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Chemical Equilibria & Ionic Equlibria CIE AS level Questions

Question 1
(a) The table shows some standard enthalpies of formation.

(i) Use these standard enthalpies of formation to calculate a value for the standard
enthalpy change of this synthesis.

(3 marks)
(ii) State why the standard enthalpy of formation for hydrogen gas is zero.
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(1 mark)
(b) State and explain what happens to the yield of methanol when the total pressure is
increased in this synthesis.

Effect on yield .....................................................................................................................


Explanation .........................................................................................................................
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(3 marks)

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(c) The hydrogen required for this synthesis is formed from methane and steam in a
reversible reaction. The equation for this reaction is shown below.
State and explain what happens to the yield of hydrogen in this reaction when the
temperature is increased.
Effect on yield .....................................................................................................................
Explanation .........................................................................................................................
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(3 marks)
(d) Write an equation for the complete combustion of methanol liquid, with state symbol.
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(1 mark)

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Question 2
BrnstedLowry were instrumental in giving the modern definitions of acids and bases.
(a) Define the term BrnstedLowry acid.
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(1 mark)
(b) Three equilibria are shown below. For each reaction, indicate whether the substance
immediately above the box is acting as a BrnstedLowry acid (A) or a
BrnstedLowry base (B) by writing A or B in each of the six boxes.

(c ) Ammonia and ethylamine are examples of weak BrnstedLowry bases.


(i) Write an equation for the reaction of ethylamine (CH3CH2NH2) with water to form a
weakly alkaline solution.
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(1 mark)
(ii) In terms of this reaction, state why the solution formed is weakly alkaline.
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(1 mark)

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A student carried out an experiment to determine the enthalpy change when a sample
of methanol was burned.
The student found that the temperature of 140 g of water increased by 7.5 oC when
0.011 mol of methanol was burned in air and the heat produced was used to warm the
water.
Use the students results to calculate a value, in kJ mol1, for the enthalpy change when
one mole of methanol was burned.
(The specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 JK1 g1).
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A-level Chemistry

0193868950

Question 3
The manufacture of food grade phosphoric acid for use in cola drinks begins with the
production of pure white phosphorus from the mineral fluoroapatite, Ca5F(PO4)3
3 (a) Complete the following equation for the manufacture of phosphorus.

(1 mark)
(b) As the phosphorus cools, it forms white phosphorus, P4
Give the oxidation state of phosphorus in each of the following.
P4

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H3PO4

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(c) Fertiliser grade phosphoric acid is manufactured from sulfuric acid and
calcium phosphate.
Use the following precise relative atomic mass data to calculate the relative molecular
mass of each below:

(i)

sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and

(ii)

phosphoric acid (H3PO4) .

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(d) Concentrated phosphoric acid is used as a catalyst in the hydration of propene to


form the alcohol CH3CH(OH)CH3 as the main organic product.
The industrial name for this alcohol is isopropyl alcohol.
(i) State the meaning of the term catalyst.
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(1 mark)
(ii) State the meaning of the term hydration.
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(1 mark)
(iii) Give two other subtances than can replace concentrated phosphoric acid in the
hydration reaction.
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(e) Give the meaning of the term dynamic equilibrium.


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(1 mark)

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A-level Chemistry

0193868950

Question 4
(a) A mixture of 1.50 mol of hydrogen and 1.20 mol of gaseous iodine was sealed in a
container of volume V dm3. The mixture was left to reach equilibrium as shown by the
following equation.

At a given temperature, the equilibrium mixture contained 2.06 mol of hydrogen iodide.
(i) Calculate the amounts, in moles, of hydrogen and of iodine in the equilibrium mixture.
Moles of hydrogen .............................................................................................................
Moles of iodine ..................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(ii) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant (Kc) for this equilibrium.
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(1 mark)
(iii)

Explain why Kc for this equilibrium has no units.

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(1 mark)
(iv)

A different mixture of hydrogen, iodine and hydrogen iodide was left to reach
equilibrium at the same temperature in a container of the same volume.
This second equilibrium mixture contained 0.38 mol of hydrogen, 0.19 mol of
iodine and 1.94 mol of hydrogen iodide.
Calculate a value for Kc for this equilibrium at this temperature.

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(1 mark)

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(b) This question concerns changes made to the four equilibria shown in parts (b) (i) to
(b) (iv) , given below.
In each case, use the information in the table to help you choose from the
letters A to E the best description of what happens as a result of the change
described. Write your answer in the box.
Each letter may be used once, more than once or not at all.

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0193868950

Question 5
At high temperatures and in the presence of a catalyst, sulfur trioxide decomposes
according to the following equation.

(a) In an experiment, 8.00mol of sulfur trioxide were placed in a container of volume


12.0 dm3 and allowed to come to equilibrium.
At temperature T1 there were 1.40 mol of oxygen in the equilibrium mixture.
(i) Complete the table below to show the amount, in moles, of sulfur trioxide and of sulfur
dioxide in the equilibrium mixture.
Sulfur trioxide
Initial mole

Sulfur trioxide

8.00

Oxygen

Equilibrium mole

1.40

(2 marks)
(ii) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc, for this equilibrium.
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(1 mark)
(iii) Deduce the units of Kc for this equilibrium.
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(1 mark)
(iv) Complete the table below for the concentration of each substance at equilibrium.
Then calculate a value of Kc for this equilibrium at temperature T1

Sulfur trioxide
Equilibrium
concentration in
moldm-3

Sulfur trioxide

8.00

Oxygen

(3 marks)

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(b) The experiment was repeated at the same temperature using the same amount of
sulfur trioxide but in a larger container.
State the effect, if any, of this change on:
(i) the amount, in moles, of oxygen in the new equilibrium mixture

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(1 mark)
(ii) the value of Kc
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(1 mark)
(c) The experiment was repeated in the original container but at temperature T2
The value of Kc was smaller than the value at temperature T1
State which is the higher temperature, T1 or T2
Explain your answer.
Higher temperature ............................................................................................................
Explanation ........................................................................................................................
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(3 marks)

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Question 6
Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Methanol can be
manufactured from the synthesis gas in a reversible reaction as shown by the
following equation.

(a) A sample of synthesis gas containing 0.240 mol of carbon monoxide and 0.380 mol
of hydrogen was sealed together with a catalyst in a container of volume 1.50dm3.
When equilibrium was established, the equilibrium mixture contained 0.170 mol of
carbon monoxide. The total pressure at equilibrium is 2.50atm
(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of methanol and the amount, in moles, of hydrogen
in the equilibrium mixture.
Carbon monoxide
Initial mole

0.240

Equilibrium mole

0.170

Hydrogen

Methanol

0.380

(2 marks)
(ii) Determine the Partial pressure from each gas at equilibrium, in atm.

Carbon monoxide

Hydrogen

Methanol

Partial Pressure at
equilibrium, in atm
(2 marks)
(iii) Write the Kp expression

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(1 mark)
(iv) Calculate Kp value for this reaction and state its unit , if any.
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(3 marks)

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0193868950

(b) A different sample of synthesis gas was allowed to reach equilibrium in a similar
container of volume 1.50 dm3 at temperature T1
At equilibrium, the mixture contained 0.210 mol of carbon monoxide, 0.275 mol of
hydrogen and 0.0820 mol of methanol.
(i) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant Kc for this reaction.
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(1 mark)
(ii) Calculate a value for Kc for the reaction at temperature T1 and state its units.
Calculation .........................................................................................................................
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Units .................................................................................................................................
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(2 marks)
(iii) State the effect, if any, on the value of Kc of adding more hydrogen to the equilibrium
mixture.
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(1 mark)

Question 7
Hydrogen is used in very large quantities as a fuel, as a reducing agent, and in the
production of ammonia. Hydrogen is manufactured by steam reforming of methane
from natural gas. Two reactions are involved, both being in equilibrium in closed
systems.

(a) Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kp, for reaction I.

(1)

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(b) Reaction I occurs at a temperature of 1000 K and a pressure of 30 atm over a nickel
catalyst.
(i) State and explain the effect, if any, on the value of Kp of increasing the
pressure on the reaction.
(1)
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(ii) Explain, in terms of your answers to (a) and (b)(i), why an increase in the
pressure leads to a decrease in yield in reaction I.
(2)
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(iii) Increasing the pressure on this heterogeneously-catalysed reaction I has very


little effect on the rate of the reaction. Suggest why this is so.
(2)
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(c) At a particular temperature and 30.0 atm pressure, a mixture of 2.00 mol of carbon
monoxide and 2.00mol of steam reacts to give an equilibrium mixture where 75 % of the
carbon monoxide had reacted.
(i) Calculate the moles of each gas at equilibrium.
(4)
Carbon
monoxide

Steam

Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen

Initial mole

2.00

2.00

Equilibrium
mole

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(iii)

Calculate the partial pressure of each gas at the given total pressure of
30.0 atm.
(4)
Carbon monoxide

Steam

Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen

Partial
pressure in
atm
(iv)

Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kp for this reaction and state its unit, if
any.
(4)

Kp value:..............................................................................................................................
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Unit:...

8 Consider the equilibrium


Which of the following is true when the total pressure of the system is increased at
constant temperature?

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8. The dissociation of ethanoic acid in aqueous solution is represented by

H3O+(aq) + CH3COO(aq)

CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

Which of the following statements is true for this equilibrium?

9. Iron and steam at high temperature react in a closed vessel to give an equilibrium
mixture
Which of the following is the correct expression for Kp?

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The following information is required to answer questions 10 to 12.


The equation for the synthesis of methanol is as follows:
At equilibrium, when the temperature is 340 K, the total pressure is 20 atm. The
moles of each component present at equilibrium are shown in the table below.

10. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the equilibrium mixture is .

A 0.23
B 0.46
C 0.49
D 0.92

11. The numerical value for the equilibrium partial pressure of the carbon
monoxide, in atmospheres, is .

A 3.0
B 4.6
C 5.0
D 9.2

12. Units for the equilibrium constant, Kp, for this reaction are .

A no units
B atm
C atm1
D atm2

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0193868950