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FS 5

Episode 3

Learning Assessment Strategies

ON CONTENT VALIDITY OF TESTS


Name of FS Student: Mannielle Mae T.Oliva Course: Bachelor of Elementary Education Year & Section: IV Resource Teacher 1: Mrs. Rowena P. Garcia Signature ___________Date:__________ Cooperating School: Bernardo Lirio Memorial Central School My Target In this Episodes, I must be able to examine different types of scoring rubrics used by my Resource Teachers and relate them to assessment of student learning. I am able to see and examine various types of learners portfolios that my Resource Teachers used for assessing learners performance. My Performance (How I Will Be Rated) Field Study 5, Episode 4- On Scoring rubrics Field Study 5, Episode 5 - On Portfolios Focused on-Types on Scoring Rubrics Focused on- Types of Learners Portfolio Task Exemplary 4 Superior 3 Satisfactory 2 Unsatisfactory 1

Observation/ Documentation:

All tasks were All or nearly all done with tasks were done outstanding with high quality quality; work exceeds expectations 4 3

Nearly all tasks Fewer than half were done with of tasks were acceptable done; or most quality objectives met but with poor quality 2 1

My Analysis

Analysis questions were answered completely; in depth answers; thoroughly grounded on theories/Exemplary grammar and spelling.

Analysis Analysis Analysis questions were questions were questions were answered not answered not answered. completely completely. Clear connection Vaguely related Grammar and with theories to the theories spelling unsatisfactory. Grammar and Grammar and spelling are spelling superior. acceptable. 3 2 1

4 My Reflection Reflection statements are profound and clear, supported by experiences from the episode.

Reflection Reflection Reflection statements are statements are statements are clear, but not shallow; unclear and clearly supported by shallow and are supported by experiences not supported by experiences from the experiences from the episode. from the episode. episode. 3 Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized and most supporting documentation are available and/or in logical and clearly marked locations. 3 On the deadline 2 Portfolio is incomplete; supporting documentation is organized but is lacking. 1 Portfolio has many lacking components; is unorganized and unclear.

4 My Portfolio Portfolio is complete, clear, well-organized and all supporting documentation are located in sections clearly designated.

4 Submission Before deadline

1 days or

A day after the Two

deadline 4 Sub Totals 3 2

more after the deadline 1

Over-all Score

Rating: (Based on transmutation)

____________________________ Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name

__________________ Date

Transmutation of score to grade/rating Score 20 18-19 17 16 15 14 Grade 1.0 - 99 1.25 - 96 1.5 - 93 1.75 - 90 2.00 - 87 2.25 - 84 Score 12-13 11 10 8-9 7-below Grade 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.5 5.00 81 78 75 72 and below

My Map
1. Review Scoring Rubrics in Assesment of Learning 2, 2007, by Santos, R. pp.37-44

2. Interview at least 2 Resources Teachers on their use of scoring rubrics in assessing learning.

3. Request my Resource Teachers for a copy ( for to photocopy) of the scoring rubrics that the school uses for hroup projects, students papers cooperative learning activities.

4. If there are no scoring rubrics available I will research samples of scoringrubrics for student papers , cooperative learning activities, group projects, performances and the like.

5. I will analyzed information gathered from my interview and research. 6. I will reflect on all information gathered.

My Tools
Interview of my Resources Teachers I will ask the following question: 1. Where do you use the scoring rubrics? ( student output or product and activities) Scoring rubrics are typically employed when a judgement of quality is required and may be used to evaluate a broad range of subjects and activities. One common use of scoring rubrics is to guide the evaluation of writing samples. Judgements concerning the quality of a given writing sample may vary depending upon the criteria established by the individual evaluator. One evaluator may heavily weigh the evaluation process upon the linguistic structure, while another evaluator may be more interested in the persuasiveness of the argument.

2. What help have scoring rubrics given you? When there were no scoring rubrics yet, what did you use? Authentic assessments tend to use rubrics to describe student achievement. At last, heres clarity on the term. Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the same instant appeal (Yes, this is what I need!) followed closely by panic (Good grief, how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?). When you learn what rubrics doand why you can create and use them to support and assess student learning without losing your sanity. 3. What difficulties have you met in the use of scoring rubrics? Scoring rubrics are currently used by students and teachers in classrooms from kindergarten to college across North America. They are popular because they can be created for or adapted to a variety of subjects and situations. Scoring rubrics are especially useful in assessment for learning because they contain qualitative descriptions of performance criteria that work well within the process of formative evaluation. In recent years, many educational researchers have noted the instructional benefits of scoring rubrics (for example, Arter & McTighe, 2001; Goodrich Andrade, 2000). Popham noted their potential as instructional illuminators in a 1997 article entitled Whats Wrong - and Whats Right - with Rubrics, but he also cautioned that many rubrics now available to educators are not instructionally beneficial (p.72). Unfortunately, many rubrics are still not instructionally useful because of inconsistencies in the descriptions of performance criteria across their scale levels. The most accessible rubrics, particularly those available on the Internet, contain design flaws that not only affect their instructional usefulness, but also the validity of their results. For scoring rubrics to fulfill their educational ideal, they must first be designed or modified to reflect greater consistency in their performance criteria descriptors.

4. Do you make use of holistic and analytic rubrics? How do they differ? Analytic rubrics identify and assess components of a finished product. Holistic rubrics assess student work as a whole. Rubric Reminders: 1. Neither the analytic nor the holistic rubric is better than the other one. 2. Consider your students and grader(s) when deciding which type to use. 3. For modeling, present to your students anchor products or exemplars of products at various levels of development.

5. Which is easier to use- analytic or holistic? Neither rubric is better than the other. Both have a place in authentic assessment, depending on the following: Who is being taught? Because there is less detail to analyze in the holistic rubric, younger students may be able to integrate it into their schema better than the analytic rubric. How many teachers are scoring the product? How many teachers are scoring the product? Different teachers have different ideas about what constitutes acceptable criteria and used what and where they are more comfortable.

6. Where you involved in the making of scoring rubrics? How do you make one? Which is easier to construct analytic or holistic? No I just browse on the internet a I often used Holistic rubrics so I can measure the whole work of the student.

Research
I will research on the following Types of rubrics

Analytic rubric Most rubrics, like the Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Using the Research rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of organization and distinguish that from how well the student did on historical accuracy. Holistic rubric In contrast, a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of performance for each criterion. Instead, a holistic rubric assigns a level of performance by assessing performance across

multiple criteria as a whole. For example, the analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holistic rubric. When to use rubrics Rubrics are best suited for use in situations where a wide range of variation exists between what's considered very proficient and what's considered not yet proficient. Rubrics are very useful in providing guidance and feedback to students where skills and processes are the targets to be monitored. Examples of skills or processes that adapt well to being rubriced include: writing, applying the method of scientific inquiry, thinking skills (i.e. constructing, comparing, problem solving), and life-long learner skills (i.e. collaborative work, quality processes, etc.) Methods, such as tests, quizzes, checklists, etc., are more conducive to monitoring quantities or amounts of factual information known by a learner. Rubrics are useful to scaffold the accomplishment of a new performance task or to introduce new skills and processes. Best results with rubrics often occur when students are involved in the design of the rubric, as well as in the feedback process and in reporting to stakeholders. How to construct the two types of rubrics Rubrics are a quick and powerful way to grade everything from projects to papers. This how to provides step-by-step instructions to help you create effective rubrics. Difficulty: Average Time Required: 20 minutes Here's How: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make a list of what you want the students to accomplish through your assignment. Organize your list from most important to least important. Decide on an overall point value for the assignment. Assign each item on your ranked list a percentage value out of 100 percent. Multiply your total point value from step 3 by each item's assigned percentage to arrive at the point value for that item. On a fresh sheet of paper, write the name for each item on your list in order from most to least important. Make sure to leave room in between each category. Assign specific grading criteria for each main category from step six.

6.

7.

8.

Distribute or display the rubric to the students when you are explaining the assignment.

Advantages and disadvantages of using rubrics

My Analysis
1. What benefits have scoring rubrics brought to the teaching learning process? A rubric is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task. In many cases, rubrics are used to delineate consistent criteria for grading. Because the criteria are public, a rubric allows teachers and students alike to evaluate criteria, which can be complex and subjective. A rubric can also provide a basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. It is aimed at accurate and fair assessment, fostering understanding and indicating the way to proceed with subsequent learning/teaching. This integration of performance and feedback is called ongoing assessment or formative assessment. A rubric can best support the teaching and learning process when it is shared with the learner at the beginning of task creation or development process. Pamela Flash states that When students are apprised of grading criteria from the start, they can be more involved in the process of working toward success.[1] Additionally, a rubric developed with learners can increase their understanding of the task and the expectations around quality. 2. How are scoring rubrics related to portfolio assessment? Portfolios are a kind of authentic assessment and because authentic assessments cannot be graded like traditional assessments, scoring rubrics is just one way to assess portfolios in order to increase the reliability of scores based on human judgment. 3. To get the most from scoring rubrics, what should be observed in the making and use of scoring rubrics? Scoring is not always as simple and straightforward as counting the number of words spelled correctly on a spelling test. In performance assessments, students generate their own responses. Performance assessments frequently result in a product that is created or constructed by the students. Evidence of learning is demonstrated through such products as posters, essays, projects, models, research papers, and portfolios. Another aspect of the performance assessment that may be assessed is performance itself, as well as the product created. Sometimes performance of something is the product. Performances are not limited to dance, physical education, art, and music, but can also

include speeches, demonstrations, and class presentations in any subject area. Performance might also involve the actions of the student while preparing the product. In some situations, we observe how a student behaves when the student is "performing," but in other circumstances we observe learning-related behaviors in the classroom setting; e.g., time on task, participation in class discussions, oral presentation behaviors, or collaboration skills.. Whether we are assessing the product, performance, or both, one important guideline is that the assessment be done systematically so all students are assessed on the same basis.

My Reflection
Reflects on this: Scoring rubrics: Boon or Bane?
BOON Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for many reasons. First, they are powerful tools for both teaching and assessment. Rubrics can improve student performance, as well as monitor it, by making teachers' expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations. The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning. Thus, the most common argument for using rubrics is they help define "quality." One student actually didn't like rubrics for this very reason: "If you get something wrong," she said, "your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to do!" (Marcus 1995). A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the quality of their own and others' work. When rubrics are used to guide self- and peerassessment, students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another's work. Repeated practice with peer-assessment, and especially self-assessment, increases students' sense of responsibility for their own work and cuts down on the number of "Am I done yet?" questions. Third, rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self- and peer-assessed according to a rubric, they have little left to say about it. When they do have something to say, they can often simply circle an item in the rubric, rather than struggling to explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to suggest in terms of improvements. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement. Fourth, teachers appreciate rubrics because their "accordion" nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes. The examples here have three or four gradations of quality, but there is no reason they can't be "stretched" to reflect the work of both gifted students and

those

with

learning

disabilities.

Finally, rubrics are easy to use and to explain. Christine Hall, a fourth grade teacher, reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics: Students were able to articulate what they had learned, and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics. During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose, and how they were used in class. The reaction of parents was very encouraging. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful.

My Portfolio
Scoring Rubrics for Paragraph Writing

Qualities & Criteria


Format/Layout

Poor (0-80)

Good (80-90)

Excellent (90100)
Closely follows all the requirements related to format and layout.

Presentation of the text Structuring of text Follows requirements of length, font and style

Follows poorly the Follows, for the most requirements related part, all the to format and layout. requirements related to format and layout. Some requirements are not followed.

(Weight 15%) Content/Information

All elements of the topics are addressed The information is technically sound Information based on careful research Coherence of information (Weight 50%)

The essay is not objective and addresses poorly the issues referred in the proposed topic. The provided information is not necessary or not sufficient to discuss these issues.

The essay is objective The essay is objective and for the most part and addresses with an addresses with an in in depth analysis all depth analysis most the issues referred in of the issues referred the proposed topic. in the proposed topic. The provided The provided information is information is, for the necessary and most part, necessary sufficient to discuss and sufficient to these issues. discuss these issues.

Quality of Writing

Clarity of sentences

The essay is not well The essay is well The essay is well written, and contains written for the most written from start to many spelling errors, part, without spelling, finish, without

and/or grammar and paragraphs errors and/or use of No errors and English errors. The spelling, grammar and essay is badly use of English organized, lacks Organization and clarity and/or does not present ideas in a coherence of ideas coherent way.

grammar or use of English errors. The essay is for the most part well organized, clear and presents ideas in a coherent way.

spelling, grammar or use of English errors. The essay is well organized, clear and presents ideas in a coherent way.

(Weight 20%) References and use of references

Scholarly level of references How effective the references are used in the essay Soundness of references APA style in reference list and for citations (Weight 15%)

Most of the Most of the references used are references used are not important, and/or important, and are of are not of good/scholarly good/scholarly quality. There is a quality. There is not a minimum of 4 minimum of 4 scholarly resources scholarly resources, that are for the most and/or they are not part used effectively used effectively in thein the essay. Most of essay. References are the references are not effectively used, effectively used, and/or correctly cited correctly cited and and/or correctly listed correctly listed in the in the reference list reference list according to APA according to APA style. style.

All the references used are important, and are of good/scholarly quality. There is a minimum of 4 scholarly resources that are used effectively in the essay. All the references are effectively used, correctly cited and correctly listed in the reference list according to APA style.

Overriding criterion: 0riginality and authenticity. If the essay is identified as not being original, and/or not done by the student, the instructor has the right to grade the paper as an F.

My Map I will follow the following steps:


Step 1. Revioew Porfolio Assesment Methods, I will refer to Assesment of Learning 2, 2007 by Santos R. pp. 6375 and other refernces

Step 2. Talk atleast with two Resource Teachers and ask permission to go over available learner portfolio.

Step 3. Classify the porfolio

Step 4. Examine the elements and contents of each portfolio. Step 5. Analyze my observations. Step 6. Reflect on my experience

My Tools
Chekclist Classify the porfolio examined. Use the checklist below. Types of Porfolio Documentation portfolio Process portfolio Showcase portfolio Observation Checklist Select 3 best portfolios from what you examined. Which element/s is/ are present in each? Please check. Elements of a Portfolio Put your ( ) Check here. 1. Cover letter- about the Author and What My Portfolio Tally ( How many did you see?) many many many Frequency

Shows About My Progress as a Learner 2. Table Of Contents with numbered pages 3. Entries- Both core (required items) and optional items ( chosen by students) 4. Dates on all entries to facilitate proof of growth over time 5. Drafts of aural/ oral and written products and revised versions, i.e. ( first drafts and corrected/ revised versions) 6. Reflections

My Analysis 1. Did I see samples of the 3 different types of portfolio? Yes 2. What did I observe to be the most commonly used portfolio? A working portfolio is so named because it is a project in the works, containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. It serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more permanent assessment or display portfolio. A working portfolio is different from a work folder, which is simply a receptacle for all work, with no purpose to the collection. A working portfolio is an intentional collection of work guided by learning objectives. 3. As I examined 3 selected portfolios, did I see all the elements of a portfolio? Yes I see the elements of the portfolio they are the; 1. Cover Letter About the author and What my portfolio shows about my progress as a learner (written at the end, but put at the beginning). The cover letter summarizes the evidence of a students learning and progress. 2. Table of Contents with numbered pages.

3. Entries - both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of students choice). The core elements will be required for each student and will provide a common base from which to make decisions on assessment. The optional items will allow the folder to represent the uniqueness of each student. Students can choose to include best pieces of work, but also a piece of work which gave trouble or one that was less successful, and give reasons why. 4. Dates on 5. Drafts of i.e., all entries, to facilitate written and proof of growth over time. versions; versions.

aural/oral first

and drafts

products and revised corrected/revised

6. Reflections can appear at different stages in the learning process (for formative and/or summative purposes.) and can be written in the mother tongue at the lower levels or by students who find it difficult to express themselves in English.

a. For each item - a brief rationale for choosing the item should be included. This can relate to students performance, to their feelings regarding their progress and/or themselves as learners. 4. Is it necessary for a teacher to use varied types of portfolio? Why? Teachers understand and use varied assessments to inform instruction, evaluate and ensure student learning. Teachers are knowledgeable about assessment types, their purposes and the data they generate. 5. If one element or two elements of a portfolio are missing, will this have any impact on the assessment process? Explain your answer. It will affect the grading system of the portfolio. And it may lead to misunderstanding of the student for she will not get the grade that she deserves. My Reflection 1. Have portfolios made the learning assessment process inconvenient? Is the effort exerted on portfolio assessment commensurate to the improvement of learning? Instructional approaches on K-12 education have changed with the passage of time. Technological advancements have brought into play greater use of visual aids, hypermedia, and interactive simulations and lesser practice of the traditional chalkboard method. Additionally, curricular developments have been undertaken to address the ever increasing stack of educational information needed by students. These did not only redefine the teaching process during K-12 education but also affected the learning experience of students. Such curricular changes also brought about dynamism in the educational evaluation process. Electronically generated examinations, evidenced-based researches, learning portfolios, and the like have been utilized in addition to the conventional paper-and-pen examinations. The use of learning portfolios, as a new approach to the evaluation process has gauged students' performance and ability to process learned information. Portfolios are collection of documents, literature and other educational materials designed to assess specific student performance. These may cover the conception, drafting, and revision of works in progress; the best pieces of a student's creation; student's assessment of outputs; and parents' and/or instructors' evaluative comments on strengths and weaknesses. It is reflective of the daily learning experience of students and should be a continuous documentation to specifically scale student's status, progress and accomplishments.

My Portfolio Capture what you learned on types, functions and elements of a portfolio by means of 3 separate graphic organizers. Types of Portfolio Kinds of Element Portfolio 1. Working Portfolios A working portfolio is so named because it is a project in the works, containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. It serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more permanent assessment or display portfolio. A working portfolio is different from a work folder, which is simply a receptacle for all work, with no purpose to the collection. A working portfolio is an intentional collection of work guided by learning objectives. Cover Letter About the author and What my portfolio shows about my progress as a learner (written at the end, but put at the beginning). The cover letter summarizes the evidence of a students learning and progress. Functions of Portfolio

Function
The function of a portfolio assessment is to measure progress of a particular process over a specified length of time. Before beginning a portfolio, the student must be aware of the goals she is trying to accomplish with this project. Otherwise, she will be confused as to what artifacts to include. According to Sewell, Marczack and Horn, "If goals and criteria have been clearly defined, the 'evidence' in the portfolio makes it relatively easy to demonstrate that the individual or population has moved from a baseline level of performance to achievement of particular goals." A portfolio functions as a place to store materials so they are not forgotten and so that the student can continuously reflect on her growth in that particular subject area. According to David Sweet, a writer for the Education Consumer Guide Office of Research, "A portfolio may be a folder containing a student's best pieces and the student's evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the pieces. It may also contain one or more works-in-progress that illustrate the creation of a product, such as an essay, evolving through various stages of conception, drafting, and revision" (Sweet, 1993).

2. Table of Contents with numbered pages. 3. Entries - both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of students choice). The core elements will be required for each student and will provide a common base from which to make decisions on assessment. The optional items will allow the folder to represent the uniqueness of each student. Students can choose

Display, Showcase, or Best Works Portfolios Probably the most

rewarding use of student portfolios is the display of the students' best work, the work that makes them proud. Students, as well as their teachers, become most committed to the process when they experience the joy of exhibiting their best work and interpreting its meaning. Many educators who do not use portfolios for any other purpose engage their students in the creation of display portfolios. The pride and sense of accomplishment that students feel make the effort well worthwhile and contribute to a culture for learning in the classroom.

to include best pieces of work, but also a piece of work which gave trouble or one that was less successful, and give reasons why. 4. Dates on all entries, to facilitate proof of growth over time. 5. Drafts of aural/oral and written products and revised versions; i.e., first drafts and corrected/revised versions. 6. Reflections can appear at different stages in the learning process (for formative and/or summative purposes.) and can be written in the mother tongue at the lower levels or by students who find it difficult to express themselves in English. a. For each item - a brief rationale for choosing the item should be included. This can relate to students performance, to their feelings regarding their progress and/or themselves as learners.

Assessment Portfolios The primary function of an assessment portfolio is to document what a student has learned. The content of the curriculum, then, will determine what students select for their portfolios. Their reflective comments will focus

on the extent to which they believe the portfolio entries demonstrate their mastery of the curriculum objectives. For example, if the curriculum specifies persuasive, narrative, and descriptive.