31 January 1985. The column will then be deleted by amendment and the use of such apparatus will no longer comply with the standard.

BS 1881 : Part 103 : 1983

D e----1

Catch\\ _

: 9

View of trap door -partly open

j--m Hopper clamp

Cylinder C - preferred apparatus


Cylinder clamp each

Cylinder C -alternative apparatus

Side elevation

Front elevation

Figure 1. Compacting factor apparatus

5. Preparing the sample for test

Empty the sample from the container(s) onto the sampling tray. Ensure that no more than a light covering of slurry is left adhering to the container(s). Thoroughly mix the sample by shovelling it to form a cone on the sampling tray and turning this over with the shovel to form a new cone, the operation being carried out three times. When forming the cones deposit each shovelful of the material on the apex of the cone so that the portions which slide down the sides are distributed as evenly as possible and so that the centre of the cone is not displaced. Flatten the third cone by repeated vertical insertion of the shovel across the apex of the cone, lifting the shovel clear of the concrete after each insertion.

6. Procedure
6.1 Procedure. Ensure that the internal surfaces of the hoppers and cylinder are smooth, clean and damp but free from superfluous moisture. Place the frame in a position free from vibration or shock in such a manner that it is stable with the axes of the hoppers and the cylinder all lying on the same vertical line. Close the two trap doors and place the two floats on the cylinder so as to cover its top.
Place the sample of concrete gently in the upper hopper using the scoop until the hopper is filled to the level of the rim. Open the upper trap door so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper. Immediately after the concrete has come to rest, remove the floats from the top of the cylinder, open the trap door of the lower hopper and allow the concrete to fall into the cylinder.

BS 1881 : Part 103 : 1983

Certain mixes have a tendency to stick in one or both of the hoppers. If this occurs, help the concrete through by pushing the tamping rod gently into the concrete from the top until the lower end emerges from the bottom of the hopper. If this does not dislodge the concrete, raise the rod and repeat the process until the concrete falls through the hopper. Count the number of times the concrete is rodded a s this provides a guide to the cohesiveness of the concrete. Cut off the excess of concrete remaining above the level of the top of the cylinder by holding a float in each hand, with the piane of the blades horizontal, and moving them simultaneously one from each side across the top of the cylinder, at the same time keeping them pressed on the top edge of the cylinder. Wipe clean the outside of the cylinder. W eigh the partially-compacted concrete in the cylinder and record its mass to the nearest 10 g, this mass being measured within 150 s of commencing the test. Empty the partially-compacted concrete from the cylinder and re-fill it with concrete from the same sample in such a way as to remove as much entrapped air as possible (without significantly reducing the amount of entrained air, if present) and to produce full compaction of the concrete with neither excessive segregation nor laitance. For this purpose, by means of the scoop, place the concrete in the cylinder in six layers approximately equal in depth and compact each layer by using either the compacting bar or the vibrator in the manner described below in 6.2 or 6.3. After the top layer has been compacted, smooth it level with the top of the cylinder using the plasterers float, and wipe clean the outside of the cylinder. Weigh the cylinder and its contents to the nearest 10 g, and by subtracting the mass of the empty cylinder, calculate and record the mass of the fully-compacted concrete to the nearest 10 g. 6.2 Compacting with compacting bar. When compacting each layer with the compacting bar, distribute the strokes of the compacting bar in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the cylinder, and ensure that the compacting bar does not penetrate significantly any previous layer nor forcibly stroke the bottom of the cylinder when compacting the first layer. Tne number of strokes per layer required to produce full compaction will depend upon the consistence of the concrete but in no case shall the concrete be subjected to fewer than 30 strokes per layer. Record the number of strokes. 6.3 Compacting with vibrator. When compacting each layer by means of the hammer or vibrating table use applied vibration of the minimum duration necessary to achieve full compaction of the concrete. Over-vibration may cause excessive segregation and laitance or loss of entrained air, if present. The required duration of vibration will depend upon the workability of the concrete and the

effectiveness of the vibrator and vibration shall cease as soon as the surface of the concrete becomes relatively smooth and has a glazed appearance. Record the duration of vibration. NOTE. Workability of a concrete mix changes with time owing to the hydration of the cement and, possibly, loss of moisture. Tests on different samples should, therefore, be carried out at a constant time interval after mixing if strictly comparable results are to be obtained.

7. Calculation and expression of results

Calculate the compacting factor from the formula: compacting factor = where m p is the mass of the partially-compacted concrete

mp mf

(in g);
mf is the mass of the fully compacted concrete (in g). Express the results to two decimal places.

8. Report
8.1 General. The report shall affirm that the compacting factor was determined in accordance with this Part of this British Standard. The report shall state whether or not a certificate of sampling is available. Ii available, a copy of the certificate shall be provided. 8.2 Information to be included in the test report 8.2.1 Mandatory information. The following information shall be included in the test report: (a) date, time and place of sampling and sample identity number; (b) time and place of test: (c) type of apparatus (see table 1); (d) number of times concrete was rodded whilst in each hopper; (e) compacting factor; (f) method of compaction (hand or vibration) including type ot equipment used, the number of strokes of tne compacting bar or the duration of vibration: (g) name of person carrying out the test. 8.2.2 Optional information. If requested the following information shall be included in the test report: (a) name of project and place concrete used; (b) name of supplier and source of concrete; (c) date and time of production of concrete or delivery to site: (d) specification of concrete mix (e.g. strength grade).


Publications referred to
Testing concrete Part 101 Method of sampling fresh concrete on site Part 102 Method for determination of slump *Part 104 Method for determination of Vebe time Part 106 Methods for determination of air content of fresh concrete Parr 107 Method for determination of density of compacted fresh concrete Forks, shovels and spades BS 3388 Methods for specifying concrete, including ready-mixed concrete . BS 5328 BS 5497 Precision of test methods Part 1 Guide for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility for a standard test method Volumetric method for determination of compacting factor of fresh concrete DD 90 BS 1881

*Referred to in the foreword only.

For information about BSI services relating to third party certification to suitable British Standard product specifications, schemes for the registration of firms of assessed capability, testing and inspection facilities and Technical Help to Exporters, please contact end Hens HP2 4SQ Tel. Hemel l. lmpstead 3111. the Director, Quality Assurance Division, BSI, Maylands Avenue, Hent.

BS 1881 : Part 103 : 1983

This British Standard, having been prepared under the direction of the Cement. Gypsum, Aggregates and Quarry Products Standards Committee. was published under the authority of the Board of BSI and comes into effect on 31 May 1983. British Standards Institution, 1983 ISBN 0 580 11923 8 British Standards Institution Incorporated by Royal Charter, BSI is rhe Independent natlonal oody for the preparation of Britlsh Standards. It is the UK member of the International Organization for Standardizatlon and UK sponsor of the British National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commlssion. Copyright Users of British Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all BSI publications. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BSI. This does not preclude the free use, in rhe course of implementing the standard, of necessary details such as symbols and size, type or grade designarions. Enquiries should be addressed to the Publications Manager, British Standards Institution, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes MK14 6LE. The number for telephone enquiries is 0908 320033 and for telex 825777, Contract requirements A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application, Revision of British Standards British Standards are revised, when necessary, by the issue either of amendments or of revised editions. It is important that users of British Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or editions. Information on all BSI publications is in the BSI Catalogue, supplemented each month by BSI News which is available to subscribing members of the Institution and gives details of new publications, revisions, amendments and withdrawn standards. Any person who, when making use of a British Standard, encounters an inaccuracy or ambiguity. is requested to notify BSI without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken. The following BSI references relate to the work on this standard: Committee reference CAB/4 Draft for comment 81/12319 DC

Committees responsible for this British Standard

This British Standard was published under the direction of the Cement, Gypsum, Aggregates and Quarry Products Standards Committee CAB/ - . Its preparation was entrusted t o Technical Committee CAB/4 upon which the following bodies were represented: British Aggregate Construction Materials Industries British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd. British Ready Mixed Concrete Association Cement Admixtures Association Cement and Concrete Association Cement Makers Federation Concrete Society Limited County Surveyors Society Department of the Environment (PSA) Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Transport and Road Research Laboratory) Department of Transport Electricity Supply Industry in England and Wales Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors Grearer London Council Institute of Concrete Technology Institution of Civil Engineers institution of Highway Engineers Institution of Municipal Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers tnstitution of Water Engineers and Scientists Yational Federation of Building Trades Employers Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Sand and Gravel Association Limited Society of Chemical Industry The following bodies were also represented in the drafting of the standard, through subcommittees and panels: British Civil Engineering Test Equipment Manufacturers Association Coopted members

Amendments issued since publication

Amd. No. Date of issue Text affected

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