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12.43 A circular specimen of MgO is loaded using a threepoint bending mode.

. Compute the minimum possible radius of the specimen without fracture, given that the applied load is 425 N (95.5lbf),theflexuralstrengthis105MPa(15,000psi),andtheseparationbetweenloadpointsis 50mm(2.0in.). Solution We are asked to calculate the maximum radius of a circular specimen of MgO that is loaded usingthreepointbending. SolvingforRfromEquation12.7b
F L 1/3 f R = fs

(425 N) (50 103 m) 1/3 R = (105 10 6 N / m2 ) ()

=4.0103m=4.0mm (0.16in.) 15.1 From the stressstrain data for poly(methyl methacrylate) shown in Figure 15.3, determine the modulus of elasticity and tensile strength at room temperature [20C (68F)], and compare thesevalueswiththosegiveninTable15.1. Solution From Figure 15.3, the elastic modulus is the slope in the elastic linear region of the 20C curve,whichis (stress) 30 MPa 0 MPa = = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi) E = (strain) 9 103 0 The value range cited in Table 15.1 is 2.24 to 3.24 GPa (325,000 to 470,000 psi). Thus, the plottedvalueisalittleonthehighside. The tensile strength corresponds to the stress at which the curve ends, which is 52 MPa (7500 psi). This value lies within the range cited in Table 15.148.3 to 72.4 MPa (7000 to 10,500psi).
16.3 A large-particle composite consisting of tungsten particles within a copper matrix is to be prepared. If the volume fractions of tungsten and copper are 0.60 and 0.40, respectively, estimate the upper limit for the specific stiffness of this composite given the data that follow.

Specific Gravity

Modulus of Elasticity

(GPa) Copper Tungsten 8.9 19.3 110 407

Solution Given the elastic moduli and specific gravities for copper and tungsten we are asked to estimate the upper limit for specific stiffness when the volume fractions of tungsten and copper are 0.60 and 0.40, respectively. There are two approaches that may be applied to solve this problem. The first is

to estimate both the upper limits of elastic modulus [Ec(u)] and specific gravity (c) for the composite, using expressions of the form of Equation 16.1, and then take their ratio. Using this approach
Ec ( u) = ECuVCu + EWVW = (110 GPa)(0.40) + (407 GPa)(0.60)

= 288 GPa

c = CuVCu + WVW

= (8.9)(0.40) + (19.3)(0.60) = 15.14

Ec (u) 288 GPa = = 19.0 GPa c 15.14

Specific Stiffness =

With the alternate approach, the specific stiffness is calculated, again employing a modification of Equation 16.1, but using the specific stiffness-volume fraction product for both metals, as follows:

Specific Stiffness =


VCu +


110 GPa 407 GPa (0.40) + (0.60) = 17.6 GPa 8.9 19.3