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Acid-Base Equilibria

1. For the following reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with water, HOCl + H2O H3O+ + OClwhat would be the effect of adding sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to the reaction at equilibrium? a. The concentrations of both HOCl and H3O+ would increase. b. The concentrations of both HOCl and H3O+ would decrease. c. The concentration of HOCl would increase and the concentration of H3O+ would decrease. d. The concentration of HOCl would decrease and the concentration of H3O+ would increase. e. There would be no change because sodium hypochlorite is a salt without any acidic or basic properties. Calculate the molar hydronium ion concentration in a solution containing 0.23 M hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a monoprotic weak acid used in bleach solutions. For HOCl, Ka = 2.9 x 10-8. Given three separate solutions containing equal concentrations of formic acid (Ka = 1.7 x 10-4), phenol (Ka = 1.3 x 10-10), and acetic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-5), select the response below that has the acids arranged in order of increasing percent dissociation at equilibrium. a. formic < phenol < acetic b. formic < acetic < phenol c. acetic < formic < phenol d. phenol < acetic < formic e. No response is correct. From the following choices, select the one that would be the most basic (least acidic). a. 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (a strong acid) b. 0.1 M acetic acid (a weak acid) c. 0.1 M sodium acetate (the salt of a weak acid) d. 0.1 M ammonium chloride (the salt of a weak base) e. pure water The reactions of perchloric acid (HClO4) and acetic acid (HOAc) in water can be written as:
--> <=> H3O+ H3O+ + + ClO4OAcand

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. HClO4 + H2O 7. 8. HOAc + H2O

From these reactions it can be concluded that: a. acetic acid is a stronger acid than perchloric acid. b. acetate ion is a weaker base than perchlorate ion. c. acetate ion is a stronger base than perchlorate ion.

d. water is a very strong acid. e. none of the above is correct. 9. If 10 mL a 1.0 x 10-4 M solution of a strong acid were added to 100 mL each of one solution containing 1.8 x 10-5 M hydrochloric acid and a second solution containing 1.0 M acetic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-5) plus 1.0 M sodium acetate, it is expected that the: a. pH of both solutions would remain unchanged. b. change in pH would be very large in both solutions. c. change in pH would be the same in both solutions. d. change in pH would be larger in the solution containing acetic acid and sodium acetate. e. change in pH would be larger in the HCl solution. 10. Addition of a strong acid to a solution of acetic acid at equilibrium (HOAc + H2O <=> H3O+ + OAc-) would cause the: a. acetate ion concentration to decrease. b. acetate ion concentration to increase. c. pH to increase. d. hydroxide ion concentration to increase. e. None of the above is correct. 11. Calculate to a first approximation the molar concentration of hydronium ion in a 0.171 M solution of benzoic acid (HOBz, a monoprotic weak acid with Ka = 6.5 x 10-5). 12. Given that the acid dissociation constant for benzoic acid (HOBz) is Ka = 6.5 x 10-5, calculate the basic dissociation constant, Kb , of the benzoate ion (OBz-). 13. Consider the following data for the series of hydrogen halide Bronsted acids,
14. Acid 15. 16. HF 17. HCl 18. HBr 19. HI Ka 7.2 1 x 1 x 3 x x 10-4 106 109 109

Which of these Bronsted acids would have the weakest conjugate base? a. HF b. HCl c. HBr d. HI 20. Shown below is a titration curve for the titration of NH3 (a weak base) with HCl (a strong acid).

At which point are the amounts of the acid and the base stoichiometrically equivalent? a. Point A b. Point B c. Point C d. Point D e. Point E 21. Benzoic acid, C6H5CO2H, is a weak acid (Ka = 6.3 x 10-5). Calculate the initial concentration (in M) of benzoic acid that is required to produce an aqueous solution of benzoic acid that has a pH of 2.54. 22. Which of the following weak acid dissociation constants would result in the smallest degree of dissociation? a. Ka = 1.0 x 10-2 b. Ka = 1.0 x 10-3 c. Ka = 1.0 x 10-4 d. Ka = 1.0 x 10-5 23. Addition of sodium acetate to an acetic acid solution at equilibrium will cause: a. no change in H3O+ concentration. b. H3O+ concentration to decrease. c. H3O+ concentration to increase. d. concentrations of all species to increase. e. a decrease in hydroxide concentrations. 24. What is the H3O+ concentration in a 0.17 M solution of a weak acid, HA, with a dissociation constant of 3.21 x 10-6. 25. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration in a solution that contains 0.21 M acetic acid and 0.17 M sodium acetate. For acetic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5. 26. What is the concentration of the HPO42- ion in a 0.078 M solution of phosphoric acid (H3PO4)? [Ka1 = 7.5 x 10-3; Ka2 = 6.3 x 10-8; Ka3 = 4.8 x 10-13] 27. Why is it necessary to take the acid-base properties of water into account when computing the hydronium ion concentration of very dilute solutions of strong acids? a. The hydroxide ion produced from the dissociation of water reacts with most of the hydronium ion produced from the acid. b. The dissociation constant for water is larger in dilute rather than in concentrated solutions of acids. c. The acids do not dissociate completely in dilute solutions. d. The amount of hydronium ion produced by the dissociation of water is significant compared to that produced by the acid. e. The conjugate base of the strong acid reacts with the hydroxide ion produced from the dissociation of water. 28. Hypochlorite ion (OCl-) is the conjugate base of hypochlorous acid (HOCl, Ka = 3.5 x 108 ). What is the value of the base ionization equilibrium constant, Kb, for hypochlorite ion? a. 3.5 x 10-22 b. 3.5 x 10-8 c. 2.9 x 10-7 d. 2.9 x 107 e. 4.7 x 109

29. Calculate the pH of an aqueous solution prepared to contain 1.3 x 10-3 M sodium nitrite (NaNO2) if the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, Ka, for nitrous acid (HNO2) is 5.1 x 10-4. a. 3.1 b. 5.1 c. 7.0 d. 7.3 e. 10.9 30. Calculate the carbonate ion concentration in a 0.10 M solution of the weak acid, carbonic acid (H2CO3). The stepwise dissociation constants of carbonic acid are Ka1 = 4.5 x 10-7 and Ka2 = 4.7 x 10-11. a. 4.7 x 10-11 M b. 1.0 x 10-7 M c. 4.5 x 10-7 M d. 2.1 x 10-4 M e. 3.5 x 10-3 M 31. The very first disinfectant used by Joseph Lister was called "carbolic acid". This substance is now known as phenol (PhOH). What is the H3O+ ion concentration in a 0.10 M solution of phenol? [PhOH: Ka = 1.0 x 10-10] a. 1.0 x 10-11 b. 3.2 x 10-5 c. 5.0 x 10-12 d. 3.2 x 10-6 32. The sweetener, saccharin, is a weak monoprotic acid with Ka = 2.1 x 10-12. Calculate the H3O+ concentration in a solution that contains 1.0 x 10-2 mole of saccharin in 1.00 L of otherwise pure water. a. 1.4 x 10-7 b. 1.8 x 10-7 c. 2.1 x 10-12 d. 2.1 x 10-14 33. When would the pH of a solution prepared by adding sodium formate to formic acid be equal to the pKa of formic acid, HCO2H? a. when [HCO2H] < [HCO2-] b. when [HCO2H] = [HCO2-] c. when [HCO2H] > [HCO2-] d. the pH of this buffer will never equal the pKa of formic acid. 34. Calculate the pH of a buffer prepared by mixing 0.10 mol of sodium formate and 0.05 mol of formic acid in 1.0 L of solution. [HCO2H: Ka = 1.8 x 10-4] a. 1.8 x 10-4 b. 3.44 c. 4.05 d. 5.31 e. none of these 35. For a weak diprotic acid, H2A, for which Ka1 = 2.1 x 10-7 and Ka2 = 4.3 x 10-13, the A2ion concentration at equilibrium will be: a. approximately equal to the initial concentration of H2A.

b. roughly equal to Ka2. c. roughly equal to the HA- concentration. d. much larger than the HA- concentration. e. approximately equal to the H3O+ concentration. 36. Many insects discharge sprays containing weak acids as a means of defense. For example, some ants discharge a spray that contains the weak acid, formic acid (HCO2H). Calculate the pH of a 0.14 M solution of formic acid. Ka (HCO2H) = 1.8 x 10-4. 37. Calculate the pH of a solution prepared by dissolving 0.20 moles of benzoic acid (abbreviated HOBz) and 0.15 moles of sodium benzoate (abbreviated NaOBz) in enough water to make 1.0 L of solution. The acid-dissociation equilibrium constant for benzoic acid is Ka = 6.3 x 10-5. 38. Consider an aqueous solution of a weak acid. Explain why the contribution of hydronium ion from the dissociation of water (i.e., [H3O+]water) to the total hydronium ion concentration is not equal to that for pure water (i.e., 1.0 x 10-7 M). 39. Calculate the [OH-] (in M) for an acetic acid solution (Ka = 1.8 x 10-5) having a pH of 6.32. 40. Ascorbic acid is also known as Vitamin C. In a 0.10 M solution of ascorbic acid 2.8% of the ascorbic acid will dissociate. Consider the pH you would measure for a 0.25 M solution of ascorbic acid. Which of the following statements is true? a. The pH would show that the %-dissociation would be the same in both ascorbic acid solutions. b. The pH would show that the %-dissociation would be twice as much in the more concentrated acid solutions. c. The pH of the more concentrated solution would be lower. d. You must know the Ka value for ascorbic acid before determining which of the above selections is true. 41. A buffer can be prepared by mixing: a. a strong acid and its conjugate base. b. a strong base and its conjugate acid. c. a weak acid and its conjugate base. d. a weak acid and a strong acid. e. all responses above are correct. 42. Calculate the pH of a solution containing 0.1 M formic acid (a monoprotic weak acid with Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 ) and 0.1 M sodium formate. 43. Calculate the molar hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+], in a 2.0 x 10-3 M solution of hypoiodious acid (HOI, Ka = 2.3 x 10-11). 44. Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-], in a 0.10 M solution of sodium formate. (For the formate ion, OF-, Kb = 5.6 x 10-11.) 45. The dissociation constant for nitrous acid, HNO2, is Ka = 5.1 x 10-4. What is the dissociation constant, Kb, for nitrite ion, NO2-, the conjugate base of nitrous acid? 46. Which of the following solutions would be best to buffer a solution near pH = 4 ([H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-4). a. 1.0 x 10-4 M HCl b. 1.0 x 10-4 M NaOH c. A solution containing approximately equal concentrations of formic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-4) and sodium formate.

d. A solution containing approximately equal concentrations of hypochlorous acid (HOCl, Ka = 2.9 x 10-8) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). e. A solution containing approximately equal concentrations of ammonia (Kb = 1.8 x 10-5) and ammonium chloride. 47. A 25.00 mL aliquot of a vinegar sample is diluted to 250.00 mL with water. Then a 25.00 mL aliquot of the diluted sample is titrated with strong base, requiring 22.13 mL of 0.1027 M sodium hydroxide to reach the endpoint. What is the molar concentration of acid in the original vinegar sample before dilution? 48. Assume that a 25.00-mL aliquot of a solution containing a monoprotic weak acid is titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide, requiring 22.42 mL of titrant to reach the end point. At which milliliter volume listed below will the pH be equal to the pKa of the weak acid? 49. Which of the following solutions would be an acid/base buffer? a. 0.1 M HCl, a strong acid b. 0.1 M acetic acid, a weak acid c. 0.1 M sodium acetate d. 0.1 M acetic acid plus 0.1 M sodium acetate e. pure water 50. Which of the following solutions would be the most basic? a. 0.1 M HCl, a strong acid b. 0.1 M acetic acid, a weak acid c. 0.1 M sodium acetate d. 0.1 M acetic acid plus 0.1 M sodium acetate e. pure water 51. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration, [H3O+], in a 0.15 M solution of sodium formate. For formic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4. 52. In which of the following situations would the weak acid dissociate to the largest extent (i. e., have the largest percent dissociation)? a. 0.01 M formic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 b. 0.1 M formic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 c. 0.1 M acetic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 d. 0.01 M formic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-4) plus 0.15 M sodium formate e. 1.0 x 10-4 M phenol, a monoprotic weak acid with Ka = 1.0 x 10-10 53. In which of the following solutions would the dissociation of water make the largest contribution to the total hydronium ion concentration? a. 0.01 M formic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 b. 0.1 M formic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 c. 0.1 M acetic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 d. 0.01 M formic acid (Ka = 1.8 x 10-4) plus 0.15 M sodium formate e. 1.0 x 10-4 M phenol, a monoprotic weak acid with Ka = 1.0 x 10-10 54. A 25.0-mL aliquot of a monoprotic acid solution is diluted to 100 mL. Then a 25.0-mL aliquot of this solution is titrated with a standard sodium hydroxide solution, requiring 17.1 mL of 0.107 M sodium hydroxide to reach the end point. What is the molar concentration of the acid in the original solution?

55. Figure 1 represents simulated titration curves for solutions of four acids titrated with the same standard base solution. Based on these titration curves, we can accurately predict that (be careful):

Curve 3 represents a smaller concentration of a weaker acid than Curve 2. Curve 4 represents the smallest concentration and the weakest acid. Curve 1 represents the largest concentration and the strongest acid. The dissociation constant for the acid represented by Curve 3 is about 1 x 10-4 (i.e. Ka = 1 x 10-4). e. All responses above are correct. 56. Which of the following diagrams represents a snapshot of a very small portion of a beaker containing a weak acid, HA, dissolved in water? HA (l) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq) Note that the solvent molecules (i.e., H2O) are not shown for clarity.

a. b. c. d.

57. Consider the following monoprotic acids, I. Acetic acid, CH3COOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 II. Formic acid, HCO2H, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 III. Hypobromous acid, HOBr, Ka = 2.4 x 10-9 IV. Nitrous acid, HNO2, Ka = 5.1 x 10-4 V. Phenol, C6H5OH, Ka = 1.0 x 10-10 Which one of the following aqueous solutions will have the HIGHEST pH? a. 0.10 M CH3COONa b. 0.10 M HCO2Na c. 0.10 M NaOBr d. 0.10 M NaNO2 e. 0.10 M C6H5ONa 58. Calculate the mass (in g) of sodium acetate (CH3COONa, MW = 82.04) that would need to be added to 1.0 L of 0.15 M acetic acid (CH3COOH, MW = 60.05, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5) in order to prepare a buffer solution with a pH of 5.12. 59. The titration curve for a weak acid, HA, is shown below.

At which point in the titration is the concentration of the weak acid, HA, equal to the concentration of its conjugate base, A-? a. Point A b. Point B c. Point C d. Point D e. Point E 60. Which of the following mixtures would make the best buffer? a. CH3CO2H and NH4Cl b. HCl and NaOH c. CH3CO2Na and NH3 d. CH3CO2Na and NH4Cl e. NH3 and NH4Cl 61. Which of the following anions would be the STRONGEST base? a. CH3CO2- (CH3CO2H: Ka = 1.8 x 10-5) b. HCO2- (HCO2H: Ka = 1.8 x 10-4) c. ClCH2CO2- (ClCH2CO2H: Ka = 1.4 x 10-3) d. Cl2CHCO2- (Cl2CHCO2H: Ka = 5.1 x 10-2) e. Cl3CCO2- (Cl3CCO2H: Ka = 2.0 x 10-1) 62. Calculate the pH of a solution prepared by dissolving 0.15 moles of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in 1.0 L of water. For HOCl: Ka = 2.9 x 10-8. 63. Calculate the pH that is needed to adjust the sulfide ion concentration to 3.6 x 10-18 M in a saturated solution of H2S. For H2S: Ka1 = 1.0 x 10-7, Ka2 = 1.3 x 10-13. 64. Consider the following dissociation of the triprotic acid, phosphoric acid (H3PO4):
65. 66. 67. 68. 69. (1) (2) (3) H3PO4 H2PO4HPO42+ + + H2O H2O H2O <=> <=> <=> H3O+ + + + H2PO4H3O+ H3O+ HPO42PO43Ka2 = 6.3 x 10-8 Ka3 = 4.2 x 10-13

Ka1 = 7.1 x 10-3

In order to calculate [H3O+], we assumed that step (1) was the most important step. Briefly explain why we can ignore steps (2) and (3) to obtain the equilibrium concentration of H3O+.

70. Calculate the sulfide ion (S2-) concentration at equilibrium in a saturated solution of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that is buffered at pH 2.3. For H2S: Ka1 = 1.0 x 10-7; Ka2 = 1.3 x 10-13. 71. When solving for the [H3O+] of an acid solution in equilibrium, we tend to ignore the [H3O+] contribution from the self-dissociation of water. This is to say, we assume the water contribution is not significant to the final answer. Which of the following statements describes a system where this is a bad assumption, and we should not ignore the water contribution? a. A system in which a weak acid is in equilibrium with its conjugate base. b. A system containing a dilute and strong acid. c. A system containing a dilute and very weak acid. d. A system in which caKa > 10-13. 72. A 0.323 M solution of soluble sodium formate has a pH of 8.63. What is the Ka of formic acid? 73. Which of the following statements concerning buffer solutions is not correct? a. Buffer solutions have a pH unaffected by the addition of small amounts of a strong acid. b. Buffer solutions are formed by mixing equal concentrations of a weak acid and the salt of its conjugate base. c. Buffer solutions are formed by mixing equal concentrations of a weak base and the salt of its conjugate acid. d. Buffer solutions include a solution of 0.10 M HCl mixed with equal amounts of 0.10 M NaOH solution. 74. Calculate the pH of a solution prepared by dissolving 0.075 mol of soluble sodium nitrite in 300 mL of 0.25 M nitrous acid. (HNO2: Ka = 5.10 x 10-4). 75. In the laboratory experiment: "What are Acid-Base Titrations and How are they Useful? Part I", you titrated a weak acid with a strong base, NaOH. Many of you were surprised that the pH of the equivalence point of the weak acid / strong base titration was clearly higher than 7.00. Why did you find the equivalence point of the weak acid/strong base higher than 7.00? a. The pH of that equivalence point was higher than 7.00 because we used a strong base with the weak acid. b. The pH of that equivalence point was higher than 7.00 due to the conjugate base of the weak acid. c. The pH of that equivalence point was higher than 7.00 because NaOH is a stronger base than water. d. The pH of an equivalence point should be 7.00. The reading of above 7.00 obtained by some students was an experimental error. 76. Calculate the H3O+ ion concentration (in M) produced from the dissociation of water (i.e., [H3O+]water) in a 0.015 M solution of HClO4. 77. Which of the following solutions would be the MOST BASIC? a. 0.10 M NaNO3 (Ka for HNO3 = 28) b. 0.10 M NaNO2 (Ka for HNO2 = 5.1 x 10-4) c. 0.10 M NaOCl (Ka for HOCl = 2.9 x 10-8)

d. 0.10 M NaCN (Ka for HCN = 6.0 x 10-10) e. It is impossible to tell. 78. What are the relative strengths of the acids in the vessels shown below? Note: (1) each vessel has the same volume and (2) H2O molecules are not shown for clarity.

a. IV > I > III > II b. I > II > III > IV c. III > IV > I > II d. II > III > IV > I e. I > IV > III > II 79. Penicillin G (HPG) is a weak acid (Ka = 1.74 x 10-3). Calculate the pH of a 0.20 M aqueous solution of sodium penicillin G (NaPG). USE THE TITRATION CURVE BELOW FOR A WEAK, MONOPROTIC ACID TO ANSWER THE NEXT TWO QUESTIONS. 80. If the titration curve was obtained by titrating a 25.00-mL sample of the weak acid, what is the molar concentration of the weak acid in the solution? 81. What is the pKa of the weak acid?

82. Calculate [OH-] (in M) for an acetic acid solution (Ka = 1.8 x 10-5) having a pH = 4.32. 83. Calculate the pH of a 0.35 M aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid, HF. For HF, Ka = 7.2 x 10-4. 84. When the salt of a weak acid (e.g., sodium formate) is added to a solution of a weak acid (e.g., formic acid) at equilibrium, the: a. hydronium ion concentration will remain unchanged. b. hydronium ion concentration will increase. c. hydronium ion concentration will decrease. d. hydroxide ion concentration will decrease. e. hydronium ion and hydroxide ion concentrations will both decrease. 85. Calculate the pH of a 5.2 x 10-2 M solution of benzoic acid (Ka = 6.5 x 10-5) in otherwise pure water. 86. Which of the following combinations of weak-acid dissociation constants and molar concentrations would correspond to the SMALLEST percent dissociation? a. Ka = 1.7 x 10-4 , CoHA = 0.001 M b. Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 , CoHA = 0.01 M c. Ka = 6.5 x 10-5 , CoHA = 0.1 M d. Ka = 6.5 x 10-5 , CoHA = 0.01 M e. Ka = 6.5 x 10-5 , CoHA = 0.001 M 87. Which one of the following diagrams best illustrates the microscopic representation for the EQUIVALENCE POINT in a titration of a weak acid (HA) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)?

88. Which combination of weak acid concentrations, C(HA), and the dissociation constant, Ka, below would correspond to the smallest hydronium ion concentration at equilibrium? a. C(HA) = 1.0 x 10-1, Ka = 1.0 x 10-3 b. C(HA) = 1.0 x 10-2, Ka = 1.0 x 10-8 c. C(HA) = 1.0 x 10-1, Ka = 1.0 x 10-7 d. C(HA) = 1.0 x 10-3, Ka = 1.0 x 10-5 89. Which of the following solutions would be the best pH buffer? a. 0.001 M HCl b. 0.001 M acetic acid c. 0.1 M acetic acid/0.1 M sodium acetate d. 0.1 M acetic acid/0.1 M HCl 90. Consider the following data for the series of hydrogen halide Bronsted acids,
91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. Acid HF HCl HBr HI Ka 7.2 1 x 1 x 3 x x 10-4 106 109 109

Which of these Bronsted acids would have the STRONGEST conjugate base? a. HF b. HCl c. HBr d. HI 97. In a saturated solution of H2S, DECREASING the pH of the solution will cause: a. the S2- concentration to decrease. b. the H2S concentration to decrease. c. the S2- concentration to increase. d. no change in either the H2S or S2- concentration. 98. Which one of the following solutions of monoprotic weak acids have the HIGHEST hydronium ion concentration at equilibrium? a. 0.010 M CH3COOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 b. 0.10 M CH3COOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 c. 0.010 M HCOOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4

d. 0.10 M HCOOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 99. Which of the following statements about STRONG ACIDS is TRUE? a. The percentage dissociation of a strong acid in water is assumed to be 100%. b. Strong acids have large acid-dissociation equilibrium constants (Ka's). c. Strong acids react better with strong bases than do weak acids. d. (a) and (b) are true. e. (a), (b) and (c) are true. 100. Calculate the sulfite ion (SO32-) concentration in a 0.10 M solution of sulfurous acid in pure water. For sulfurous acid, Ka1 = 1.7 x 10-2 and Ka2 = 6.4 x 10-8. a. 6.4 x 10-8 M b. 2.5 x 10-4 M c. 1.7 x 10-2 M d. 3.4 x 10-2 M e. 4.1 x 10-2 M 101. Which one of the following diagrams best illustrates the microscopic representation for the HALF-EQUIVALENCE POINT in a titration of a weak acid (HA) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)? Note that water molecules are not shown for clarity.

102. The addition of small amounts of either acid or base to a buffer solution causes only small changes in pH because the buffer solution: a. does not contain either H3O+ or OH-. b. contains large amounts of both H3O+ and OH-. c. reacts with the added acid or base. d. contains a strong acid and the salt of the strong acid. e. contains a strong base and the salt of the strong base. 103. Consider the following monoprotic acids, I. Acetic acid, CH3COOH, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 II. Formic acid, HCO2H, Ka = 1.8 x 10-4 III. Hypobromous acid, HOBr, Ka = 2.4 x 10-9

IV. V.

Nitrous acid, HNO2, Ka = 5.1 x 10-4 Phenol, C6H5OH, Ka = 1.0 x 10-10

Which of the following aqueous solutions will have the LOWEST pH? 0.10 M CH3COONa 0.10 M HCO2Na 0.10 M NaOBr 0.10 M NaNO2 0.10 M C6H5ONa 104. What are the relative strengths of the bases (symbolized as B) in the vessels shown below? Note: (1) each vessel has the same volume and (2) H2O molecules are not shown for clarity. f. g. h. i. j.

I > IV > III > II I > II > III > IV III > IV > I > II II > III > IV > I IV > I > III > II 105. A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.15 moles of benzoic acid (C6H5CO2H, Ka = 6.5 x 10-5) in enough water to produce 1.0 L of solution. For each 1000 benzoic acid molecules that are initially dissolved in the solution, how many of the benzoic acid molecules react with water? 106. Which of the following solutions containing soluble salts would have the HIGHEST pH? . 0.10 M NH4Cl (Kb for NH3 = 1.8 x 10-5) a. 0.10 M C6H5NH3Cl (Kb for C6H5NH2 = 4.3 x 10-10) b. 0.10 M HONH3Cl (Kb for HONH2 = 1.1 x 10-8) c. 0.10 M CH3NH3Cl (Kb for CH3NH2 = 4.4 x 10-4) d. It is impossible to tell.

. a. b. c. d.

107. A pH 2 buffer solution is to be prepared using equal concentrations of a weak acid and the salt of the weak acid. Which of the following acids (and its salt) would be the best choice to prepare the buffer solution? Acid (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) acetic acid (CH3CO2H) benzoic acid (C6H5CO2H) formic acid (HCO2H) chlorous acid (HClO2) Ka 1.8 x 10-5 6.4 x 10-5 1.8 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-2

None of these. A weak base and the salt of the weak base are required to prepare this solution.

108. The following diagrams represent solutions of three salts of weak acids, NaA (where A- = X-, Y-, Z-). What are the relative base strengths of the three A- anions? Note: (1) each vessel has the same volume and (2) H2O molecules and Na+ ions are not shown for clarity.

. a. b. c. d.

109. the: . endpoint. a. equivalence point. b. equilibrium point. c. triple point. d. half-equivalence point. 110. Which one of the following diagrams best illustrates the microscopic representation for the HALF-EQUIVALENCE POINT in a titration of a weak base (B) with hydrochloric acid (HCl)? Note: water molecules and Cl- ions are not shown for clarity.

X- > Y- > ZY- > Z- > XZ- > Y- > XZ- > X- > YX- > Z- > YIn an acid-base titration, the point at which an indicator changes color is called

111. When bromocresol green is dissolved in aqueous solution, an equilibrium is established between bromocresol green (HIn, a weak monoprotic acid), the anion (conjugate base) of bromocresol green (In-) and H+ ions: HIn(aq, yellow) <==> H+(aq, colorless) + In-(aq, blue-green) If a small amount of bromocresol green is dissolved in a buffer solution at pH 11, the color of the resulting solution would be closest to: . a. b. c. 112. colorless. yellow. blue-green. red. Consider the titration curve shown below.

The titration curve represents the titration of: . a. b. c. d. a strong acid (beaker) with a strong base (buret). a weak acid (beaker) with a strong base (buret). a strong base (beaker) with a strong acid (buret). a weak base (beaker) with a strong acid (buret). None of these.

Answers
1. C 2. 8.17 x 10-5 3. D 4. C 5. C 6. E 7. A 8. 3.3 x 10-3 9. 1.5 x 10-10 10. D 11. D 12. 1.4 x 10-1 13. D 14. B 15. 7.4 x 10-4 16. 2.2 x 10-5 17. 6.3 x 10-8 18. D 19. C 20. D 21. A 22. D 23. B

24. B 25. C 26. B 27. 2.3 28. 4.1 29. "Weak" acids are generally stronger acids than water. When the weak acid dissociates, an ion "common" to both equilibria (i.e., H3O+) is produced. The presence of the H3O+ from the dissociation of the weak acid will act to shift the water equilibrium to the left (like increasing the concentration of H3O+ in the second reaction). Therefore, the degree of dissociation of water will be less in the presence of the weak acid and the hydronium ion concentration for water dissociation will be smaller than that in pure water. 30. 2.09 x 10-8 31. C 32. C 33. 3.74 34. 2.37 x 10-7 35. 2.36 x 10-6 36. 1.96 x 10-11 37. C 38. 0.909 39. 11.21 40. D 41. C 42. 3.46 x 10-9 43. A 44. E 45. 0.293 46. E 47. B 48. E 49. 29 50. B 51. E 52. A 53. 10.4 54. 1.7 55. Because the values of Ka1, Ka2 and Ka3 are so different, most of the H3O+ will be contributed in the first step (relatively large Ka). Very little H3O+ will be contributed by steps 2 or 3 (relatively small Ka's). Also, the large amount of H3O+ generated in the first step will suppress the formation of additional H3O+ in steps 2 and 3. 56. 5.2 x 10-17 57. C 58. 1.78 x 10-4 59. D 60. 3.29 61. B

62. 6.7 x 10-13 63. D 64. E 65. 8.0 66. 0.10 67. 4.0 68. 2.1 x 10-10 69. 1.8 70. C 71. 2.7 72. C 73. E 74. B 75. C 76. A 77. A 78. D 79. D 80. A 81. C 82. C 83. D 84. A 85. 21 86. D 87. D 88. E 89. A 90. C 91. C 92. C