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Chapter 5 Health + Fitness

1) The Muscular System 2) The Skeletal System 3) Benefits of Exercise 4) Components of Fitness

DELTOIDS

TRAPEZIUS

PECTORALS TRICEPS BICEPS

LATISSIMUS DORSI GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

ABDOMINALS

QUADRICEPS

HAMSTRING
GASTROCNEMIUS

Functions: Movement Protection Stabilise joints Gives us good posture

Involuntary muscle (works constantly and automatically). Found only in the walls of the heart. Works on average 60 80 times a minute.

Also known as skeletal or striated muscles. They work under your control and move when you want them to move. They make up the majority of the muscles in the body and are attached to the skeleton. Attached to bones by tendons.

Also known as smooth muscles (not controlled + work automatically).

Can be found in the intestines and in the blood vessels (veins and arteries).

Voluntary Muscle
2 types of fibres in voluntary muscles SLOW-TWITCH = good oxygen supply, work for long time without tiring, take longer to contract than fast-twitch, good for cardio vascular exercise FAST-TWITCH = not as good oxygen supply, tire quickly, contract quickly, fast and powerful, good for power exercises like sprinting and jumping

TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION


ISOMETRIC: increase in muscle tension but muscle length does not change, e.g. handstand or scrum in rugby ISOTONIC: increase in muscle tension + muscle length changes resulting in limb movement, e.g. jumping or running.

HOW DO MUSCLES WORK?


AGONISTS (prime movers)- contract to start movement ANTAGONISTS- relax to allow movement to take place

Usually 1 end of muscle stays fixed (ORIGIN) and the other moves (INSERTION)

MUSCLE TONE
Produced when voluntary muscles in a state of very slight tension, ready and waiting to be used Tighten muscles a little bit but not enough to cause movement Improved through exercise

Movement Abduction Adduction Extension Flexion Rotation

Description Movement away from body Movement towards body Straightening Bending A circular movement

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Functions of the skeletal system:

Protection Shape Movement Blood production

Types of bones:
Long bones e.g. humerus, femur Short bones e.g. carpals, tarsals Flat bones e.g. ribs, cranium Irregular e.g. vertebrae, face

The Vertebral Column 7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 sacral vertebrae 4 coccyx

Health:
3 factors:

Physical, Mental and Social wellbeing

Influences on Health:
Education Do you go to school? Family life Are you well looked after? Nutrition Do you have a healthy diet? Hygiene How often do you wash? Environment Local area clean/dirty? Social Are you happy with friends? Physical activity Do you exercise? Substance abuse What to avoid + why?

Benefits:
Improve body shape Relieving stress + tension Helping you sleep better Reducing the chances of getting illnesses + diseases Toning up your body + improving posture Improved stamina, strength + flexibility

- Health Related Fitness - Skill Related Fitness

Strength

Reaction Time

Balance

Power

Stamina

Coordination

Flexibility

Speed

Agility

Health vs Skill:
Health = S, S, S + F, P Skill = A, B, C + R, T Who can explain what this means?