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2008

SPECIMENANSWERSTO NEBOSHIGCEXAMINATIONS

ETAConsultancy

Contents
Introduction ................................................................ 3 The Written Exams .................................................... 3 Length of Answers ..................................................... 3 Pass Guarantee ......................................................... 3 Paper 1 IGC 1 ......................................................... 3 The Management of International Health and Safety ............................................................................... 3 Paper 2 IGC 2 ....................................................... 12 The Control of International Workplace Hazards .. 12 Questions Without Answers ..................................... 18 Accidents .............................................................. 19 Communications................................................... 19 Confined Spaces .................................................. 20 Construction Activities .......................................... 20 Display Screen Equipment ................................... 21 Electricity .............................................................. 21 Fire ....................................................................... 22 Human Factors ..................................................... 23 Maintenance Activities .......................................... 23 Managing Safety .................................................. 23 Manual Handling .................................................. 24 Monitoring............................................................. 24 Movement of People ............................................ 24 Noise .................................................................... 25 Occupational Health ............................................. 26 Occupational Hygiene .......................................... 27 Health and Safety Policy ...................................... 29 Personal Protective Equipment ............................ 29 Radiation .............................................................. 29 Risk Assessment .................................................. 30 Stress ................................................................... 30 Training ................................................................ 30 Work Equipment ................................................... 31 Workplace ............................................................ 31

Introduction
In order to attain the NEBOSH International General Certificate (IGC) candidates need to successfully pass a combination of written examination papers and a practical assessment. The IGC is assessed by two written examination papers: IGC 1 The Management of International Health and Safety, IGC 2 Control of International Workplace Hazards, and List

ACTION

VERB MEANING Provide a list without explanation Give the most important features of (less depth than either explain or describe, but more depth than list) Provide a simple line drawing using labels to identify specific features A less demanding form of define, or where there is no generally recognised definition.

Outline

Sketch

State IGC 3 International Health and Safety Practical Application (commonly referred to as the Practical Assessment).

The third aspect mentioned above, IGC 3 the Practical Assessment, is covered by another publication for candidates studying with ETA Consultancy. Both of the written examination papers will be discussed in this publication specially formulated for candidates studying with ETA Consultancy. In this publication a series of specimen answers are given for each of the written papers so that candidates will be able to appreciate how to approach their examinations. From the outset it must be noted that there is no unique answers to any question set in an examination, all that is intended in this document is to provide a guide to the depth and breadth expected by the examiners.

Of all of these action verbs it is usually found that outline is the one candidates have the biggest problem with. As a consequence this will be of particular focus in this publication.

Length of Answers
This is a really difficult point to answer, as the expected length of some answers will be longer than others. As a general guide, for the long answer question on an examination paper, it should take the candidate about 25 minutes to answer, and equate to around one and a half pages (between 170 and 250 words).

Pass Guarantee
No-one can 100% promise a pass to candidates, but by following the guidance given here and that given to candidates in the learning sessions that they attend, including home study a comfortable pass should not be difficult to obtain. However, candidates should never give just enough effort to obtain a pass, they need to aim for a credit or higher.

The Written Exams


Candidates for the written examination always experience difficulty with the action verbs called for in questions. It is useful for candidates to remember the following: ACTION Define VERB MEANING Provide a generally recognised or accepted definition Give a word picture

Paper 1 IGC 1
The Management of International Health and Safety
Outline which factors to consider while carrying out the risk assessment Factors to identify:

Describe Explain

Give a clear account of, or reasons for Provide without explanation (used normally with the instruction to give an example [or examples] of ...) Select and name

Give

Competence of person doing the assessment the person undertaking the risk assessment must possess the right competencies especially that of knowing their own ability to be able to recognise the risks that may be present. Activities being undertaken the crucial first step of risk assessment. A tour of the work area being assessed is essential.

Identify

Hazards involved Only significant hazards, which could result in serious harm to people should be identified. Trivial hazards can be ignored. Likelihood and severity of the harm that may be caused Number of employees exposed and exposure frequency Employees and contractors who work at the workplace are the most obvious groups at risk. However, there may be other groups who spend time to time on site i.e. maintenance workers, members of the public, etc. There are also special groups that require particular attention, examples here include expectant mothers, young people, persons with disabilities, etc. Competence of persons carrying out activities tied in with the above the competences of the persons engaged on work tasks needs to be considered, have they been trained, is retraining required, etc. Evaluation of existing control measures During most risk assessments it will be noted that some of the risks posed by the hazard have already been addressed and controlled. The effectiveness of these controls needs to be assessed so that an estimate of the residual risk (that left after existing controls have been considered) can be made

Changes to production scale, being output levels, hours worked, shift working New information on hazardous substances or processes. This may cam to light from manufacturers MSDS, web research, trade announcements, etc Accidents or ill-health becoming apparent from investigations made say following absence reviews Results of monitoring, inspections, audits and health surveillance of the workplace concerned, or similar work situations elsewhere Changes in legislation or accepted best practice Changes affecting personnel i.e. disabilities, young persons and pregnancy At routine intervals i.e. 6 monthly or yearly reviews

Outline possible consequences of not achieving good standards of health and safety. Recognition of the financial and legal implications of poor health and safety performance should be outlined, and include the following considerations: Costs of accidents and ill-health in terms of lost production Loss of key personnel due to accidents and or ill health or even leaving the company for safer environments (next point) Replacement staff costs to cater for those off work due to ill health or injury or those leaving the business to go elsewhere for fear of their health and safety Investigation costs relating to accidents and incidents are a lot higher than management and others realise Higher insurance premiums will result if the claims history or risk rating of the company is adverse Equipment/plant damage and replacement costs Legal defence costs that need to be paid in order for a defence to be made by the organisation Fines for breaches compliance of health and safety

The goal of risk assessment being to reduce all residual risks to as low a level as reasonably practicable Explain what is required for the assessment to be suitable and sufficient Here there are a number of considerations to be made, these will include: It should identify the significant risks arising out of the work activity It should identify and prioritise the measures that need to be taken to comply with relevant statutory (legal) provisions It should be appropriate to the nature of the work It should remain valid for a reasonable period of time

Identify the various circumstances that may require the risk assessment to be reviewed at a later date There are a range of circumstances that require a review of a risk assessment to be undertaken, some of these will include: Changes to work processes or methods Introduction of any new plant or process

Possible imprisonment of persons at various levels for not adhering to the required level of legislative compliance i.e. duty of care. Product quality could be affected, as persons who feel that they are not being suitably protected will not have the same degree of care

as those that feel their health and safety is being considered Resource allocation if adequate resources are not allocated to health and safety then there is every likelihood deficiencies will arise which may include non compliance with recognised legislative and best practice standards Public and employee relations

Approved Codes of Practice ACoPs HSE or municipality guidance Manufacturers information European and other official standards Industry and trade literature, trade association guidance, etc Results of risk assessments Analysis of accident investigations, enquiries statistics, accident

A machine operator is involved in an accident by coming into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, describe: 1. The possible immediate causes Inadequate or non-existent safety devices that allow access to the dangerous parts of equipment Poor housekeeping resulting in slip and trip type incidents into the machinery Loose clothing becoming entangled Machine malfunction Operator error and non conformance with a safe system of work

Investigation and analysis of health surveillance records From the employees involved via conversation, consultation Enforcement agencies (municipalities, government departments and or their agencies) and other experts

Outline reasons why verbal communication may not be clearly understood by an employee Reminder - This is another outline question which should give reasoned answers by way of examples and not just a simple list. Reasons should include: / Noise and distractions may mean that persons are unable to clearly hear what is being said Use of technical jargon may mean that people mis-understand the information being communicated Complexity of information sometimes meets with the information receivers turning their minds off and not listening as they do not understand what is trying to be communicated Communication is ambiguous Language / dialect barriers is a big problem in some regions, both from the communicator or the receiver, sometimes the same words have different meanings or implications Sensory impairment for example a receiver having a hearing deficiency or the communicator having a serious stammer Mental difficulty may mean the receiver is not capable of absorbing information to any extent Lack of attention by persons clearly not interested in the topic Inexperience of persons not used to having to receive information at work i.e. young workers Lengthy communication chains may be a problem is translations are required covering several 5

2.

The possible root (underlying) causes Inadequate training of the operator Inadequate supervision information / instruction

Poor maintenance such as the nonreplacement of guards following machine service Inadequate risk assessment that did not consider all the significant risks Personal factors stress, fatigue and the influence of drugs and alcohol Poor management systems not properly allowing effective health and safety management of the workplace / workforce Ineffective supervision either in terms of competency or numbers (scope of control) Selection of personnel not being appropriate to the work expected Selection of correct equipment not being suitable and sufficient for the purpose intended.

Identify EIGHT informative sources that may be consulted while developing a safe system of work. The candidates here need to be quite specific Statutory instruments including legislation and supporting regulations

languages sometimes a problem in the Middle East for example. Identify the factors that could place a greater risk of accidents at work on young persons. Lack of knowledge Lack of experience Lack of training Physical development of the individual Nature of young persons to take risks Peer group pressures in young persons is generally greater than that of more experienced individuals

Hospitalisation overnight or for more than 24 hours Fatal injuries are a special case and DO NOT come under the definition of major injury.

Outline procedures for reporting a major injury to the appropriate authority Local / National legislation outlines the reporting requirements, these may vary slightly from country to country, but they would normally contain information on: Who reports accident and how Notification by quickest means possible (usually telephone or fax) within no more than 24 hours Use of appropriate form F2508 in the UK, UAE forms contained in Federal Law Number 8 of 1980 and Ministerial Decision 32 of 1982 within 7 days of incident

Outline possible measures to minimise the risks to young persons at work Risk assessment that is specific to young persons given the considerations to a. above Induction training is good to get the young person focused on safety at the earliest stage in an organisation On the job induction reinforces the initial induction training exercise and embeds safety in the mind of the young person Careful supervision by experienced and responsible workers is key to ensuring the young person remains focused on safety as part of his normal work Specific health surveillance given the still developing nature of the young person when considering some work processes Clear lines of communication ensures that the young person does not have to guess who to communicate with of particular topics Restriction on type of work and hours worked as determined by local, national or international conditions

Define ergonomics Candidates should note that there are many acceptable definitions, any of the following would be deemed appropriate: a) The study of the interaction between workers and the work environment Making the job or task fit the person The study of how people interact with machinery or equipment within the workplace Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use Fitting the job to the people who have to do it, through the design of equipment and procedures Fitting the person to the job, through the use of placement procedures or training The study of how the workplace relates to human functions

b) c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences: List FOUR types of major injury which normally requires reporting under national legislation reference to the above regulation Fractures (other than fingers, thumbs and toes) Amputation Loss of sight (including temporary) Broken bones Electrocution requiring resuscitation

List SIX observations of a machine operators station which could suggest that the machine has not been ergonomically designed The need for excessive force or repetitive movements The need for the operator to constantly stretch The need for the operator to regularly stoop Machine controls located in awkward positions Machine controls unmarked or poorly marked The functions of machine controls are not obvious 6

Lack of visibility by the operator of the process or its controls Size or weight of work item making it difficult to position or because of type of machine protection Difficulty in changing, adjusting or cleaning the machine tools

Membership of official bodies Equipment maintenance records Detailed proposals of work to be undertaken Recommendations Ability to provide safe systems of work for the job i.e. resources Overall health and safety culture Their arrangements to fulfil their duties with respect of the health and safety plan

Explain the meaning of so far as is reasonably practicable Reasonable practicable is a narrower term than physically possible. It implies that there needs to be a balance of risk severity against costs in terms of money, time and trouble (inconvenience). State the employers general and specific duties of care General duty - "to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work with all his employees" including: Provision and maintenance of safe plant and equipment and a safe system of work. Safe arrangements and absence of risks to health for storage, transport, handling and use of articles and substances. Provision of adequate instruction, training, supervision and information necessary to ensure the health and safety at work of employees. Provision and maintenance of a safe workplace including a safe means of access and egress. Provision of a safe working environment and adequate welfare facilities and arrangements.

Define the term negligence Breach of common law legal duty of care to exercise reasonable care towards others, resulting in loss, damage or injury or, a tort involving unreasonably careless conduct A key defining case - Donoghue V Stevenson (1932). Outline the THREE conditions for an employee to prove a case of negligence against an employer a) b) c) The claimant was owed a duty of care That duty of care was breached As a result of the breach the claimant suffered damage or loss

Describe the effects inadequate lighting in a workplace would have on health and safety. Eye strain Headaches as a direct result of the eyestrain noted above. Persons ability to concentrate on the work may be affected by either eyestrain or the resultant headache Adopting poor posture in-so-far as the persons affected will be adjusting their work position to achieve better vision Tripping over unseen objects may be due to excessive shadows Human error is likely to increase as there will be an inability to see or perceive certain hazards.

In the UK it also extends to the following:: Provide a written statement of a safety policy (except where there are less than five employees). Consult with trade union appointed safety representatives and elected representatives of employee safety. Where requested in writing by at least two safety representatives, to set up a safety committee).

List what may be considered on assessment of a contractors health and safety competence. Previous experience Reputation Quality and content of health and safety policy and risk assessments Level of training and qualifications of staff including health and safety staff Accident / enforcement statistics

NOTE: Both individual health risks and physical risks are required. Outline which factors that should be considered in an assessment of the adequacy of lighting within an open plan office. The tasks being carried out The equipment being used The size and layout of the office i.e. distance of workstations to windows and the use of partitions 7

Natural light available at different times of the day and during the year (seasonal) Suitability of the number, type, intensity and hue of artificial lights Computer screen glare and or shadow Shadowed areas of the work environment, may increase the likelihood of hazards being generated Localised lighting, need for and availability of Maintenance of non-functional, damaged or dirty lights flickering,

a)

A breach of statutory duty and a likelihood or continuation or repeat of the breach e.g. inadequate guarding on a machine breach of A prohibition notice If there is an imminent risk to health and safety the operation must cease immediately

b)

Give FOUR reasons why there should be a system for the internal reporting of accidents in an organisation. To enable the compilation of accident statistics and identifying resultant trends To meet the requirements of local legislation relating to the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences To ensure that investigations are carried out to prevent future occurrences of the same or similar nature To ensure that evidence is properly considered in the defence against any civil claims To satisfy the requirements of insurers and other interested parties To assist in the identification and reduction of loss Enable the review of risk assessments Identify where safe systems of work may need review and or revision Identification of training needs (management and / or their reportees)

Provision and adequacy of emergency lighting.

State the conditions that must be fulfilled to show that an employer may be held vicariously liable for the negligence of an employee. a) The employee was acting in the course of his / her employment The employee caused damage or injury by not fulfilling a common law duty of care.

b)

Note: BOTH these conditions must be met to find the employer liable. Outline the management techniques which can encourage a positive attitude to health and safety in the workplace. Communication with workers on a regular basis i.e. keeping them informed No blame culture being introduced Consultation encouraging people to feedback to management on issues relating to health and safety Employee involvement which may take the form of consultation, participating in health and safety related meetings Incentives for achieving health and safety goals but being mindful not to encourage underreporting (recognition and reward) Management leading by example is key Performance appraisals with a health and safety focus. Management presence in the workplace from time to time gives an indication that they care. Empowerment of individuals to perform certain functions e.g. stop if wrong!

Outline the factors that could prevent accidents from being reported at work by employees. Persons being ignorance of reporting procedures Peer pressure placed on persons not to report The fear of possible retribution by management The preservation of the companys or departments safety record (particularly where incentive schemes are in place) Avoidance of first-aid or medical treatment for fear of an individual being considered a risk A worker wanting to keep on the right side of a supervisor or manager Over-complicated reporting procedures Lack of management response to earlier reported accidents Persons not being encouraged to report injuries

Explain by way of example, why a health and safety inspector would serve: a) An improvement notice

Outline the information that should be given to employees when they could be exposed to a substance hazardous to health in the workplace. The nature of the substance and its possible effects on the person How the substance is to be used, transported and stored Ensuring the correct understanding provision and use of control measures of the

Provide visitor supervision i.e. escorts, to ensure that they are not unduly exposed to risks Ensure that restricted access areas are suitably identified and visitors are made aware of them

State the normal requirements with regards to workplace emergency exits and routes. The risk assessments undertaken to take into account o o The dimensions of the escape route, The length and width of the exit routes and doors, and The expected number of persons to be evacuated.

The required use of personal protective equipment including information on its availability, storage, cleaning, maintenance and replacement The procedures relating to personal hygiene with regard to direct use and or exposure to the substance The monitoring undertaken to ensure correct / desired compliance with the safe use, etc of the substance The required / anticipated health surveillance requirements The procedures to adopt in the event of emergencies including first-aid, spillage, fire, etc.

Emergency exit doors must open easily and in the direction of escape Emergency signs and lighting to be provided and remain in a properly functioning condition All emergency escape routes must be kept clear of obstructions at all times Escape routes must lead directly to a place of safety.

List FOUR categories of people, other than employees, that an employer owes a duty to take reasonable care. Visitors Members of the public Uninvited persons Trespassers Contractors Utility workers Emergency services that may have to attend site

List the powers normally given to Government appointed inspectors under health and safety legislation. The right to enter premises, if necessary with police assistance To carry out examinations and investigations in a workplace relative to their enquiries To direct that premises or equipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of investigations To take measurements and photographs To inspect and/or take copies of documents and records To take samples and anything relative to their investigation To interview a person and obtain a signed declaration of truth To take possession of articles and substances To issue enforcement notices To instigate and conduct proceedings in a magistrates court (except Scotland). To dismantle and/or test any item or substance which they decide is harmful to health.

Outline procedures that could be used to ensure the safety of visitors to an organisations premise. The proper identification of visitors Visitors being stopped and met at the gate prior to entering site this will enable the issuing of safety related messages / instructions, etc. Getting visitors to sign in, issue badges that identify them as visitors etc. These badges may contain a version of site rules that have to be complied with Providing information regarding the risks present and site rules and procedures, especially in emergency situations tie this in to the second point mentioned above.

Identify the significant areas that should be considered during a planned health and safety inspection of a workplace. 9

Any substances or materials used ion the area being inspected Traffic routes in and around the inspection area Means of access to and egress from the area of inspection Work equipment and work processes used in the area being inspected The work practices such as manual handling, ergonomics, etc that are employed within the work area Work environment itself, to include space, lighting, heating, air movement, ventilation, etc Electricity and electrical sources as well as other power sources present Fire precautions required within the workplace First-aid facilities provided with regard to the risks posed by work operations and or situations Welfare facilities to include washing, changing resting and toilet facilities as appropriate Workstation ergonomics matched to the worker and the tasks that they perform The standards of housekeeping being achieved against what is required Any outstanding actions points from previous inspections

The hazards and risks involved in undertaking that task or as a result of undertaking it (i.e. fume from welding or cutting) The controls necessary to ensure a safe working environment The equipment and materials to be used including their storage, disposal of process waste or the hazards that are generated The working environment in terms of space required to undertake the task safely, lighting levels (close work or general access as an example) The range of individuals required to be involved i.e. numbers, level of training, competency, level of supervision Minimum legal requirements for the provision of facilities, systems, supervision, etc The monitoring systems that will be used initially and into the future Any emergency provisions considered necessary i.e. fire, first aid, evacuation. Provision and specification of suitable and sufficient PPE.

Outline the main topics of health and safety that should be included in an induction training programme. The emergency procedures to be adopted in the event of an accident; fire or those requiring first aid The health and safety policy of the organisation Management and employee responsibilities for health and safety Local procedures and work systems and safe working Communication and consultation paths Specific site / area requirements for the use of PPE The procedures to be adopted for reporting and recording of work related accidents, illness, disease

Outline FOUR requirements of welfare facilities that an employer must provide for his employees according to the workplace requirements of most national legislation Sanitary conveniences relative to the number and gender of persons employed Washing facilities with respect again to the number of persons employed and the type of work undertaken Fresh drinking water availability Accommodation for clothing, i.e. for outside clothing whilst wearing work clothing and visa versa Facilities for changing to take due account of privacy Facilities for resting and eating, these to be suitable in number, maintained in a clean condition and be sufficient to meet the number who will use the facility at any one time.

Outline what factors should be considered in the selection process of personal eye protection for use in the workplace. The type of hazard i.e. particles, molten metal, chemicals, etc. present The standard of equipment required as specified in British, European or other appropriate and recognised Standard 10

Outline factors that should be considered when devising safe systems of work. The type of activity or task being performed

The suitability of different types of equipment i.e. goggles, visors and spectacles with regard to the person and the process Fit and comfort of the PPE and its ability not to adversely affect the operation, function or use of other items of PPE that may have to be used in unison with other items. Storage and maintenance requirements of the PPE with reference to the worker, the work environment and or the storage of it Costs of total replacement vv that of repair (why replace the whole item when maybe only the lens needs to be replaced) The training needs of individuals expected to use, maintain, etc the items of PPE Compatibility with other types of PPE as mentioned previously General environment where the equipment will be used and or stored.

Explain how accident information can be utilised in the promotion of health and safety in the workplace. Safety committees can use the information to help focus on attention to high risk areas or areas where there are high or increasing trends. It can be used to influence the behaviour of those at risk, i.e. displaying it on notice boards Reactive monitoring on the management systems effectiveness (identification of system failures) It can help justify and inform the allocation of resources to health and safety It can be used on a national scale such as national campaigns relative to specific hazards e.g. noise, dermatitis, etc. Can help to identify training or re-training needs of individuals or a group of individuals

Give details of the inspection duties that should be carried out to ensure a scaffold erection is safe. A competent person to inspect all components of a system before first use and periodically thereafter Erection of scaffold systems by experienced, competent and authorised operatives Supervision of the erection of the system by a competent person Consideration to be taken regarding the use of the scaffold and type of structure therefore needed Inspect scaffold every 7 days (this can very from country to country or even within different areas of the same country) The inspection of the scaffold after incidents of inclement weather by a competent person Details of inspection to be maintained in an appropriate register, various countries have differing formats on which this can be entered.

Describe what factors should be considered before a demolition project commences. Location and disconnection of public utilities such as gas, water electricity Legal considerations i.e. ownership and local authority regulations, neighbours and the effects of localised nuisance (dust, noise, sound) of the work Obtain building plans to determine any critical factors i.e. supporting walls and structures Assess soil structure to allow safe vehicle movement Identify any likely contaminants or contaminated land i.e. asbestos, dangerous substances, etc. Competency of contractors undertaking the work Communication, consultation and co-operation between the persons undertaking and or coordinating the work

Explain the term motivation. There are a number of explanations that could be used here, two examples , either of which would be sufficient are: The driving force behind a persons actions The way in which people can be persuaded to perform an act willingly

Outline FOUR sources of information that might be consulted when assessing the risks of a new substance being introduced into a manufacturing process. Manufacturers or suppliers product information Recognised publications from reliable bodies e.g. EH40 from the UK HSE Specialist papers textbooks, journals and research

Explain the term accident incidence rate. The number of accidents per so many (usually one hundred thousand) employees within a defined period of time (usually one year).

Guidance from trade or professional bodies

11

Electronic health and safety databases, i.e. the internet, ILO Databases based on the internet Subscription related and reliable web based reference sources

Damaged or blocked ducting or filters making the extraction rate inefficient and fall below the level required for adequate control. Unauthorised system alterations which could render the system inadequate or lead it not to operate within its desired parameters. Settings incorrect, again this would lead to operational deficiencies and reduced effectiveness Faulty fan could lead to inefficient extraction rate and ultimately to an increased particle presence in the atmosphere Process changes that could lead to greater dust emissions.

Outline the FOUR main factors when carrying out a risk assessment that should be considered under the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. Task to be undertaken (lift, carry, push, pull) Individual undertaking the task (not all individuals have the same abilities or capabilities Load that has to be handled (its physical size, weight, stability, etc) Environment in which the load has to be handled (need to consider things like route (potholes, steps, ramps), lighting, resting places if distance excessive, etc.

Describe other methods of control to minimise levels of airborne dust except from LEV. Working ones way through the hierarchy of controls, being: Eliminating the process causing the dust A change in process to reduce dust amounts Substitution of materials i.e. capsule form, pellets or liquid Segregation or enclosure of the dust creation process Damping down the dust for easier removal such as vacuuming Methods of cleaning so as not to disturb the dust i.e. vacuuming instead of sweeping

T.I.L.E

Paper 2 IGC 2
The Control of International Workplace Hazards
Identify FOUR indications that could have highlighted the LEV systems inefficiency. The presence of deposits of dust on surfaces and or people Visible particles of dust in the air / atmosphere Discomfort and irritation suffered by employees e.g. in their eyes, nose or other parts of the respiratory system The results of any air monitoring reviews undertaken in the workplace Actual recorded and or identified ill-health in employees due to exposure to dusts

Outline necessary precautions to be taken when pedestrians are required to work close to vehicle movement areas. Segregation systems for both vehicles and pedestrians Clear and appropriate road markings so that pedestrian and vehicles keep to designated routes Visibility mirrors, transparent doors, adequate lighting etc. Vehicular audible warnings i.e. reversing Vehicle visual warning e.g. flashing beacon Site rules that clearly indicate the roles and responsibilities of drivers and pedestrians alike High-visibility clothing worn by pedestrians in the vicinity of traffic movement Good housekeeping to remove slip, trip and fall hazards to pedestrians and vehicles alike (removal of oil spill to prevent persons slipping or vehicles loosing traction) 12

Outline the factors which could have reduced the LEV systems effectiveness. Poor design of the LEV system not being suitable and or sufficient for the purpose intended The lack or absence of planned testing that therefore allowed the system to deteriorate to an unreasonable condition Lack of maintenance which would lead in operational inefficiencies Extraction hood too far from dust source thereby not allowing the effective capture of dusts

The information, instruction, supervision of all involved on site

training

and

Effective monitoring by management and / or management systems

Risk assessment to determine the level of risk, the adequacy of controls and any additional controls required Isolation of plant and equipment that may endanger persons working or entering this environment Pre-cleaning to make the area as safe as possible, not loosing focus on potential gases that may escape if sludge, etc is disturbed Purging and testing the vessels atmosphere, at all levels for particular gases or the adequacy of the oxygen content of the atmosphere Safe means of access and egress Appropriate tools i.e. non-spark (intrinsic) P.P.E appropriate to the individual Appropriate lighting Continual monitoring watchman / observation by a environment and

Factory cleaning staff have to use a rotary floor polisher each night. 1. Identify the associated hazards Entanglement of persons in the rotating parts Slips, trips and falls on wet or slick surfaces Noise from the machine Vibration generated by the machine function Electrical hazards when considering wet substances and electrical components Ergonomic hazards resulting from the excessive bodily forces required to move and use the machine Possible chemical contamination of the operator from the cleaning agents used

2.

Outline what control measures could be used to reduce the risks Guarding of dangerous parts of equipment Cable management to remove slip and trip potential Isolation of the electrical source for the task of changing brushes, polishing pads, etc Appropriate slip resistant footwear worn Regular testing and maintenance of the equipment to ensure is state for continued safe use Residual current devices RCDs (trip devices) Information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure proper use of equipment Operator to be trained in and to undertake pre-use safety checks of the equipment to be used

Competent and trained personnel including those who may be engaged in any rescue work of downed workers Adequate first aid arrangements Suitable and sufficient fire fighting and fire control Good communication systems between tank and above-ground workers Maintenance of detailed emergency procedures, etc. to ensure

Outline the principal requirements excavation work is carried out safely.

Examine the support structures weekly by competent person this requirement may vary from country to country or even within the same country a shift basis pre-use check is called for in some regions Record the examination undertaken and retain such records for future reference Inspect working part daily or per shift if deeper than 2m. Again this requirement may vary from country to country or even within the same country (1.5m in some areas of the UAE) Inspect support material before use on a each use basis Any support work to be undertaken under the direct supervision of competent person No person to work in excavation unless deemed competent to do so, this would include medical fitness 13

Outline precautions needed when maintenance work is being carried out in an underground storage vessel. The precautions required in such an instance would be dependant upon a whole of factors, these could involve, some, all or more aspects indicated below: Permit-to-work this is a space not used for normal work activity by persons

No projecting nails on support structure to avoid the risk of persons becoming injured No materials left near edges of excavation which would create a risk of them falling into and onto persons and or equipment located in the excavation

Escape routes clearly marked and identifiable by signs of the appropriate standard Emergency lighting for routes as well as exits All escape routes to be kept free from obstruction Safe by position, clearly signed assembly points to be provided Persons informed, instructed and trained in the procedures to be adopted in the event of an evacuation being required The provision of suitable and sufficient extinguishers so that they may be used by individuals to achieve a safe access from the premises Persons trained in the identification and use of fire extinguishers to effect safe egress from a building

With respect to work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs). 1. Identify typical symptoms. Back, neck and shoulder (upper limbs) pain Swollen joints resulting in movement or pain when moved Reduced mobility and stiffness Cramps and muscle fatigue / tiredness Change of colour of the limbs or extremities Numbness sensation in the hands and or arms restricted

What are the principal hazards associated with the use of ladders at work? Poor maintenance of ladders is a significant concern. Areas of concern centre around visible damage, poor maintenance, no pre-user checks, etc. Incorrect use in so far as ladders being used in an unsafe manner, sometimes by persons not in receipt of the proper training in how to complete the work expected of them using such equipment Ladders being used in incorrect or inappropriate locations applicable to the type of ladder available i.e. metal ladders being used close to overhead live electrics

2.

Outline the factors that would increase the development of WRULDs Display screen equipment issues DSE Layout of workstation Insufficient breaks from the task or during the duration of the task Inadequate space leading to poor postures Excessive force needed to carry out the work tasks Frequency of the task, inadequate task breaks or time away from the damaging situation / condition Excessively vibrating tools and or equipment or the time a person is exposed to such vibration Any pre-existing medical conditions Pregnant women due to their developing condition over time, awkward posture

All of the above can lead to persons falling from height and sustaining injuries to themselves and or others as well as damaging plant, equipment and building fabric Explain how these hazards indicated above may be eliminated or reduced. Periodic inspection of ladders to identify their state for continued safe use Effective repairs to damage to be undertaken by competent persons, if this was not possible then the equipment should be withdrawn and replaced The correct storage is important to ensure that their condition does not deteriorate over time making them unsafe for use in the future. Pre use inspections for visual defects may assist in the early identification of ladder related hazards 75 degrees slope (1 in 4)

Outline what is required for a safe means of escape when evacuating a building in the event of fire. There should be at least two escape routes in opposite directions, No escape route should exceed the recognised travel distance permitted by the local enforcing authority Escape route should have ensured fire integrity Self closing fire doors that open outwards easily should be provided and not be locked during periods of building occupation

14

Ladders should be secured at their top and base to prevent sliding or slippage Not to use aluminium or metal ladders near overhead cables Persons trained in the safe and correct use of this equipment Management to periodically monitor work involving ladders to ensure that it is being undertaken in an appropriate and safe manner. to protect against

Undamaged mirrors with good vision potential No leakages from various fluids diesel, battery acid, oil, brake fluid etc. Battery connections and good and sound with no identifiable shorts Lifting chains and associated equipment in good visual order Horn operates Reversing audible signals operable where fitted Forks in good order e.g. no signs of physical damage, bending, etc Undertake break checks, including hand break Forks do not drop when raised hydraulic fluid levels ok No play in steering wheel

Outline the precautions electrocution when: 1.

Excavating near underground cables Supply isolation to be ensured Cable route identification to be established by the use of plans and cable detectors as appropriate Checking the surrounding area for service box covers Marking of cable routes once established so that the routes remain clearly visible Digging with hand-tools and not machines when unsure of cable routes and or location. No mechanical digging within 0.5 m of a cable route

Outline EIGHT precautions that should be considered to prevent injuries to children who may be tempted to access a construction site. Fencing to be maintained in a good condition of repair ensure this by periodic inspections of the perimeter fencing Warning signs of any dangers to be posted in conspicuous places No man traps should be set to catch children and or other intruders Security patrols to operate regularly CCTV used where physical controls would prove difficult Isolating services when not in use especially at times when the site may not be occupied i.e. week-end Reducing heights of materials so that they do not become attractive climbing frame or pose less risk of becoming unstable Covering excavations to ensure that children and others can not fall into the excavation Removing ladders lashing the ladders to deny access to scaffolding Securing tools, chemicals, vehicles under lock and key equipment and

2.

Working near overhead power lines Isolation of the power source to prevent arcing Goal-post barriers defining clearance distances for vehicles and persons transporting items such as ladders, scaffolding poles, etc Use of signs and bunting to clearly mark danger zones Safe access routes under lines, ensuring that anything safely passing under the live source do so for the shortest duration Use of marshals and banksmen when cranes, excavators or tipper lorries may approach Restriction on use of metal ladders and scaffold tubes

List EIGHT routine inspection items included on a checklist at the beginning of a shift, before using a fork-lift truck. Tyre pressure and condition Lights functioning (where fitted) Secure and properly adjusted seat

Community liaisons, either in close proximity schools, youth centres, etc.

Outline which health issues could be caused by poor ergonomic designs of display screen equipment (DSE) workstations. Work-related upper limb disorders such as: 15

Pain in shoulders, this could as a result of poor posture (sitting) Arms (including forearms), again from poor posture or awkward actions Wrists, hands, fingers, this could be the result of lack of wrist or lower arm support, appropriate layout of DSE equipment and the like. Another reason for finger and wrist pains is the excessive use of force used on keys, etc. Neck pains can be as a result of excessive head movement i.e. referencing a document, and to which a document holder has not been provided thereby causing exaggerated head and or neck movement. Eye strain that can be caused predominantly from glare or screen reflection. Also a contributor here would be a poorly adjusted screen or characters that are not easy for the operator / user to see.

Use sketches to clearly show what is meant by the following terms relating to mechanical hazards from moving parts of machinery. 1. Entanglement

2.

Crushing

This question asks for an outline which would typically include detail of the symptoms and the circumstances that would make the effects more likely. Outline which factors should be considered for an ergonomic assessment of a DSE workstation. Equipment in use, screen, keyboard, mouse, document holder, foot-rest, etc. Environment in terms of lighting, heating noise etc. Task being undertaken, basic office use, data entry, information requiring a high degree of concentration, etc. The individual themselves and their interrelationships between the following four points Repetition of the work highly repetitive, rapid hand and finger movements, etc. The actual working posture of the individual i.e. fingers, hands and wrists Working posture of shoulders and arms, are they appropriate Psychosocial factors such as the pace of work, unplanned overtime / shift work, little control over own work, stressful deadlines, lack of training

3.

Drawing-in

4.

Shear

No need for a masterpiece Clear representation of machinery demonstrating each particular hazard Arrows to show the direction of movement parts

Outline the main considerations when deciding on the siting of fire extinguishers Accessibility is access unobstructed Visibility can the equipment be easily seen and identified by signs of an appropriate standard Proximity to exits and escape routes Travel distances is the distance one has to travel to get to such equipment reasonable i.e. under 25m Support of the equipment off the ground are extinguishers located off the ground and on wall brackets, if they have to be mounted on the floor 16

are they located on stands of a suitable construction Free from obstruction is access easily available to such equipment Protection from the weather with regards to extremes of temperature (heat and cold) as well as dusty conditions (sand in the desert environment) which my affect their operability Protection from other sources of damage such as impact from passing vehicles

Proper communication as well as back up communication (hand signals is radio communication lost Area must be kept clear of non-essential personnel Lifting, moving and lowering must be performed at the correct rate maintaining proper control at each part of the operation

Define the occupational health term target organ. A part of the body that sustains an adverse effect when exposed to, or is contaminated by, a particular substance or agent. The harmful effects of a toxic substance confined to particular organs such as the lungs, liver, skin or kidneys.

Outline maintenance and inspection requirements for fire extinguishers. Visual Inspection routine i.e. monthly visual checks ensuring extinguishers are in place, have not been discharged and have no obvious damage. Maintenance annual tests by a competent person according to the manufacturers instructions in order to ensure the extinguishers integrity, with faulty equipment being removed and replaced.

Outline personal hygiene methods that would decrease the risk of ingesting a hazardous substance. Regular hand washing using hot and cold water and hand washing soap. Followed by proper drying of the hands Restriction workplace of smoking and eating in the

Explain these terms with regards to noise control. Silencing The suppression of noise generated by the air flow, gas or steam in ducts and pipes, or when exhausted to the atmosphere, and uses either absorptive material or baffles

The use of suitable and sufficient P.P.E such as gloves The removal and cleaning of contaminated clothing Training in each of the above Monitoring by competent management to ensure that the controls are maintained.

Absorption Reduction of reflected noise by using materials such as foam or mineral wool

Damping Reduction of amount of noise radiating from large panels and is effected by increasing the stiffness of the panels

Identify FOUR different types of hazards that could require the use of special footwear explaining in EACH type how the footwear protects the wearer. Falling objects steel toe-caps would protect the toes from crush and or impact injuries Sharp objects steel in-soles would prevent sharp items piercing through the sole of the shoe / boot into the wearers foot Flammable atmospheres anti-static footwear would prevent the generation of sparks Spread of contamination washable boots (i.e. food industry), here washable footwear would prevent the spread of harmful contaminants Molten metal heat resistant boots and gaiters would prevent the hot material penetrating through clothing onto the wearers skin / body. Electricity rubber soles to act as an effective insulator

Isolation Physical separation of people from the noise source such as acoustic booths or havens, or by isolating the noise by vibration using flexible pipes or anti-vibration machine mounts

Outline a procedure for the safe lifting of a load whilst using a crane, ensuring the crane has been properly selected and positioned for the task. The suitability of the lifting tackle such as its safe working load, free from defects, etc. The competence of the people involved i.e. driver / operator, slinger, signaller The load must be lifted vertically, secure balanced and controlled during the lift by the use of tag lines whenever necessary

17

Wet environments impermeable Wellington boots Slippery surfaces non-slip / slip resistant soles Cold environments thermally insulated footwear to protect the wearer from the effects of cold

Provision of information, instruction, training and supervision of an appropriate standard

State TWO asbestos related respiratory diseases. Mesothelioma Asbestosis Lung cancer

List the items to include on an inspection checklist for portable electrical appliances. Appropriate equipment environment for the task and

Identify where you are likely to encounter asbestos in a building undergoing renovation work. Pipe lagging Wall and roof panels Ceiling tiles Textured coatings such as Artex Fire resistant encapsulation of metal girders Insulation materials Gaskets and other seals Older type of fire doors Roofing sheets Water tanks

Equipment is tested on a periodic / routine basis Equipment, plugs, connectors and cables are free from damage Correct wiring and sound connections Fuses and other means of preventing excess current in place and correct rating Accessible and appropriate means of isolation System not overloaded Obvious damage equipment Sensible siting Used in appropriate conditions Fit for purpose No patent defects to plug, socket, fittings,

List ways that may cause a fork-lift truck to become unstable when in use. Insecure load Excessive load Uneven loading Incorrect tilt and / or elevation of forks whilst travelling Uneven or unconsolidated ground Slopes and incorrect procedures to deal with them Obstructions overhead and low level Cornering at excessive speeds Sudden breaking Tyres in poor condition Mechanical failure Pot holes Turning in a very tight turning radius

Outline the main precautions to be taken whilst undertaking an excavation project. Detection of services using plans, cable / pipe detectors etc. Supporting the sides to prevent collapse Storage of materials and spoil away from the edge to prevent them falling into the excavation Measures to prevent vehicles falling into excavations such as stop blocks, mounds, etc Guard rails and barriers Measures structures to prevent collapse of adjacent

Safe means of access / egress Testing for, and ventilation of, noxious fumes Measures to pump out water (dewatering) to prevent or reduce the likelihood of flooding Safe procedures for working with mechanical plant Inspection, training and supervision of the staff involved and those providing supervision.

Questions Without Answers


In order for candidates to test themselves in preparation for their examinations there follows a series of questions without answers being assigned.

18

Candidates would be advised to revise the appropriate sections of their course materials to determine the accuracy of their answers. There are 25 topic areas so there will be a lot of revision potential here for candidates. Points have been allocated to questions to allow candidates to practice their time allocated to answer questions.

Typical Question Accidents 8b With reference to an accident involving an operator who came into contact with a dangerous part of a machine, describe: The possible immediate causes The possible root (underlying) causes

Points 6

Accidents
Typical Question Accidents 1 An employee has been seriously injured in a workplace accident Outline the immediate actions to be taken following the accident Outline the reasons the accident should be investigated by the employer Identify FOUR parties other than the employer who may want to investigate the accident giving reasons in EACH case Giving reasons in EACH case, identify FOUR categories of persons who may be considered as a useful member of an internal accident investigation team Outline the information that should be included in an accident investigation report Outline the immediate and longer term actions that should be taken following a serious accident at work Outline the key points that should be covered in a training session for employees on the topic of reporting and recording accidents and or incidents Outline reasons why employers should keep records of accidents and cases of ill-health at work Outline the reasons for reporting accidents at work Explain the differences between the immediate causes and the root (underlying) causes of an accident 6 1 6 Points 9

Explain the reasons for reporting accidents at work

Communications
Typical Question Communication Outline FOUR advantages and FOUR disadvantages of using posters to communicate health and safety information to the workforce An investigation has identified the two key underlying causes of a workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between employees and shortcomings in the quality of health and safety training Identify the barriers to effective verbal communication that may have existed Describe the variety of training methods a trainer could use to improve the effectiveness of employee training in health and safety Outline the measures by which verbal communication could be improved In relation to consultations employees Identify with 8 Points 8

1a

1b

1c

8 2a

2b 8

2c

3 8 3a

The health and safety matters on which employers should typically consult their employees FOUR types of information that an employer is NOT obliged to disclose to an employee representative

3b 6 8

8a

Explain why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health and safety information in the workplace

19

Typical Question Communication 5 With respect to Representatives: Workers Safety

Points 2a

Typical Question Confined Spaces Explain with examples, the meaning of the term confined space The inside of a large underground tank is to be cleaned manually before it is brought back into service: Outline the factors that should be taken into account when assessing the risks to employees undertaking the cleaning of the vessel Outline the elements of a safe system of work for the cleaning operation

Points 4

Explain the occasions when a safety representative could be entitled to inspect the workplace Describe the facilities that an employer may need to provide to safety representatives

2b

Outline the various methods for communicating health and safety information to the workforce Outline the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with a health and safety problem at work Outline the topics that may need to be included on the agenda of a safety committee meeting Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal instruction being clearly understood by an employee Explain the circumstances under which an employer should form a health and safety committee Give reasons why a health and safety committee may be ineffective Outline the various methods for communication health and safety information to the workforce Outline the typical role of a safety representative Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal instruction being clearly understood by an employee

8 8

8 3 Describe the practical measures that must be taken to ensure maintenance work is undertaken safely in an enclosed storage tank Describe the practical measures that must be taken to ensure maintenance work is undertaken safely in an underground storage vessel

8 4 8

Construction Activities
2 1 6 Typical Question Construction Woodwork on the exterior of a twostorey office building is to be replaced during July. Preparation work will be carried out from a mobile scaffold tower using blow-lamps, scrapers and an electric hand held sander: Identify the measures that should be adopted in order to protect against the dangers of people and / or materials falling from the scaffold Outline the practical measures to reduce the risk from electricity when using the portable sander List FOUR other hazards arising from the preparation work and, for EACH hazard state the possible means of protection Outline the precautions that should be taken to reduce the risk of injury when work is carried out on a pitched (sloping) roof Outline the main precautions to be taken when carrying out excavation work 8 Points

10a

10b

11

8 1a 8

12

13

1b

Confined Spaces
Typical Question Confined Spaces 1a Outline the hazards associated with work in confined spaces Describe the precautions that may be needed when an emptied solvent degreasing tank is to be cleaned including the removal of sludge from the bottom of the tank Points 6

1c

2 14

1b

20

Typical Question Construction 4 List EIGHT safe practices to be followed when using a skip for the collection and removal of waste from a construction site Outline the particular hazards that may be present during the demolition of a building Mobile tower scaffolds should always be used on stable, level ground. List EIGHT additional points that should be considered to ensure safe use Outline the main dangers associated with excavations on a construction site Draw and label a sketch of an independent tied scaffold that has been correctly assembled Outline the precautions that could be taken to prevent materials falling from a scaffold whilst work is being carried out Explain the meaning of the term hazard Outline the main hazards that may be present during the demolition of a building Outline EIGHT precautions that may be taken to ensure the safety of children who might be tempted to gain unauthorised access to a construction site Outline FOUR ways in which a person may be injured when using a ladder at work List the precautions that should be taken to ensure the safe use of ladders Outline FIVE factors that may contribute to the collapse of an independent tied scaffold Outline precautions that could be taken to prevent materials falling from a scaffold whilst work is being carried out

Points 8 13

Typical Question Construction List the main hazards that may be encountered during the demolition of a multi-storey building Outline EIGHT health and safety precautions that should be taken when undertaking demolition work

Points 8

14 5 8

Display Screen Equipment


6 8 Typical Question DSE 1 8 2a 6 2b 2 Outline the factors to be considered when assessing risks to the health of a user of display screen equipment Outline the possible health risks associated with working in a seated position for prolonged periods of time Outline the features of a suitable seat for sedentary work Points 8

8a

8b

Electricity
Typical Question Electricity 2 1 List the items that should be included on an inspection checklist designed to ensure the safety of portable electrical appliances Outline a range of checks that should be made to ensure electrical safety in an office environment Describe options for reducing the risk of electric shock when using a portable electric drill on a construction site Describe the function and limitations of a fuse as an electrical protection device Explain ONE advantage that a residual current device (RCD) has over a fuse Describe the principles of operation of the following types of electrical protection: Earthing Reduced voltage 4 4 Points 8

9a

9b

6 2 8 3

10

11a

4 4a 6

11b

4 4b 2

12a

5 5

12b

3 5a 5b

21

Typical Question Electricity 6a Outline the effects on a human body from a severe electric shock Describe how earthing can reduce the risk of receiving an electric shock Outline The effects on the human body of a severe electric shock The emergency action to be taken if a person suffers a severe electric shock

Points 4

Fire
Typical Question Fire 1 Outline the main requirements of a safe means of escape from a building in the event of fire Outline the precautions to be taken when storing and handling flammable solvents in small containers Outline the factors to consider when carrying out a fire risk assessment of a workplace Outline reasons for undertaking regular fire drills in the workplace Identify FOUR types of ignition source that may lead to fires in the workplace Outline ways of controlling each of the ignition sources identified in 5a above With reference to the fire triangle outline TWO methods of extinguishing a fire State the ways in which persons could be harmed by a fire in workplaces Explain with a suitable sketch the meaning of the term fire triangle List the sources of ignition that may cause a fire to occur giving an example of each List TWO types of extinguisher that may be used on electrical fires Outline the measures that should be taken to minimise the risk of an electrical fire Explain the methods of heat transfer that cause the spread of fire Explain the meaning of the term flash point Outline the precautions to be taken to reduce the risk of fire when using flammable liquids in the workplace Points 8

6b

4 2 4 3 4

7a

7b

Outline practical measures to reduce the risk of electric shock when using portable electrical appliances Outline the dangers associated with electricity Outline the emergency action to take if a persons suffers a severe electrical shock In relation to the use of 220 / 240 volt hand held electric tools: Outline the possible dangers Describe suitable precautions that should be taken to control such dangers

12

5a 8a 4

8b

5b

6a

9a 9b

8 6b 12 4

7a

10

Outline the precautions to take to protect against electrical contact when: Excavating near underground cables Working in the vicinity of overhead power lines 4

7b

10a

8a 4 8b

10b

11a

Outline the main electrical hazards arising from work on a construction site Describe the precautions that should be taken to minimise these hazards List TWO types of fire extinguisher that can be used on electrical fires Outline the measures that should be taken to minimise the risk of electrical fire

9 11b 4 10a 12a 2 10b 12b 6

22

Typical Question Fire 11 List EIGHT rules to follow that may reduce the risk of a fire starting in the workplace Outline the issues that should be included in a training programme for employees on the emergency action to take in the event of a fire List FOUR sources of ignition that should be considered when storing and using flammable solvents Identify TWO extinguishing agents that can be used on fires that involve flammable solvents AND explain their mode of action Outline the safety precautions that should be taken when storing and using flammable solvents

Points 8 7a 7b 8 7c 7d

Typical Question Human Factors i. ii. iii. Motivation Perception Attitude

Points 3 3 3 11

12

Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace Describe the types of human error that can lead to accidents in the workplace Explain the term perception Outline the factors that may influence a persons perception of risk in the workplace

13a

4 8 8

13b

6 9a 9b 10 2 6

13c

Maintenance Activities
Typical Question Maintenance Points 2 6 2 Outline EIGHT factors that may be important in determining the maintenance requirements for an item of work equipment Outline practical precautions to be taken prior to the maintenance of machinery Identify the specific hazards associated with routine maintenance of machinery Outline how the hazards identified in 4a above may be controlled 8 1 Outline the practical precautions that might need to be taken prior to the repair of a large item of process machinery Points 8

Human Factors
Typical Question Human Factors 1a 1b Explain the term motivation Describe the motivating factors that could lead to improved health and safety performance in the workplace State the criteria that should be used in assessing a persons competence to carry out a task Outline the ways an employer may motivate employees to comply with health and safety procedures Outline the reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at work Explain the term perception Identify the factors that place young persons at greater risks of accidents at work Outline the measures that could be taken to minimise the risk to young persons at work Explain using examples, the meaning of each of the following THREE terms

4 3 8 4a 8 4b 2

5a 6a

Managing Safety
4 Typical Question Managing Health and Safety 4 1 Replacement and retraining workers is a cost that organisations may face following an accident. List EIGHT other possible costs to an organisations when an employee has been seriously injured in such an accident 23 Points

6b

Typical Question Managing Health and Safety 2 Outline the main components of a health and safety management system Replacement or repair of damaged plant and or equipment is a cost that organisations may face following an accident. List EIGHT other possible costs to an organisations when an employee has been seriously injured in such an accident

Points 2 8

Typical Question Monitoring Outline FOUR proactive monitoring methods that can be used in assessing the health and safety performance of an organisation Explain how the following may be used to improve safety performance within an organisation i. ii. Accident Rate Safety Inspections

Points 8

3a 3b 4

4 4 8

Manual Handling
Typical Question Manual Handling 1 1a With respect to manual handling 6a Identify ways in which the nature of a load may present a risk of injury State FOUR factors relating to the individual that may increase the risk of injury In an assessment of manual handling operations, outline the factors that should be considered when assessing i. ii. The task The load 4 4 4 4 Points 5

State EIGHT measures that can be used to monitor an organisations health and safety performance Outline the main components of a health and safety management system Outline the factors that should be considered when planning an inspection of the workplace Identify information that should be included in a report of a workplace inspection. Explaining how the information should be presented in order to increase the likelihood of action being taken Explain the main features of i. ii. A safety Inspection A safety Audit

10

1b

6b

10

7 7a 7b 8

2a 2b 3a

4 4 10

List TWO types of injury that may be caused by the incorrect manual handling of loads Outline a good handling technique that could be adopted by a person required to lift a load from the ground Outline the factors that should be considered in an assessment of manual handling activities

3b

Identify the information that should be included in a report of a workplace inspection, explaining how the information should be presented in order to increase the likelihood of action being taken Outline the methods that may be used to assess an organisations health and safety performance

9 4 8

Monitoring
Typical Question Monitoring 1 Outline the reasons why an organisation should monitor and review its health and safety performance Points 8

Movement of People
Typical Question Movement of People and vehicles 1 Outline the precautions to be taken when using a mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) to reach a high point such as a streetlight Points

24

Typical Question Movement of People and vehicles 2 Diesel powered fork lift trucks are used in a wide range of organisations and can introduce hazards into the working environment Identify FOUR hazards associated with such vehicles that may pose a risk to the health of drivers Describe the various circumstances that may cause such a vehicle to overturn Outline the precautions that may be needed to ensure the safety of pedestrians in areas where fork lift trucks are operating Outline the health and safety considerations when a fork lift truck is to be used to unload palletised goods from a vehicle parked in a factory car park Outline the hazards and corresponding precautions to be taken when charging batteries for fork lift trucks Outline the factors that should be taken into account when planning traffic routes for internal traffic Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians are required to work in vehicle manoeuvring areas Outline the precautionary measures to be taken to avoid accidents involving reversing vehicles within a workplace List EIGHT rules to follow when leaving a fork lift unattended in the workplace Outline the main precautions to be taken to ensure the safe transport of hazardous substances by road List EIGHT rules to be followed to minimise the risk of fork lift trucks over-turning

Points

Typical Question Movement of People and vehicles 11 List the ways in which a fork lift truck may become unstable whilst in operation

Points

Noise
2a 4 Typical Question Noise 1 2b 8 During routine monitoring within a factory, noise levels above 90dB(A) have been recorded Outline the possible effects on health from exposure to such noise levels Describe the factors to be considered when selecting suitable hearing protection to be used as an interim measure to reduce employees exposure to noise Outline with practical examples, the engineering means by which noise levels within the factory may be reduced Explain the following terms\in relation to noise exposure at work i. ii. Noise induced hearing loss Tinnitus 4 4 2 6 Points

1a 2c 8 1b

1c

8 2

2a 2b

3a

Identify FOUR limitations of personal hearing protection as a means of protecting against the effects of noise Describe the TWO main types of personal hearing protection Identify FOUR reasons why personal hearing protection may fail to provide adequate protection against noise A pneumatic drill is to be used during extensive repair work to the floor of a busy warehouse: Identify by means of a labelled sketch THREE possible transmission paths the noise could take Outline appropriate control measures to reduce the noise exposures of the operator and the warehouse staff

3b 7 8 3c

8 4

8 4a 4

10

8 4b 4

25

Typical Question Noise 5a Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms in relation to noise i. ii. 5b Frequency

Points

Typical Question Occupational Health 1b Outline the control measures that could be used to reduce the risk from infection from one of the biological hazards given in 1a above Inadequate lighting in the workplace may affect the level of stress amongst employees. Outline EIGHT other factors associated with the physical environment that may increase stress at work Outline the factors to be considered when making an assessment of first aid provision in a workplace In relation to occupational dermatitis Identify TWO common causative agents Describe the typical symptoms of the condition State the sources of information that may help to identify dermatitic substances in the workplace Identify the possible effects on health that may be caused by working in a hot environment such as a foundry Outline the measures that may be taken to help prevent the health effects identified in 5a above Explain the term respirable dust Outline the methods for measuring airborne dust in the workplace A group of production line workers are required to check the operation of padlocks manually as a last stage of a manufacturing process. A number of cases of work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) have been reported amongst the employees Identify the typical symptoms that the affected employees would have shown Outline the specific causal factors that may have contributed to the condition

Points

1 1

Intensity 2 2

Outline TWO acute and TWO chronic health effects from exposure to noise Outline FOUR types of engineering control that may be used to reduce noise in the workplace giving practical examples of EACH Explain the meaning of the following terms in relation to noise control: i. ii. iii. iv. Silencing

5c

2 2

4 4a

Absorption Damping Isolation 2 2 2

4b

7a

Explain the term dB(A) in relation to noise measurement Outline the following methods of noise reduction giving ONE practical example of EACH: i. ii. Absorption Isolation

4c

7b

5a 2 2 4 5b

8a

Outline the possible effects on health from exposure to noise Describe the TWO types of personal hearing protection Outline the limitations of EACH of the above types of hearing protection Explain the term Daily Personal Dose Exposure (LEPd) Outline the measures that should be taken when the second action level has been exceeded

8b

4 6a 4 6b 2 6

8c

9a

9b

Occupational Health
7a Typical Question Occupational Health 1a Give TWO examples of a disease resulting from biological hazards at work Points

7b

26

Typical Question Occupational Health 7c Outline the measures that should be considered in order to minimise the risk of WRULDs to these employees State the health and safety risks associated with welding operations Define the term target organ within the context of occupational health Outline the personal hygiene practices that should be followed to reduce risk of ingestion of a hazardous substance Identify the TWO main functions of first aid Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first aid provision in a workplace Identify possible routes of entry of biological organisms into the body Outline the control measures that could be used to reduce the risk of infection from biological organisms Identify FOUR forms that an airborne hazardous substance may take Outline the advantages and limitations of using a chemical indicator (stain detector) tube to monitor the atmospheric concentrations of hazardous substances State the primary effect on the body of EACH of the following types of hazardous substance, giving named examples of each type i. ii. iii. iv. 13 Irritant Corrosive Toxic carcinogenic

Points

Typical Question Occupational Health 14 Employees working for a specialised shoe manufacturer are engaged in trimming soles by hand prior to using a solvent based adhesive to glue them onto the shoes Describe FOUR possible adverse health effects that may be experienced by these employees Identify the information that should be included on a manufacturers material safety data sheet that has been supplied with the adhesive Outline measures to minimise health risks both from the trimming and the gluing operations State TWO respiratory diseases that may be caused by exposure to asbestos Identify where possible asbestos is likely to be encountered in a building during renovation work Identify TWO work activities that may give rise to work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) List THREE respiratory diseases that could be caused by exposure to dust at work Describe the bodys respiratory defence mechanism against atmospheric dust Outline the control measures that may be used to eliminate or reduce dust in a work environment, using practical examples where appropriate

Points

12

8 14a

9a

9b

14b

10a

14c

10b

15a

11a

4 15b 4 16 4 17a 8 17b 6

11b

12a

12b

17c 12c

10

Occupational Hygiene
2 2 2 2 8 1a Typical Question Occupational Hygiene State the principles of EACH of the following methods used to control airborne contaminants at work i. ii. Dilution ventilation Local exhaust ventilation 1 1 Points

Outline factors in the physical environment that may cause a person to feel stressed at work

27

Typical Question Occupational Hygiene 1b Draw a labelled sketch of a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system, clearly showing the main components Inadequate lighting in the workplace may affect the level of stress amongst employees. Outline EIGHT other factors associated with the physical environment that may increase stress at work Explain the term respirable dust Outline methods for measuring airborne dust in the workplace An essential ingredient for a process is delivered in powdered form and poured by hand from bags into a mixing vessel. Outline the control measures that might be considered in this situation in order to reduce employee exposure to the substance List the main components of a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system Outline the statutory requirements for the inspection of an LEV system Outline the factors that may reduce the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system Outline the factors to be taken into account when undertaking an assessment of health risks from a hazardous substance to be used in the workplace A factory employee has developed a respiratory disease after exposure to a hazardous substance

Points

Typical Question Occupational Hygiene 8c Outline the information that the employer should provide to other workers who may be exposed to the substance Employees working for a specialised shoe manufacturer are engaged in trimming soles by hand prior to using a solvent based adhesive to glue them onto the shoes Describe FOUR possible adverse health effects that may be experienced by these employees Identify the information that should be included on a manufacturers material safety data sheet that has been supplied with the adhesive Outline measures to minimise health risks both from the trimming and the gluing operations Outline the factors that need to be considered when managing the risk of exposure to hazardous chemicals in the workplace A fitter is employed to lay carpet tiles in a new premises using a solvent based adhesive. In relation to the use of the adhesive in such circumstances Identify the possible effects on health Outline the control methods that should be considered List THREE respiratory diseases that could be caused by exposure to dust at work Describe the bodys defence mechanisms respiratory dust respiratory against

Points

8 9

3a 3b

2 6

9a

9b 4 8

9c

5a

10

5b

4 11

11a 11b

4 4

12a 8

12b 8a Outline the factors that should be considered when carrying out an assessment of the risks to health from the substance Describe the control measures that may be available to the employer when elimination of the substance is not practicable 8

12c 6

8b

Outline the control measures that may be used to eliminate or reduce dust in a work environment, using practical examples where appropriate Outline the information employees should receive when there is a risk that their work will expose them to a substance hazardous to health

10

13

28

Typical Question Occupational Hygiene 14 Identify the information that should be included on a material safety data sheet that is supplied with a hazardous substance List TWO substances that can cause occupational dermatitis and describe how this occurs Outline specific measures designed to prevent the occurrence of occupational dermatitis

Points 2 8

Typical Question PPE Outline the factors to be considered in the selection of eye protection for use at work Outline the factors to be considered in the correct selection of respiratory protection equipment for use at work

Points 8

3 4

15a

Radiation
4 1a Typical Question Radiation Explain what is meant by ionising and non-ionising radiation. Give an example of the use of each in industry State ONE process known to emit ionising radiation Outline the main precautions for the protection of workers and others from the effects of radiation Give THREE examples of the use of non-ionising radiation at work For ONE of the answers to 3 a above State types of eye protection and reasons Identify TWO types of non-ionising radiation giving ONE occupational source of each type Outline suitable control measures for ONE of the above sources of nonionising radiation Identify TWO workplace sources of ionising radiation Outline the possible means of ensuring that workers are not exposed to unacceptable levels of ionising radiation For each of the following types of non-ionising radiation identify an occupational source and state the possible ill-health effects on exposed individuals Infra-red radiation Ultra-violet radiation 2 2 Points 8

15b

Health and Safety Policy


Typical Question Policy 1 Outline the items that may be included in the arrangements section of a health and safety policy document Outline the requirements whereby employers must prepare a written statement of their health and safety policy Explain the purpose of EACH of the following sections of a health and safety policy document i. ii. iii. 2c Statement of intent Organisation Arrangements 2 2 2 12 5a 2 4b 4a Points 2a 8 2b

2a

2 3a 2

3b 2b

Outline the issues that are typically included in the arrangements section of a health and safety policy document Outline the requirements whereby employers must prepare a written statement of their health and safety policy Outline the circumstances that may give rise to a need for a health and safety policy to be revised

3a

5b

3b

Personal Protective Equipment


Typical Question PPE 1 Outline the factors to be considered in the selection and use of personal head protection at work Points 8 6a 6b

29

Typical Question Radiation 6c Identify the general methods for protecting people against exposure to non-ionising radiation

Points 4 2

Typical Question Stress Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who are required to work on their own away from the workplace Outline the measures an employer might consider to minimise the risk of violence against employees

Points 8

Risk Assessment
3 Typical Question Risk Assessment 1a Outline the factors to be considered when developing a safe system of work Outline the sources that could be consulted when developing a safe system of work Explain the actions an enforcement officer could take when an organisation has failed to provided a safe system of work Outline the factors that should be considered when carrying out a risk assessment Explain the meaning of the term hazard Outline the main hazards that may be present during the demolition of a building Explain, using examples, meaning of the following terms Permit to work system Risk So far as is reasonably practicable Outline the hierarchy of control measures for controlling risk Explain the operation of a permit to work for entry into a confined space Outline the techniques for identifying hazards in the workplace the 3b 2 3 3 8 4 8 5 7 8 Outline the events that may create a need for additional health and safety training within an organisation Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and presenting a training session on health and safety Explain the meaning of the term competent person Outline FOUR checks that could be made to help assess a persons competence 8 3c Outline the measures by which verbal communication could be improved Describe the variety of training methods a trainer could use to improve effectiveness of employee training in health and safety 6 Points 8

Training
Typical Question Training Points 8

1b

Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a review of health and safety training within an organisation Explain how induction training programmes for new employees can help reduce the number of accidents in the workplace An investigation has identified the two underlying causes of a workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between employees and shortcomings in the quality of health and safety training Identify the barriers to effective verbal communication that may have existed

1c

6 2 8

8 3

3a

3b

8 3a 8

4a 4b 4c 5

Stress
Typical Question Stress 1a Outline the factors in the physical environment that may cause a person to feel stressed at work Points

6a

6b 8

30

Typical Question Training 7 Outline how health and safety training needs can be identified Outline the main health and safety issues to be included in an induction training programme for new employees

Points 8 6 8

Typical Question Work Equipment Provide sketches to show clearly the nature of the following mechanical hazards from the moving parts of machines; i. ii. Entanglement Crushing Drawing in Shearing

Points

2 2 2 2

Work Equipment
Typical Question Work Equipment 1 In relation to machine safety outline the basic principles of each of the following type of safeguard: 8 1a 1b 1c 1d 2 i. ii. iii. iv. Fixed Guard Interlocked Guard Automatic Guard Trip Device 2 2 2 2 8 9 Points 7

iii. iv.

Outline the factors to consider before a new machine is installed in a workplace Identify FOUR mechanical hazards presented by pedestal drills and outline in EACH case how injury may occur List EIGHT types of mechanical hazard associated with machinery as described in BS EN 292 Safety of Machinery

State the factors to be considered before introducing a new item of machinery into the workplace List EIGHT non-mechanical hazards associated with machinery Identify with examples i. TWO types of mechanical hazard associated with moving parts, and TWO types on nonmechanical hazard to which a machine operator may be exposed

Workplace
Typical Question Workplace Points 8 8 1 Identify the main topic areas that should be included in a planned health and safety inspection of a workplace Outline the requirements of FOUR types of welfare facility that an employer should provide for his employees Outline the possible effects on health and safety of poor housekeeping in the workplace Outline the welfare requirements that should be considered before taking occupancy of a new office premises Outline the factors to consider when assessing the adequacy of lighting within an open plan office Outline the factors that should be taken into account when planning traffic routes for internal\purposes Identify the types of hazard that may cause slips and trips at work

4a

2 2 2

ii.

3 4b Outline a hierarchy of measures that may be used to eliminate the risk of injury from dangerous parts of a machine In relation to machine safety, outline the principles of the following types of machine guard i. ii. 5b A fixed guard An interlocked guard 2 2 6 List TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of a fixed machine guard 4 6

5a

7a

31

Typical Question Workplace 7b Outline how slip and trip hazards might be controlled Give FOUR reasons why accidents may occur on staircases Outline the ways in which accidents on staircases may be prevented Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians are required to work in vehicle manoeuvring areas An office building is about to be occupied by new owners i. Identify the factors that should be considered by the new owners when assessing the suitability of lighting within the building Other than lighting outline FOUR factors associated with the physical working environment that may affect the health and safety of employees Outline the requirements with respect to the welfare facilities that should be provided in the building

Points 4

8a

8b

10

10a

10b

ii.

10c

iii.

11a

List typical situations where additional lighting may be required at work Describe the possible effects on health and safety of inadequate lighting in the workplace Outline the factors to consider when assessing the adequacy of lighting within an open plan office

11b

11c

10

32