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This is a project report on topic "FAULT ANALYSIS IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING MATLAB" which I prepared in my final year at college.

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INTRODUCTION

Any abnormal conditions which causes flow of huge current

in the conductors or cable through inappropriate paths in the circuit

can be defined as a fault. In normal operating conditions all the circuit

elements of an electrical system carry currents whose magnitude

depends upon the value of the generator voltage and the effective

impedances of all the power transmission and distribution system

elements including the impedances of the loads usually relatively

larger than other impedances.

spread over large geographical area. An electric power system

consists of generators, transformers, transmission lines and consumer

equipment. The system must be protected against flow of heavy short-

circuit currents, which can cause permanent damage to major

equipments, by disconnecting the faulty section of system by means

of circuit breaker and protective relaying. Such conditions are caused

in the system accidentally through insulation failure of equipment or

flashover of lines initiated by a lightning stroke or through accidental

faulty operation.

does not exceed the capability of the circuit breaker. Therefore, the

short circuit currents in the network must be computed and compared

with the ratings of the circuit breakers at regular intervals as part of

the normal operation planning.

mainly by the reactance of the alternators, transformers and lines upto

the point of the fault in the case of phase to phase faults. When the

fault is between phase and earth, the resistance of the earth path play

an important role in limiting the currents.

equivalent single phase circuit. With asymmetrical three phase faults,

the use of symmetrical components help to reduce the complexity of

the calculations as transmission lines and components are by and

large symmetrical, although the fault may be asymmetrical. Fault

analysis is usually carried out in per-unit quantities as they give

solutions which are somewhat consistent over different voltage and

power ratings, and operate on values of the order of unity.

2

based on the symmetrical short circuit current which is most easy to

calculate among all types of circuit currents. But for the determination

of relay settings, it is absolutely necessary to know fault current due to

unsymmetrical condition too for which knowledge of symmetrical

components is required.

system grounding, short circuits may lead to

• electromagnetic interference with conductors in the vicinity

(disturbance of communication lines),

• stability problems,

• mechanical and thermal stress (i.e. damage of equipment, personal

danger)

• danger for personnel

frequent type of faults. Short circuits may be solid or may involve an

arc impedance. Figure 1 illustrates different types of short circuits.

3

transformers, lines,and loads. Though the operating conditions at the

time of fault are important, the loads can usually be neglected during

short circuits, as voltages dip very low so that currents drawn by loads

can be neglected in comparison with short circuit currents.

characteristic time varying behavior. In the event of a short circuit, the

flux per pole undergoes dynamic change with associated transients in

damper and field windings.

the first few cycles from a low subtransient reactance to a higher

transient value, finally settling at a still higher synchronous (steady

state) value. Depending upon the arc interruption time of the circuit

4

of synchronous generators for the short circuit analysis.

currents flowing during a short circuit must be interrupted much

before the steady state conditions are established. Furthermore, from

the considerations of mechanical forces that act on the circuit breaker

components, the maximum current that a breaker has to carry

momentarily must also be determined. Therefore, for selecting a

circuit breaker, the initial current that flows on occurrence of a short

circuit and also the current in the transient that flows at the time of

circuit interruption must be determined.

circuits in a power system:

• Calculation of transient currents

• Calculation of stationary currents

Let us consider the short circuit transient on a transmission line.

Certain simplifying assumptions are made at this stage:

2. Short circuit takes place when the line is unloaded.

3. Line capacitance is negligible and the line can be represented by a

lumped RL series circuit.

circuit model shown above. The short circuit is assumed to take place

at t = 0. The parameter α controls the instant on the voltage wave

5

when short circuit occurs. It is known from circuit theory that the

current after short circuit is composed of two parts, i.e.

With

terminology, the sinusoidal steady state current is called the

symmetrical short circuit current and the unidirectional transient

component is called the DC off-set current, which causes the total

short circuit current to be unsymmetrical till the transient decays.

6

circuit current imm corresponds to the first peak. If the decay of

transient current in this short time is neglected, then:

This has the maximum possible value for α = 0, i.e. short circuit

occurring when the voltage wave is going through zero. Thus imm may

be a high as twice the maximum of the symmetrical short circuit

current:

taken

corresponding to its maximum possible value.

first few cycles (five cycles or less). With reference to Figure, it means

that when the current is interrupted, the DC off-set it has not yet died

out and contributes thus to the current to be interrupted. Rather than

computing the value of the DC off-set at the time of interruption (this

would be highly complex in a network of even moderately large size),

the symmetrical short circuit current alone is calculated. This current is

then increased by an empirical multiplying factor to account for the DC

off-set current.

Under steady state short circuit conditions, the armature

reaction of a synchronous generator produces a demagnetizing flux. In

terms of a circuit this effect is modelled as a reactance Xa in series

7

with the induced emf. This reactance when combined with the leakage

reactance Xl of the machine is called synchronous reactance Xd. The

index d denotes the direct axis. Since the armature reactance is small,

it can be neglected. The steady state short circuit model of a

synchronous machine is shown in figure shown below.

machine

generator that has initially been operating under open circuit

conditions. The machine undergoes a transient in all the three phases

finally ending up in the steady state condition described above. The

circuit breaker must interrupt the current long before the steady

condition is reached. Immediately upon short circuit, the DC off-set

currents appear in all three phases, each with a different magnitude

since the point on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is

different for each phase. These DC off-set currents are accounted for

separately on an empirical basis.

attention on the symmetrical short circuit current only. In the event of

a short circuit, the symmetrical short circuit current is limited initially

only by the leakage reactance of the machine. Since the air gap flux

cannot change instantaneously, to counter the demagnetization of the

armature short circuit current, currents appear in the field winding as

well as in the damper winding in a direction to help the main flux.

These currents decay in accordance with the winding time constants.

The time constant of the damper winding which has low X/R-ratio is

much less than the one of the field winding, which has high leakage

inductance with low resistance. Thus, during the initial part of the

short circuit, the damper and field windings have transformer currents

induced in them. In the circuit model their reactances—Xf of field

8

shown in figure below.

short circuit

circuit

effectively becomes open circuited and at a later stage Xf becomes

open circuited. The machine reactance thus changes from the parallel

combination of Xa, Xf , and Xdw during the initial period of the short

circuit to Xa and Xf in parallel (Figure ) during the middle period. The

machine reactance finally becomes Xa in steady state (Figure 7.8). The

reactance presented by

the machine in the initial period of the short circuit, i.e.

9

reactance effective

after the damper winding currents have died out, i.e.

steady conditions is the synchronous reactance. Obviously X′′d < X′d <

Xd. The machine thus offers a time-varying reactance which changes

from X′′d to X′d and finally to Xd.

machine.

In normal operating conditions, a three-phase power system

can be treated as a single-phase system when the loads, voltages, and

currents are balanced. If we postulate plane-wave propagation along

the conductors (it is, however, known from the Maxwell equations that

in the presence of losses this is not strictly true), a network

representation with lumped elements can be made when the physical

dimensions of the power system, or a part of it, are small as compared

with the wavelength of the voltage

and current signals. When this is the case, one can successfully use a

single line lumped-element representation of the three-phase power

system for calculation. A fault brings the system to an abnormal

10

result in a switching action, which often results in transient

overvoltages. In the case of a symmetrical three-phase fault in a

symmetrical system, one can still use a single-phase representation

for the short-circuit and transient analysis.

phases of the system are short circuited to each other, or (b) all three

phase of the system are earthed.

FIGURE 8 – (a) Balanced three phase fault (b) Balanced three phase

to earth fault

This is in general a balanced condition, and we need to only

know the positive-sequence network to analyze faults. Further, the

single line diagram can be used, as all three phases carry equal

currents displaced by 120◦.

Typically, only 5% of the initial faults in a power system, are

three phase faults with or without earth. Of the unbalanced faults, 80

% are line-earth and 15% are double line faults with or without earth

and which can often deteriorate to 3 phase fault. Broken conductor

faults account for the rest.

In a power system, the maximum the fault current (or fault

MVA) that can flow into a zero impedance fault is necessary to be

known for switch gear solution. This can either be the balanced three

phase value or the value at an asymmetrical condition. The Fault Level

defines the value for the symmetrical condition. The fault level is

usually expressed in MVA (or corresponding per-unit value), with the

maximum fault current value being converted using the nominal

voltage rating.

MVAfault =√ 3 . Nominal Voltage(kV) . Isc (kA)

11

where

MVAfault – Fault Level at a given point in MVA

Ibase – Rated or base line current

Isc – Short circuit line current flowing in to a fault

The per unit value of the fault Level may thus be written as

the busbar. The strength of a busbar (or the ability to maintain its

voltage) is directly proportional to its SCC. An infinitely strong bus (or

Infinite bus bar) has an infinite SCC, with a zero equivalent impedance

and will maintain its voltage under all conditions.

synchronous generators. It is initially at its largest value and

decreasing to steady value. These higher fault levels tax Circuit

Breakers adversely so that current limiting reactors are sometimes

used.

than the short circuit current as CB has to withstand recovery voltage

across breaker following arc interruption.

emfs of machines in the network, by the impedances of the machines,

and by the impedances between the machines and the fault.

rest of the system at two points of coupling have been represented by

12

together its fault level which corresponds to the per unit value of the

effective Thevenin’s impedance).

With CB1 and CB2 open, short circuit capacities are

SCC at bus 1 = 8 p.u. gives Zg1 = 1/8 = 0.125 pu

SCC at bus 2 = 5 p.u. gives Zg2 = 1/5 = 0.20 pu

Each of the lines are given to have a per unit impedance of 0.3 pu.

Z1 = Z2 = 0.3 p.u.

Suppose with CB1 and CB2 closed,the SCCs (or Fault Levels) of the

busbars in the system is to be determined.

The circuit can be reduced and analysed as shown in the figure 11.

13

Thus, the equivalent input impedance is given by Zin=0.23 pu

at bus 3, so that the short circuit capacity at busbar 3 is given as

| SCC3 |= 1/0.23 = 4.35 p.u

The network may also be reduced keeping the identity of Bus 1 as in

the following figure.

Thus, the equivalent input impedance is given by Zin=0.108 pu

at bus 1, so that the short circuit capacity at busbar 1 is given as

| SCC1 |= 1/0.108 = 9.25 p.u

This is a 16% increase on the short circuit capacity of bus 1

with the circuit breakers open. The network may also be reduced

keeping the identity of Bus 2. This would yield a value of Zin as 0.157

pu, giving the short circuit capacity at busbar 2 as

| SCC2 |= 1/0.157 = 6.37 p.u

This is a 28% increase on the short circuit capacity of bus 2

with the circuit breakers open.

UNSYMMETRICAL SYSTEMS)

For the majority of the fault situations, the power system has

become unsymmetrical. Symmetrical components and, especially, the

sequence networks are an elegant way to analyse faults in

unsymmetrical three-phase power systems because in many cases the

14

the rest of the system being considered to be in balance. This is, for

instance, the case for an unbalanced load or fault. In such cases, we

attempt to find the symmetrical components of the voltages and the

currents at the point of unbalance and connect the sequence

networks, which are, in fact, copies of the balanced system at the

point of unbalance (the fault point).

approach and has simplified the procedure for solving problems on the

unbalanced polyphase systems. The method of symmetrical

components was suggested by C.L. Fortesque in the year 1918. This

method can be applied to any number of phases but three phase

system is of main interest.

According to Fortesque theorem, any unbalanced three phase

system of currents, voltages or other sinusoidal quantities can be

resolved into there balanced systems of phasors which are called

symmetrical components of the original unbalanced system. Such

three phase unbalanced systems constitute three sequence networks

which are solved separately on a singe phase basis. Once the problem

is solved in terms of the symmetrical components, it can be

transferred back to the actual circuit condition by superposition or

phasor additions of these quantities (currents or voltages) easily.

,that is, the order in which the phase quantities go through a

maximum. There may be a positive phase sequence, negative phase

sequence and a zero phase sequence. Thus the balanced set of

components can be given as positive sequence component, negative

sequence component and zero sequence component. These are shown

below in the figure:

\

15

system

phase or line currents or voltages attain a maximum in the same cyclic

order as those in a normal supply e.g. assuming conventional counter

clockwise rotation, then the positive phase sequence phasors are as

shown above in the figure. A balanced system corresponding to normal

conditions contains a phase sequence only. It is also the condition for

3 phase fault.The positive sequence components are marked by

subscript 1.The three phasors of positive sequence system are of

equal magnitude, spaced 120 degrees apart.

still rotate anti-clockwise but attain maximum value in the reverse

order as shown in the figure. This sequence only arises in the case of

occurrence of an unsymmetrical fault. Such faults also contain the

positive sequence system. The negative components are marked by

subscript 2.The three phasors of positive sequence system are of

equal magnitude, spaced 120 degrees apart .

combining three equal phasors in phase as illustrated in the figure

given above and represents the residual current or voltage present

under fault conditions on a 3 phase system with a fourth wire or earth

return present. Clearly the zero phase sequence embraces the ground

, therefore in addition to the three line wires and represents a fault

condition to ground or to a fourth wire if present. Its presence arise

only where fault to earth currents can return to the system via the star

point of that system or via an artificial neutral point provided to earth

a delta system. In an earth fault, positive and negative phase

16

sequences are also present. The zero phase sequence components are

marked by the subscript 0.

components and can be written as follows.

magnitudes and three unknown angles with respect to the reference

direction. Similarly, the combination of the 3 sequence components

will also have three unknown magnitudes and three unknown angles

with respect to the reference direction.

Thus the original unbalanced system effectively has 3 complex

unknown quantities a, b and c (magnitude and phase angle of each is

independent), and that each of the balanced components have only

one independent complex unknown each, as the others can be written

by symmetry. Thus the three sets of symmetrical components also

have effectively 3 complex unknown quantities. These are usually

selected as the components of the first phase a (i.e. a0, a1 and a2) .

One of the other phases could have been selected as well, but all 3

components should be selected for the same phase. Thus it should be

possible to convert from either sequence components to phase

components or vice versa.

that the most frequently occurring angle is 120◦. In complex number

theory, j is defined as the complex operator which is equal to √-1 and

a magnitude of unity, and more importantly, when operated on any

complex number rotates it anti-clockwise by an angle of 90◦.

i.e. j = √-1 = 1 ∠90◦

magnitude of unity. α when operated on any complex number rotates

it anti-clockwise by an angle of 120◦ and square of α rotates it by 240o .

i.e. α = 1 ∠120◦ = - 0.500 + j 0.866

17

balanced, symmetrical , set of phasors of positive sequence rotation

since the phasors are of equal length displaced by equal angles of

1200 from each other, and cross the reference line in the order 1, α 2

and α (following the usual convention of counter-clockwise rotation for

the phasor diagram). The phasors 1, α and α 2 (taken in order) form the

balanced, symmetrical, set of phasors of negative phase-sequence,

since the phasors do not cross the reference line in the order named,

keeping the same convention of counter-clockwise rotation, but third

name following the first etc.

Some Properties of α

Phasor Addition

be zero.

∴ α2 + α + 1 = 0

This also has the physical meaning that the three sides of an

equilateral triangles must close as in figure 2.11.

Also α−1 = α2 and α−2 = α

examined, with each of the components written in terms of phase a

components, and the operator α, as in figure shown below.

18

All the sequence components can be expressed in terms of the

quantities for phase a using the properties of rotation of 0◦, 120◦ or

240◦ .

Thus

which shows the relationship between the phase component vector Ph

and the symmetrical component vector Sy using the symmetrical

component matrix [Λ]. Both the phase component vector Ph and the

symmetrical component vector Sy can be either voltages or currents,

but in a particular equation, they must of course all be of the same

type. Since the matrix is a [3×3] matrix, it is possible to invert it and

express Sy in terms of Ph.

19

further simplifies to

conjugate of α.

Thus the above matrix [Δ]-1 is one-third of the complex conjugate of

[Δ]. Thus,

20

NETWORKS

sequence currents is called positive sequence impedance. Similarly if

only negative sequence currents flow, the impedance of the network

offered to these currents is called negative sequence impedance, also,

the impedance offered to the flow of zero sequence currents is called

zero sequence impedance.

If Za, Zb and Zc are the impedance of the load between phases a, b

and c to neutral n, then the sequence impedances are given as:

b) Negative sequence impedance – Z2 = 13 (Za + Zb + α Zc)

c) Zero sequence impedance – Z3= 13 (Za + Zb + Zc)

For a three phase symmetrical static circuit without

internal voltages like transformers and transmission lines, the

impedances offered to the currents of any sequences are the same

in the three phases; also the current of a particular sequence will

cause voltage drop of the same sequence or a voltage of a

particular sequence will give rise to current of the same sequence

only which means that there there is no mutual coupling between

the sequence networks.

significance, the positive and negative sequence impedances are

equal. But the zero sequence im pedance which includes impedance

of the return path through the ground is usually different from the

positive and negative sequence impedances. The impedances

offered by rotating machine to positive sequence components of

currents is usually different from those offered to the negative

sequence components of currents.

21

impedance to current of any one sequence only is called the

sequence network for that particular sequence. Hence,

corresponding to positive-, negative- and zero- sequence currents,

we have positive-, negative- and zero- sequence networks. Thus, for

every power system, three sequence networks can be formed and

these sequence networks are the interconnected in different ways

to represent different unbalanced fault conditions. The sequence

networks and voltages during the fault are then calculated from

which actual fault currents and voltages can be determined.

sequence network in the following respects:-

a) Normally, there are no negative sequence emf sources.

b) Negative sequence impedances of rotating machines are

generally differ from their positive sequence impedances.

internal voltages, the flow of current being caused by the voltage at

fault point. Zero sequence reactance of the transmission line is

higher than for positive sequence. The impedances of transformers

or generators will depend upon the type of connections ( delta or

star (grounded or isolated) )

An unloaded generator may, in general, be represented by

the star-connected equivalent with possibly a neutral to earth

reactance as shown in figure. The induced emf’s in the three phases

are E, E∠1200 and E∠2400. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs on

the machine terminals, unbalanced currents Ia, Ib and Ic flow in the

lines. Unbalanced line currents can be resolved into their

symmetrical components.

22

windings, it has induced emf’s of positive sequence only. The

positive sequence network for a synchronous machine can be

represented by the source emf on no load and positive sequence

impedance Zg1 in series with it. The neutral impedance Zn does not

appear in the circuit because phasor sum of Ia1, Ib1 and Ic1 is zero and

no positive sequence current can flow through Zn. Since it is a

balanced network, so it can be drawn on single phase basis. The

reference bus for positive sequence network is at neutral potential.

sequence voltage. The negative sequence network can be

represented by a negative sequence impedance Zg2. In this case

also, no neutral impedance appears as there is no negative

sequence current through Zn. Since it is a balanced network, so it

can be drawn on single phase basis. The reference bus for negative

sequence network is also at neutral potential.

current flowing in the reactor impedance Zn is the sum of zero

sequence currents in all the three phases , hence voltage drop

caused by it will be 3Ia0 Zn. So, net zero sequence impedance of the

machine will be:Z0=Zg0 + Zn. The reference bus is at ground

potential.

generator

phases and therefore positive and negative sequence impedances are

independent of phase sequence and are equal. However, this

23

beyond 500 km) as the mutual coupling between the phases would be

unequal, and symmetrical components then cannot be used.

reactance in the single-line diagram. Typically, the ratio of the zero

sequence impedance to the positive sequence impedance would be of

the order of 2 for a single circuit transmission line with earth wire,

about 3.5 for a single circuit with no earth wire or for a double circuit

line.For a single core cable, the ratio of the zero sequence impedance

to the positive sequence impedance would be around 1 to 1.25.

currents in each phase are identical in both magnitude and phase.

Such currents return partly through ground and the rest through

overhead ground wires. The magnetic field due to the flow of zero

sequence currents is very different from that set up by the flow of

positive or zero sequence currents.

(c)Single windings

path is considered. These diagrams are shown, along with the zero

sequence single line diagram in figure.

The unearthed star connection does not provide a path for the

zero sequence current to pass across, and hence in the single line

diagram, there is no connection to the reference. With an earthed star

connection, the winding permits a zero sequence current to flow, and

24

star with impedance, is similar except that 3 times the neutral

impedance appears in the zero sequence path. The delta connection

on the other hand does not permit any zero sequence current in the

line conductors but permits a circulating current. This effect is shown

by a closed path to the reference.

(d)Transformers

its leakage reactance ( the resistance of winding is usually small in

comparision to the leakage reactance ). Transformer, being a static

device, the positive and negative sequence impedances are equal

because the impedance is independent of phase order , provided the

applied voltages are balanced.Thus, for a transformer

Z1 = Z2 = Zleakage

regard to zero sequence impedance because of the possibility of

variety of connections. The zero sequence currents can flow through

the winding connected in star only if the star point is grounded.

Moreover, the zero sequence currents cannot flow in the windings if

the star point is isolated. No zero sequence currents can flow in the

lines connected to a delta star winding as no return path is available

for them. The zero sequence currents can , however flow through the

delta connected winding themselves if any zero sequence voltages are

induced in delta.

Two-winding transformers

transformers may be categorised into (i) star-star, (ii) earthed star –

star, (iii) earthed star – earthed star, (iv) delta – star, (v) delta –

earthed star, (vi) delta – delta. There are also zig-zag windings in

transformers which has not been dealt with in the following sections.

25

transformer

single-line diagrams

indicate the correct flow of the zero-sequence current from primary to

secondary.

Three-winding transformers

and may be represented by a single line diagram corresponding to the

ampere-turn balance, or power balance.

26

the general single line diagram for fault studies for the 3 winding

transformer, as shown in figure.

a direct connection to the T connection of reactances from P, S and T.

The zero sequence network is built up from the single winding

arrangements described and yields the single line diagrams given in

the following section, and other combinations.

27

transformer

Generally available from measurements for a 3 winding transformer

are the impedances across a pairs of windings. (ie. Z PS, ZPT, and ZST ),

with the third winding is open circuited. Thus we could relate the

values to the effective primary, secondary and tertiary impedances

(ZP, ZS and ZT ) as follows, with reference to figure.

neutral point is done through an impedance Zn.

ANALYSIS OF FAULTS

28

Three-phase faults, when all three lines touch each other or fall to

ground, occur in only a small percentage of the cases but are very

severe faults for the system and its components. The three-phase-to-

ground fault is, in fact, a symmetrical fault because the power system

remains in balance after the fault occurs. It is the most severe fault

type and other faults, if not cleared promptly, can easily develop into

it.

The following assumptions are usually made in fault analysis in

three phase transmission lines.

• All sources are balanced and equal in magnitude & phase

• Sources represented by the Thevenin’s voltage prior to fault at

the fault point

• Large systems may be represented by an infinite bus-bars

• Transformers are on nominal tap position

• Resistances are negligible compared to reactances

• Transmission lines are assumed fully transposed and all 3

phases have same Z

• Loads currents are negligible compared to fault currents

• Line charging currents can be completely neglected.

assumed balanced prior to the fault, so that they consist only of the

positive sequence component Ef (pre-fault voltage). This is in fact the

Thevenin’s equivalent at the point of the fault prior to the occurrence

of the fault.

Va0 = 0 – Z0 Ia0

Va1 = Ef – Z1 Ia1

Va2 – 0 – Z2 Ia2

Va0Va1Va2=0Ef0- Z0000Z1000Z2Ia0Ia1Ia2

29

fault

Line-to-ground faults are faults in which an overhead

transmission line touches the ground because of wind, ice loading, or a

falling tree limb. A majority of transmission-line faults are single line-

to-ground faults.

The single line to ground fault can occur in any of the three

phases. However, it is sufficient to analyse only one of the cases.

Looking at the symmetry of the symmetrical component matrix, it is

seen that the simplest to analyse would be the phase a.

Consider an L-G fault with zero fault impedance as shown in

figure.

Va = 0 , I b = 0 , I c = 0

since load currents are neglected.

components as follows.

Va = Va0 + Va1 + Va2 =0

30

symmetrical components would yield the desired result for the fault

current If = Ia.

Va0Va1Va2=0Ef0- Z0000Z1000Z2Ia0Ia1Ia2 where Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia/3

Thus, we get

T

Simplification, with If = Ia, gives

Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = 0, and

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2

indicate that the three networks (zero, positive and negative) must be

connected in series (same current, voltages add up) and short-

circuited, giving the circuit as shown in figure.

a with Zf =0

corresponds to 3 times any one of the components (Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 =

Ia/3). Thus the network would also yield the same fault current as in

the mathematical analysis. In this example, the connection of

sequence components is more convenient to apply than the

mathematical analysis. Thus for a single line to ground fault (L-G fault)

31

series and short circuited.

figure 25.

Va = Ia Zf, Ib = 0, Ic = 0

components as

follows

Ia0Ia1Ia2=13 1111αα2 1α2 αIaIb=0Ic=0 giving Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia3

Mathematical analysis using the network equation in symmetrical

components would yield the desired result for the fault current If as

If = 3Ef Z1+ Z2+ Z0+3Zf

Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia3

Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = Ia Zf = 3 Ia0 Zf

with an effective impedance of 3Zf.

32

with Zf

Line-to-line faults are usually the result of galloping lines

because of high

winds or because of a line breaking and falling on a line below. Line-to-

Line faults may occur in a power system, with or without the earth,

and with or without fault impedance.

b and c are considered as the symmetrical component matrix is

similar for phases b and c. The complexity of the calculations reduce

on account of this selection.

Under the fault condition,

Mathematical analysis may be done by substituting these

conditions to the relevant symmetrical component matrix equation.

However, the network solution after converting the boundary

conditions is more convenient and is therefore considered here.

Ia = 0 and Ib = – Ic when substituted into the matrix equation give

33

indicate a sequence network where the positive and negative

sequence networks are in parallel and the zero sequence is open

circuited, as shown in following figure

and c with no Zf

components would yield the desired result for the fault current If as

If = -j3EfZ1 +Z2

(A) L-L-G fault with earth and no Zf

34

Ia = 0, Vb = Vc = 0

Ia0 + Ia1 + Ia2 = Ia = 0

It can be shown that

Va0=Va1 = Va2

These conditions taken together, can be seen to correspond to all

three sequence networks connected in parallel as shown in the figure .

phases b and c (no Zf)

Ia1= Ef Z1+Z2Z0/(z1+Z0)

If Zf appears in the earth path, it could be included as 3Zf, giving (Z0

+ 3Zf) in the zero sequence path.

If Zf appears in the fault path, between phases b and c, it could

be included as ½ Zf in each of b and c. Inclusion of ½ Zf in phase a

having zero current would not affect it, so that in effect, ½ Zf can be

added to each of the three phases and hence to each of the 3

sequence networks as (Z1+½ Zf), (Z2+½ Zf) and (Z0+½ Zf). The

normal circuit analysis yields the positive and negative sequence

networks in parallel with a connecting impedance of Zf, which is

effectively the same.

35

currents cannot be neglected, as these are the only currents that are

flowing in the network. The load currents prior to the fault are

assumed to be balanced.

across the break, such as a-a′. For the single conductor broken on

phase “a” condition, shown in figure 32. the boundary conditions are

Ia = 0, Vb = Vc = 0

the L-L-G fault in the earlier section, except that the voltages are

measured in a different manner. The connection of sequence networks

will also be the same except that the points considered for connection

are different.

36

For the two conductors broken on phases “b” and “c” condition,

the boundary conditions are

Va = 0 , Ib = Ic =0

the L-G fault

in the earlier section. The connection of sequence networks will also

be the same except that the points considered for connection are

different.

MATLAB THEORY

What Is MATLAB?

The name MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB

was written originally to provide easy access to matrix software

developed by the LINPACK (linear system package) and EISPACK (Eigen

system package) projects.

computing. It integrates computation, visualization, and programming

environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar

mathematical notation. Furthermore, MATLAB is a

modern programming language environment: it has sophisticated

data structures, contains built-in editing and debugging tools, and

supports object-oriented programming. These factors make MATLAB

an excellent tool for teaching and research.

computer languages (e.g., C, FORTRAN) for solving technical problems.

Matlab program and script files always have filenames ending with

".m"; the programming language is exceptionally straightforward since

almost every data object is assumed to be an array. Graphical output is

available to supplement numerical results. MATLAB is an interactive

system whose basic data element is an array that does not require

dimensioning. This allows us to solve many technical computing

problems, especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a

fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non-

37

been commercially available since 1984 and is now considered as a

standard tool at most universities and industries worldwide.

acquiring data from external devices and databases, through

preprocessing, visualization, and numerical analysis, to producing

presentation-quality output. It has powerful built-in routines that

enable a very wide variety of computations. It also has easy to use

graphics commands that make the visualization of results immediately

available. Specific applications are collected in packages referred to as

toolbox. There are toolboxes for signal processing, symbolic

computation, control theory, simulation, optimization, and several

other fields of applied science and engineering.

High-level language for technical computing

Development environment for managing code, files, and data

Interactive tools for iterative exploration, design, and problem

solving

Mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier analysis,

filtering, optimization, and numerical integration

2-D and 3-D graphics functions for visualizing data

Tools for building custom graphical user interfaces

Functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with external

applications and languages, such as C, C++, Fortran, Java, COM, and

Microsoft Excel

PARTS OF The MATLAB System:

The MATLAB system consists of five main parts:

Desktop Tools and Development Environment This is the set of

tools and facilities that help you use MATLAB functions and files. Many

of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes the MATLAB

desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor and

debugger, and browsers for viewing help, the workspace, files, and the

search path.

38

collection of computational algorithms ranging from elementary

functions, like sum, sine, cosine, and complex arithmetic, to more

sophisticated functions like matrix inverse, matrix eigenvalues, Bessel

functions, and fast Fourier transforms.

The MATLAB Language This is a high-level matrix/array language

with control flow statements, functions, data structures, input/output,

and object-oriented programming features. It allows both

"programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and dirty throw-

away programs, and "programming in the large" to create large and

complex application programs.

Graphics MATLAB has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and

matrices as graphs, as well as annotating and printing these graphs. It

includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and three-

dimensional data visualization, image processing, animation, and

presentation graphics. It also includes low-level functions that allow

you to fully customize the appearance of graphics as well as to build

complete graphical user interfaces on your MATLAB applications.

The MATLAB External Interfaces/API This is a library that allows

you to write C and Fortran programs that interact with MATLAB. It

includes facilities for calling routines from MATLAB (dynamic linking),

calling MATLAB as a computational engine, and for reading and writing

MAT-files.

Sim Power Systems and Sim Mechanics of the Physical

Modeling product family work together with Simulink to model

electrical, mechanical, and control systems.

The Role of Simulation in Design

Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits

and electromechanical devices like motors and generators. Engineers

working in this discipline are constantly improving the performance of

the systems. Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have

forced power system designers to use power electronic devices and

sophisticated control system concepts that tax traditional analysis

39

tools and techniques. Further complicating the analyst's role is the fact

that the system is often so nonlinear that the only way to understand

it is through simulation.

Land-based power generation from hydroelectric, steam, or

other devices is not the only use of power systems. A common

attribute of these systems is their use of power electronics and control

systems to achieve their performance objectives.

SimPowerSystems is a modern design tool that allows scientists

and engineers to rapidly and easily build models that simulate power

systems. SimPowerSystems uses the Simulink environment, allowing

you to build a model using simple click and drag procedures. Not only

can you draw the circuit topology rapidly, but your analysis of the

circuit can include its interactions with mechanical, thermal, control,

and other disciplines. This is possible because all the electrical parts of

the simulation interact with the extensive Simulink modeling library.

SIMULATION MODEL

The circuit shown below is designed for the simulation of various types

of faults in the transmission lines.

40

SIMULATION GRAPHS

1. THREE PHASE TO GROUND FAULT

41

42

43

DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS

BLOCKS

44

Models the dynamics of a simplified three-phase synchronous machine

Description

The Simplified Synchronous Machine block models both the electrical

and mechanical characteristics of a simple synchronous machine. The

electrical system for each phase consists of a voltage source in series

with an RL impedance, which implements the internal impedance of

the machine. The value of R can be zero but the value of L must be

positive.

Implementing a three-phase series RLC load with selectable

connection

Description

The Three-Phase Series RLC Load block implements a three-phase

balanced load as a series combination of RLC elements. At the

specified frequency, the load exhibits a constant impedance. The

active and reactive powers absorbed by the load are proportional to

the square of the applied voltage.

connections

45

Description

The Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings) block implements a

three-phase transformer using three single-phase transformers. You

can simulate the saturable core or not simply by setting the

appropriate check box in the parameter menu of the block.

Three-Phase Breaker

crossing

Description

Three-Phase Breaker block implements a three-phase circuit breaker

where the opening and closing times can be controlled either from an

external Simulink signal (external control mode), or from an internal

control timer (internal control mode). The Three-Phase Breaker block

uses three Breaker blocks connected between the inputs and the

outputs of the block. This block can be used in series with the three-

phase element that one wants to switch. If the Three-Phase Breaker

block is set in external control mode, a control input appears in the

block icon. The control signal connected to this input must be either 0

or 1, 0 to open the breakers, 1 to close them. If the Three-Phase

Breaker block is set in internal control mode, the switching times are

specified in the dialog box of the block. The three individual breakers

are controlled with the same signal.

46

model with lumped losses

Description

The Distributed Parameter Line block implements an N-phase

distributed parameter line model with lumped losses. The model is

based on the Bergeron's traveling wave method used by the

Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) . In this model, the lossless

distributed LC line is characterized by two values (for a single-phase

line): the surge impedance Zc = (L/C) and the phase velocity v= 1/√(LC).

The model uses the fact that the quantity e+Zi (where e is line voltage

and i is line current) entering one end of the line must arrive

unchanged at the other end after a transport delay of τ= d/v, where d

is the line length.

Measures three-phase currents and voltages in a circuit

Description

The Three-Phase V-I Measurement block is used to measure three-

phase voltages and currents in a circuit. When connected in series with

three-phase elements, it returns the three phase-to-ground or phase-

47

to-phase voltages and the three line currents. The block can output

the voltages and currents in per unit (p.u.) values or in volts and

amperes.

three-phase signal

Description

The Three-Phase Sequence Analyzer block outputs the magnitude and

phase of the positive- (denoted by the index 1), negative- (index 2),

and zero-sequence (index 0) components of a set of three balanced or

unbalanced signals. The signals can contain harmonics or not.

Scope

Displays signals generated during a simulation

Description

The Scope block displays its input with respect to simulation time. The

Scope block can have multiple axes (one per port); all axes have a

common time range with independent y-axes. The Scope allows you to

adjust the amount of time and the range of input values displayed. The

Scope window can be moved and resized and the Scope's parameter

values can be modified during the simulation. When the simulation is

started, Simulink does not open Scope windows, although it writes

data to connected Scopes. As a result, if a Scope is opened after a

simulation, the Scope's input signal or signals will be displayed. If the

signal is continuous, the Scope produces a point-to-point plot. If the

signal is discrete, the Scope produces a stair-step plot. The Scope

provides toolbar buttons that enables to zoom in on displayed data,

48

display all the data input to the Scope, preserve axis settings from one

simulation to the next, limit data displayed, and save data to the

workspace.

Three-Phase Fault

fault breaker system

Description

The Three-Phase Fault block implements a three-phase circuit breaker

where the opening and closing times can be controlled either from an

external Simulink signal (external control mode), or from an internal

control timer (internal control mode). The Three-Phase Fault block uses

three Breaker blocks that can be individually switched on and off to

program phase-to-phase faults, phase-to-ground faults, or a

combination of phase-to-phase and ground faults.

49

CONCLUSION

After the MATLAB simulation for faults,it was

observed that the voltage and current waveforms were transient

in nature in the initial period after the occurrence of faults.

During the initial part of short circuit, the short circuit current

was limited by subtransient reactance of synchronous machine

and impedance of transmission line between the machine and

point of fault. After that, it was limited by transient reactance of

synchronous machine and impedance of line.

Finally, the short circuit current settled down to steady

state short circuit value limited by synchronous reactance of the

machine and line impedance. The negative and zero sequence

components were present initially only and they disappeared

after the circuit breaker cleared the fault.

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS BY C.L WADHWA.

• ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS BY W.D.

STEVENSON.

• SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS BY C.F.WAGNER &

R.D.EVANS.

• THE TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL

ENERGY BY H.COTTON.

• MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC POWER

SYSTEMS BY GORAN ANDERSSON

• http://ocw.mit.edu

• http://wikipedia.org

• IEEE JOURNALS

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