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HRD TERMINOLOGTY

ability
The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and
practice.
ability grouping
Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude
testing.
accelerated learning
Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning
environment to achieve a faster learning rate.
accuracy
The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard.
achievement
A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training.
action learning
This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of
getting something done. Learning is centered around the need to find a solution to
a real problem. Most action learning programs take from four to nine months to
complete. Learning is voluntary and learner driven, while individual development
is as important as finding the solution to the problem. Reg Ravens, the originator
of "action learning" basis this learning method on a theory called "System Beta."
The whole idea is that the learning process should closely approximate the
"scientific method." The real model is cyclical (you proceed through the steps and
when you reach the last step (6) you relate the analysis to the original hypothesis
and if need be, start the process again. The six steps are:
Formulate Hypothesis (an idea or concept)
Design Experiment (consider ways of testing truth or validity of idea or
concept)
Apply in Practice (put into effect, test of validity or truth)
Observe Results (collect and process data on outcomes of test)
Analyze Results (make sense of data)
Compare Analysis (relate analysis to original hypothesis)
action verb
A word that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that is
to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that are
measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable.
active learning
A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at work
or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, and
taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.g.
case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role
playing, etc.
action maze
A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough information
to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the next
frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is
continued until the maze has been completed.
activity step
The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the
activity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps.
actuals
Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment of
individuals in an organization. Specifics about what people now do.
adaptive branching (adjustive device)
Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual
differences. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or
may provide them with additional instruction as needed.
adjunct program
A type of instructional device that applies programming principles to existing
course materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas within
these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and given
confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have
accomplished predetermined objectives.
ADDIE model
Consider my most to be the "classic" model of ISD (Instructional System Design).
The acronym stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and
Evaluation.
affective domain
A classification of objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs,
and values. Affective learning is about gaining new perceptions (e.g., self-
confidence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations).

• Receiving: Aware of, passively attending to certain stimuli.

• Responding: Complies to given expectations by reacting to stimuli.

• Valuing: Displays behavior consistent with single belief or attitude in


situations where not forced to obey.

• Organizing: Committed to a set of values as displayed by behavior.

• Characterizing: Total behavior consistent with internalized values.

analogy
A cognitive process in which an example or schema is used to map a new solution
for a similar problem.
analysis phase
First of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of this
phase is to determine what the job holder must know or do on the job and to
determine training needs. Also see front-end analysis.
andragogy
From the Greek words "anere", for adult and "agogus", the art and science of
helping students learn. Widely used by adult educators to describe the theory of
adult learning. The term offers an alternative to pedagogy. The andragogic model
asks that five issues be considered and addressed in formal learning:

• Letting learners know why something is important to learn - The need to


know.

• Showing learners how to direct themselves through information - The


need to be self directing.

• Relating the topic to the learner's experiences - Greater volume and quality
of experience.
• People will not learn until ready and motivated to learn - Readiness to
learn.

• A need to have a life centered, task centered, or problem centered


orientation - Often this requires helping them overcome inhibitions,
behaviors, and beliefs about learning.
aptitude
The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for
acquiring a skill when given the opportunity and proper training.
ARCS Model
John Keller developed a four-step instructional design process to help instill
learner motivation - Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction.
asynchronous learning
Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also used to
indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over time, such as a
correspondence course.
assessment
Essentially a measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or
can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes:

• Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might achieve


given suitable training.<

• Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can


do, and is usually related to the syllabus of a course the learner has
followed.
attitude
A persisting feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and
response to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or
negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They
encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon
our experiences. Training that produces tangible results starts by changing
behavior...which ultimately changes attitudes. Training often uses the term
attitude to identify the psychological term "affective domain."
authoring
A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction.
authoring tool
Software application used to produce media-based learning content. Some of the
more popular ones are PowerPoint, Captivate, Robodemo, DreamWeaver, Flash,
Articulate, and Toolbook.

bandwidth
Information carrying capacity of a communication channel.
baseline
1) Valid and reliable information about the intended learner population used to
ascertain differences between learners' performances before and after instruction.
2) A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting level
of a performance. These measurements are usually established before
implementing improvement activities.
behavior
Any activity (either covert or overt) the learner will be expected to exhibit after
training. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary
component of an objective.
behaviorism
Belief that learning results in a change in the learner's behavior. The focus of
behaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only
through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable
behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
blended learning
When this term first arrived, most definitions followed the concept that it is a
"blended" solution between elearning and classroom learning (face-to-face).
However, some are now taking a broader view in that it goes beyond elearning
and classrooms that include a group of related instructional units or modules of
different media covering a major subject area. It was first known as brick and
click.
Bloom's Taxonomy
Benjamin Bloom and colleagues developed a hierarchical domain model of
educational activities: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor.
brain dominance
An individual's preference for using one's cognitive abilities. There are two styles
of thinking - right brain (intuitive, spontaneous, qualitative) and left brain (factual,
analytical and quantitative).
branching
An instructional technique, usually in the form of programmed text, in which the
learner's next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous step.
Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point.
bricks and click
A traditional classroom approach combined with elearning or online learning (as
in clicking a mouse). This is more comonly known as blending learning.
broadcast
Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously.
bypassing
In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain
portions of the material because of prior knowledge.

case study
A printed description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enable
the learners to recommend a solution. The learners encounter a real-life situation
under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an
instructional objective. Control of the discussion comes through by the amount of
the detail provided.
causes
What gets in the way of individual and organizational performance. There are
normally four kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information,
weak motivation, improper environment, and flawed incentives.
certification
Program and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passes an
assessment with a minimum acceptable score. To increase validity and assure
authentication, the certification process should be proctored by an independent
agent.
chaining
An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus for
the next desired response.
chunking
The process of dividing instructional materials into sections in order to promote
understanding. What is known as "sequencing and organizing epitomes" in
Reigeluth's Elaboration theory, is commonly referred to as "chunking."
c-learning
Classroom learning or conventional learning as compared to e-learning
(electronic).
clustering
A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upon
the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. Also pertains to
sequencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction.
coach
A person who instructs, demonstrates, directs, and prompts learners. Generally
concerned with methods rather than concepts. There are four coaching
roles/styles:

• hands-on - acting as an instructor for inexperienced learners

• hands-off - developing high performance in experienced learners

• supporter - helping learners use a flexible learning package

• qualifier - helping a learner develop a specific requirement for a


competence-based or professional qualification

• cognitive

From the Latin cogito; "I think". The mental processes of perception, memory,
judgment, and reasoning. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a
perspective or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior.
cognitive domain
Involves mental processes. The Taxonomy of categories arranged in ascending
order of difficulty are:

• Knowledge: Recognition and recall of information.

• Comprehension: Interprets, translates or summarizes given information.

• Application: Uses information in a situation different from original learning


context.

• Analysis: Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear.

• Synthesis: Combines elements to form new entity from the original one.
• Evaluation: Involves acts of decision making based on criteria or rationale.

cognitive engagement
The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. Engagement, in
effect, requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization, as
the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper
conceptual insight. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities
such as inducing cognitive dissonance, posing argumentative questions requiring
the development of a supportable position, and causing learners to generate a
prediction and rationale during a lesson.
cognitive load Theory
This theory describes learning structures (schemas). Intrinsic cognitive load is
associated with task difficulty, while extraneous cognitive load is associated to
task presentation. The theory states that if both intrinsic cognitive load and
extraneous cognitive load are high, then problem solving will either fail or be
extreamly difficult. The idea is to lower or modifying the task presentation to a
lower level in order to facilitate problem solving.
cognitivists
Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and ideas
to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something they
already know and what they are learning. The focus of cognitivists is on the inputs
of the learning process. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal processes and
knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly, but which
are inferred.
collaborative learning
A more radical departure from "cooperative learning". It involves learners
working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction
and reaching consensus, but not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the
groups or correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the trainer since there
is no authority on what the answer should be.
collective task
A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual
performing a discreet part of the collective task.
common learning objective
A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge)
that is common to two or more tasks.
competency
(1) Areas of personal capability that enable people to perform successfully in their
jobs by completing task effectively. A competency can be knowledge, attitudes,
skills, values, or personal values. Competency can be acquired through talent,
experience, or training. (2) Competency comprises the specification of knowledge
and skill and the application of that knowledge and skill to the standard of
performance required in employment.
competency-based instruction
Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the
knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called
competencies. Evaluation of student success is based on competent performance
of the skills. Normative measurement is specifically excluded from competency-
based instruction.
compilation
A learning process in which learners embed declarative knowledge in highly
domain specific rules or productions.
computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system
allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying
program structure.
computer-based training (CBT)
Interactive instructional experience between a computer and a learner in which
the computer provides the majority of the stimulus and the learner responds,
resulting in progress toward increased skills or knowledge. Has a more
complicated branching program of mediation and answering than CAI. Now an
all-encompassing term used to describe any computer-delivered training including
CD-ROM and the World Wide Web. Some people still use the term CBT to refer
only to old-time text-only training.
concept
A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. A
generalization is a person's idea of the relationships between two or more
concepts. Concepts represent a group of solid objects, such as an airplane or book;
or abstract ideas, such as leadership and honesty. A concept is an idea about a
group of things. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those
things belong to that one group.
concept map (learning map)
The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual
arrangement. Lines are drawn between associated concepts, and relationships
between the connected concepts are named. These concept maps reveal the
structural pattern in the material and provide the big picture.
condition
The component of a learning objective that describes the situation, environment,
or limitations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior.
conditional branching
Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is
satisfied.
conditioned response
A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus.
confirmation
Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the
instructional process. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire
learning situation.
constraint
Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of
performance with respect to her goal.
constructed response
An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawing
a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment).
constructivism
School of human learning that believes knowledge is a mental construct that is
built on and added to. Learners create an image of what the world is like and how
it works and they adapt and transform their understanding of new experiences.
This theory of learning has consequences for teaching and learning strategies. By
starting where the learners are at, that is, engaging prior knowledge with present
learning, the trainer then assists the learners to build on their understanding of the
world and its workings.
contextual interference
Various factors inhibit a quick and smooth mastery of a skill.
controlled pacing
A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system.
The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can
progress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability.
cooperative learning
Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation (see collaborative), in that
learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the
guidance of the trainer. Also see collaborative learning.
correlation
The relationship between two sets of data, that when one changes, the other is
likely to make a corresponding change. If the changes are in the same direction,
then there is a positive correlation. If it is in the opposite direction, then it is a
negative correlation.
counseling
A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A
leader/instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance,
to develop teamwork, to inform students on how well or how poorly they are
performing, to assist students to reach required standards, to cause students to set
personal and professional goals, and to help students resolve personal problems.
course
A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title
and/or number.
course management plan
A document that includes the course description and the administrative directions
for managing a course. Sometimes called a training management plan.
course map
A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course.
course trials
A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and
students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that
course. It has as its purpose the "shaking down" or "validating" of the curriculum
and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining
the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called "pilot course".
courseware
The media, such as text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the
instructional content of the course.
covert behavior
Mental activity usually referred to as thinking. Behavior that is not directly
observable but may be inferred from overt behavior that is observable.
criterion
The standard by which something is measured. In training, the task or learning
objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation, it is
the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the accuracy
with which they predict human performance in some specific area. In evaluation it
is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior.
criterion referenced instruction
Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instruction.
Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and NOT
in accordance with their rank or standing among peers.
critical incident technique
A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in
instruction. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. Incidents
are edited for redundancy, grouped into similar tasks, and then classified as
positive or negative incidents. The incidents are summarized and then validated
by the experts for completeness. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of
relevant, real-world tasks to be included in instruction.
cross-training
Providing training in several different areas or functions. This provides backup
workers when the primary worker is unavailable.
cue
A prompt that signals performance is needed. An initiating cue is a signal to begin
performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go from
one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completion.
curriculum
The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. The courses
are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a
curriculum spans several grades, for example, the math curriculum. In business, it
can run for days, weeks, months, or years. Learners enter it at various points
depending on their job experience and the needs of the business.
decay rate
The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned in training.
The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them use their new skills upon
their return to the job.
declarative knowledge
Knowledge referring to outside representations of the outside world.
deductive design
An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. The
emphasis is on forming conclusions.
deficiency
Failure to meet a set performance standard.
delivery
Any method of transferring offerings to learners. Variants are instructor-led
training, web-based distance learning, online laboratory, CD-ROM, and books.
demonstration-performance method
A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a
sequence of events designed to teach a procedure, a technique, or an operation,
frequently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems,
equipment, or materials.
dependent learning objective
Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those in another
learning objective. In order to master one of the learning objectives, it is first
necessary to learn the other.
design phase
The second of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The learning
objectives, tests, and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed
and sequenced.
design review
A technique for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that:

• adequate resources are available to meet time deadlines

• it will work successfully

• it can be built within a reasonable cost

• it meets the organization's needs

development
Training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables
leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive
rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services,
and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual,
but not related to a specific present or future job.
development phase
The third of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of
this phase is to develop and validate the instructional material (courseware).
didactic design
Instructional design in which the student is presented information and asked to
respond to questions.
differential feedback
Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the
student.
difficulty-importance-frequency model
One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training. Using this
model, tasks are identifies as critical based on the difficulty, importance, and
frequency of job task performance.
discovery learning
Learning without a teacher; usually in a controlled (i.e. pre-designed) set-up, and
under supervision.
discrimination
The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimulus.
distance learning
(1) The use of any media for self-study. (2) A telecommunications-based
instructional system evolved from the open learning movement used to overcome
geographical "place-based" learning. (3) In its most common historical form, this
refers to a broadcast of a lecture to distant locations, usually through video
presentations.
distributed learning
Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to customize
a program of study. Often is used synonymously with online learning.
distracter
In testing, incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or matching
type test items.
drill
A standardized technique or procedure that prepares students to execute critical
collective tasks in an instinctive and spontaneous manner. The drill includes the
methods by which it is trained.
drill and practice
Ungraded verifications of comprehension of enabling objectives (e.g., questions,
exercises, and problems). A interactive exercise characterized by systematic
repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems. An ungraded practice
quiz.
duty
A combination of related tasks equal a duty, and duties combine to form a job.

education
Training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been
identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or
upwards, or to increase their potential.
educational technology
A complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and
organization, for analyzing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and
managing solutions to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning.
efficiency
A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected.
Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations.
eLearning
The use of innovative technologies and learning models to transform the way
individuals and organizations acquire new skills and access knowledge.
eLearning 2.0
Learning through digital connections and peer collaboration. It is driven by the
technologies of Web 2.0 due to it being an extension of the term "Web 2.0."
Learners become empowered to search, create, and collaborate information. It
differs from traditional eLearning (sometimes called "eLearning 1.0") by
encouraging everyone to contribute in creating and sharing information and their
experiences.
electronic performance support system (EPSS)
Applications designed to run simultaneously with other applications or embedded
within other applications that provide support for the user in accomplishing
specific tasks. An EPSS may provide needed information, present job aids, and
deliver just-in-time, context-sensitive training on demand. A Web-based
performance support system (WBPSS) is an EPSS which uses Web technology to
deliver support in an enterprise environment.
elements
Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what
employees in an industry are expected to be able to do. Elements combine to form
a task, tasks combine to form a duty, and duties combine to from a job. Elements
depend on other elements and are always components of a procedure. Also, the
sub-division of a unit of competence. The element encapsulates:

• Skills - the performance of relevant tasks.

• Management - the skills required to manage a group of tasks to achieve


the overall job function.

• Contingency management skills - i.e. responding to breakdowns in


routines and procedures.

• Job/role environment - i.e. responding to general aspects of the work role


and environment, such as natural constraints and working relationships
enabling learning objective (ELO)
A statement in behavioral terms of what is expected of the student in
demonstrating mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement
of a Terminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO.
epistemology
A branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of
human knowledge. The study of how we know what we know.
EPSS - see electronic performance support system
ergonomics
An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the person and
the environmental elements such as the work station, light, sound, tools, etc.
evaluation
The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. It is
broader than testing, and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective
(fact) input. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests,
portfolio assessment, and self-reflection. There are at least six major reasons for
evaluating training, each requiring a different type of evaluation:

• Improve the instruction (formative evaluation)

• Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer


and learner)

• Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation)

• Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner)

• Enhance one's sense of merit or worth (learner)

• Identify or clarify desired behaviors (trainer)

evaluation hierarchy (four levels of evaluation model)


Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today
in corporate training organizations. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four
fundamental behavior changes that occur as a result of training.

• Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). This level is
often measured with attitude questionnaires.

• Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is


often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing.

• Level three answers the question, "Do people use the information on the
job?" This level addresses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior
change). This is often accomplished by observation.

• evaluation instrument

A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go) or
the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitude,
behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instruments
include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews.
evaluation phase
The fifth of Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The purpose of this
phase is determine the value or worth of the instructional program. This phase is
actually conducted during and between all the other phases.
evolutionary approach
A method for developing training programs. It includes both deterministic and
incremental systems, in contrast to the systems approach, which is entirely
deterministic. This means that in an evolutionary approach, tentative or short term
goals may be specified. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations
where there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance.
experiential learning
A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student to
experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training session.
extrapolation
A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop
sufficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the
subject matter under study.

face-to-face (F2F)
Students and teachers are in the same location at the same time.
facilitator
A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover what
a learner is interested in knowing, and then determines the best way to make that
information available to the learner by providing the knowledge, systems, or
materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. This is done
by listening, asking questions, providing ideas, suggesting alternatives, and
identifying possible resources.
fading
The technique of gradually removing the teaching information in programmed
sequence to the point that the learner is required to perform the desired behavior
without assistance.
feedback
Providing learners with information about the nature of an action and its result in
relation to some criterion of acceptability. It provides the flow of information
back to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned
performance. Feedback can be positive, negative, or neutral. Feedback is almost
always considered external while reinforcement can be external or intrinsic (i.e.,
generated by the individual).
formative evaluation or assessment
The focus of discussion between trainer and learner, as a result of which both
parties review their objectives or approach.
frame
Learning objects given to learners in order to achieve an answer. Their answer
will determine the next frame to proceed to. Learners proceed through these "bits
of data" until they have completed the required instruction.
front-end analysis
The "front end" phase of the ISD or SAT process in which the job is analyzed,
tasks are selected for training, task performance measures are constructed,
existing courses are reviewed, and the instructional setting tentatively determined.
functional grouping
Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or
equipment are presented together.
gaming
A technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and
risks. The choices and the consequences resemble real-life situations, and the
players are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming is typically an enjoyable
learning method for the student.
generalizations
Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli.
Gestalt
Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight.
Grok
To reach total understanding of a subject. From Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a
Strange Land.
group-paced instruction (lockstep)
Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. There is
no fixed minimum time for a unit.
group trial
Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target population to
gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates, criterion test
performance, and time to complete the course.
guidance package
A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through various
methods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and directs the learner
activities in the performance of a task.
guided discussion method
A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled,
interactive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an
instructional objective.

handbook
A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks
are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical use
data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, and
services.
handout
Supporting information to be used by the learner as reference material in a
training program.
hands-on
Student practice on actual equipment, simulators, or training aids.
hard skills
As opposed to soft skills. Skills to perform where job requirements are well
defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes.
heuristic routine
A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a trial-and-
error approach frequently involving the act of learning.
human capital
The sum of the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and competencies of people in an
organization. Unlike structural capital, human capital is owned by the individuals
who have it. It is the renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of
creativity and innovation.
Human Performance Improvement (HPI)
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance
improvement gaps, planning for future improvements, designing cost-effective
interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and
evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results.
human resource development (HRD)
An organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase
the possibility of improving job performance and growth.
hybrid task analysis method
Involves both a quantitative analysis and consensus building. Using job task
documents, a list of tasks is compiled by an analyst. Through an iterative process
involving consensus building, the validity of the task list is assessed by subject
matter experts, supervisors and job incumbents. Through discussions, each task's
complexity, importance and frequency are numerically rated by members of the
consensus group. Once the tasks are identified, the group identifies and validates
the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform each task.

implementation phase
The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases (ADDIE). The instruction is
delivered to the learners during this phase.
inductive design
An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the
rule.
informal learningn
unorganized and not formally defined learning at home, work, and throughout society.
Formal learning happens when knowledge is captured and shared by people other than
the original expert or owner of that knowledge. Learning that is largely directed by
professional educators and trainers within dedicated learning organisations. Learning that
has occurred through taking a structured credit course Non-formal Learning: Also known
as prior learning, informal learning, and experiential learning. Generally refers to skills
and knowledge acquired in situations other than formal study. intentional learning the
acquisition of knowledge independently of conscious attempts to learn and the absence of
explicit knowledge about what was learned¹ instruction
The delivery of information to enable learning. The process by which knowledge
and skills are transferred to students. Instruction applies to both training and
education.
instructional analysis
The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant
skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achieve
the goal.
instructional concept
An initial estimate of what the instruction should do, and what it should look like.
instructional design
The philosophy, methodology, and approach used to deliver information. Some
courseware aspects include question strategy, level of interaction, reinforcement,
and branching complexity.
instructional goals
Clear statements of behavior that learners are to demonstrate as a result of
instruction.
instructional method
A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for
accomplishing the objective. For example a traditional instructor led instructional
strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method, a Socratic lecture
technique, and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. Also called "method
of instruction".
instructional module
A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives,
appropriate learning materials and methods, and associated criterion-reference
measures.
instructional setting
The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes
place. The setting can be in a classroom, a laboratory, a field, or workplace
location. An example is: a clean, well lighted, temperature controlled classroom
equipped with individual desks, chairs, and individual video monitors.
instructional step
A portion of material to which the student makes a response. It is a stage in the
instructional process that represents progress in the student's mastery. A subject to
be taught is broken down into frames, items, or segments (steps). It is assumed
that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking the earlier
step and that each segment or item represents a step forward.
instructional strategy
The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning.
Approaches include tutorial, gaming, simulation, etc. Aspects of instructional
strategies include the order of presentation, level of interaction, feedback,
remediation, testing strategies, and the medium used to present the information.
instructional systems design (ISD)
A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional
instructor-led training. The ISD process includes analysis, design, development,
implementation, and evaluation. Also known as System Approach to Training
(SAT).
instructional technology
The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem,
satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning.
instructor
An individual who gives knowledge or information to learners in a systematic
manner by presenting information, directing structured leaning experiences, and
managing group discussions and activities.
Instructor led training (ILT)
A learning program facilitated by an instructor, normally in classroom or through
a web-based conference system.
Interactivity
Instruction that requires interaction through the learner and a product or service.
The product or service should be able to sense and respond in order to maintain
the learner's interest, provide practice, and/or reinforce prior learnings.
interactive training
An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training.
interim summary
A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior
information.
internet-based training
Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. It
provides links to learning resources outside of the course, such as references,
email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups. It is now normally referred to as
elearning.
introduction
A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between the
presenter and students, to capture and hold attention, to outline the lesson and
relate it to the overall course, to point out benefits to the student, and to lead the
student into the body of the lesson; usually contains attention step, motivation
step, and overview. A segment that provides a general statement of the course
content, target population, why the student is studying the material, and
appropriate motivation to gain the student's attention.
job
What a person does at work to satisfy an employer's needs and expectations in
exchange for pay. A job consists of responsibilities, duties, and tasks that are
defined and can be accomplished, measured, and rated. It is used as an
employment tool for classifying work and for selecting employees.
job aid (performance aid)
A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performance
of a specific task or skill. May be printed or on-line. Used in situations where it is
not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-job
activity. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or in a
small reference notebook. They can also be, decals, manuals, cards, etc.
job analysis
Breaking down the complexity of a person's job into logical parts such as duties
and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required
to perform the job correctly. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and
requirements by observation, interviews, or other recording systems.
job description
A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a
job.
job enlargement
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated
with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction.
job enrichment
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in
the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an
extension of job enlargement.
just-in-time training (JITT) or just-in-time learning:
A method of providing training when it is needed. Its advantages are:

• Eliminates the need for refresher training due to subject knowledge loss
experienced if training precedes, over an extended period of time
(prevents decay if the learner cannot use the material upon returning to the
job).

• Prevents training being wasted on people who leave the job before the trai

• Allows the learners to receive training when they need it...not weeks or
months later.
Kirkpatrick Four-Level Evaluation Model
A four step training evaluation methodology developed by Donald Kirkpatrick in
1975.
knowledge
1. The sum of what is known; a body of truths, principles, and information. 2.
Specific information required for the student to develop the skills and attitudes for
effective accomplishment of the jobs, duties, and tasks.
knowledge level summary
A reiteration of key points of content in a knowledge-level lesson designed to
enhance a learner's ability to remember facts.
knowledge management
Capturing, organizing, and storing knowledge and experiences of individual
workers and groups within an organization and making it available to others in the
organization.
knowledge mapping (mind maps)
A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out circles and
connecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines.
knowledge structures
There are three knowledge structures: declarative, procedural and strategic.

• Declarative knowledge tells us why things work the way they do, or that
the object or thing has a particular name or location. It includes
information about the concepts and elements in the domain and the
relationships between them.

• Procedural knowledge tells us how to perform a given task. It contains the


discrete steps or actions to be taken and the available alternatives to
perform a given task. With practice, procedural knowledge can become an
automatic process, thus allowing the human to perform a task without
conscious awareness.

• Strategic knowledge is comprised of information that is the basis of


problem solving, such as action plans to meet specific goals; knowledge of
the context in which procedures should be implemented; actions to be
taken if a proposed solution fails; and how to respond if necessary
information is absent.
lead-off question
A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of students
at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussion.
learner centered instruction
An instructional process in which the content is determined by the studentís
needs, the instructional materials are geared to the studentís abilities, and the
instructional design makes the students active participants.
learning
a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality, that can be measured,
that occurs as a result of reinforced practice; gaining knowledge, skills, or
developing a behavior through study, instruction, or experience.
learning activities
Events intended to promote trainee learning.
learning analysis
The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do
upon completion of training, how well the learner must be able to do it, and what
skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training
requirement.
learning curve
A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner
practices and uses her newly acquired skills.
Learning Content Management System (LCMS)
An infrastructure platform that focuses on learning content. The purpose behind it
is to give instructional designers and subject matter experts (SME) the means to
create learning content more efficiently or JIT in order to meet learner's and
business units' needs. It does this by creating reusable content chunks and then
making them available to designers and SMEs throughout the organization. This
eliminates duplicate developmentNote that it differs some what from an LMS.
learning decay
A decrease of learned skills over a period of time. Decay can be retarded by the
conduct of sustainment training.
learning hierarchy
A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some
learning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned.
Learning Management System (LMS)
An infrastructure platform through which learning content is planned, delivered,
and managed. A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions
related to online and offline training administration and performance
management. Ity is meant to replace fragmented learning programs with a
systematic means in order to assess and increase performance levels throughout
the organization. Note that it differs some what from an LCMS.
learning package (courseware)
The media, either text, computer program, or CD-ROM, that contains the
instructional content of the course.
learning object
A reusable chunk of information that is media independent. Includes Reusable
Information Objects (RIOs), educational objects, content objects, training
components, nuggets, and chunks.
learning objective
A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed
a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior (action),
and standard of task performance for the training setting. An Enabling Learning
Objective measures an element of the Terminal Learning Objective. Sometimes
referred to as performance, instructional, or behavioral objectives.
learning organization
An organization that continuously learns new KSA's (knowledge, skills, abilities
or attitudes) and applying them to improve product or service quality.
learning portal
Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning
and training resources from multiple sources.
learning step
A sub-unit of a learning objective derived when the learning objective is analyzed
into its component parts.
learning strategies
The methods that students use to learn. This ranges from techniques for improved
memory to better studying or test taking strategies.
learning style
A composite of the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as
relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and
responds to the learning environment. Included in this definition are perceptual
modalities, information processing styles, and personality patterns.
learning style inventory
Kolb & Fry's Learning Style Inventory which theorizes that people develop
preferences for different learning styles in the same way that they develop any
other sort of style, i.e. - management, leadership, negotiating etc. The four
predominant styles are:

• Active experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). If this if the


preferred style of the learner then she is an Activist - what's new? I'm
game for anything.

• Reflective observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). If this if the


preferred style of the learner then he is a Reflector - I'd like time to think
about this.

• Abstract conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). If this if the


preferred style of the learner then she is a Theorist - How does this relate
to that?

• Concrete experience (laboratories, field work, observations). If this if the


preferred style of the learner then he is a Pragmatist - How can I apply this
in practice?
learning taxonomy (Bloom's Hierarchy):
A taxonomic classification of cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors for
the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues.
lesson
A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be
imparted to the student.
lesson plan
A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning
outcomes. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives,
equipment, instructional media material requirements, and conduct of the training.
Lickert Scale
A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnaire
(e.g. poor, fair, good, very good, excellent). Sometimes used on end of course
evaluation. (smile sheets) For an ascending five point scale incremental values are
assigned to each category and a mean figure for all the responses is calculated.
(via the sum of the products of the categories' assigned value times the number of
respondents for that category, divided by the total number of respondents)
Example: Total number of respondents=25, assigned values are; poor=1, fair=2,
good=3, very good=4, excellent=5; respondents selecting following categories
are; good=9, very good=10, excellent=6. The quantitative mean =
((9*3)+(10*4)+(6*5))/25=3.9
lifelong learning
The concept of 'continuous personal development' through student centered (self-
actualized) learning.
linear
A programming method characterized by short steps of instruction, constructed
response, and a maximum amount of overt activity. The least desirable
programming technique. (see branching)

mastery
Meeting all of the specified minimum requirements for a specific performance.
measurement
A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine where
the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective.
media
The means by which material is presented to learners; e.g. film, slides, computers,
etc.
meta skills
Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new
information in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced). These
skills include chunking or organizing new information, recalling relevant
schemas, adding the new information to the old schemas, and creating new
schemas.
mind mapping
Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedures
which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was
maximized.
model
(1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A
representation of a process or system that show the most important variables in
the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the
system.
modeling
The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviors of other people.
module
A stand-alone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning
objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught,
measured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is
interchangeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size,
complexity, or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. Also called
ìannexî or ìsubcourseî.
motivational device
A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the
purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way.
multimedia training
An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods and
media. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics, text,
animation, audio, video), but multimedia is primarily thought of as any
application that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often
delivered on CD-ROM.

needs analysis
A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks, identifying
performance factors and objectives, and defining training objectives and
recommendations.
norm-referenced measurement
The process of determining a student's achievement in relation to other students.

objectivity
In testing, the elimination of subjective bias by limiting choices to fixed
alternatives.
on-the-job-training (OJT)
Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes
place in the actual work environment.
open-ended test item (open-ended response)
A question that can be answered in a variety of ways (e.g., an essay).
over learning
Practice beyond what is required for retention. Also called over training.
paper validation
The process of stepping through the courseware using storyboards/scripts on the
actual delivery system.
participative design
A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the
organization in the training design activity. The intent is to enhance the design
with the input of all the key stakeholders. Such a process should ensure that the
final outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders.
passive learning
Learning where no feedback is provided to a user's response.
pedagogy (pËd-e-go¥jÍ)
Literally means the art and science of educating children, pedagogy is often used
as a synonym for teaching. Pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education.
perceptual modality
Learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive
information; visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile (VAK).
performance
The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completeness
and accuracy.
performance aid
See job aid.
performance analysis
It is the process by which professionals partner with clients to identify and
respond to opportunities and problems, and through study of individuals and the
organization, to determine an appropriate cross-functional solution system.
Performance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the
client. It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education
and information resources.
performance-based instruction
Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via task-based
learning objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by
actual performance of the objectives to the established standards.
performance criteria/standard
Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or the
product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurred.
performance deficiency
The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the
established standard.
performance gap
The delta between desired and actual performance.
performance improvement
A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance
improvement gaps, planning for future improvements in human performance,
designing and developing cost-effective and ethically-justifiable interventions to
close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the
financial and nonfinancial results.
performance measures
The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a task
performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard.
performance objective
A statement of the conditions, learner's behavior (action), and standard. A
criterion for prescribing the desired learner performance. This is a generic term
and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective.
performance technology
Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the
workplace. Also referred to as human performance technology, it is a systematic
process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructional
technology, organizational development, motivation, feedback, human factors,
and employee selection.
personalized system of instruction (PSI) (Keller plan)
A teaching technique that involves dividing course material into segments,
evaluating learner performance on each segment for subject mastery, and allowing
learners to move from segment to segment at their own pace.
pipeline
The total time involved in training personnel once they are designated as students.
This includes time traveling to the training activity, time awaiting instruction,
time of actual training, time from termination of training until reporting back to
the workplace; may include more than one training activity.
practical exercise
A technique used during a training session that permits students to acquire and
practice the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to successfully perform one
or more training objectives.
practice
Repeated and systematic performance to gain proficiency using the psychomotor,
cognitive, and affective skills, acquired in the training phase. Initial practice
occurs while the student is acquiring skills; proficiency practice occurs at
intervals after training so that the skills may be refreshed. Practice enables the
student to perform the job proficiently.
practice effect
The influence of previous experience in taking a test for the second time or more.
Familiarity with directions, types of items, and questions when taking a test again
usually helps the examinee to score higher. Practice effect is greatest when the
time interval between the test and retest is short and when the same form is
administered.
proficiency
Ability to perform a specific behavior (e.g., task, learning objective) to the
established performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behavior.
proficiency training
Training conducted to improve or maintain the capability of individuals and teams
to perform in a specified manner. Training to develop and maintain a given level
of skill in the individual or team performance of a particular task.
programmed learning
A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps, guarantees
immediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properly
and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material.
prompt
A word or signal that initiates or guides behavior; a cue.
psychomotor domain
Involves physical movement and coordination. The Taxonomies major categories
in order of ascending difficulty are:

• Imitation: Observes skill and tries to repeat it.

• Manipulation: Performs skill according to instruction rather than


observation.

• Precision: Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness.


Usually performed independent of original source.

• Articulation: Combines one or more skills in sequence with harmony and


consistency.

• Naturalization: Completes one or more skills with ease and becomes


automatic.

quiz
A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material
recently taught or on any small, newly completed unit of work.

reductionism
A meaningful way to study complex subjects by dividing it up into smaller
components.
remediation
Supplemental course materials to correct a learner's understanding or to reinforce
the learning objective.
response
Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. In instruction, it designates a
wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among
alternatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the
manipulation of buttons or keys, etc.
remedial loop
An adjustive device that allows remedial instruction for learners.
scaffold
A metaphor which describes the support offered by educators in assisting learners
to achieve learning outcomes. It is characterized by the explicit training of skills
and knowledge targeting specific individuals, small groups or, where appropriate,
whole classes. Prior knowledge of the subject matter or the learning environment
can help the learners regulate by providing a ready scaffold (stepping stone,
learning aid) for new knowledge, or by making the learning environment easier to
use so it doesn't displace the subject matter as the object of study.
schema
In learning psychology, the way in which a human processes, store and
"recreates" information coming into the brain.
segmented training
Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions.
self-paced learning
Learning initiated and directed by the learner. The term is used by some
organizations now to include computer-based, web-based and multimedia
training.
self teaching packages
Self instructional study units sent to the learner's location.
sequencing
Arranging the teaching points, teaching steps, and criterion steps into the most
appropriate order for effective learning.
sequential training
The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex
skills/knowledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material.
shaping
The process of gradually changing a student's behavior until it conforms to the
desired behavior.
simulation
Any representation or imitation of reality. An instructional strategy used to teach
problem solving, procedures, or operations by immersing learners in situations
resembling reality. The learners actions can be analyzed, feedback about specific
errors provided, and performance can be scored. They provide safe environments
for users to practice real-world skills. They can be especially important in
situations where real errors would be too dangerous or too expensive.
sitting with Nellie
Discredited form of training where the learner observes an expert performing the
tasks.
skill
The ability to perform a psychomotor activity that contributes to the effective
performance of a task.
small group instruction (SGI)
A means of delivering training which places the responsibility for learning on the
student through participation in small groups led by small group leaders who
serve as role models throughout the course. SGI uses small group processes,
methods, and techniques to stimulate learning.
small group leader (SGL)
An instructor who facilitates role modeling, counseling, coaching, learning, and
team building in Small Group Instruction (SGI).
small group trial
Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the student target
population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error
rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. Also called
ìtrialsî or ìtryout, small groupî.
soft skills
As opposed to hard skills. Business skills are more related to competencies rather
than skills, such as leadershipc or listening.
standards
Describes the criterion or standards of performance which must be attained. An
established norm against which measurements are compared. The time allowed to
perform a task including the quality and quantity of work to be produced.
stem
The part of a test item that asks a question.
stimulus
Anything that provokes behavior. The event, situation, condition, signal, or cue to
which a response must be made.
stimulus discrimination
The correct response to a multiple choice situation
stimulus instruction
The part of a discrimination-type situation that tells the learner how to work the
exercise, or the stem to a discrimination type exercise.
storyboard
A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained in
an audiovisual sequence.
student controlled instruction
An instructional environment in which the student can choose from a variety of
instructional options for achievement of the terminal objectives. Students can vary
their rate of learning, the media used, and other such learning factors. Also called
"learner controlled instruction".
student population baseline data
Information about the current level of performance of the student population that
can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess
differences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction.
Also called ìbaseline dataî.
subject matter expert (SME)
A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards. Her
experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. She
must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-to-
know. She must have recent job experience, otherwise, her knowledge of the task
may be outdated by new procedures or equipment.
suggestopedia
Methodology developed by Georgi Lozanov. Sometimes called Super Learning or
Accelerated Learning. In broad terms, it is a research based technology and an
philosophy that uses learners' holistic natural talents to provide them the highest
probability of maximizing their learning, retention, and performance. It is
supposed to create a stress-free, positive, joyful, psychologically and physically
healthy environment that enhances self-esteem and focuses on the needs of the
learner.
system approach to training (SAT)
See Instructional Systems Design (ISD).

tabletop analysis
Using a facilitator, a small group of (3-10) subject matter experts convene to
identify the various tasks to be performed. Through brainstorming and consensus
building, the team develops a sequential list of tasks. Following this process, the
team determines which tasks should be trained. Task selection is based on the
frequency, difficulty, criticality and the consequences of error or poor
performance.
target population
The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instructional
program.
task
The smallest essential part of a job. A unit of work activity that is a logical and
necessary action in the performance of a job. It can be described in simple terms.
Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable
accomplishment or product.
task analysis
Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained; and a
detailed analysis of each of those tasks. Task analysis information can be used as
the foundation for: developing instructional objectives, identifying and selecting
appropriate instructional strategies, sequencing instructional content, identifying
and selecting appropriate instructional media, and designing performance
evaluation tools. It is always done in the context of a specific job. It facilitates
training program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements
of a job.
task selection model
A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical
individual tasks. There are a variety of models available for use. Some examples
of task selection models are as follows:

• Difficulty-importance-frequency model. An individual critical task


selection model that uses difficulty, importance, and frequency factors.

• Eight-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses


percent performing, percent time spent performing, consequence of
inadequate performance, task delay tolerance, frequency of performance,
task learning difficulty, probability of deficient performance, and
immediacy of performance.

• Four-factor model. An individual critical task selection model that uses


percent performance, and task learning difficulty.

• Training Emphasis (TE) model. An individual critical task selection model


that uses the training emphasis factor to determine if a task is critical or
not. The TE factor is collected from supervisors of job holders. It reflects
how much emphasis the task should be given in training for a specific
task.
teaching point
The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to
respond; a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task; the
precise information you want a learner to know or respond to.
terminal behavior
The behavior which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience.
terminal learning objective
Prescription of the conditions, behavior (action), and standard of task performance
for the training setting. A learning objective at the highest level of learning (SKA)
appropriate to the human performance requirements a student will accomplish
when successfully completing instruction.
test
A device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowledge
of a learner on a specific subject matter. It usually involves quantification of
results -- a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being
tested.
test fidelity
The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. The closer the
resemblance, the higher the fidelity of the test.
test item analysis
The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. This
usually involves the determination of how well an individual item separates
examinees, its relative difficulty value, and its correlation with some criterion of
measurement.
topic
The basic organizational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related
learning objectives.
topical outline
An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. It provides course
learning objectives, a listing of part, section, and topic titles and statements of
rationale to explain or justify the training. It is used by the curriculum designer to
develop the instructor guides.
trainer
A person who directs the growth of learners by making them qualified or
proficient in a skill or task. Uses coaching, instructing, and facilitating techniques
to accomplish the learning objectives.
training
Learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job.
training aid
An item to enhance training. May include charts, slides, and schematics
training concept
A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of
type of training, presentation environment, presentation techniques, presentation
media, pipeline, location, and other considerations.
transfer of training
The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills they
gain in dissimilar learning situation. Also, the learning in one situation that
facilitates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations.
tutorial
An instructional program that presents new information to the student efficiently
and provides practice exercises based on that information. A lesson design used to
teach an entire concept. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the
information presented, requests student responses, and evaluates student
responses. It is self-paced, accommodates a variety of users, and generally
involves some questioning, branching, and options for review.

validation
A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterion
test immediately after the instruction. Also, a process through which a course is
administered and revised until learners effectively attain the base line objectives.
validity
The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Although
there are several types of validity and different classification schemes for
describing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must
be concerned with, they are content-related and criterion-related validity.
varied repetition
Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learning.
vestibule training
A variant of job rotation in which a separate work area is set up for a learner so
that the actual work situation does not pressure the learner, (e.g. cockpit
simulator).

web based instruction (WBI)


Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks and
displayed by a Web browser. WBI is available in many formats and several terms
are linked to it; on-line courseware, distance education on-line, etc. WBI is not
downloaded CBT, but rather on-demand training stored in a server and accessed
across a network. WBI can be updated very rapidly, and access to the training
controlled by the training provider.
workbook
A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learner in
achieving the learning objectives.
worker efficiency
A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that
compares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time
to complete it.
work sample
The use of number of random samples to determine the frequency with which
certain activities are performed. Performance on a work sample is frequently used
as a criterion against which prediction devices in evaluation are validated.