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The Ying Qi Cycle and the Diurnal Evolutionary Unfoldment of the Extraordinary Vessels

By Thomas Richardson Abstract This article follows the flow of the ying qi cycle to examine its relationship to the extraordinary vessels. This cycle reveals an underlying coherency of the extraordinary vessels and their relationship to the cycle of the evolution of consciousness, starting from the Source, breaking into yin and yang and from here creating the rest of manifestation. In flowing through the primary channels and opening the extraordinary vessels in this order, the ying qi cycle allows one the opportunity to deepen their connection to the Source and achieve greater integration within self and with everything else manifest at the level of humanity. Introduction The ying qi flows through the twelve primary channels, corresponding with the horary clock and the cycles of day and night. As it flows through the channels, it is following the cycle of birth, transformation, and death, just as the sun is born each morning and dies each night. If we follow the journey of the ying qi through the channels, we find that it activates the points of the channels as it flows through. In so doing, it gradually opens and connects the body and allows for the flourishing and integration of body and spirit, enhancing the ability for experiential awareness, selfrealization, and connection between above and below and the inside and the outside. When I first began learning the channels and points, I used to, as a regular practice, feel the flow of qi through each of the channels, feeling as it activated each point and opened the channel. One night, out on a run, I began to run through the channels again, something I had not done in quite awhile. As I traveled down the Lung channel, I reached Lu 7 (lieque Broken Sequence). Thinking to myself, Confluent point of the ren, suddenly I felt the ren mai light up. I began to wonder how and in what order the extraordinary vessels would open as I continued to flow through the channels. To my surprise, I found that the order in which the confluent points of the extraordinary vessels are accessed suggests an underlying coherency and structure in the nature of the vessels themselves, as well as in their relation to the primary channels and the evolution of consciousness. In this paper I would like to follow the ying qi through the horary cycle, to see what this journey reveals regarding the extraordinary vessels. The Quiescent State We begin our journey through the channels with the Lung Channel of Hand Taiyin. This meridian begins the cycle of ying qi through the twelve channels and corresponds to 3-5am, the pre-dawn of a new day. Starting in the middle jiao and emerging at Lu 1 (zhongfu Middle Palace), the qi flows through the meridian and reaches Lu 7, the confluent point of the ren mai. Continuing, the qi travels up the Large Intestine channel to the nose, then moves into the Stomach channel and flows all the way down to the feet, crossing over into the Spleen channel. As it starts flowing up the Spleen channel, we come to Sp 4 (gongsun Grandfather Grandson), confluent point of the chong mai. From the Spleen channel the qi flows into and through the Heart channel until, upon reaching the Small Intestine channel, it reaches the confluent point of the du mai, SI 3 (houxi Back Stream). Flowing through the Small Intestine channel and accessing the du mai marks the completion of the first half of the cycle (the first six primary channels, corresponding to the horary cycle from 3am to
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3pm, and the opening of the first three nuclear vessels). At this point in our journey we have accessed the ren, chong, and du mai; these three vessels are all said to start in the lower dantian, and to be three branches of one vessel. Thus they correspond to the Source, to the undifferentiated oneness, as it is just beginning to form into the foundations of yin and yang within the microcosm of the human body. This may be referred to as the quiescent state, the deep interior reservoir from which all life springs forth. The ren and du mai correspond to the deep polarity of yin and yang within the channel system, with the chong mai being that which connects them. As noted by Kiiko Matsumoto and Stephen Birch, Li Shi Zhen stated that: The ren mai and du mai make contact together at the chong mai. They go on to say that: He explains this statement by noting that the ren mai and du mai are the fundamental divisions of yin and yang in the body. The chong mai insures the inseparability of oneness of the ren and du mai, the yin and yang functions.1 When the oneness splits into two, it creates a polarity. A polarity, by definition, is composed of two oppositional aspects that are in relation to each other. It is this nature of polarity that indicates that even though there is the distinction of yin and yang, they are always part of one integrated whole, that there is something that simultaneous connects and separates the polar aspects.2 Just as humanity is found between heaven and earth, likewise, the chong mai is found between the ren and du mai. Further support of this concept is also seen in textbooks of Tibetan medicine and according to some Daoists, who discuss a branch of the chong mai (sometimes referred to as the pre-heaven chong mai) that runs straight through the center of the body, from Rn 1 (huiyin Meeting of Yin) to Du 20 (baihui Hundred Meetings), connecting the three dantian and anterior (ren) and posterior (du) heaven.3 It is from this quiescent state, this original division of the oneness into yin, yang and the connection/interaction/integration between these two (the chong mai) that all of the other extraordinary vessels are created, and it is from the eight extraordinary vessels that the zangfu and primary channels are created.4 Thus Li Shi Zhen stated that The extraordinary vessels are the root of the Great Avenue of Pre-Heaven, the Governing, Directing and Penetrating Vessels [Du-RenChong Mai] are the Source of Creation.5

Figure 1: The quiescent state


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The Second Half of the Horary Cycle: Movement, Manifestation, and Integration As we return to following the ying qi through its horary cycle, it enters the Urinary Bladder channel and the second six primary channels (corresponding to the time period from 3pm to 3am). Along the Urinary Bladder channel we come to UB 62 (shenmai Extending Vessel), the confluent point of the yang qiao mai, the Yang Motility vessel. In this model, this represents the beginning of the second order, moving from the quiescent state into the dynamic state of movement and manifestation. In the master-couple system, UB 62 is coupled with SI 3, confluent point of the du mai, the Sea of Yang. This demonstrates that the mobilization of yang, the dynamic yang, arises out of the quiescent yang. Thus the yang qiao mai may be seen as arising from the du mai.6 In a sense, the du mai can be seen as the yin within yang of these two coupled channels, pertaining to the deep, interior, quiescent state of yang, with the yang qiao mai representing the yang within yang, pertaining to the relatively more exterior, active state of yang within the body. This, in turn, is quickly followed by opening the yin qiao mai (the Yin Motility vessel) when the ying qi flows into the Kidney channel and reaches K 6 (zhaohai Shining Sea). K 6 is paired with Lu 7, confluent point of the ren maithus the dynamic/moving yin may be seen as arising out of the quiescent yin. Here again, the ren mai would pertain to the yin within yin of these two coupled channels (pertaining to the deep, interior, quiescent state of yin), and the yin qiao mai to the yang within yin (pertaining to the relatively more exterior, dynamic state of yin). After beginning in the lower dantian with the ren, chong, and du mai, we have now mobilized the fundamental yin and yang of the body with the yin and yang qiao mai. This is also seen in the basic Chinese physiologyin order for the essence to nourish and sustain the function and structure of the human being, it must first transform into yin and yang, which, once mobilized, go out to become the basis of the yin and yang for the entire body. In the daily evolutionary cycle of the extraordinary vessels, this mobilization of yin and yang corresponds to the opening of the qiao mai.7 At this point in the cycle, yin and yang are moving, circulating, and manifesting throughout the body, creating the energetic polarity of body and spirit (jing and shen) as it dynamically moves and weaves through the body. Continuing along the horary cycle, the ying qi flows through the rest of the Kidney channel and into the Pericardium channel. Here it accesses the next confluent point, P 6 (neiguan Inner Gate), which is the confluent point of the yin wei mai, the Yin/Interior Linking vessel. This point is coupled with Sp 4, confluent point of the chong mai. Just as we saw above that the yang qiao mai and yin qiao mai arise from the quiescent yang and yin of the du and ren mai, respectively, and thus their confluent points are coupled together, so too does the yin wei mai appear to share a similar relationship to the chong mai. Just as the chong mai is the energetic polarity of the quiescent yin and yang of the ren and du mai, the yin wei mai appears to be the energetic polarity of the mobilized yin and yang of the yin and yang qiao mai. In activating the Yin Linking vessel, the dynamic polarity of the yin and yang qiao mai is integrated, thereby rendering the interior an integrated whole. It may be at this point of the evolutionary cycle that one is able to experience selfrealization as the yin wei mai engenders integration within oneself.

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Figure 2: Manifestation and self-realization After activating the yin wei mai and integrating the interior, the ying qi flows into the San Jiao channel. Reaching SJ 5 (waiguan Outer Pass), it accesses the yang wei mai, the Yang/Exterior Linking vessel. The yang wei mai may be seen as the energetic matrix of ones external energy fieldno matter whether it extends one inch off the body or thirty feet away. This suggests that it is only after the internal integration that one is able to connect to the exterior, thereby integrating the inside and the outside and connecting with everything else in existence at the level of Humanity. This is a connecting of the yang, a weaving together of the external energetic matrix, that is rooted in and arises from the yin, the internal integration of body and spirit within the microcosm of the human body. As noted by Claude Larre and Elisabeth Rochat de la Valle, in referencing the work of Zhang Zicong, This commentator also said that as the qi of yin and yang qiao are joined together, the exterior and interior are in an exchange and relationship and penetrate each other.8 This may be read as suggesting that it is only after the joining/integration of the qiao mai (which, in this model, relates to the activation and function of the yin wei mai) that the yang wei mai opens to the exterior and the wei mai are able to connect with each other and allow interpenetration of the inside and the outside. Larre and Rochat also make a comparison between the qiao and wei mai: With the qiao the main idea was putting in motion, and rising up from the earth, with a community of qi within the yin and yang qiao mai, a perpetual compenetration. Here with the wei mai we have rather the way to maintain the order because the yin and yang, and all kinds of yin and all kinds of yang in the body are maintained in a good proportion in order to compose an harmonious unity.9
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The Return to Quiescence Returning to the ying qi cycle, we near the end of our journey as the qi flows into and down through the Gall Bladder channel to GB 41 (zulinqi Foot Governor of Tears), confluent point of the dai mai, or the Belt/Girdling Vessel. Activating the dai mai, one reaches a state of wholeness. In this model, the dai mai acts to bring us full circle, completing the cycle and bringing one back to the quiescent state. It accomplishes this through its actions of binding all of the meridians and the external energy field, thus astringing the exterior and holding everything together at this plane, and guiding the qi back to the Source.10 If the yang wei mai is seen as the energetic matrix of the energy field that can flex and expand in relation to oneself and ones environment, the dai mai may be seen as regulating how much it expands or contracts.11 The dai mai also binds the ren, chong, and du mai (again, at the level of the lower dantian) and thus brings us full circle: back to the beginning of undifferentiated oneness that is reflected by the essence before it divides into the primordial yin and yang, grounding one back in the Source. As noted by Jeffrey Yuen, the Dai Mai is often referred to as the Meridian that maintains the integrity of the First Ancestries, that returns the integrity: the Chong in the middle, the Ren in the front, and the Du in the back.12 Thus the dai mai renders the yin and yang aspects of being (Above and Below, Inside and Outside) into a unified whole and allows one to start the cycle again the next day. From this perspective it is interesting to note that, in Neoclassical Pulse Diagnosis, there is a dominant tendency for individuals to have a dai mai pulse (which occurs when both middle positions are the largest) and/or a yang wei mai pulse (when there are ulnar displacements of the proximal positions with radial displacements of the distal positions) according to the eight extraordinary vessels system, as well as a tendency for a Liver to Lung blockage along the ying qi cycle.13 These three pulse patterns correspond to the end of the ying qi cycle, when one is just on the verge of transitioning back to the interior and pre-heaven state. In modern society, the individuals energy is often exteriorized and drawn outward, and there is difficulty in guiding the qi back to the Source and returning to the quiescent statethus it makes sense that many individuals would have stagnations along these patterns. The dai mai, although activated at the end of the horary cycle, relates to the beginningthus within the extraordinary vessels there are four nuclear vessels (ren, chong, du, and dai mai) that relate to the quiescent state, and they are paired with four peripheral vessels (the qiao and wei mai) that relate to the active/manifest state and expansion from the source outwards. This perspective also lends itself to seeing how the chong and dai mai make a perfect yin-yang pair. The chong mai connects anterior and posterior heaven (ren and du mai), as it is the polarity between the two, whereas the dai mai wraps around the outside and contains them. Just as the chong mai, as the polarity between the ren and the du mai, becomes the link between the quiescent state and the dynamic state (moving from pre-heaven to post-heaven), so too does the dai mai relate to movement from the dynamic state back to the quiescent state, moving from post-heaven back to pre-heaven.

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Figure 3: Connecting the interior and exterior and returning to the Source Conclusion To recap, the ying qi cycle starts by accessing the extraordinary vessels that have their origin in the lower dantianthe ren, chong, and du maiand may be said to correspond to the quiescent state. This is followed by the mobilization of the dynamic yin and yang, which occurs when the qiao mai are accessed. Thereafter, the interior is linked, consolidated, and integrated by the yin wei mai, which then allows one to extend and connect within and without as represented by the opening of the yang wei mai. Finally, everything is consolidated, brought together, and regulated by the dai mai, which also facilitates the return to the Source, allowing one to start the cycle again the next day. This cycle of the extraordinary vessels is a reflection of the evolution of consciousness, whereby everything originates with the Source and thereafter divides into the polarity of yin and yang. It is this fundamental polarity of yin and yang that gives birth to the 10,000 things present at the level of Humanity. After yin and yang arise and begin circulating and interweaving, manifesting all of creation, then they begin to integrate and connect with each otherfirst integrating Body and Spirit within oneself, allowing one to be whole in oneself, and thereafter connecting with everything else
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in manifestation. This is the process of vertical and horizontal integration, and corresponds to the dynamic flow of qi at the level of Humanity. Through this progression, one eventually returns to a state of oneness. As the ying qi flows through the horary cycle every 24 hours, the body is harmonized with the cycle of the sun and the surrounding universe. The body is a microcosmjust as every day can be likened to a new birth and every night a death, similarly, as the ying qi flows through the twelve channels, activating the extraordinary vessels in this order, so too are we born each day and formed from the Source, connected within ourselves and connected to the surrounding environment in a dynamic balance. And thus, in the natural state, the ying qi cycle allows one to continuously achieve a greater degree of connection to Source, integration within oneself, and connection to the surrounding environment. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Will Morris, PhD, DAOM, LAc, and Doan Ky, MAcOM, AcA, for their incredible support, guidance, and editorial assistance, and Michael Corner, for creating the wonderful graphics found within the article.
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Kiiko Matsumoto and Stephen Birch. Extraordinary Vessels. Brookline: Paradigm Publications, 1986. Page 16. Also see Lonny Jarrett: Note that chongmai, one of the eight extra meridians, possesses the function of blending the influences of heaven and earth, and yin and yang, as they are mediated by the conception and governor vessels, respectively. Nourishing Destiny: The Inner Tradition of Chinese Medicine. Stockbridge: Spirit Path Press, 2004. Page 8. 2 Along these lines, it is of note that taiji is sometimes translated as Supreme Polarity. 3 Jeffrey C. Yuen. Channel Systems of Chinese Medicine: The Eight Extraordinary Vessels. 12-13 April 2003. New England School of Acupuncture, Continuing Education Department, 2005. Edited by Stephen Howard. See also: Deng Ming-Dao. Scholar Warrior: An introduction to the Tao in everyday life. New York: HarperCollins, 1990. It should be noted that in other Daoist traditions and Qigong practices this is called the zhong mai, or Central Meridian. 4 It is perhaps for this reason that the chong mai is called the Sea of Blood, the Sea of the 12 channels, and the Sea of the zangfu. The chong mai is a manifestation of the interplay of the deepest yin and yang, and it is this fundamental polarity of yin and yang that gives rise to everything throughout the body, just as it is the polarity of Heaven and Earth in the macrocosm of the universe that gives rise to the 10,000 things. 5 As cited in: Giovanni Maciocia. Foundations of Chinese Medicine: A comprehensive text for acupuncturists and herbalists. 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2005. Page 821. 6 the qiao mai follow the same pattern as the du mai and ren maiThey are just a development of the du mai and ren mai Claude Larre and Elisabeth Rochat de la Valle. The Eight Extraordinary Meridians. Cambridge: Monkey Press, 1997. Transcribed and edited by Sandra Hill. P. 204. 7 The relation of the qiao mai to this transformation may also be inferred from the literature: The commentators of the Nan Jing and other texts suggest that the zang and the innermost are irrigated by the yin qiao mai, and the fu are watered by the yang qiao mai. This is just another way to show the total impregnation in the rising up movement of the yin and yang of the body. Ibid. P. 174. 8 Ibid. Page 182. 9 Ibid. Page 212. 10 For further exploration of these concepts, see: Thomas Richardson. The Dai Mai: Dynamic Structural Stability and Spherical Integration. The American Acupuncturist. Volume 48. Summer 2009: 28-31. 11 Dai mai is not only a circle but the expression of the volume of the bodyThe dai mai comes from within, and expands, giving an expansion of volume, and also a limit to this expansion. Larre and Rochat de la Valle. P. 154. 12 Jeffrey C. Yuen. Channel Systems of Chinese Medicine: The Eight Extraordinary Vessels. 12-13 April 2003. New England School of Acupuncture, Continuing Education Department, 2005. Edited by Stephen Howard. Page 46. 13 See William Morris. Eight Extra Vessel Pulse Diagnosis: A Path to Effective Treatment. 2004. Available at: http://www.pulsediagnosis.com/EightExtraordinaryPulseDiagnosisSystemofWangShuhe.htm. 2010 Thomas Richardson www.extraordinarychinesemedicine.com