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French Accents This is a list of most common accents used in popular languages. Compiled for my own reference.

It's neither authoritative nor comprehensive. Grave like an open-quotation mark used in French, Italian, Pinyin* (Chinese) often seen on words with an e-consonant-mute e combination, like frre or pice distinguishes French homophones like la and l without changing pronunciation Acute like a close-quotation mark used in Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Hungarian, Pinyin (Chinese), Polish, Slovak, Spanish in Danish and Spanish, it is used to mark emphasis Circumflex like a little roof used in Esperanto, French, Romanian, Slovak, Turkish, Vietnamese, Welsh usually indicates a long vowel sound used for various alternate accents in Esperanto

Cedilla like a tail, a little squiggle used in Albanian, French, Latvian, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish indicates a c is pronounced as a soft s, as in Franoise or garon in Turkish, and are pronounced ch and sh, respectively Tilde like a wavy line used in Estonian, Portuguese, Spanish is palatalized, as in the English word onion and , common in Portuguese, are nasalized Macron a straight horizontal line used in Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Pinyin (Chinese), Polynesian languages (Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan), Romaji (Japanese), Sanskrit Breve lower quarter of a circle used in Latin, Romanian, Turkish Dot a dot

used in Lithuanian, Polish Diaeresis (aka dieresis) 2 horizontal dots, aka umlaut or Zweipunkt in German used in Albanian, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Pinyin (Chinese), Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish (rarely), Swedish, Turkish in the Germanic languages, , , and are often transliterated as ae, oe, and ue, respectively the Dutch ligature for ij is sometimes written as known as a trema in romance languages such as French, where it indicates adjacent vowels should be pronounced separately in Spanish appears only after a g as in pingino, which indicates the u is pronounced normally rather than modifying the g Ring a ring used in Czech, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish