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INTRODUCTION
Any abnormal conditions which causes flow of huge current
in the conductors or cable through inappropriate paths in the circuit
can be defined as a fault. In normal operating conditions all the circuit
elements of an electrical system carry currents whose magnitude
depends upon the value of the generator voltage and the effective
impedances of all the power transmission and distribution system
elements including the impedances of the loads usually relatively
larger than other impedances.

Modern electric systems may be of great complexity and


spread over large geographical area. An electric power system
consists of generators, transformers, transmission lines and consumer
equipment. The system must be protected against flow of heavy short-
circuit currents, which can cause permanent damage to major
equipments, by disconnecting the faulty section of system by means
of circuit breaker and protective relaying. Such conditions are caused
in the system accidentally through insulation failure of equipment or
flashover of lines initiated by a lightning stroke or through accidental
faulty operation.

The safe disconnection can only be guaranteed if the current


does not exceed the capability of the circuit breaker. Therefore, the
short circuit currents in the network must be computed and compared
with the ratings of the circuit breakers at regular intervals as part of
the normal operation planning.

The short circuit currents in an AC system are determined


mainly by the reactance of the alternators, transformers and lines upto
the point of the fault in the case of phase to phase faults. When the
fault is between phase and earth, the resistance of the earth path play
an important role in limiting the currents.

Balanced three phase faults may be analyzed using an


equivalent single phase circuit. With asymmetrical three phase faults,
the use of symmetrical components help to reduce the complexity of
the calculations as transmission lines and components are by and
large symmetrical, although the fault may be asymmetrical. Fault
analysis is usually carried out in per-unit quantities as they give
solutions which are somewhat consistent over different voltage and
power ratings, and operate on values of the order of unity.
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In case of circuit breakers, their rupturing capacities are


based on the symmetrical short circuit current which is most easy to
calculate among all types of circuit currents. But for the determination
of relay settings, it is absolutely necessary to know fault current due to
unsymmetrical condition too for which knowledge of symmetrical
components is required.

Depending on the location, the type, the duration, and the


system grounding, short circuits may lead to
• electromagnetic interference with conductors in the vicinity
(disturbance of communication lines),
• stability problems,
• mechanical and thermal stress (i.e. damage of equipment, personal
danger)
• danger for personnel

In high voltage networks, short circuits are the most


frequent type of faults. Short circuits may be solid or may involve an
arc impedance. Figure 1 illustrates different types of short circuits.
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FIGURE 1- Examples for different types of short circuits

A power network comprises synchronous generators,


transformers, lines,and loads. Though the operating conditions at the
time of fault are important, the loads can usually be neglected during
short circuits, as voltages dip very low so that currents drawn by loads
can be neglected in comparison with short circuit currents.

The synchronous generator during short circuit has a


characteristic time varying behavior. In the event of a short circuit, the
flux per pole undergoes dynamic change with associated transients in
damper and field windings.

The reactance of the circuit model of the machine changes in


the first few cycles from a low subtransient reactance to a higher
transient value, finally settling at a still higher synchronous (steady
state) value. Depending upon the arc interruption time of the circuit
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breakers, an appropriate reactance value is used for the circuit model


of synchronous generators for the short circuit analysis.

In a modern large interconnected power system, heavy


currents flowing during a short circuit must be interrupted much
before the steady state conditions are established. Furthermore, from
the considerations of mechanical forces that act on the circuit breaker
components, the maximum current that a breaker has to carry
momentarily must also be determined. Therefore, for selecting a
circuit breaker, the initial current that flows on occurrence of a short
circuit and also the current in the transient that flows at the time of
circuit interruption must be determined.

There are two different approaches to calculate the short


circuits in a power system:
• Calculation of transient currents
• Calculation of stationary currents

TRANSIENTS ON A TRANSMISSION LINE


Let us consider the short circuit transient on a transmission line.
Certain simplifying assumptions are made at this stage:

1. The line is fed from a constant voltage source.


2. Short circuit takes place when the line is unloaded.
3. Line capacitance is negligible and the line can be represented by a
lumped RL series circuit.

FIGURE 2 –Transmission line model

With the above assumptions the line can be represented by the


circuit model shown above. The short circuit is assumed to take place
at t = 0. The parameter α controls the instant on the voltage wave
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when short circuit occurs. It is known from circuit theory that the
current after short circuit is composed of two parts, i.e.

where is represents the steady state alternating current

and it represents the transient direct current

With

A plot of i = is + it is shown in figure 3. In power system


terminology, the sinusoidal steady state current is called the
symmetrical short circuit current and the unidirectional transient
component is called the DC off-set current, which causes the total
short circuit current to be unsymmetrical till the transient decays.

FIGURE 3 - Waveform of a short circuit current on a transmission line


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It follows easily from figure 3 that the maximum momentary short


circuit current imm corresponds to the first peak. If the decay of
transient current in this short time is neglected, then:

Since transmission line resistance is small, θis nearly 90◦.

This has the maximum possible value for α = 0, i.e. short circuit
occurring when the voltage wave is going through zero. Thus imm may
be a high as twice the maximum of the symmetrical short circuit
current:

For the selection of circuit breakers, momentary short circuit current is


taken
corresponding to its maximum possible value.

Modern circuit breakers are designed to interrupt the current in the


first few cycles (five cycles or less). With reference to Figure, it means
that when the current is interrupted, the DC off-set it has not yet died
out and contributes thus to the current to be interrupted. Rather than
computing the value of the DC off-set at the time of interruption (this
would be highly complex in a network of even moderately large size),
the symmetrical short circuit current alone is calculated. This current is
then increased by an empirical multiplying factor to account for the DC
off-set current.

SHORT CIRCUIT OF A SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE


Under steady state short circuit conditions, the armature
reaction of a synchronous generator produces a demagnetizing flux. In
terms of a circuit this effect is modelled as a reactance Xa in series
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with the induced emf. This reactance when combined with the leakage
reactance Xl of the machine is called synchronous reactance Xd. The
index d denotes the direct axis. Since the armature reactance is small,
it can be neglected. The steady state short circuit model of a
synchronous machine is shown in figure shown below.

FIGURE 4- Steadystate short circuit model of a synchronous


machine

Consider now the sudden short circuit of a synchronous


generator that has initially been operating under open circuit
conditions. The machine undergoes a transient in all the three phases
finally ending up in the steady state condition described above. The
circuit breaker must interrupt the current long before the steady
condition is reached. Immediately upon short circuit, the DC off-set
currents appear in all three phases, each with a different magnitude
since the point on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is
different for each phase. These DC off-set currents are accounted for
separately on an empirical basis.

Therefore, for short circuit studies, we need to concentrate our


attention on the symmetrical short circuit current only. In the event of
a short circuit, the symmetrical short circuit current is limited initially
only by the leakage reactance of the machine. Since the air gap flux
cannot change instantaneously, to counter the demagnetization of the
armature short circuit current, currents appear in the field winding as
well as in the damper winding in a direction to help the main flux.
These currents decay in accordance with the winding time constants.
The time constant of the damper winding which has low X/R-ratio is
much less than the one of the field winding, which has high leakage
inductance with low resistance. Thus, during the initial part of the
short circuit, the damper and field windings have transformer currents
induced in them. In the circuit model their reactances—Xf of field
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winding and Xdw of damper winding—appear in parallel with Xa as


shown in figure below.

FIGURE 5 - Approximate circuit model during subtransient period of


short circuit

FIGURE 6 - Approximate circuit model during transient period of short


circuit

As the damper winding currents are first to die out, Xdw


effectively becomes open circuited and at a later stage Xf becomes
open circuited. The machine reactance thus changes from the parallel
combination of Xa, Xf , and Xdw during the initial period of the short
circuit to Xa and Xf in parallel (Figure ) during the middle period. The
machine reactance finally becomes Xa in steady state (Figure 7.8). The
reactance presented by
the machine in the initial period of the short circuit, i.e.
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is called the subtransient reactance of the machine; while the


reactance effective
after the damper winding currents have died out, i.e.

is called the transient reactance. Of course, the reactance under


steady conditions is the synchronous reactance. Obviously X′′d < X′d <
Xd. The machine thus offers a time-varying reactance which changes
from X′′d to X′d and finally to Xd.

FIGURE 7 -Symmetrical short circuit armature current in synchronous


machine.

SYMMETRICAL THREE PHASE FAULT ANALYSIS


In normal operating conditions, a three-phase power system
can be treated as a single-phase system when the loads, voltages, and
currents are balanced. If we postulate plane-wave propagation along
the conductors (it is, however, known from the Maxwell equations that
in the presence of losses this is not strictly true), a network
representation with lumped elements can be made when the physical
dimensions of the power system, or a part of it, are small as compared
with the wavelength of the voltage
and current signals. When this is the case, one can successfully use a
single line lumped-element representation of the three-phase power
system for calculation. A fault brings the system to an abnormal
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condition. Short-circuit faults are especially of concern because they


result in a switching action, which often results in transient
overvoltages. In the case of a symmetrical three-phase fault in a
symmetrical system, one can still use a single-phase representation
for the short-circuit and transient analysis.

A three phase fault is a condition where either (a) all three


phases of the system are short circuited to each other, or (b) all three
phase of the system are earthed.

FIGURE 8 – (a) Balanced three phase fault (b) Balanced three phase
to earth fault
This is in general a balanced condition, and we need to only
know the positive-sequence network to analyze faults. Further, the
single line diagram can be used, as all three phases carry equal
currents displaced by 120◦.
Typically, only 5% of the initial faults in a power system, are
three phase faults with or without earth. Of the unbalanced faults, 80
% are line-earth and 15% are double line faults with or without earth
and which can often deteriorate to 3 phase fault. Broken conductor
faults account for the rest.

Fault Level Calculations


In a power system, the maximum the fault current (or fault
MVA) that can flow into a zero impedance fault is necessary to be
known for switch gear solution. This can either be the balanced three
phase value or the value at an asymmetrical condition. The Fault Level
defines the value for the symmetrical condition. The fault level is
usually expressed in MVA (or corresponding per-unit value), with the
maximum fault current value being converted using the nominal
voltage rating.

MVAbase =√ 3 . Nominal Voltage(kV) . Ibase (kA)


MVAfault =√ 3 . Nominal Voltage(kV) . Isc (kA)
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where
MVAfault – Fault Level at a given point in MVA
Ibase – Rated or base line current
Isc – Short circuit line current flowing in to a fault

The per unit value of the fault Level may thus be written as

The per unit voltage for nominal value is unity, so that

The Short circuit capacity (SCC) of a busbar is the fault level of


the busbar. The strength of a busbar (or the ability to maintain its
voltage) is directly proportional to its SCC. An infinitely strong bus (or
Infinite bus bar) has an infinite SCC, with a zero equivalent impedance
and will maintain its voltage under all conditions.

Magnitude of short circuit current is time dependant due to


synchronous generators. It is initially at its largest value and
decreasing to steady value. These higher fault levels tax Circuit
Breakers adversely so that current limiting reactors are sometimes
used.

The Short circuit MVA is a better indicator of the stress on CBs


than the short circuit current as CB has to withstand recovery voltage
across breaker following arc interruption.

The currents flowing during a fault is determined by the internal


emfs of machines in the network, by the impedances of the machines,
and by the impedances between the machines and the fault.

The following figure shows a part of a power system, where the


rest of the system at two points of coupling have been represented by
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their Thevenin’s equivalent circuit (or by a voltage source of 1 pu


together its fault level which corresponds to the per unit value of the
effective Thevenin’s impedance).

FIGURE 9 – CIRCUIT FOR FAULT CALCULATION


With CB1 and CB2 open, short circuit capacities are
SCC at bus 1 = 8 p.u. gives Zg1 = 1/8 = 0.125 pu
SCC at bus 2 = 5 p.u. gives Zg2 = 1/5 = 0.20 pu

Each of the lines are given to have a per unit impedance of 0.3 pu.
Z1 = Z2 = 0.3 p.u.
Suppose with CB1 and CB2 closed,the SCCs (or Fault Levels) of the
busbars in the system is to be determined.

FIGURE 10 – Determination of short circuit capacities


The circuit can be reduced and analysed as shown in the figure 11.
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FIGURE 11 – Determination of short circuit capacity at bus 3


Thus, the equivalent input impedance is given by Zin=0.23 pu
at bus 3, so that the short circuit capacity at busbar 3 is given as
| SCC3 |= 1/0.23 = 4.35 p.u
The network may also be reduced keeping the identity of Bus 1 as in
the following figure.

FIGURE 12 – Determination of short circuit capacity at bus 1


Thus, the equivalent input impedance is given by Zin=0.108 pu
at bus 1, so that the short circuit capacity at busbar 1 is given as
| SCC1 |= 1/0.108 = 9.25 p.u
This is a 16% increase on the short circuit capacity of bus 1
with the circuit breakers open. The network may also be reduced
keeping the identity of Bus 2. This would yield a value of Zin as 0.157
pu, giving the short circuit capacity at busbar 2 as
| SCC2 |= 1/0.157 = 6.37 p.u
This is a 28% increase on the short circuit capacity of bus 2
with the circuit breakers open.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (FOR


UNSYMMETRICAL SYSTEMS)
For the majority of the fault situations, the power system has
become unsymmetrical. Symmetrical components and, especially, the
sequence networks are an elegant way to analyse faults in
unsymmetrical three-phase power systems because in many cases the
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unbalanced portion of the physical system can be isolated for a study,


the rest of the system being considered to be in balance. This is, for
instance, the case for an unbalanced load or fault. In such cases, we
attempt to find the symmetrical components of the voltages and the
currents at the point of unbalance and connect the sequence
networks, which are, in fact, copies of the balanced system at the
point of unbalance (the fault point).

The method of symmetrical components is a very powerful


approach and has simplified the procedure for solving problems on the
unbalanced polyphase systems. The method of symmetrical
components was suggested by C.L. Fortesque in the year 1918. This
method can be applied to any number of phases but three phase
system is of main interest.
According to Fortesque theorem, any unbalanced three phase
system of currents, voltages or other sinusoidal quantities can be
resolved into there balanced systems of phasors which are called
symmetrical components of the original unbalanced system. Such
three phase unbalanced systems constitute three sequence networks
which are solved separately on a singe phase basis. Once the problem
is solved in terms of the symmetrical components, it can be
transferred back to the actual circuit condition by superposition or
phasor additions of these quantities (currents or voltages) easily.

Symmetrical components of three phase systems

The symmetrical components differ in the phase sequence


,that is, the order in which the phase quantities go through a
maximum. There may be a positive phase sequence, negative phase
sequence and a zero phase sequence. Thus the balanced set of
components can be given as positive sequence component, negative
sequence component and zero sequence component. These are shown
below in the figure:
\
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FIGURE 13- Symmetrical components of unbalanced three phase


system

The positive sequence system is that system in which the


phase or line currents or voltages attain a maximum in the same cyclic
order as those in a normal supply e.g. assuming conventional counter
clockwise rotation, then the positive phase sequence phasors are as
shown above in the figure. A balanced system corresponding to normal
conditions contains a phase sequence only. It is also the condition for
3 phase fault.The positive sequence components are marked by
subscript 1.The three phasors of positive sequence system are of
equal magnitude, spaced 120 degrees apart.

The negative sequence system is that system in which phasors


still rotate anti-clockwise but attain maximum value in the reverse
order as shown in the figure. This sequence only arises in the case of
occurrence of an unsymmetrical fault. Such faults also contain the
positive sequence system. The negative components are marked by
subscript 2.The three phasors of positive sequence system are of
equal magnitude, spaced 120 degrees apart .

The zero phase sequence system a single phasor system


combining three equal phasors in phase as illustrated in the figure
given above and represents the residual current or voltage present
under fault conditions on a 3 phase system with a fourth wire or earth
return present. Clearly the zero phase sequence embraces the ground
, therefore in addition to the three line wires and represents a fault
condition to ground or to a fourth wire if present. Its presence arise
only where fault to earth currents can return to the system via the star
point of that system or via an artificial neutral point provided to earth
a delta system. In an earth fault, positive and negative phase
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sequences are also present. The zero phase sequence components are
marked by the subscript 0.

The phase components are the addition of the symmetrical


components and can be written as follows.

The unknown unbalanced system has three unknown


magnitudes and three unknown angles with respect to the reference
direction. Similarly, the combination of the 3 sequence components
will also have three unknown magnitudes and three unknown angles
with respect to the reference direction.
Thus the original unbalanced system effectively has 3 complex
unknown quantities a, b and c (magnitude and phase angle of each is
independent), and that each of the balanced components have only
one independent complex unknown each, as the others can be written
by symmetry. Thus the three sets of symmetrical components also
have effectively 3 complex unknown quantities. These are usually
selected as the components of the first phase a (i.e. a0, a1 and a2) .
One of the other phases could have been selected as well, but all 3
components should be selected for the same phase. Thus it should be
possible to convert from either sequence components to phase
components or vice versa.

Definition of the operator α

When the balanced components are considered, it is seen that


that the most frequently occurring angle is 120◦. In complex number
theory, j is defined as the complex operator which is equal to √-1 and
a magnitude of unity, and more importantly, when operated on any
complex number rotates it anti-clockwise by an angle of 90◦.
i.e. j = √-1 = 1 ∠90◦

In like manner, we define a new complex operator α which has a


magnitude of unity. α when operated on any complex number rotates
it anti-clockwise by an angle of 120◦ and square of α rotates it by 240o .
i.e. α = 1 ∠120◦ = - 0.500 + j 0.866
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and α 2 = 1∠2400 = -0.500 – j 0.866

The three phasors (1+j0), α 2 and α (taken in this order) form a


balanced, symmetrical , set of phasors of positive sequence rotation
since the phasors are of equal length displaced by equal angles of
1200 from each other, and cross the reference line in the order 1, α 2
and α (following the usual convention of counter-clockwise rotation for
the phasor diagram). The phasors 1, α and α 2 (taken in order) form the
balanced, symmetrical, set of phasors of negative phase-sequence,
since the phasors do not cross the reference line in the order named,
keeping the same convention of counter-clockwise rotation, but third
name following the first etc.

Some Properties of α

Phasor Addition

Since α is complex, it cannot be equal to 1, so that α - 1 cannot


be zero.
∴ α2 + α + 1 = 0
This also has the physical meaning that the three sides of an
equilateral triangles must close as in figure 2.11.
Also α−1 = α2 and α−2 = α

Analysis of decomposition of phasors

The sequence components of the unbalanced quantity are again


examined, with each of the components written in terms of phase a
components, and the operator α, as in figure shown below.
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Figure 14 – Expressing components in terms of phase


All the sequence components can be expressed in terms of the
quantities for phase a using the properties of rotation of 0◦, 120◦ or
240◦ .
Thus

This can be written in matrix form as follows:

This gives the basic symmetrical component matrix equation,


which shows the relationship between the phase component vector Ph
and the symmetrical component vector Sy using the symmetrical
component matrix [Λ]. Both the phase component vector Ph and the
symmetrical component vector Sy can be either voltages or currents,
but in a particular equation, they must of course all be of the same
type. Since the matrix is a [3×3] matrix, it is possible to invert it and
express Sy in terms of Ph.

The symmetrical component matrix [Λ] can be inverted as follows.


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and the discriminent Δ = 3(α – α2) = 3α (1-α)

Substituting, the matrix equation simplifies to give

Since α−1 = α2, α−2 = α and 1 + α + α2 = 0, the matrix equation


further simplifies to

It is seen that α is the complex conjugate of α2, and α2 is the complex


conjugate of α.
Thus the above matrix [Δ]-1 is one-third of the complex conjugate of
[Δ]. Thus,

This can now be written in the expanded form as


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SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES AND SEQUENCE


NETWORKS

The impedance of the network offered to the flow of positive


sequence currents is called positive sequence impedance. Similarly if
only negative sequence currents flow, the impedance of the network
offered to these currents is called negative sequence impedance, also,
the impedance offered to the flow of zero sequence currents is called
zero sequence impedance.
If Za, Zb and Zc are the impedance of the load between phases a, b
and c to neutral n, then the sequence impedances are given as:

a) Positive sequence impedance- Z1= 13 (Za + α Zb + Zc)


b) Negative sequence impedance – Z2 = 13 (Za + Zb + α Zc)
c) Zero sequence impedance – Z3= 13 (Za + Zb + Zc)
For a three phase symmetrical static circuit without
internal voltages like transformers and transmission lines, the
impedances offered to the currents of any sequences are the same
in the three phases; also the current of a particular sequence will
cause voltage drop of the same sequence or a voltage of a
particular sequence will give rise to current of the same sequence
only which means that there there is no mutual coupling between
the sequence networks.

Since in case of a static device, the sequence has no


significance, the positive and negative sequence impedances are
equal. But the zero sequence im pedance which includes impedance
of the return path through the ground is usually different from the
positive and negative sequence impedances. The impedances
offered by rotating machine to positive sequence components of
currents is usually different from those offered to the negative
sequence components of currents.
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The single phase equivalent circuit composed of the


impedance to current of any one sequence only is called the
sequence network for that particular sequence. Hence,
corresponding to positive-, negative- and zero- sequence currents,
we have positive-, negative- and zero- sequence networks. Thus, for
every power system, three sequence networks can be formed and
these sequence networks are the interconnected in different ways
to represent different unbalanced fault conditions. The sequence
networks and voltages during the fault are then calculated from
which actual fault currents and voltages can be determined.

Negative sequence network differs from the positive


sequence network in the following respects:-
a) Normally, there are no negative sequence emf sources.
b) Negative sequence impedances of rotating machines are
generally differ from their positive sequence impedances.

The zero sequence network likewise will be free of


internal voltages, the flow of current being caused by the voltage at
fault point. Zero sequence reactance of the transmission line is
higher than for positive sequence. The impedances of transformers
or generators will depend upon the type of connections ( delta or
star (grounded or isolated) )

(a)Synchronous machines (motor or generator)


An unloaded generator may, in general, be represented by
the star-connected equivalent with possibly a neutral to earth
reactance as shown in figure. The induced emf’s in the three phases
are E, E∠1200 and E∠2400. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs on
the machine terminals, unbalanced currents Ia, Ib and Ic flow in the
lines. Unbalanced line currents can be resolved into their
symmetrical components.

FIGURE 15 – Sequence networks of generator


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Since a synchronous machine is designed with symmetrical


windings, it has induced emf’s of positive sequence only. The
positive sequence network for a synchronous machine can be
represented by the source emf on no load and positive sequence
impedance Zg1 in series with it. The neutral impedance Zn does not
appear in the circuit because phasor sum of Ia1, Ib1 and Ic1 is zero and
no positive sequence current can flow through Zn. Since it is a
balanced network, so it can be drawn on single phase basis. The
reference bus for positive sequence network is at neutral potential.

Synchronous machine does not generate any negative


sequence voltage. The negative sequence network can be
represented by a negative sequence impedance Zg2. In this case
also, no neutral impedance appears as there is no negative
sequence current through Zn. Since it is a balanced network, so it
can be drawn on single phase basis. The reference bus for negative
sequence network is also at neutral potential.

No zero sequence voltage is induced in the machine. As the


current flowing in the reactor impedance Zn is the sum of zero
sequence currents in all the three phases , hence voltage drop
caused by it will be 3Ia0 Zn. So, net zero sequence impedance of the
machine will be:Z0=Zg0 + Zn. The reference bus is at ground
potential.

FIGURE 16- Positive, negative and zero sequence networks of


generator

(b)Transmission lines and cables

Transmission lines are assumed to be symmetrical in all three


phases and therefore positive and negative sequence impedances are
independent of phase sequence and are equal. However, this
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assumption would not be valid for long un-transposed lines (say


beyond 500 km) as the mutual coupling between the phases would be
unequal, and symmetrical components then cannot be used.

The transmission line (or cable) may be represented by a single


reactance in the single-line diagram. Typically, the ratio of the zero
sequence impedance to the positive sequence impedance would be of
the order of 2 for a single circuit transmission line with earth wire,
about 3.5 for a single circuit with no earth wire or for a double circuit
line.For a single core cable, the ratio of the zero sequence impedance
to the positive sequence impedance would be around 1 to 1.25.

When only zero sequence currents flow in a transmission line, the


currents in each phase are identical in both magnitude and phase.
Such currents return partly through ground and the rest through
overhead ground wires. The magnetic field due to the flow of zero
sequence currents is very different from that set up by the flow of
positive or zero sequence currents.

(c)Single windings

Each of the simple types of windings for the zero sequence


path is considered. These diagrams are shown, along with the zero
sequence single line diagram in figure.

FIGURE 17- Zero sequence network of various types of windings

The unearthed star connection does not provide a path for the
zero sequence current to pass across, and hence in the single line
diagram, there is no connection to the reference. With an earthed star
connection, the winding permits a zero sequence current to flow, and
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hence is shown with a direct connection to the reference. The earthed


star with impedance, is similar except that 3 times the neutral
impedance appears in the zero sequence path. The delta connection
on the other hand does not permit any zero sequence current in the
line conductors but permits a circulating current. This effect is shown
by a closed path to the reference.

(d)Transformers

The positive sequence impedance of a transformer is equal to


its leakage reactance ( the resistance of winding is usually small in
comparision to the leakage reactance ). Transformer, being a static
device, the positive and negative sequence impedances are equal
because the impedance is independent of phase order , provided the
applied voltages are balanced.Thus, for a transformer
Z1 = Z2 = Zleakage

The situation with 3 phase transformer is more complex with


regard to zero sequence impedance because of the possibility of
variety of connections. The zero sequence currents can flow through
the winding connected in star only if the star point is grounded.
Moreover, the zero sequence currents cannot flow in the windings if
the star point is isolated. No zero sequence currents can flow in the
lines connected to a delta star winding as no return path is available
for them. The zero sequence currents can , however flow through the
delta connected winding themselves if any zero sequence voltages are
induced in delta.

Two-winding transformers

Two winding (primary and secondary), three phase


transformers may be categorised into (i) star-star, (ii) earthed star –
star, (iii) earthed star – earthed star, (iv) delta – star, (v) delta –
earthed star, (vi) delta – delta. There are also zig-zag windings in
transformers which has not been dealt with in the following sections.
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FIGURE 18- Single line diagram of a two winding transformer

The figure 19 shows the zero-sequence diagrams of the transformers.

FIGURE 19 – Zero sequence networks of a two winding


transformer

Considering the transformer as a whole, it can be seen that the


single-line diagrams
indicate the correct flow of the zero-sequence current from primary to
secondary.

Three-winding transformers

FIGURE 20- Single line diagram of a three winding transformer

Three phase, three winding have an additional tertiary winding,


and may be represented by a single line diagram corresponding to the
ampere-turn balance, or power balance.

which in per unit quantities would yield the common equation


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This may be represented by three reactances connected in T, giving


the general single line diagram for fault studies for the 3 winding
transformer, as shown in figure.

FIGURE 21 - Three winding transformer

The positive sequence and negative sequence diagrams have


a direct connection to the T connection of reactances from P, S and T.
The zero sequence network is built up from the single winding
arrangements described and yields the single line diagrams given in
the following section, and other combinations.
27

FIGURE 22 – Single line diagrams for sequences of three winding


transformer
Generally available from measurements for a 3 winding transformer
are the impedances across a pairs of windings. (ie. Z PS, ZPT, and ZST ),
with the third winding is open circuited. Thus we could relate the
values to the effective primary, secondary and tertiary impedances
(ZP, ZS and ZT ) as follows, with reference to figure.

The values of ZP, ZS and ZT can then be determined as

As in the case of the 2 winding transformer, 3Zn is included wherever earthing of a


neutral point is done through an impedance Zn.

ANALYSIS OF FAULTS
28

1.Three phase fault


Three-phase faults, when all three lines touch each other or fall to
ground, occur in only a small percentage of the cases but are very
severe faults for the system and its components. The three-phase-to-
ground fault is, in fact, a symmetrical fault because the power system
remains in balance after the fault occurs. It is the most severe fault
type and other faults, if not cleared promptly, can easily develop into
it.

Assumptions Commonly Made in Three Phase Fault Studies


The following assumptions are usually made in fault analysis in
three phase transmission lines.
• All sources are balanced and equal in magnitude & phase
• Sources represented by the Thevenin’s voltage prior to fault at
the fault point
• Large systems may be represented by an infinite bus-bars
• Transformers are on nominal tap position
• Resistances are negligible compared to reactances
• Transmission lines are assumed fully transposed and all 3
phases have same Z
• Loads currents are negligible compared to fault currents
• Line charging currents can be completely neglected.

The generated voltages in the transmission system are


assumed balanced prior to the fault, so that they consist only of the
positive sequence component Ef (pre-fault voltage). This is in fact the
Thevenin’s equivalent at the point of the fault prior to the occurrence
of the fault.

Va0 = 0 – Z0 Ia0
Va1 = Ef – Z1 Ia1
Va2 – 0 – Z2 Ia2

This may be written in matrix form as follows-


Va0Va1Va2=0Ef0- Z0000Z1000Z2Ia0Ia1Ia2

These may be expressed in network form as shown in the figure


29

FIGURE 23 – Sequence networks representing three phase


fault

2.Single Line to Ground faults (L – G faults)


Line-to-ground faults are faults in which an overhead
transmission line touches the ground because of wind, ice loading, or a
falling tree limb. A majority of transmission-line faults are single line-
to-ground faults.
The single line to ground fault can occur in any of the three
phases. However, it is sufficient to analyse only one of the cases.
Looking at the symmetry of the symmetrical component matrix, it is
seen that the simplest to analyse would be the phase a.
Consider an L-G fault with zero fault impedance as shown in
figure.

FIGURE 24 – L-G fault on phase a

Since the fault impedance is zero, on occurrence of the the fault.


Va = 0 , I b = 0 , I c = 0
since load currents are neglected.

These can be converted to equivalent conditions in symmetrical


components as follows.
Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 =0
30

and Ia0Ia1Ia2=13 1111αα2 1α2 αIaIb=0Ic=0

giving Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia3

Mathematical analysis using the network equation in


symmetrical components would yield the desired result for the fault
current If = Ia.
Va0Va1Va2=0Ef0- Z0000Z1000Z2Ia0Ia1Ia2 where Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia/3
Thus, we get

T
Simplification, with If = Ia, gives

If = 3Ef Z1+ Z2+ Z0

Also, the equations


Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = 0, and
Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2
indicate that the three networks (zero, positive and negative) must be
connected in series (same current, voltages add up) and short-
circuited, giving the circuit as shown in figure.

FIGURE 25 – Sequence networks representing L-G fault on phase


a with Zf =0

In this case, Ia corresponds to the fault current If, which in turn


corresponds to 3 times any one of the components (Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =
Ia/3). Thus the network would also yield the same fault current as in
the mathematical analysis. In this example, the connection of
sequence components is more convenient to apply than the
mathematical analysis. Thus for a single line to ground fault (L-G fault)
31

with no fault impedance, the sequence networks must be connected in


series and short circuited.

Now an L-G fault is considered with fault impedance Zf as shown in


figure 25.

FIGURE 26 – L-G fault on phase a with Zf present

Under the the fault condition,


Va = Ia Zf, Ib = 0, Ic = 0

These can be converted to equivalent conditions in symmetrical


components as
follows
Ia0Ia1Ia2=13 1111αα2 1α2 αIaIb=0Ic=0 giving Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia3

Also, Va = Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = Ia Zf


Mathematical analysis using the network equation in symmetrical
components would yield the desired result for the fault current If as
If = 3Ef Z1+ Z2+ Z0+3Zf

Similarly, the basic equations,


Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia3
Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = Ia Zf = 3 Ia0 Zf

would yield a circuit connection of the 3 sequence networks in series


with an effective impedance of 3Zf.
32

FIGURE 27 – Sequence network representing L-G fault on phase a


with Zf

3.Line to Line faults (L – L faults)


Line-to-line faults are usually the result of galloping lines
because of high
winds or because of a line breaking and falling on a line below. Line-to-
Line faults may occur in a power system, with or without the earth,
and with or without fault impedance.

Solution of the L-L fault gives a simpler solution when phases


b and c are considered as the symmetrical component matrix is
similar for phases b and c. The complexity of the calculations reduce
on account of this selection.
Under the fault condition,

FIGURE 28 – L-L fault on phases b-c with no Zf


Mathematical analysis may be done by substituting these
conditions to the relevant symmetrical component matrix equation.
However, the network solution after converting the boundary
conditions is more convenient and is therefore considered here.
Ia = 0 and Ib = – Ic when substituted into the matrix equation give
33

Ia0Ia1Ia2=13 1111αα2 1α2 αIa=0IbIc=-Ib

which on simplification gives Ia0 = 0, and Ia1 = – Ia2 or Ia1 + Ia2 = 0

Similarly,Vb = Vc on substitution gives

Va0Va1Va2= 13 1111αα2 1α2 αVaVbVc=Vb

which on simplification yields Va1 = Va2.

The boundary conditions Ia0= 0, Ia1 + Ia2= 0, and Va1 = Va2


indicate a sequence network where the positive and negative
sequence networks are in parallel and the zero sequence is open
circuited, as shown in following figure

FIGURE 29 – Sequence network representing L-L fault on phases b


and c with no Zf

Mathematical analysis using the network equation in symmetrical


components would yield the desired result for the fault current If as
If = -j3EfZ1 +Z2

4.Double line to ground faults (L-L-G faults)


(A) L-L-G fault with earth and no Zf

FIGURE 30 – L-L-G fault on phases b-c with no Zf


34

Under the fault condition ,


Ia = 0, Vb = Vc = 0
Ia0 + Ia1 + Ia2 = Ia = 0
It can be shown that
Va0=Va1 = Va2
These conditions taken together, can be seen to correspond to all
three sequence networks connected in parallel as shown in the figure .

FIGURE 31 – Sequence network representing L-L-G fault on


phases b and c (no Zf)

From above figure, it can be shown that


Ia1= Ef Z1+Z2Z0/(z1+Z0)

(B)L-L-G fault with earth and Zf


If Zf appears in the earth path, it could be included as 3Zf, giving (Z0
+ 3Zf) in the zero sequence path.

(C)L-L-G fault with Zf and no earth


If Zf appears in the fault path, between phases b and c, it could
be included as ½ Zf in each of b and c. Inclusion of ½ Zf in phase a
having zero current would not affect it, so that in effect, ½ Zf can be
added to each of the three phases and hence to each of the 3
sequence networks as (Z1+½ Zf), (Z2+½ Zf) and (Z0+½ Zf). The
normal circuit analysis yields the positive and negative sequence
networks in parallel with a connecting impedance of Zf, which is
effectively the same.
35

5. Broken conductor faults

In broken conductor (or open conductor) faults, the load


currents cannot be neglected, as these are the only currents that are
flowing in the network. The load currents prior to the fault are
assumed to be balanced.

(A)Single conductor open on phase “a”

FIGURE 32 –Open conductor fault on phase “a”

In the case of open conductor faults, the voltages are measured


across the break, such as a-a′. For the single conductor broken on
phase “a” condition, shown in figure 32. the boundary conditions are
Ia = 0, Vb = Vc = 0

This condition is mathematically identical to the condition in


the L-L-G fault in the earlier section, except that the voltages are
measured in a different manner. The connection of sequence networks
will also be the same except that the points considered for connection
are different.

(B)Two conductors open on phases “b” and “c”


36

FIGURE 33 –Open conductor fault on phases b and c


For the two conductors broken on phases “b” and “c” condition,
the boundary conditions are
Va = 0 , Ib = Ic =0

This condition is mathematically identical to the condition in


the L-G fault
in the earlier section. The connection of sequence networks will also
be the same except that the points considered for connection are
different.

MATLAB THEORY
What Is MATLAB?
The name MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB
was written originally to provide easy access to matrix software
developed by the LINPACK (linear system package) and EISPACK (Eigen
system package) projects.

MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical


computing. It integrates computation, visualization, and programming
environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar
mathematical notation. Furthermore, MATLAB is a
modern programming language environment: it has sophisticated
data structures, contains built-in editing and debugging tools, and
supports object-oriented programming. These factors make MATLAB
an excellent tool for teaching and research.

MATLAB has many advantages compared to conventional


computer languages (e.g., C, FORTRAN) for solving technical problems.
Matlab program and script files always have filenames ending with
".m"; the programming language is exceptionally straightforward since
almost every data object is assumed to be an array. Graphical output is
available to supplement numerical results. MATLAB is an interactive
system whose basic data element is an array that does not require
dimensioning. This allows us to solve many technical computing
problems, especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a
fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non-
37

interactive language such as C or Fortran. The software package has


been commercially available since 1984 and is now considered as a
standard tool at most universities and industries worldwide.

MATLAB supports the entire data analysis process, from


acquiring data from external devices and databases, through
preprocessing, visualization, and numerical analysis, to producing
presentation-quality output. It has powerful built-in routines that
enable a very wide variety of computations. It also has easy to use
graphics commands that make the visualization of results immediately
available. Specific applications are collected in packages referred to as
toolbox. There are toolboxes for signal processing, symbolic
computation, control theory, simulation, optimization, and several
other fields of applied science and engineering.

Key Featuresof MATLAB -


 High-level language for technical computing
 Development environment for managing code, files, and data
 Interactive tools for iterative exploration, design, and problem
solving
 Mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier analysis,
filtering, optimization, and numerical integration
 2-D and 3-D graphics functions for visualizing data
 Tools for building custom graphical user interfaces
 Functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with external
applications and languages, such as C, C++, Fortran, Java, COM, and
Microsoft Excel
PARTS OF The MATLAB System:
The MATLAB system consists of five main parts:
Desktop Tools and Development Environment This is the set of
tools and facilities that help you use MATLAB functions and files. Many
of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the MATLAB
desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor and
debugger, and browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and the
search path.
38

The MATLAB Mathematical Function Library This is a vast


collection of computational algorithms ranging from elementary
functions, like sum, sine, cosine, and complex arithmetic, to more
sophisticated functions like matrix inverse, matrix eigenvalues, Bessel
functions, and fast Fourier transforms.
The MATLAB Language This is a high-level matrix/array language
with control flow statements, functions, data structures, input/output,
and object-oriented programming features. It allows both
"programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throw-
away programs, and "programming in the large" to create large and
complex application programs.
Graphics MATLAB has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and
matrices as graphs, as well as annotating and printing these graphs. It
includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and three-
dimensional data visualization, image processing, animation, and
presentation graphics. It also includes low-level functions that allow
you to fully customize the appearance of graphics as well as to build
complete graphical user interfaces on your MATLAB applications.
The MATLAB External Interfaces/API This is a library that allows
you to write C and Fortran programs that interact with MATLAB. It
includes facilities for calling routines from MATLAB (dynamic linking),
calling MATLAB as a computational engine, and for reading and writing
MAT-files.

WHAT IS SIM POWER SYSTEMS


Sim Power Systems and Sim Mechanics of the Physical
Modeling product family work together with Simulink to model
electrical, mechanical, and control systems.
The Role of Simulation in Design
Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits
and electromechanical devices like motors and generators. Engineers
working in this discipline are constantly improving the performance of
the systems. Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have
forced power system designers to use power electronic devices and
sophisticated control system concepts that tax traditional analysis
39

tools and techniques. Further complicating the analyst's role is the fact
that the system is often so nonlinear that the only way to understand
it is through simulation.
Land-based power generation from hydroelectric, steam, or
other devices is not the only use of power systems. A common
attribute of these systems is their use of power electronics and control
systems to achieve their performance objectives.
SimPowerSystems is a modern design tool that allows scientists
and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power
systems. SimPowerSystems uses the Simulink environment, allowing
you to build a model using simple click and drag procedures. Not only
can you draw the circuit topology rapidly, but your analysis of the
circuit can include its interactions with mechanical, thermal, control,
and other disciplines. This is possible because all the electrical parts of
the simulation interact with the extensive Simulink modeling library.

SIMULATION MODEL
The circuit shown below is designed for the simulation of various types
of faults in the transmission lines.
40

SIMULATION GRAPHS
1. THREE PHASE TO GROUND FAULT
41

2. DOUBLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT


42

3. SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT


43

DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS
BLOCKS
44

Simplified Synchronous Machine


Models the dynamics of a simplified three-phase synchronous machine

Description
The Simplified Synchronous Machine block models both the electrical
and mechanical characteristics of a simple synchronous machine. The
electrical system for each phase consists of a voltage source in series
with an RL impedance, which implements the internal impedance of
the machine. The value of R can be zero but the value of L must be
positive.

Three-Phase Series RLC Load


Implementing a three-phase series RLC load with selectable
connection

Description
The Three-Phase Series RLC Load block implements a three-phase
balanced load as a series combination of RLC elements. At the
specified frequency, the load exhibits a constant impedance. The
active and reactive powers absorbed by the load are proportional to
the square of the applied voltage.

Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings)

Implementing a three-phase transformer with configurable winding


connections
45

Description
The Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings) block implements a
three-phase transformer using three single-phase transformers. You
can simulate the saturable core or not simply by setting the
appropriate check box in the parameter menu of the block.

Three-Phase Breaker

Implementing a three-phase circuit breaker opening at the current zero


crossing

Description
Three-Phase Breaker block implements a three-phase circuit breaker
where the opening and closing times can be controlled either from an
external Simulink signal (external control mode), or from an internal
control timer (internal control mode). The Three-Phase Breaker block
uses three Breaker blocks connected between the inputs and the
outputs of the block. This block can be used in series with the three-
phase element that one wants to switch. If the Three-Phase Breaker
block is set in external control mode, a control input appears in the
block icon. The control signal connected to this input must be either 0
or 1, 0 to open the breakers, 1 to close them. If the Three-Phase
Breaker block is set in internal control mode, the switching times are
specified in the dialog box of the block. The three individual breakers
are controlled with the same signal.
46

Distributed Parameter Line

Implementing an N-phase distributed parameter transmission line


model with lumped losses

Description
The Distributed Parameter Line block implements an N-phase
distributed parameter line model with lumped losses. The model is
based on the Bergeron's traveling wave method used by the
Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) . In this model, the lossless
distributed LC line is characterized by two values (for a single-phase
line): the surge impedance Zc = (L/C) and the phase velocity v= 1/√(LC).
The model uses the fact that the quantity e+Zi (where e is line voltage
and i is line current) entering one end of the line must arrive
unchanged at the other end after a transport delay of τ= d/v, where d
is the line length.

Three-Phase V-I Measurement


Measures three-phase currents and voltages in a circuit

Description
The Three-Phase V-I Measurement block is used to measure three-
phase voltages and currents in a circuit. When connected in series with
three-phase elements, it returns the three phase-to-ground or phase-
47

to-phase voltages and the three line currents. The block can output
the voltages and currents in per unit (p.u.) values or in volts and
amperes.

Three-Phase Sequence Analyzer

Measures the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence components of a


three-phase signal

Description
The Three-Phase Sequence Analyzer block outputs the magnitude and
phase of the positive- (denoted by the index 1), negative- (index 2),
and zero-sequence (index 0) components of a set of three balanced or
unbalanced signals. The signals can contain harmonics or not.

Scope
Displays signals generated during a simulation

Description
The Scope block displays its input with respect to simulation time. The
Scope block can have multiple axes (one per port); all axes have a
common time range with independent y-axes. The Scope allows you to
adjust the amount of time and the range of input values displayed. The
Scope window can be moved and resized and the Scope's parameter
values can be modified during the simulation. When the simulation is
started, Simulink does not open Scope windows, although it writes
data to connected Scopes. As a result, if a Scope is opened after a
simulation, the Scope's input signal or signals will be displayed. If the
signal is continuous, the Scope produces a point-to-point plot. If the
signal is discrete, the Scope produces a stair-step plot. The Scope
provides toolbar buttons that enables to zoom in on displayed data,
48

display all the data input to the Scope, preserve axis settings from one
simulation to the next, limit data displayed, and save data to the
workspace.

Three-Phase Fault

Implementing a programmable phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground


fault breaker system

Description
The Three-Phase Fault block implements a three-phase circuit breaker
where the opening and closing times can be controlled either from an
external Simulink signal (external control mode), or from an internal
control timer (internal control mode). The Three-Phase Fault block uses
three Breaker blocks that can be individually switched on and off to
program phase-to-phase faults, phase-to-ground faults, or a
combination of phase-to-phase and ground faults.
49

CONCLUSION
After the MATLAB simulation for faults,it was
observed that the voltage and current waveforms were transient
in nature in the initial period after the occurrence of faults.
During the initial part of short circuit, the short circuit current
was limited by subtransient reactance of synchronous machine
and impedance of transmission line between the machine and
point of fault. After that, it was limited by transient reactance of
synchronous machine and impedance of line.
Finally, the short circuit current settled down to steady
state short circuit value limited by synchronous reactance of the
machine and line impedance. The negative and zero sequence
components were present initially only and they disappeared
after the circuit breaker cleared the fault.
50

BIBLIOGRAPHY
• ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS BY C.L WADHWA.
• ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS BY W.D.
STEVENSON.
• SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS BY C.F.WAGNER &
R.D.EVANS.
• THE TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL
ENERGY BY H.COTTON.
• MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC POWER
SYSTEMS BY GORAN ANDERSSON
• http://ocw.mit.edu
• http://wikipedia.org
• IEEE JOURNALS