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Expression to invite someone

Tika: Hi Mit Mita: Hi Tika. Whats up? Tika: Are you free next Saturday? Mita: I think so. Whats going on? Tika: I have a plan to visit my grandmother in malang. Would you like to join me? Mita: That sounds nice but I have to ask my parents for permission Tika: Thats good then. Ill wait the news from you tonight. Bye Mita : Bye .

Offering an invitation Id like you to come to dinner Id like to ask you to come swimming Would you mind coming on my party? Would you like to? How about going ? What about ..? Why dont we ..? Shall we ..? Wont you ..?

Accepting an invitation Thank you, Id be glad to go Yes, thank you. Id be happy to go Thank you so much for inviting me Lets meet at the school canteen Yes, Id love to Sure Great All right

Declining an invitation Im sorry, Ill be very busy tomorrow Im afraid thats not too good for me, what about after lunch? Id love to, but . I wish I could, but . Sorry, I cant but thanks anyway

Expressing sympathy SYMPATHY: understanding and care about someone elses suffering. We can express our sympathy when we hear someone is hurt or upset.

Offering sympathy Im sorry Im sorry to hear about your father Im sorry to hear that your dog died Let me offer my condolences Let me tell you how sorry I am to hear about your grandmother Im sad to hear that . Im deeply sorry to hear that . Thats too bad What a pity

Responding Thank you Thats very kind of you Theres nothing that can be done about it. Its gods will, I suppose God gives and god takes away Thats life

Thomas: good afternoon, Alex. Alex: Im so glad you could come Thomas: Im very sorry to hear about Jacks death. Alex: he is my lovely brother and he is so young. Why did he have to die? Thomas: I know how you must feel Alex: well, god gives and god takes away

Work in pairs and make a conversation about expressing sympathy and give responses based on these situations!! a. A man meets a friend after his father funeral b. You meet your friend that just lost his motorcycle

Should is not strong as must: You should apologize ( it would be good thing to do) You must apologize ( you have no alternative)

You should have done something = you didnt do it but it would have been the right thing to do. It was great party last night. You should have come Im feeling sick. I shouldnt have eaten so much chocolate I wonder why they are so late. They should have been here one hour ago

Compare should and should have: You look tired. You should go to bed now You went to bed very late last night. You should have gone to bed earlier.

Complete the sentence with should or should have + the verb in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Toni .. the exam. He has studied very hard. (pass) You lost your bike yesterday. You . The police. (call) We dont see you enough. You ..and see us more often. (come) Im in difficult position. What do you think I .. ? (do) Im sorry that I didnt take your advice. I .. what you said.(do)

Advertisement is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media such as a printed display in a newspaper, magazine, billboard, banner, poster, flyer, short film on television and announcement on radio. The language that is used in advertisement must be:
- Simple

- Clear - Short - Attractive - Persuasive - Use tagline

Job vacancy



Service advertisement

In our life, time goes by until some of us die. We surely go through this life passing the time. During the whole of life, we have many happened experiences that we left behind. Sometimes we remember those experiences and sometimes we forget about them. In fact, we keep some of the events in our memory. They become our unforgettable experiences. Some are nice and some are bad experiences. What is Recount? A recount is a type of spoken or written text that deals with past experiences. The function is to retell some events that happened in the past for certain purposes; to inform and or to entertain the listeners or readers. A recount text has a generic structure, having three components (one is optional). They are: (1) Orientation, (2) Events and (3) Reorientation (optional). Recounts are principally not the same as Narratives although both talk about past events. Narratives deal with problematic events, which lead to a crisis or turning point which in turn finds a resolution while recounts do not have to come to a serious crisis or complication. A. Generic Structure of Recount Text

B. Generic Features of Recount text 1. The recount focuses on a sequence of events all of which relate to a particular occasion 2. It introduces specific participants 3. Frequent uses of Simple Past Tense 4. Past continuous tense is sometimes used 5. Temporal sequencers are also used in the sentences to show the events. They are listed below: As At that time At that moment After that Firstly Finally

Before After When

While until During



The past perfect tense is often used in English when we are relating two events which happened in the past. It helps to show which event happened first.

Past perfect is had + past participle (V3)


NARRATIVE Narrative text is a story with complication or problematic events and it tries to find the resolutions to solve the problems. An important part of narrative text is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process narration. The Purpose of Narrative Text is to amuse or to entertain the reader with a story.


Sets the scene: where and when the story happened and introduces the participants of the story: who and what is involved in the story.


Tells the beginning of the problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main participants.


The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in a sad (tragic)ending


This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists of a moral lesson, advice or teaching from the writer

Language features: a. A narrative focuses on specific participants. b. There are many action verbs, verbal and mental processes c. Direct and indirect speeches are often used d. It usually uses Past Tense e. Linking words are used, related with time f. There are sometimes some dialog and the tense can change g. Descriptive language is used to create listeners or readers imagination h. Temporal conjunctions are also used.

Q: Can due to and because of be used interchangeably? A: No. Due to is used to modify nouns only. Because of is used to modify verbs. Thus, these two expressions cannot be used interchangeably.

What is Due To Used for?

The expression due to can only be used to modify nouns. Thus, you cannot use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause.

In sentence 1, use of due to is incorrect because it is used to explain why it is cold. In other words, it is used to explain the reason behind the verb or action in the clause. This is not idiomatically correct

In sentence 2, use of due to is correct because it is used to explain the reason behind the cold wave. In other words, it is used to explain the reason behind the noun. This is idiomatically correct. Due to is correct if the sentence makes sense when you replace due to with caused by. If, it does not, then use of due to is not correct.

Here when due to is replaced with caused by, the sentence does not make sense. This check also proves that usage of due to is incorrect.

Here when due to is replaced with caused by, the sentence makes complete sense. This check proves that usage of due to is correct.

What is Because of used for?

The expression because of is used to modify entire clauses. Thus, you can use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause. Sentence 1 above can be corrected by replacing due to with because of. Now because of modifies the clause presenting the reason why it is cold in Arizona.

What are correct and incorrect usages of Due to, Caused by,& Because of?

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled due to heavy rains. INCORRECT Due to modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly. The parent-teacher meeting was canceled caused by heavy rains. INCORRECT Note how when due to is replaced with caused by, the sentence no longer makes sense.

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled because of heavy rains. CORRECT because of modifies the action in preceding clause, indicating why the meeting was canceled.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was due to heavy rains. CORRECT Due to modifies the noun cancellation.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was caused by heavy rains.- CORRECT Note how when due to is replaced with caused by, the sentence makes complete sense.

Explanation text
An explanation text explains the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or non-natural/ sociocultural phenomena. In addition, an explanation text gives you a step by step explanation. The explanation sequence contains a sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. This explanation is written in paragraphs. The concept of an explanation text: Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation and working of natural or socio cultural phenomena
Text Organization/ structure: 1. A general statement to position the reader (introductory

paragraph) 2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs 3. Closing or concluding

statement/ paragraph (optional) Language Features: Focus on generic, non-human participants The use of general and abstract nouns The use of action verbs The use of simple present tense The use of passive voice The use of conjunctions of time and cause The use of noun phrases The use of complex sentences The use of technical language

Correlative conjunction is a paired conjunction (such as not only . . . but also) that links balanced words, phrases, and clauses. The examples of correlative conjunction are: Both and Either ..or Neither .. nor Not only but also Whether ..or

-She can both speak and write Japanese.

- Both my sister and my brother play the piano. - Im going to buy either a camera or a CD player with the money. - Either she goes or I go. - Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor. - He not only read the book, but also remembered what he had read. - He is neither rich nor famous. - Neither Toms mother nor his father spoke English. - Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best. - She was uncertain whether to stay or leave. - I didnt know whether to believe him or not.


Definition: a. A short, pitchy statement of general truth one that condenses common experience into memorable form. b. A short saying that is widely used to express an obvious truth c. A traditional saying that expresses some obvious truth or familiar experience d. A popular saying which contains advice or states a generally accepted truth. Functions: a. To persuade people to action b. To advise somebody not to do something c. As folk wisdom general advice about how to act and live. Because proverbs are folk wisdom, they are often strongly reflected the cultural values and physical environment from which they arise. d. To support arguments e. To provide lessons and instruction f. To stress shared values Example of common proverb: When in Rome, do as the Romans. Act the way that the people around you are acting. This phrase might come in handy when you're traveling abroad notice that people do things differently than you're used to. "You can't make an omelet without breaking a few eggs." When you try to do something great, you'll probably make a few people annoyed or angry. Don't worry about those people; just focus on the good results.

"Don't bite the hand that feeds you." If someone's paying you or helping you out, you have to be careful not to make them angry or say bad things about them. You cant judge a book by its cover Things sometimes look different than they really are. A restaurant that looks old and small might have amazing food, for example You can lead a horse to water but you cant force him to drink If you try to help someone, but they don't take your advice or offers, give up. You can't force someone to accept your help.

English Proverb A penny saved is a penny earned When in Rome do as the romans do A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush Make hay while the sun shines The barking dog never bite The rotten apple injures its neighbors Look before you leap When you lie on roses while young, youll lie on thorns while you are old.

Values economy .. . . .. .. .

Indonesian Proverb Hemat pangkal kaya . . . . ..

Song is a short poem or other set of words set to music or meant to be sung. Song has function to
entertain, to express our feeling and to give message. Song use both literal and figurative language.

Literal means that you mean what you say exactly. Figurative means that words are used in a way that is different from the usual meaning. That way the description is more interesting or impressive. Figurative language creates a picture in your mind. Types of figurative language Simile and metaphor Similes and metaphors are the two most common types of figurative language. They are both used to compare two different things that do not usually go together.

The difference between simile and metaphor is that a simile uses the words "like" or "as" and a metaphor does not. with like / as => simile without like / as => metaphor A) A simile is a comparison of two different things using the words "like" or "as." Examples:

She runs fast like a cheetah. (She runs very fast.)

The children were as quiet as mice this morning. (The children were very quiet.)

B) A metaphor is a comparison of two different things, without "like" or "as." Examples:

The snow is a blanket over the house. (The snow covers the house.)

My little girl is an angel. (My little girl is very nice and sweet.)

Idiom An idiom is a commonly used phrase that does not mean what it says. It cannot be taken literally. There are many common idioms in the English language.

Knowing the meanings of common idioms will help you understand American English better. For a list of some commonly used idioms and their meanings. Examples:

My car just kicked the bucket. (kicked the bucket = broke down, stop working)

Bob was feeling blue after his girlfriend left him. (feeling blue = feeling sad)

Hyperbole A hyperbole is an obvious exaggeration. Hyperboles are usually used to make a point. Hyperboles cannot be taken literally. Examples:

I am so hungry I could eat a horse! (I am very hungry.)

We waited in line forever! (We waited in line for a long time.)

The coffee was so hot, I was spitting flames! (The coffee was very hot.)

Personification Personification is when a human characteristic is given to something that is not human, such as an object or an animal. Writers personify objects to provide good descriptions. Examples:

My pen was flying across the page. (I was writing very fast.)

The leaves danced in the wind. (The wind was blowing the leaves around.)

Alliteration Alliteration is the repetition of the initial sound in a series of words. Alliteration is commonly found in poetry and rhymes. Examples:

She sells seashells by the seashore. Lazy lizards lounged by the lake.


Onomatopoeias are words used to describe a sound.


bang buzz moo click smack

Clich A clich is a common expression that has been overused. Clichs can be other types of figurative language. Examples:

easy as pie (very easy)

let the cat out of the bag (tell a secret)

stick in the mud (someone who does not want to try anything new)

slept like a baby (very well)

Pun A pun is a play on words. Puns are meant to be clever and funny. Many jokes are actually puns. There are two ways to create a pun: 1. Use words that sound the same but have different meanings. 2. Use a word that has multiple meanings. Examples:

I took a job as a baker because I knead dough. (A baker can knead (mix) bread dough. People work because they need dough (money).)

Why did the bee go to the doctor? Because she had hives. (A bee lives in a hive. Hives is also an illness.)

The golfer had two pairs of pants in case he got a hole in one. (A golfer can make the ball in the hole on the first try. Or the golfer can get a hole in one pair of pants.)