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23. Give the units of viscosity in (i) MKS (ii) CGS and (iii) SI systems? 24.

Give equivalent values for poise in SI units and CGS unit system? 25. Define ideal fluid? 26. Define Newtonian fluid? 27. Define ideal plastic fluid? 28. What is an incompressible fluid? 29. Give the equation for capillarity in a glass tube? 30. Define vapour pressure? 31. Define Boyles law? 32. Define Avogadros law? 33. Define surface tension 34. Give the equation for the effect of surface tension on a liquid droplet 35. Give the equation for effect of surface tension on a hollow bubble. 36. Give the equation for effect of surface tension on a liquid jet. 37. Define capillarity 38. Define Charles law. 39. Give the equation for capillarity fall in an glass tube. 40. Define system and control volume

PART - B
(16 Marks)

1.

An oil film of 1.5 mm thickness is used for lubrication of plate of 80x80 cm size and Inclined plane having 200 with the horizontal. The weight of the plate is 400 N. taking the viscosity of the oil as 10 poise; find the velocity of the plate moving along the inclined plane. 2. A 15 cm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter 15.10 cm. Both are 25 cm high. The space between the cylinders is filled with a liquid whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12 Nm is required to rotate the inner cylinder at 100 rpm. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. 3. Calculate the dynamic viscosity of oil, which is used for lubrication of surface between a plate of size 0.6*0.9 m and an inclined plane with an angle of inclination 25 degree with horizontal. The weight of plate is 500 N and it slides down the inclined with a uniform velocity of 0.4m/sec .The thickness of oil film is 1.8 mm.

4. Water flow through a pipe AB 1.2 m diameter at 3 m/sec and then passes through a pipe BC is 1.5 m diameter. At C, the pipe branches. Branch CD is 0.8m in diameter and carries one third of flow in AB. The flow velocity in branch CE is 2.5 m/sec. find the volume rate of flow in AB, the velocity in BC. The velocity in CD and the diameter of CE. 5. The Velocity Distribution for flow over a flat plate is given by u= (2/3) y-y2, Where u is the point velocity in meter per second at a distance y meter above the plate. Determine the shear stress aty=0 and y=15 cm. Assume dynamic viscosity as 8.63 poises 6. Two plates are placed at a distance of 0.15mm apart. The lower plate is fixed while the upper plate having surface area 1.0 m2 is pulled at 0.3nm/s. Find the force and power required to maintain this speed, if the fluid separating them is having viscosity 1.5 poise. 7. An oil film of thickness 1.5 mm is used for lubrication between a square plate of size 0.9m *0.9m and an inclined plane having an angle of inclination 200.The weight of square plate is 392.4 N and its slides down the plane with a uniform velocity of 0.2 m/s. find the dynamic viscosity of the oil. 8. Derive the expression for capillary rise and fall 9. Derive continuity equation 10. Derive energy equation

UNIT II FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS PART - A


Define laminar flow 2. What is boundary layer? 3. Define boundary layer thickness 4. Define displacement thickness 5. Define momentum thickness 6. Define energy thickness 7. Define hydraulic gradient 8. Define energy gradient 9. Write Darcy weish-bach equation
1.

10. What is friction factor? 11. What is Moodys diagram? 12. What are all the minor losses in pipes? 13. How will you determine the loss of head due to friction in pipes? 14. Give an expression for loss of head due to sudden enlargement of the pipe 15. Give an expression for loss of head due to sudden contraction 16. Give an expression for loss of head at the entrance of the pipe 17. Give an expression for loss of head due to an obstruction in pipe 18. Write the Hegan-Poiseuille equation 19. Write the significance of Moodys diagram 20. Define separation? 21. Write Displacement thickness equation? 22. Write momentum thickness equation? 23. Write energy thickness equation? 24. u/U=y/ find energy thickness 25. Define Discharge 26. What is rate of flow? 27. What is Bernoullis principle? Write down the equation? 28. Write down the major energy loss equation?

PART - B
1. Derive the expression for laminar flow through circular conduits and circular annuli 2. Derive Darcy-Weisbach equation (or) Expression for head loss due to friction 3. Expression for flow through pipes in series or compound pipes 4. Expression for flow through pipes in compound 5. At a sudden enlargement of a water main from 320 mm to 460 mm diameter. The hydraulic gradient rises by 12mm. Estimate the rate of flow. 6. The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water, determine the total flow rate. No 1 2 3 Length, m 800 1200 900 Diameter, m 0.2 0.3 0.4 Friction factor 0.22 0.02 0.019

7.Water is flowing through a pipe of diameter 250mm with a velocity of 3m/sec. Find the head loss due to friction for a length of 5.5m, if the coefficient of friction f is given by f =[0.03+(0.08/Re0.3)] where kinematic viscosity = 0.01strokes.

8. The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.25 m 3/sec the diameter of the pipe is 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to 400 mm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 11.772 N/cm2. Determine (i) Loss of head due to sudden enlargement (ii) Pressure intensity in the larger pipe. (iii) Power lost due to enlargement 9. A horizontal pipe line 40 m long is connected to a water tank at one end and discharge freely in to the atmosphere at the other end. For the first 25 m of its length from the tank, the pipe is 150 mm diameter and its diameter is suddenly enlarged to 300 mm. The height of water level in the tank is 8m above the centre of the pipe. Considering all losses of head which occurs determine the rate of flow. Take f= 0.01 for both section of the pipe. Draw the HGL and TEL. 10. The difference in water surface level in two tanks which are connected by three pipes in series of length 300m, 170 m, and 210m and of diameter of 300 mm, 200mm and 400mm respectively, is 12m.Determine the rate of flow of water if coefficients of friction are 0.005, 0.0052 and 0.0048 respectively. Considering (i) minor losses also (ii) neglecting minor losses. 11. The difference in water level between two tanks which are connected by three pipes in series is 15m. Lengths and diameters of these pipes are 300m, 150m, 200m and 30cm, 20cm, and 30cm respectively. Find the discharge through the pipe line and tabulate all losses if friction factor for three pipes are taken as 0.02, 0.025 and 0.03 12. A sudden enlargement of a water main from 230mm to 460mm diameter, the hydraulic gradient rises by 10mm. Estimate the discharge. 13. Find the displacement thickness, momentum thickness, energy thickness for the velocity Distribution in the boundary layer is given by u/U=2(y/)-(y/) 2.

UNIT III

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS PART A


1.

What are all the fundamental units? 2. State Buckinghams- theorem 3. Give the dimensions of i) Surface tension ii) kinematic viscosity 4. What is meant by dimensionless parameters? 5. What is Reynolds number 6. What is Froudes number 7. What is Eulers number 8. What is Webers number 9. What is Machs number 10. Define model 11. What is similitude? 12. What are all the similarity laws? 13. What are all the applications of dimensionless parameters? 14. How will you select the repeating variables for solving pi theorem? 15. Derive the dimensions of the quantities a. Angular velocity b. Angular acceleration 16. Determine the dimensions of the quantities a. Discharge b. kinematic viscosity? 17. What is dimensional homogeneity? 18. What are all the methods use in dimensional analysis? 19. What are all the types of similarities? 20. Define geometric similarity, kinematic similarity, dynamic similarity? 21. What are all the forces acting in moving fluid? 22. Define viscous force, inertia force? 23. Define gravity force, pressure force? 24. Define surface tension, elastic forces?

PART B
1.

Derive Buckinghams- theorem

2. Explain the procedure for solving the Buckinghams- theorem 3. Show that the power P developed in a water turbine can be expressed as P= N3D5 { D/B, D2N/, ND/sqrt (gh)} Where = mass density, N=speed in r.p.m, D=Diameter, B=Width, =Co-eff of dynamic viscosity 4. The efficiency of a fan depends upon following factors: 1) Density 2) Dynamic

Viscosity 3) Diameter D 4) Discharge Q and 5) Angular velocity , Show that = [/D, Q/D3].

5.The pressure difference P in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to turbulence flow depends on the velocity V, viscosity , density and roughness K. Using Buckinghams theorem, obtain an expression for P. 6. The discharge Q through an oil ring depends on the diameter D of oil ring, speed N rpm, mass density of oil, absolute viscosity of oil, surface tension and specific weight of oil. Show that Q = ND3 f [ / ND, / ND3, / ND] 7.Torque T of a propeller depends upon density of liquid , viscosity , speed N, linear velocity V, diameter of the propeller shaft D. Using Buckinghams theorem show that T= ND5 f[ ND/V, ND/ ]

UNIT IV ROTO DYNAMIC MACHINES PART A


1. Define

specific speed of turbine? 2. What is the significance of the specific speed? 3. What is Elementary cascade theory? 4. What is meant turbo machines? 5. Write Eulers equation 6. Define pump? 7. Define centrifugal pump? 8. What is priming? 9. What is the hydraulic efficiency of centrifugal pump? 10. Comparison between single stage radial flow and axial flow machines 11. State the losses in centrifugal pump? 12. How will you classify the centrifugal pump? 13. How will you classify the turbines? 14. What is gross head, net head? 15. Write the hydraulic efficiency and mechanical efficiency of turbine 16. Write volumetric, overall efficiency of turbine 17. What are all the main parts of turbine? 18. Draw the velocity triangle of turbine 19. What are all the main parts of radial flow reaction turbine? 20. What is degree of reaction? 21. What are all the main parts of centrifugal pump? 22. Define efficiencies of centrifugal pump? 23. What is section head and delivery head of centrifugal pump?

24. Define specific speed of centrifugal pump? 25. What are all the characteristic curves of the pump?

PART B
1.

Explain about centrifugal pump with neat sketch

2. Why priming is necessary to start pumping by centrifugal pump 3. Explain about turbines 4. Derive Eulers equation 5. Explain Elementary Cascade theory 6. Draw a neat sketch of Kaplan turbine, name the parts and briefly explain the working. 7. Define specific speed of the turbine? Derive an expression for the specific speed 8. Explain with neat sketch the working principle of Pelton wheel turbine 9. Explain with neat sketch the working principle of Reaction turbine 10. A centrifugal pump with an impeller of 50 cm outside and 25 cm inside diameter runs at 950 rpm. The vanes are set back an angle of 30 0to the outer rim. If the radial velocity of water through the impeller is constant at 2 m/s, determine the angle of the vane at the inlet, and direction of the water at the outlet 11. A radial flow impeller has a diameter 25cm and width 7.5cm at exit. It delivers 120litres of water per second against a head of 24m at 1440rpm. Assuming the vanes block the flow area by 5% and hydraulic efficiency of 80%. Estimate the vane angle at exit. Also calculate the torque exerted on the driving shaft if the mechanical efficiency is 95%. 12. Find the power required to drive a centrifugal pump which delivers 0.04m3/sec of water to a height of 20m through a 15cm diameter pipe and 100m long. The overall efficiency of the pump is 70% and coefficient of friction is 0.15 in the formula Hf= 4flv2 / 2gd. 13. A centrifugal pump having outer diameter equal to 2 times the inner diameter and running at 1200rpm works against a total head of 75m. The velocity of the flow through the impeller is constant and equal to 3m/sec. the vanes are set back at an angle of 30 at outlet. If the outer diameter of the impeller is 600mm and width at outlet is 50mm.

Determine i) Vane angle at inlet ii) Work done per sec by the impeller iii) Manometric efficiency 14. The impeller of a centrifugal pump has an external diameter of 450mm and internal diameter of 200mm and it runs at 1440rpm. Assuming a constant radial flow through the impeller at 2.5m/sec. and that the vanes at exit are set back at an angle of 25. Determine i)Inlet vane angle ii) The angle, absolute velocity of water at exit makes with the tangent and iii) The work done per N of water 15. The penstock supplies water from a reservoir to the pelton wheel with a gross head of 500m. One third of the gross head is lost in friction in the penstock. The rate of flow of water through the nozzle fitted at the end of the penstock is 2m 3/sec. The angle of deflection of the jet is 165. Determine the power given by the water to the runner and hydraulic efficiency of the pelton wheel. Take speed ratio=0.45 and C V=1 16. A pelton wheel having a mean bucket diameter of 1m and is running at 1000rpm. The net head on the pelton wheel is 700m. If the side clearance angle is 15 and discharge through nozzle is 0.1m3/sec. Find i) Power available at the nozzle ii) Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine 17. A reaction turbine works at 450rpm under a head of 120m. Its diameter at inlet is 120cm and the flow area is 0.4m. The angles made by absolute and relative velocities at inlet are 20 and 60 respectively with the tangential velocity. Determine i) The volume flow rate ii) the power developed iii) Hydraulic efficiency 18. As inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameters as 1m and 0.6m respectively. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is 90% when the head on the turbine is 36m. The velocity of flow at outlet is 2.5m/s and discharge at outlet is radial. If the vane angle at outlet is 15 and width of the wheel is 100mm at inlet and outlet, Determine i) the guide blade angle ii) speed of the turbine iii) vane angle of the runner at inlet iv) volume flow rate of turbine v) power developed. 19. As inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameters as 1m and 0.6m respectively. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is 90% when the head on the turbine is 36m. The velocity of flow at outlet is 2.5m/s and discharge at outlet is radial. If the vane angle at outlet is 15 and width of the wheel is 100mm at inlet and outlet, Determine i) the guide blade angle ii) speed of the turbine iii) vane angle of the runner at inlet iv) volume flow rate of turbine v) power developed. 20. The following data is given for a Francis turbine. Net head = 80m, Speed = 700rpm, Shaft power = 300kW, Overall efficiency = 80%, Hydraulic efficiency = 90%, flow ratio =0.2, and breadth ratio = 1. The thickness of vane occupies 4% of circumferential area of the runner, velocity of flow is constant at inlet and outlet and discharge is radial at

outlet. Determine i) Diameters of runner at inlet and outlet, assume D2=D1/2. ii) Width of wheel at inlet iii) Guide blade angles iv) runner vane angles at inlet and outlet.

UNIT V POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS PART A


1.

Define pump? 2. What are the main parts of reciprocating pump? 3. What is the slip in reciprocating pump? 4. Why negative slip occurs in reciprocating pump? 5. How will you classify the reciprocating pump? 6. What is single acting pump and double acting pump? 7. Define indicator diagram? 8. Define ideal indicator diagram? 9. What is an air vessel? 10. What is the purpose of an air vessel fitted in the pump? 11. What is Discharge through a Reciprocating Pump in per sec? 12. What is the Work done by Reciprocating Pump per sec.? 13. What is the Mean Velocity of Single acting reciprocating pump? 14. Define Rotary pumps 15. How will you classify the rotary pump? 16. Write the work done equation for single and double acting reciprocating pump? 17. Define percentage slip? 18. How will you determine the maximum speed of the reciprocating pump? 19. Differentiate centrifugal and reciprocating pump? 20. Define positive displacement pump

PART B
1.

Explain about reciprocating pump with neat sketch

2. Draw and explain constant efficiency curves of a pump

3. Draw the indicator diagram and explain its significance 4. What is an air vessel? Describe the function of the air vessel for reciprocating pump with neat sketch 5. Explain with neat sketch the working principle of rotary pump (Gear / Vane pump) 6. The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 200mm and 400mm respectively, the pump runs at 60rpm and lifts 12litres of water per second through a height of 25m. The delivery pipe is 20m long and 150mm in diameter. Find i) Theoretical power required to run the pump ii) Percentage of slip iii) Acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the delivery stroke. 7. The length and diameter of a suction pipe of a single acting reciprocating pump are 5m and 10cm respectively. The pump has a plunger of diameter 150mm and stroke of length of 300mm. The centre of the pump is 4m above water surface in the pump. The atmospheric pressure head is 10.3m of water and pump is running at 40rpm. 8. Two geometrical similar pumps are running at the speed of 750rpm. One pump has an impeller diameter of 0.25m and lifts the water at the rate of 30 lit/sec against a head of 20m. Determine the head and impeller diameter of the other pump to deliver half the discharge. 9. i)What is reciprocating pump? Describe the principle and working of a double acting reciprocating pump with a neat sketch. ii) Define slip, percentage slip and negative slip of a reciprocating pump. 10. A double acting reciprocating pump running at 60rpm is discharging 1.5m3 of water per minute. The pump has a stroke length of 400mm. The diameter of the piston is 250mm. The delivery and suction heads are 20m and 5m respectively. Find the power required to drive the pump and the slip of the pump. 11. A double acting reciprocating pump has a bore of 15cm diameter and stroke 30cm long. The piston rod diameter is 25mm. The crank rotation speed is 60rpm. The water is lifted to a height of 20m and the percentage of slip is -2 (negative value). Find the actual discharge of the pump and the power required to lift the water.