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NUTRITION

Nutrition is the science of food, the study of nutrients and other substances they are in, their actions, interactions, and balance in relationship to health and diseases. It is the process by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and utilizes the nutrients and disposes off end products.

NUTRIENTS
These are the constituents in food that must be supplied to the body in required amounts (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, water), these are the chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body as: It provides energy. It maintains the structural integrity. Regulating agent to support the growth. It maintains the hormonal balance Helps in repair of body tissue.

FOOD
Food is the vital source of energy that is utilized and is essential for human existence. They are assimilated substances that are used for growth of body in maintenance of tissue and cells.

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD SOURCES: I. Classification by origin: a. Foods sources of animal origin. b. Food sources of vegetable origin. II. Classification by chemical composition: a. b. c. d. e. III. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Fats. Vitamins. Minerals.

Classification by predominant function: a. Energy giving foods Eg: Cereals, sugars, roots, tubers, fats, and oils. Body building foods. Eg: Protein. Protective foods. Eg: Milk, fruits, vegetables.

b. c. IV.

Classification by nutritive value: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Cereals and millets. Pulses and legumes. Vegetables. Fruits. Nuts and oil seeds. Animal food. Fat and oils Sugars and jaggery. Condiments and spices. Other foods ( coffee, tea, tobacco, alcohol, and soft drinks etc..)

RICE: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Oryza sativa. Rice. Arisi. 346 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Niacin: Iron: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: It has high glycemic index, which can cause blood glucose levels to shoot up. It may increase the risk of type II diabetes mellitus. Does not aid bowel movements. Gives us energy. Aminoacids in rice are essential for building muscles and are required for antibodies, enzymes, hormones. It is the easiest and quickest food to digest. It is the food ideal for those who are weak and require easy assimilation and quick energy. Because of lower fiber content, it soothens the digestive system. Rice with buttermilk helps for digestive disorders (diarrhea, dysentery etc..). 76.7 gm 7.5 gm 190 mg 157 mg 4.0 mg 3.2 mg 4.1 gm 1.02 gm

WHEAT: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Triticum aestivum Wheat. Godhumai 346 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Niacin: Iron: Calcium Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Gluten in wheat can cause severe sensitivities and allergic reactions. Processed wheat product rises blood sugar level, increases obesity, creates paste in the intestine like glue causing constipation. Controls obesity. Improves body metabolism. Prevents type II diabetes mellitus. Reduces chronic inflammation. Prevent gallstone. Reduce risk of breast cancer. Protect against coronary heart disease (heart attacks). 71.2 gm 11.8 gm 306 mg 138 mg 5.5 mg 5.3 mg 41 mg 12.5 gm 1.89 gm

MAIZE: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Zea mays Maize. Makka cholam. 342 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Iron: Calcium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Excessive intake of maize can lead to pellagra because of deficiency in niacin. Helps in control of cholesterol levels and reduces the risk of colon cancer. Helps the generation of new cells especially important before and after pregnancy. Good for anemia. Helps in kidney problems including renal dysfunction. Good for health of lungs and prevent from cancer. It contains insoluble fiber, helps in common digestive ailments (constipation, hemorrhoids). Tryptophan and Lysine. 66.2 gm 11.1 gm 348 mg 139 mg 286 mg 2.3 mg 10 mg 90 mcg. 11.9 gm 1.78 gm

BAJRA: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Pennisetum typhoideum Bajra. Kambu. 361 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Iron: Calcium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Excessive intake can cause uric acid deposits in systems. Contraindicated to people with kidney disease and rheumatic disease. It is easily digestible and being gluten free, so it is good for coeliac diseases. Recommended for severe constipation and stomach ulcer. Helping in lowering the cholesterol level. Good for diabetes. Supporting weight loss. Helping in maintaining cardiovascular health and in acidic problems. Lysine and threonine. 67.5 gm 11.6 gm 296 mg 137 mg 307 mg 8.0 mg 42 mg 132 mcg. 11.3 gm 1.86 gm

JOWAR: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Sorghum vulgare Sorghum. Cholam. 349 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Iron: Calcium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Excessive intake of jowar can cause indigestion, heartburn, belching, and stomach ache. Improves cardiovascular health. Reduce risk of cancer. Regulates blood glucose. Supporting weight loss. Reduce risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. Maintains healthy bones. Lysine and threonine. 72.6 gm 10.4 gm 222 mg 171 mg 131 mg 4.1 mg 25 mg 47 mcg. 9.7 gm 1.66 gm

ITALIAN MILLET: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Setaria italica Foxtail millet/Italian millet Thenai. 331 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Iron: Calcium: Carotene: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: It contains oxalates, which can lead to kidney stone formations. It has laxative effect. Can cause bone problems. Controls blood sugar and cholesterol level. Shows high antioxidant activity. Free from gluten. Decrease triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Beneficial against breast cancer for postmenopausal women. Magnesium reduces frequency of migraine attacks. Useful for atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease. Tyrosine. 60.9 gm 12.3 gm 290 mg 81 mg 250 mg 2.8 mg 31 mg 32 mcg. 1.97 gm

VARAGU: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Paspalum scrobiculatum Varagu/Kodo millet. Varagu 309 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Folic acid: Calcium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: It contains good dietary fiber, so it helps in preventing diabetes and also it has low glycemic index. Suitable for under nourished group. Helps in teeth and bone growth maintenance. It has essential amino acids required by the body. Tyrosine. 65.9 gm 8.3 gm 188 mg 147 mg 144 mg 23.1 mcg 27 mg 1.33 gm

BARLEY: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Hordeum vulgare Barley Barley arisi 336 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Niacin: Iron: Chloride Carotene: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Barley flour can sometimes cause asthma. Contraindicated during pregnancy and breast feeding. It may cause coeliac disease because it contains gluten. Surgical patients should not consume at least 2 weeks before surgery. Used for lowering blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol, promoting weight loss. Used for digestive complaints (Diarrhea, stomach pain, and IBS). Prevents cancer and used in treatment of lung problems (Bronchitis). It controls appetite. It is applied to skin for treating boils. It is also used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages because it contains natural sweetner. 69.6 gm 11.5 gm 215 mg 21 mg 5.4 mg 5.3 mg 91 mg 10 mcg 1.84 gm

RAGI: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Eleusine coracana Ragi Kezhvaragu 328 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Potassium: Folic acid: Iron: Carotene: Calcium: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Excess use of ragi preparation increases oxalic acid, hence it is contraindicated for persons suffering from urinary calculi. Helps in bone development. Promoting weight loss. Act as a relaxant. Reduce high glucose level in blood. Lower the cholesterol level in blood. Prevents and treats anemia. 72.0 gm 7.3 gm 283 mg 408 mg 18.3 mcg 3.9 mg 42 mcg 344 mg 11.5 mg 1.17 gm

RED GRAM DAL: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cajanus cajan Red gram dal/pigeon pea Tuvaram paruppu 335 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Potassium: Folic acid: Carotene: Calcium: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: It provides excellent source of protein, particularly for vegetarians. It also high in carbohydrate and fat free. It is also rich in thiamine and folic acid, which is required by pregnant women for preventing neural tube defect of fetus. 57.6 gm 22.3 gm 304 mg 1104 mg 103 mcg 132 mcg 73 mg 9.1 mg 3.57 gm

BENGAL GRAM: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Civer arietinum Begngal gram/channa Kothu kadalai 312 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Phosphorous: Calcium: Folic acid: Potassium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: Good for diabetes, enhances the utilization of glucose. It acures digestive problems, indigestion, dysentery, vomiting, dyspepsia, and diarrhea. Beneficial for iron deficiency anemia. Cures skin problems, pimples eczema, acne, dermatitis, scabies etc, (grinned and added with curd) Cures painful menstruation. It is rich in phytochemicals (saponials), which is an antioxidants, and helps to reduce risk of breast cancer and osteoporosis. 59.8 gm 20.3 gm 331 mg 56 mg 147 mcg 720 mg 129 mcg 9.1 mg 2.74 gm

HORSE GRAM: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Dolichos biflorus Horse gram Kollu 321 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Iron: Phosphorous: Calcium: Potassium: Magnesium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: Acts as diuretic and astringent Used as prescription for rheumatism, worm removal, conjunctivitis, and pilse. Hleps to remove phlegm. Horse gram liquid is used to regulate fever. It has phenol that helps for reducing weight. Helps in lowering cholesterol level. Helps in peptic ulcer, reduces flatulence. Helps in regulating menstruating problems. Tyrosine 57.2 gm 22.1 gm 6.77 mg 311 mg 287 mg 762 mg 156 mg 71 mcg 9.1 mg 3.52 gm

DISADVANTAGES: Can cause excess bile production. Contra indicated to pregnant women and also people with TB should not take it.

SOYA BEAN: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: 432 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Iron: Folic acid: Phosphorous: Calcium: Phosphorous: Potassium: Magnesium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Enhance immune function Improve intelligence because it contains large lecithin and it also pevents Alzheimers disease. Strengthens human tissue and organs. Rich in soy Isoflavones, so it prevents the synthesis of melanin. Prevents cancer. It has antioxidant effect. It reduce blood, fat, and also reduce absorption of choleseterol. Prevents deafness. It expands capillaries ensures blood supply to ears. It may bring high blood pressure down because of its high amount of potassium. 20.9 gm 43.2 gm 10.4 mg 100 mg 690 mg 240 mg 690 mg 1503 mg 175mg 3.52 gm Glycine Max Merr Soya bean

Found in soy, it is highly allergic, causes diarrhea, constipation, difficulty breathing. Oxalates present in it will lead to kidney stone formation. Isoflavones present in it will lower the testosterone lvels in men. It can cause infertility.

PEAS: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Pisum sativum Pease/green peas Pattani 315 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Iron: Folic acid: Phosphorous: Calcium: Potassium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: It contains folic acid, which is required by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in new born. It acts as an antioxidant. Helps to lower cholesterol level. Promotes osteotrophic activity in bones. Prevents Alzheimers disease by limiting neural tube dysfunction. Vitamin A content in peas helps in maintaining health of mucus membranes, skin, and eyesight. Helps in losing weight. 56.7 gm 19.2 gm 7.5 mg 7.5 mcg 298 mg 75 mg 725 mg 3.52 gm

DISADVANTAGES: Excess intake may increase the risk of gout because of presence of purines.

GREEN GRAM WHOLE: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Phaseolus aureus Roxb Green gram Pasipayir 334 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrates: Protein: Iron: Folic acid: Phosphorous: Calcium: Potassium: Carotene ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: It is rich in low fat proteins. It has more dietary fibre, helping in fecal bulk formation and digestive ailments, water soluble dietary fiber reduces LDL level. So it reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is considered to be low glycemic so reduces the risk of diabetes. It might lower blood glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol and might improve glucose tolerance. 56.7 gm 24.2 gm 4.5 mg 7.5 mcg 326 mg 124 mg 843 mg 94 mcg 3.84 gm

GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES AGATHI: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Sesbania grandiflora Agathi Agathi 93 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Phosphorous: Calcium: Carotene Vitamin C: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ABSENT: ADVANTAGES: 8.4 g 3.9 mg 80 mg 1130 mg 94 mcg 169 mg 1.34 gm Tyrosine

Green leafy vegetables Amaranth: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Amaranthus gengeticus Amaranth Thandu keerai 45 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Iron: Phosphorous: Folic acid: Calcium: Cartotene: Vitamin C: Sodium: Potassium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: 3.94 mg 83 mg 149.0 397 mg 5530 mg 99 mg 230 mg 341 mg 0.64 gm

Green leafy vegetables Cabbage: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Brassica oleracea var. Cabbage Muttaikose 27 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Phosphorous: Calcium: Cartotene: Vitamin C: Magnesium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: 44 mg 39 mg 120 mg 124 mg 31 mg 0.64 gm

Green leafy vegetables Curry leaves: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Murraya Koenigii. Curry leaves Kariveppilai 108 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Phosphorous: Calcium: Carotene: Vitamin C: Magnesium: Folic acid: Niacin: Chloride: Dietary fiber: 57 mg 830 mg 7560 mg 4 mg 31 mg 93.9 mcg 2.3 mg 198 mg 16.3 mg

Green leafy vegetables FENUGREEK LEAVES: Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Trigoenall foenum graecum Fenugreek leaves venthiya keerai 49 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Phosphorous: Calcium: Carotene: Vitamin C: Chloride: Iron: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine and cystine. 51 mg 395 mg 2340 mg 52 mg 165 mg 1.93 mg 4.73 mg 0.70 g

MANATHAKKALI LEAVES Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Solanum nigrum Manathakkali leaves Manathakkali keerai 68 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Phosphorous: Calcium: Protein: Vitamin C: Iron: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: 70 mg 410 mg 5.9 g 11 mg 1.93 mg 4.73 mg 0.70 g

MINT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Mentha spicata Mint Pudhina 48 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Phosphorous: Calcium: Folic acid: Vitamin C: Magnesium: Iron: Dietary fiber: 62 mg 200 mg 1140 mg 27 mg 60 mg 15.6 mg 6.3 mg

MODAKATHAN LEAVES Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cardiospermum helicacabum Modakkathan leaves Modakkathan keerai 61 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Minerals: CHO: 4.6 mg 2.3 g 9.1 g

SPINACH Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Spinacia oleracea Spinach Pasalai keerai 26 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Iron: Folic acid: Vitamin C: Magnesium: Carotene: Potassium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: Dietary fiber: 73 mg 21 mg 1.13 mg 123 mcg 28 mg 64 mg 5,580 mg 206 mg 3.52 gm 6.3 mg

ROOTS AND TUBERS ONION Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Allium cepa Onion Vengayam 59 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotene: Vitamin C: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: Phytochemicals in onion improve immunity. Regulates blood sugar. Reduce inflammation. Helps in production of good cholesterol Quercetin in onion prevents cancer Onion juice reduce pain and burning sensation of honey bee bitten parts Reduces the risk of gastric ulcer Can reduce mucous blockage. Can act as diuretic. Tyrosine and cystine 40 mg 60 mg 15 mg 0.19 mg 3.52 gm

DISADVANTAGES: They release sulfur and cause itchy or watery eyes. Can cause bad breath after eating.

BEETROOT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Beta vulgaris Beetroot Beet 43 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Sodium: Phosphorous: Chloride: Iron: Vitamin C: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: Reduces high blood pressure because on nitrites present in it and is converted into nitric oxide. They help in vasodilation. It contains soluble fibers, flavanoids and becayaniods, they are powerful antioxidants. Sot hey help reduce in oxidation of LDL, cholesterol, and does not allow it to get deposited, prevents from heart attack and stroke. Folic acid present in it helpful for pregnant mothers and it gives extra energy boost required during pregnancy. Treats anemia. Helps to relieve fatigue. Improve sexual health and stamina. Protects from cancer. Beats constipation and boosts brain power. 18.3 mg 59.8 mg 55 mg 24 mg 1.19 mg 10 mg 0.27 g

DISADVANTAGES: Excess intake can cause pink or red color urine and feces. It has oxalic acid that can interfere with absorption of certain metabolites.

CARROT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Daucus carota Carrot carrot 48 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Sodium: Phosphorous: Chloride: Iron: Vitamin C: Carotenes: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: ADVANTAGES: Improves vision due to carotenes, prevents cancer. Reduces risk of lung cancer, breast cancer and colon cancer. Flacarindiol has anticancer properties. It contains soluble fibers, flavanoids and becayaniods, they are powerful antioxidants. So they help reduce in oxidation of LDL, cholesterol, and does not allow it to get deposited, prevents from heart attack and stroke. Folic acid present in it helpful for pregnant mothers and it gives extra energy boost required during pregnancy. Treats anemia. Helps to relieve fatigue. Improve sexual health and stamina. Protects from cancer. Beats constipation and boosts brain power. 18.3 mg 59.8 mg 55 mg 24 mg 1.19 mg 10 mg 1890 kg 0.14 g

DISADVANTAGES: Excess intake can cause yellow color in urine and carotonemia.

RADISH WHITE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Raphanus sativus Radish Mullangi 17 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Choline: Potassium: Vitamin C: Carotenes: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: The compounds called isothiocyanates and anthocyanins are present in radish helps in fighting cancer. It acts as a natural decongestant Lowers cholesterol, manages diabetes and regulates blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Stimulates bile production and sulphuric property of radish regulate bilirubin production. Since it has low calories, it helps in weight loss. Prevents urinary tract infection and cleanses kidney. Tyrosine, Cystine 35 mg 22 mg 63 mg 138 mg 15 mg 1890 kg 0.14 g

DISADVANTAGES: Contra-indicated to persons having gallstones. Contraindicated in pregnancy and breast feeding. Increases gas production.

ELEPHANT YAM Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Amorphophallus campanulatus yam Senai kizhangu 79 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotenes: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: They are good sources of energy, they raise blood sugar levels rather very strongly, so recommended as low glycemic index healthy food. The vitamin content in the yam helps in various metabolic processes and reduces bad cholesterol. Vitamin C helps in antiaging, immune function, wound healing, bone growth. Vitamins and beta carotene level, antioxidants, and maintaining healthy mucus membrane and vision. Growth and protection from lung and oral cavity infection. Tyrosine, Cystine 50 mg 34 mg 260 kg 4.2 g 0.14 g

ORINDARY YAM Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Typhonium trilobatum yam, ordinary karanai kizhangu 111 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotenes: Folic acid: Potassium: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: ADVANTAGES: Yam wild has astringe property. Tyrosine, Cystine 35 mg 20 mg 78 kg 17.5 mcg. 237 mg 0.22 g

DISADVANTAGES: It is contra-indicated in pregnancy and breast feeding women, also UTI patients.

WILD YAM Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Dioscorea Versicolor yam, wild kodi kizhangu 111 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotenes: Vitamin C: Potassium: ADVANTAGES: Yam wild has astringe property. 20 mg 74 mg 565 kg 2 mg. 450 mg

DISADVANTAGES: It is contra-indicated in pregnancy and breast feeding women, also UTI patients.

Other vegetables ASH GOURD Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Benincasa hispida Ash gourd Poosini kai 10 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Vitamin C: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 30 mg 20 mg 1 mg. 1.02 gm

Other vegetables BITTER GOURD Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Momordica charantia Bitter gourd Pavakkai 25 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Vitamin C: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 20 mg 70 mg 88 mg. 4.3 g 0.26 gm

Other vegetables BOTTLE GOURD Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Lagenaria vulgaris Bottle gourd Surai kai 12 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Potassium: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 20 mg 10 mg 88 mg. 87 mcg 2.09 0.03 gm

Other vegetables CUCUMBER Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cucumis sativus Cucumber Kakkari kai/vellarikkai 13 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Folic acid: Chloride: Vitamin C: Potassium: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 10 mg 25 mg 14.7 mg 15 mg 7 mg 87 mcg 15 mg 0.06 gm

Other vegetables KOVAI Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Coccinia cordifolia Kovai Kovai kai 18 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Folic acid: Carotene: Vitamin C: Magnesium: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 40 mg 30 mg 156 mg 156 mg 15 mg 36 mcg 2.5 mg 2.5 gm

Other vegetables KNOL KHOL Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Brassica Oleracea, var. cauloprapa Knol Khol Knol Khol 21 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotene: Vitamin C: Iron: Sodium: Potassium: Chloride: 20 mg 35 mg 21 mg 85 mg 1.54 mg 112 mg 37 mg. 67 mg

PLANTAIN STEM Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Musa sapientum Plantain stem Vazhai thandu 42 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Vitamin C: Iron: 10 mg 10 mg 7 mg 1.1 mg

RIDGE GOURD Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Luffa acutangula Ridge gourd Pirkkankai 17 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Vitamin C: Potassium: Magnesium: Carotene: Dietary fiber: 18 mg 26 mg 5 mg 50 mg 32 mg 33 mg 1.98 mcg

SUNDAKKAI, DRY Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Solanum torvum Sundakkai Sundakkai 269 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Carotene: Iron: Protein: 390 mg 180 mg 350 mg 22.2 mg 8.3 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS Almond Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Prunus amygdalus Badami Vadam kottai 655 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Niacin: Protein: Magnesium: Fat: 230 mg 490 mg 4.4 mg 20.8 mg 373 mg 58.9 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS CASHEW NUT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Anacardium occidentale Cashew nut Mundiri paruppu 596 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Fat: Iron: Carotene: Calcium: Phosphorous: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 21.2 g 46.9 g 5.81 mg 60 mcg 50 mg 450 mg 3.39 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS COCONUT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cocos Nucifera Coconut Thengai 444 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Fat: Iron: Folic acid: Calcium: Phosphorous: Vitamin C: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 4.5 g 41.6 g 1.7 mg 12.5 mcg 10 mg 240 mg 1 mg 13.6 mg 3.39 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS GINGELLY SEEDS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Sesamum indicum Gingelly seeds Ellu 563 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Phosphorous: Iron: Carotene: Fat: Folic acid: Protein: Zinc: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: DEFICIENCY: Tyrosine, cystine 1450 mg 570 mg 9.3 mg 60 mcg 43.3 mg 134.0 mcg 18.3 g 12.20 mg 16.8 g 2.93 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS GROUND NUT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Arachis hypogaea Ground nut Nilakkadalai 567 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: CHO: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorous: Folic acid: Fat: Choline: Dietary fiber: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: 25.3 mg 26.1 mg 90 mg 37 mcg 350 mg 20.0 mcg 40 mg 224 mg 11.9 g 2.93 g

NUTS AND OIL SEEDS SUNFLOWER SEEDS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Helianthus annuus Sunflower seeds Suryakanthi 620 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Fat: Niacin: Calcium: Vitamin C: Phosphorus: ESSENTIAL AMINOACIDS: 19.8 mg 5.0 mg 52.1 mg 4.5 mg 280 mg 1 mg 670 mg 3.17 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES ASAFOETIDA Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Ferula foetida Asafoetida Perungayam 297 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Iron: Carbohydrate: 690 mg 4 mcg 50 mg 80 mg 39.4 mg 67.8 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES CARDAMOM Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Elettaria cardamomum Cardamom Elakkai 229 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Choline: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: 10.2 mg 4.6 mcg 1550 mg 130 mg 173 mg 160 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES CINNAMON Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Cinnamon Lavanga pattai 229 K.cal.

MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Dietary fiber: 48.5

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES CLOVES Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Syzygium aromaticum Cloves Krambu 286 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Carotene: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: Dietary fiber: 5.2 mg 11.6 mg 253 mg 286 mg 130 mg 100 mg 35.1 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES CUMIN SEEDS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cuminum cyminum Cumin seeds Jeera kam 356 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Carotene: Carbohydrate: Calcium: Choline: Phosphorus: Dietary fiber: 26.2 mg 6.5 mg 96 mg 44.1 gm 160 mg 1161 mg 370 mg 48.1 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES FENUGREEK SEEDS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Trigonella foenum graecum Fenugreek seeds Venthayam 333 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Carotene: Carbohydrate: Calcium: Choline: Phosphorus: Dietary fiber: 26.2 mg 6.5 mcg 96 mg 44.1 gm 160 mg 1161 mg 370 mg 49.5 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES GARLIC Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Allium sativum Garlic Ulli poondu 67 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: Vitamin C: Iron: Dietary fiber: 30 mg 71 mg 310 mg 13 mg 13 mg 5.1 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES GINGER FRESH Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Zinziber officinale Ginger Inji 67 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: Vitamin C: Iron: Carotene: Dietary fiber: 20 mg 405 mg 60 mg 13 mg 3.5 mg 40 mcg 5.1 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES NUTMEG Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Myristica fragrans Nutmeg Jathikkai 472 K.cal. MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Fat: Magnesium: Calcium: Phosphorus: Iron: 36.4 mg 229 mg 120 mg 240 mg 2.03 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES PEPPER, DRY Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Piper nigrum Pepper Milagu 304 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Protein: Iron: Carbohydrate: Carotene: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: Dietary fiber: 11.5 mg 12.4 mg 49.2 mg 1080 mg 460 mg 171 mg 198 mg 35.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES TURMERIC Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Curcuma domestica Turmeric Manjal 349 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Iron: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorous: Magnesium: Dietary fiber: 69.4 mg 67.8 mg 150 mg 30 mcg 282 mg 278 mg 20.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES AMLA Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Emblica officinalis Amla Nellikkai. 58 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Choline: Phosphorus: Potassium: Iron: Vitamin C: Dietary fiber: 50 mg 256 mg 20 mg 225 mg 1.2 mg 600 mg 7.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES DATES, DRIED Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Phoenix dactylifera Dates Pericham pazham. 317 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Carotene: Calcium: Vitamin C: Iron: Magnesium: Dietary fiber: 75.8 mg 26 mg 120 mg 3 mg 7.3 mg 12 mg 8.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES FIGS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Ficus Carica Figs Atthi Pazham. 37 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carotene: Calcium: Vitamin C: Iron: Dietary fiber: 162 mg 80 mg 5 mg 1.0 mg 0.50 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES GRAPE, BLUE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Vitis vinifera Figs Atthi Pazham. 37 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carotene: Calcium: Vitamin C: Phosphorous: Dietary fiber: 3 mg 20 mg 1 mg 23 mg 0.50 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES GUAVA, COUNTRY Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Psidium guarjara Guava Koya pazham. 51 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Magnesium: Vitamin C: Phosphorous: Dietary fiber: PRESENT: Tryptophan, lysine, methionine. 10 mg 24 mg 212 mg 23 mg 8.50 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES JAMBU FRUIT Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Syzygium cumini Jambu fruit Naga pazham. 62 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Vitamin C: Carotene: Potassium: Phosphorous: Dietary fiber: 15 mg 18 mg 48 mg 55 mg 15 mg 5.5 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES LEMON Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Citrus limon Lemon Yelumichai 57 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Vitamin C: Phosphorus: Potassium: 70 mg 39 mg 10 mg 270 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES ORANGE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Citrus aurantium Orange Kichili pazham 48 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorus: Vitamin C: 26 mg 1104 mg 20 mg 30 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES PAPAYA RIPE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Carcia Papaya Papaya Pappali 32 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorus: Vitamin C: 17 mg 666 mg 13 mg 57 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES PEARS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Prunus persica Pears Berikkai 52 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Carotene: Phosphorus: Vitamin C: Dietary fiber: 17 mg 666 mg 13 mg 57 mg 4.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES PINE APPLE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Ananas comosus Pine apple Anasi pazham 46 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Carotene: Iron: Vitamin C: Dietary fiber: 17 mg 666 mg 2.2 mg 57 mg 2.3 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES POMEGRANATE Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Punica granatum Pomogranate Masthalam pazham 65 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Calcium: Vitamin C: Phosphorous: Iron: Dietary fiber: 10 mg 16 mg 133 mg 1.79 mg 2.8 g

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES RAISINS Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Vitis vinifera Raisin Drakshai 65 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Calcium: Iron: Carotene: Phosphorous: 74.6 mg 87 mg 7.7 mg 2.5 mcg 80 mg

SAPOTA Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Achras sapota Sapota Sapota 98 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Calcium: Iron: Carotene: Phosphorous: 214.6 mg 28 mg 1.25 mg 97 mcg 27 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES SEETHAPHAL Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Annona squamosa Custard apple seethe pazham 104 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Vitamin C: Calcium: Magnesium: Phosphorus: Iron: 23.5 mg 37 mg 17 mg 84 mg 47 mg 4.31 mg

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES WATER MELON Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Citrullus vulgaris Watermelon Darbusini 10 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Vitamin C: Calcium: Phosphorus: Iron: 11.5 mg 1 mg 11 mg 12 mg 7.9 mg

MUSK MELON Botanical name: Common name: Tamil name: Energy: Cucumis melo Musk melon Mulam pazham 17 K. cal MAJOR NUTRIENTS PRESENT: Carbohydrate: Vitamin C: Calcium: Phosphorus: Iron: Carotene: Potassium: 11.5 mg 26 mg 32 mg 14 mg 1.4 mg 169 mg 341 mg