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Defination:According to D.S. Cohan: QWL is a process of joint decision-making, collaborations and building mutual respect between management and employees.

It is not only improving at the job content but also moving toward participant management.

Origin and Development of QWL

Concern with life on job is not of recent origin. There are number of schools enhancing life on work place starting with HUMAN RELATIONS concept of Mayo and Mc Gregor, Job Enrichment of Hertzberg. In United States the attempts to improve and change work environment began in early century. In 1915, a study commissioned by U.S. Congress, Robert F. Hozie reported how the unions, particularly the mechanists, were fighting for scientific management techniques.

The labour unions accused the so-called scientific management for condemning the workers to a monotonous routine which destroyed their creativity and drove them to the brink of nervous exhaustion. Labour Union activities in 1930s and 1940s, through collective bargaining and legislation. Led to improve conditions. The new generation workers with better education and expectations is now questioning traditional ways and means to participate in decision-making process that directly or indirectly affects their welfare and worklife.

Factors which have influenced the rapid development of QWL in 1970s include: Increasing social responsibility of management towards employees and their working environment. The impersonal nature of some large organisations,and, A widening gap between the reality of work and employees expectations. After World War-2, there has been development of QWL in Europe and also some form of projects have been introduced.

Scope of QWL: Compensation:- Reward for work should be above a minimum standard for life. Equitable balance between effort and reward should be there. Health and safety:- Working environment should be free from all hazards related to health and safety, vizcleanliness, risk free work, pollution free atmostphere. Job security :- should be there so that employees are not under a concern for there future. Social integration:- workers should feel sense of identity with organisation and develop feeling of self-esteem. Scope for better carreer options.

Areas of QWL measurement: Work life balance:- It help the employees to manage the competing demands of home and work. Health Promotion and Wellness Programme:Holding sessions for staff and there family members for setting up free counseling sessions and for obtaining information related to personal life challenges. Staff recognition and appreciation: length of service recognition. Honoring length of service milestones. Family day. Spring appreciation day. Picnic for all workers.

Principles of QWL: Principle of Security. Principle of Equity. Principle of Individualism. Principle of Democracy.

Effects of QWL: Job involvement. Sense of competence. Job satisfaction. Job performance and productivity.

Approaches to QWL:There are number of factors involved in improving the QWL as below: Flexibility in work schedule :- Employees want flexibility in work schedule with regard to.. Working hours, working days etc. Autonomous work group:- Employees must be given freedom to choose there work teams. Job enrichment:- It attempts to design job in such a way so that it makes work more challenging and interesting. Participation:-in decision-making.

Opportunity to growth:- If opportunity is given for personal growth then he will be more commited toward job.

Criteria for measuring QWL: Adequate and fair compensation. Safe and healthy working conditions. Opportunity to use and develop human capacities. Opportunity for career growth. Work and quality of life. Social relevance of work.

Obstacles in QWL: Managerial attitudes. Unions attitude. Cost consideration.

Techniques for improving QWL: Self managed work teams:- also called autonomous work teams. Each team perform activities and are rewarded individually and group performance. Job redesign and enrichment. Effective leadership and group behaviour. Career development. Alternative work schedule. Job security. Administrative justice. Participative management.