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Introduction to

I ntroduction t o
10 . r . 6opKc o lJlt'f . H. M. E /nt 3111llJ:OIl , JI . A. H 3pllHlIeDHOf.
T . H . IoMeHkO
JiJ.a a Te..'1bC'TBO B .. ICWWII W1ICoJla
M """",
Introduction to
l f ~ p ~ ~ ~ ~ y
Translated rrom the Russian
by Olea Efunov
First pubtl. hed n u
~ from the 19Itl It...,.;.,. edHloa
o " m ~
..8 ~ mKQM)O, 191
() EnalW> u ana1f,Ooa. "'Ill PIIblWl t rs 15lll'

1. of ,be COflCqltJ of IIIld '''''''ion
3. FromI rIlftric to lQPOlosical watt
4. The notion of ItiaDaan _fad:
5. SomnbiD& about knot,
FlIfIher; .-lin,
l. Topolotleal lpoI<:a and oonl' n\lOUS mappillBl 40
2. TopolQfy I nd ro nlinuolu maPl'illll of mtl rlc Spaca R", S" - , ami
D" ...
J. Factor spate and quotient topology S2
4. Cl.wll1cat ion of JIlrrlCU "
, . Or bit Jpaces. Projecliwo and IetU1J'KU 67
6. Opcnllool over lei' ,1\ I wpolOskal SPlIce 70
7. OpmItioM aver soeu In Sphcre$ aIld Comp!clmcu 7]
t. p, opertlu of COIItlD\lOIlS IMppinas 76
9. Produclt of tOPOloai<al JPIl<:n III
10. CO<'IJIeO;1ftI IlliU0( topalop Spacc:II ..
I I. CountablllYand scpaIation ....iolm II
11. and ""Plf.lbili ly 92
I) . CoIlll*1lJ*ll'S and tbcir maJll'iqs 97
14. CompaairotMiDots of lopokJsi<;:ll 1Qj;
Fwthft readVI& Ill?
I M--.. JJ*Il$, HOaKIlopies etrl cllon, . aad del_Ions
1. fllaCl Of -'- alteb...aatloD of \<IiIOlcIciW ptOblcm,I:
1. f\Jnaon of lIocnoIollJ'IJOlI JII
4. ComJll'lq 1M rooncboncnlaJ ..lid 1Jf0llpl of ..... ,patti
fllnJrus rcdnJ
I. Bask aoUoN of diffcnn.tial """kulus;n .. -dirnmWoaal SIMIOl:
2. Smooth wbonanifoldl in E",,1Ideu

3. Smocxh IlWIifolds 16 .
C. Smoofh fu:nctionllin. manif old and IlIIOOlh parthian of unil, 173
,. MaPl' inas of manifolds ISO
6. Tan&enl bUndle lind l&t\ICnlial map 183
1. T;onaent V(Q'r u di fferential operator . or l\.Iocllon Ind cotaJ\&enl
bundle 199
I. Vector rlddl on JIlIOOCtI JIl&Ilifoids 208
9. Fibre bundle...nd --mnp 113
10 .sr-Il fltDClioD on rDallifdd &.s ccUular Slnoc:twc of ........ fold (na>Dllk) 215
I I . ""....'S ......l'llle cmieaJ poUilllDd its mda 140
11. D=:ribi"l'--DPJ Inx 01 mani fold bJ _ of critlc:al ....115 244
Funis" rndina 249
I . PJd lminal)l notC!l
1. HomolotY srGI'PS of dWn
, . Homolot.Y.p CNpl of limplicial eomplaa
4. Sift&ulaT lIomoiosJ lkcory
, . HOlnOIDsY lMory a,xiomI:
6. HOIIIOIoIY ,"",ps of Devft of mappina
7. Homolou ITClI.1J* of cdl COInJIk:Hs
C. Ellkr charaderlstic and nllmbn
Further ladln.
...... -.
SKbjtct Indelt
TopoiolD' is a subject has only bem inuod Ud into the:c:urrituJum
of mallianatic$ departmmts. Howc'!er , it does , in w r op inion, play quile a con
siduab4c: role: with respc:a 10 unl venlty math..matics ed ualtl on as III. whole:. It is
bard )' possI ble: to design courses In math emat ical anaI y.loi" differen tial equation"
diffCTC'ntllll geometry , medlanks, and funetilmal analy sis that H'relpond to the
mode m $late o f these dJ5dpllnes wit hout invol vIng tOpOlogical concepts. It "
therefore cuentiltJ to ac:.quaint atuden ts willi topoloaJcal methO<b of iucarch as
IIO(In as they " an t heir (InC. unl vc:rs!ty tOUr$Cll.
Havint lcetured. on topo lOD for $Orne time t o fir$!. re-r university stuOe:nt l, we
ruiiscd that t here is III. great need for a tenbook th at b: comprdlensi ble 10 sl udcou
who have a minimal of nal bcmatics (i .e. , tbey ate colt\izatlt of amenl
fJCl theory, , cneral al&cbr., the of linear a1Jdn. cd math_ieal
analysis) ud that wiD inl.todw:c rudoet to the basic: idea$ \tlldc:riyin. modem
t oPOlosY. At the same time, the: book sboulcl "OCIl ain l:fttain volulac of
topoloJical conttpU and JDClhodI.
This textbook b ODe: of the many pouibte:varianu of . first COUIX in topolol1
.,d it wmtm in ac>cordaJIce: .nth both the autbors' prefere_ and lbdr apc::ric:ncc:
as Icc:rwCQ and rac::arehc:n. Jt dull wit.b those area of topoJosy thal we I'l:>OSt
cJosdy rdated to COWKS in smual matbetnaticJ:and applieadOlU. The
matmallnves .aICClIIrft" lffechoice as In bowhe Of she mil' want to drsian hi , or
her own topology course and lleminar
We draw your atten tion to nwnbu of dcvka we have: l.lSC'd in lhis book in
orner to Introduce: gentrlll tOpOlOlD' railer. We ha.-e Iher ..Core:introduced conllrue-
tive conc:c:pl.S, for c:urnple. those r elat ed to the: noI lon of faetor ' pace, much earli er
thM the ether notl olll of general tope loSY. Thil ma kes il posdble for studenu to
study ImpOnant examples of mani folds (t wo-dimmlional surfaces, f)rojealve
spaces. orbil spaces, et c.) as topolQlkalsp&CCS. Later (01. IV) ,mooth 5lnlC\utn
are der".c:d on them. The th COl}' of two-d imensional sW"f_b not ClOfInnc:dee e ne
plaee: but 11 distributed IIIIKIIlJ$I. Ch . I , Cb . II and Ch . JlI IS and when the bas ic
ideas of amcallopo&osy are devdopc:d. The JIOlion$ of ealqory and functor an:
Inlrodueed inlO hOlllOtopy lhcoty quite early; likewise, the Idea ollH a1acbnl iu-
t ioo of lopoJnlic:a1 The apprOlldt bdps lIS apound holnotopy
U1d homoJoay theories uniforcnJy and compktc: tbe dcsaiptioo of various
boIDo kl$)' theories with t he St c:e:nrod-Eilm bc:rl a.Uom.alks,lIIUiD, up , to limit a -
ImI, lor the abfeneeof the:proofof W invariana: of limptil:ial bomolosy theory In
this IW booJc. Moreover. thehornotopy almpul iUilnll edmlque (Cb_ JU) if reduced
10the c:alcubtion of t he arou p! of t he araunfc:n::-.t an d ckJse:dMlr

fKC$. "The equalit y,.... (5" ; Z) "'" Z. II .. 2 u, ho>ftvu, liven '/Ii'ithoul proo f and
saves as a basis for me IntrodlK1ioo o f the dqrcc of. nuoPPinl of sphcns an d the
characteristic: of vector r.eld (willi the Brouwer and fundamental theor em of
alarM' bcinl Qedueed); while in thc bo molocYIlfOUP section (Cb. V). the t echniq ue
b U1cl:Kkd to CU(t SC'QUCIJCaI. In p*rtil;Ular , t he lJou p H,. (5" : Z) is com puted, and
the Brollwcr and Lefschcu. rl!led-poi nt theorems arc Tn spit e of havln!
prepared cY<: rythin, fo' a devdopme:nl of the thnique, we pur posei)' thc
subj ect !land at thai beca use of the spec ial objectives of the teJlt boo k.
The concepts of smoo th struct ure on a manifold and of tangent space (CII. IV)
lin e been e1 abontcd lUst r upulolUly.., PQu iblc. The tcmlino lo8Yh.... be en revised.
and the relal lons of the ",bjtt! wilh mechanics , dynamic systems and the Morse
thcor y emptuuiud. We believe rna, a number of homololY thoory varoanll
(sinaullr, simplic:ial, ceUular) should be at as early. slqc as powbk when
1tutin, on the IOpie Pnte the reaeer may encou nter Inem in even the simples l IP-
ptieltioN. AerordlDaJy. the vann h lie explaina1 in 01. v,
The ClIcn:ises in the l eal of I SCdkm often I W!:Iple liDeof rcasonin, and
InInlended to kwi,oraie the rnde, 's1.hc:NJ,ht. We indiclte the end of t he proof of
Ihe(M"CRl .nth t be .t&n . , and if il is 10 '-pIll te In u unp!c from the
runher tUl. , the lIan is t hen .
Note t haI ahhollp th is text book h based on lectures ddlvert'd by
)'u. G. Bortsovlch to studenu of the MathtmatKs Department of Voronezh
Unlveu ily, t hey hi ve been con5idcrll.bly revised by the authors, All the textual draw-
lngs arc by T, N, Fcmecko, while the cover 'lnd chapter title illlUltrat ions arc by
Prof, A. T. Fomenko (Moscow University) ....hom the authOrs ....ould like 10 t hank
sinCtl ely.
In condusion. we would like 10 u pre" our $inccre .ratitudc to A. V. Chern.v.
sky for his valuable advice and l1Kfu! critkisnu. to M. M. PO$lnikov both for lXIt
discuWocu 0" lhe methods of leal:hin, topoloo 10 firsI_yur IltUverrity a udeolS
and mao)' ot her useful remlrb, and , finally. fillY we thank A. S. hshchmko for
his uxflJl advice.
We arc aho aratef ul to a IIlI'"OUP of JOUJ\I st aff lDCIllbcrs and It
t he dcp anmCDI of a!&cbraand mcIhol1s in anal ysis of Voron<:d"o Uni,,"-
$it)' for their helpfUl disc:w:sions and utnlltks. Yu. E. Gliktidl, V. G. ZVYllin,
M. N. Knu> and N. M. MeDer hi ve cadi dleckt'd thrOUl h II of dllplerl ,
and a considerabl e qUlnt il)' of mispr ints were CORect ed due to Iheir valulble

We have received many C\ltnmcnl5 upon the Ru.n ian edil ion Oflhi 5textbook and
ere Ihankfu! 10 th ose who have contri buted them for many use ful remarh they
made . Many of their Jullestion5 were takCll into account when We prepared this;
revised edition.
First Notions
of Topol09Y
The purpose of this chapter is 10 pupare the reader for the
syll emalic: study of l opoloS)' as it b expounded in t he slibseqUent
chapleTs. Ou r PUl'pQ5C here is to review the problems , whose sctu-
lion has led 10 the formation of lopolol ' as a mathematical
di scipline an d to its d e v d o p ~ n l at present . We il1sodUcuss the
bqinnings of lbe notions of topological space an d mani fold .
Quant 1 toute, Ie' vole'
di _ 0<1.ic sue:-
Ce: ..ive:.etI 1me a>n<luhaicnl i
I' Analysjs Sitns-.
Topology as a science was, as i t is believed. forme d thro ugh the wor ks
of the SJeat French mathematician Henri Po incart. at the-end ofthe i9-th century.
The: beginnin&s of IOpolol'1 re,eart:h may be d3ted to the work of O. Riemann in
the mi ddle o f the 19-th ccntlM)' . In nis investig3tiolUl of the function theory.
devdopcd new methods based em geometric repeesea taucn . He is abo known for
baving made an att crnpl to formulate thc notion ofmanY-dimensJonal manifold and
to intr oduce h igher order' of conn cCl.ivit y_ These notio ns were by
Italian mathematician Betti (1811) bUI it WilliPoincare wh o, by keeping in mind the
rcqlli rcments of the: theories of fun ction and diffcn:ntial cqu81! ons . introduced a
number o f very impo nant topo[ogiea! concepts, devcloped a profound theory and
applied it 'IOhis research In these bram:he$ o f mathcmllics and mechanics. His ideu
an d the pro blems wh ich he suggened have had il Ctmsiderable innucnee o n the
developmen t oftopol Oi)' and Its application up to the PR:'CDt day.
Poincare dcfmed to po logy (whicb was ealIl then Analysis situs) as follows:
' L' Analysis Sit Os est 1& science q ui nous fait connai'tte les pro pritt b quali tativcs des
figurcs g)rnetriqucs non seulcrncnt duu I' essece ordl naite, !Dab dans l'cspaee"
plu s de tr ois dimensi OIUl.
L'Analysis SitQs " trois dimension s est pour DOltS une C(lrlnaissance pr esque in.
tuitive, L' Analysis Sit'is i de trois di me nslo lU presente au C(lntrlli'e de s dif-
f1cuhb CflOrmes; il Iaut pour tenter de res scrmcmer !trc bien persuadt. de l' e!llrl!me
impo rtance de eene science.
Si eeue importance n' cst pas:co mp rise de tout te monde, e'est q ue tout Ie monde
n'y II pas su rti samment rf flkhi
(62, 631.
To understand whal is meant by the qual itative pr openics of geometric fli ute5,
imqine a sphere t o be a ru bber balloon that can be stretched and shrunk in any
man aer without being t om or 'g1uin, ' an y two diMinet po ints together. Sueb
transformations of a sphere are t ermed homeomorphisms, and the differe nt re plicas
obt ained as a rC&Ult of ho meomorphislJl$ arc said to be homJmorphk to one
AI fOf me. all the VlIriOUS journeys. on which Oneby one I found mys.elf enl asro. were
Icadinl me to Analy sis situs (Position analysts).
.. Anal ysis situs is scim c:c which lets us am tile qualitf.ti vc propcnIa of geometric
flau, ,,, not only in the ordinary ,paoc. but also In the speee of more than lhrcc'di mcnsio/'IJ.
AnAl yris ti tw in three dimensions is almo< t intultlve knowledge for us. Analytillilus ;n mo1e
than tbrcc dimcnsiofu on the contrary, enormous dif...."glt;cs. and to att crnpt (05<lT-
mount tncm, one $lIQuid be of tbe extreme impor tanc:c of this science. tf tills im
portance is not un derstoOd by cvcryoM, it is beoca\ISC everyone nu not lufficiently .dtectcd
upon it .
l nllodUClion ' 0 Topolo&y
anothl:l". Thu.s, the qualitative properties of the sphere are rhcse whidt II shares wit h
..u its homeomorJIhlc repDeRs, or. in olher words, those which au prcseO'ed unl1CT
It Is evident that hornromorphl$ms and the qualitative properties ct other
ligula may be lIisRl50Kd as well. It is a1Io conventional to call the qualitative prop-
erti es fopolOJimJpropn1;u. In the aboy!! example. one of the topoloaiea! prcper-
lin of lhe sphen: is obviotu. I.e., Its Intearlty (or con ncetcdne$3) . II.! more subtle
properti es art if an attunpt is made to establish a homeolriolllhism of the
sphere, IllY, with the bal l. It is CASY t o concllKlc that such IIhomeomorphism is im-
pm$ible. However. in orde r 10 prove lbat . il ill necessary 10 show the various
lopo lo&leal properties of spheru and ball" . One of these is the ' contract ibillly' of
the ball ln!o one of its lXIinu by changing it smoothly. t.e.. eonuaelina it lI1Qn, iu
radlllOWltdS lbc eeeee, and the 'non-<ODtractlbility' of Inc sphere inlO Ill\)' of 11.5
poinu. It Is aJso wise10 bear In mind the topoloaJeal difference between a volleyball
blaOder and a bicydc: lYre. Imuitive teas need to be; corroborale d slrid- Iy.
E:urcin 1- . Veri fy that the numba" of 'boles' in . gcornet rK: n8UfCis" Its topological
property; vaify ."0 tbat the annulu s Isnot homeonlOlllhk: to the two-dimensiOllai
The research carried out by H. is the slarting poin t for on e of the
brlUlCbesIn lopolol)' , m ., combinatorial or alBebrai<: topolosY. n.ernc:thod of in
vc$liption is to a.uociate geometric f1Fu"e1i uslna a rule t hllt is common to all the
fl8ures with algebraic objects (e.g .. &rOO""' , rinp , etc.' so that cert ain relallonshlp,s
betWttn the fl.umJI correspced 10 the algebraic relat ionships between the object s.
Studyina the pr operties of al&ebralc rJ8Ures sheds light on the prcpemes of
gcomark figures . The algcbraic object s con $lructed by MC nothing bllt
homology gro ups and the fundamental group.
The developtncnt of th e method of a1teb rak tOpOlogy Inevitably led 10 COlKut -
rence wit h tlte Ideas of sel-lhcomic topolol)' (0. Cantor, bet.....een
P. HausdorCf, between 1900( 1910). Even Polncari: hlnudf set the l uk of gcnenJiz-
Ing the concept of etometric rLJure for &.paces of more than three dimensions and of
lnvcnigatine thei r qualitiltlvc propcn!es. Thi5 gcneTlilization induced t he mtrodlK"
tion of t he not ion of topol ogical space, now a Cundarncnt al Idea pl:rvadll\& ail
Ulathemat ics. II not o nly had an Impact. on thc invcst i&a\ion of geometrle figur es in
finite-dilnensl onal splices, but, due to the development oflhe theory of functions of
II real vlUiable and funct ional an alysis, it a"o led t o tnc con lll"Ud>on of function
speees, which are , 11&Il rule, infinile-dimenslonal.
'The ruSi fai rly general definitions of 8 topological were Jiven in the walk
toy frkhet, RJaz and Hausdo rf f . The ecmptete definition of a lopological space
was given by the Pol ish mathematicillll K. Kunllowski and by P. S. Alexandrov'
Topological spaces, t heir COnl inUOUl mappings, and Ihe st udy of 8cneral pro pcr-
t;C$ haY<: madc up on c brllllch of t opolo/J)l known 1I5 'general topology' .
The merger of the a1gebrak: and set-theoret ic school s in topoJoey was ac-
complished by L. B. Brouwer in his work devoted to the no tion of the dimension of
II $plU;e (1903- 1912). The uni fied approach wu con siderably developed by
J . W. Alexander , S. Ldsch.etz, P. S. Alcxandrov, P. S. Uryson, H. Hop f,
O . I. F",rs' Notions of Topolosy u
I. . A. L1lStemik. L. O. Schnirt'lman . M. MOTSe. A. N. Tihonov. L. S. Po.!-
tryqm. A.. N. Kolmoaorov. E. O:dt . et aI. Sovla malhmtal M: Wis have made
profound an d u len slve cont rib ution to the de vdopment of topolOIY u a whot e.
To describe preciJely the results (and eveu to pose pr oblems) II impos_
dble wllhollt being acquainted wil h the e1ement l ot general and lI1aebraie t opololY.
Heee, we Jive merel y Hlfl\e idea of the problems that have t opol ogKal
If s' is clreumfcrcnet: Ott the Euclidean pl.Me: R 1 then the !d R1 '\. S I dOm'
pt:pes into two muh llllly compkmoeutary open scu. vU. t he Interior A and ahc ex-
lerior 8 of s'. The cil'CUlllfe1CftCl' s' serva u a betli'emA and B. Can a
siDspk: contlnuous path be drawn from an arbitrary point IIti A t o til arbitrary
point b e 8 $0 that it docs not int ersect t he sep'n.tor 5" (A. simpff' mli"IlDIU
INIIII is a homromOl'Jlhk: mappilll or the lineseament 10. I ) of the number llne into
lhe pbne.) The Mswn is negative. In tee. if p lx. y) is the EIlt:Udean dislanee be-
tween PQlnu)t , y of t he pbne R
and "I'(t) is w eh a path, 0 " t" t , "1' (0) <: e ,
.,.(1) .. b . Ihen Ihe funct ion J(t) p !7(t), 0). Mum 0 b th e unu-e o f t he cis".
almfccnce. Is con tinuous, tild/ (O) < r , / (I ) > r, where r is the rildius o f the cir
e:t1l'1lfcrcne:e 51. By a property of continuous functions./(t ) takes t he nlue r at '
point t o- Therefore. y(lG! <I!! s' .
Let us substi t ute a bomeomorphic: imq;e r' of t be cin:umfereDOt 51 (5Udt a CUTYe
is said to be :si mpk for the ciJalmIerenec ludf. A Question arises u to
whether R l " r can be partitioned into disjoint open IICU so that the curve r remai ns
t be bonier 01 e&dt of them. The answ is PQuti ve (the Jor dan theor em), but the
proof lovolY" subtle t opological concepts . And tltis time qain the curve r is t he
sepuato r between IWO open set s.
The ptobll m seta gin mo re If a homeomorphic lmalt' o f M
'1-dimeDsiottai spheR ly1na in tM (II + l )-dimtnsional Euclldeao spaee is con
side:sed imIead of a simple ckned ewve, The Imenli.zatioct of the JOfdan t heor em
for this use _ c:arried oat by L. E. BrouwCT in 1911-191) . A more tJleo.sive
&t:Deraliution of th e resul t led to the c::ruJ.ion or dualit y theorems ( AJCJlilndtI" , e e n-
tryagin. Alexandrov et a1. ) whkh shaped the deYdopmenI of all ebfaic: 10 POiogy for
along ti me thereafter .
Another imponant pr oblem was the ac:nerali zation of l ite conc:ept 01 dimension .
Tbc difMnsi.tln of a Eudidcan space Is wellitnown IS an a!aebrak concept, bUIis il a topological concept ' That is. will homeomorphic; Euc lidean spaces be or the
KIne ctimcnsSon' Lc:bes&ue found ill 1911 that the llI\$VN:r Is pmitive.
As 101oornctric: rlJUrcs Iylna in it is tbe nolion of dimensi on
tbtlt should have beenform ulated for them rlrll . An idea e:oaoemIna: such' defini-
lion had beenexpre:ued by H. PoUw:.rt himsdf. The dimension oftbe nopty IC:I. ls
uwmed t o 0CIua1 (-I). No...., by If we Itoo.... what is meanl by dlmen-
$iol:ls Ics.stb n or equal to " - I. t hen the dimcmioo " of a set ,i gni flCslIlal it can
be 5CPUat ed inlo partS Ihat arc u smallu we plea se by a set of di maulon " - I
and canno t be par litioned by a set of dimt'n5ion " - 2. illese Ideas wete elaborated
by a rc ewe-, Menger , Ul'1so n, A1exandr ov ee al. "-
Another importanl directi on in lopo1oay, ..mleb is do$ely relatec1 to apptica
tions, is fiMd-point t heory. We encountCf. even ill algebra and Ote elemel'll.$ of
Inll od..etioa 10 TopoJoty
analysis, the qvestion wha bet"Dr not there aisl sol uliorl5 of equat ions o f the f()l'1ll
.. O. ( I)
(2) ! (.l")+111 cx
.men:/(.l") is. or IJM)fC fUlK1ion. Equation (I) b equivalent
10 t he equ.aaion
or. when .. l (x ) + III, 10 the equation
F(x} d x. (3)
The &olutions of equat ion (3) ar c ca1Icd tbe: poinu 01 1M nulppfn , F. If
equlllio o (I) i' eaor. i .e. ,lf iC is . system of in seven! unknowl . lhcn the
equivlakat equatiol'l (l) is llbo vector and, tba rIon. the fl.UCl poinlJ; 1i.e Ia . many-
Euc:lideaD space.
An exuemdy iJI1ponaat taN; is t o find . m etal and ef lectin lew.
that wl1I illdicale if flMd poinu cma. obtained. rcmacbtMe result thai Ia4
vcry eMcrWYC applications ift modem researc:h. It is IUfpri$iqly simple 10 lor
mulMc: any c:onlll'l\lOus mapplnJ of. bounded. convu, d OleCl let inlo il.5t:lf has .
fixed poi nt. Cc avex $etS may be considcd born in tbe and
many-dimenloional Euclidean I pace. For example. Ii coniinuoul mapping inlo ittdf
of. cloud (I.e . COMldcred alOI\I with its' boundary) disc In plane or bah in
space necessaril y 1Iq. fIXed point .
2- . Show IbM an anaJoaue of the Brouwu theQftm for aD annulus dOC$ not
..... ....
The Bto_ tbeomn _ clevdopcd by H. Hopf, S. l d sdletz et aI. It Will
abo ,cnCBliud for lM: mappiDp of fWln ion spacrs OCcllol, Bir khoIf, Schauder,
Way) which u lmded its Ippaieatiolls. II should be DOI.ed thal e'ftO H. Poinean:
himsdf_intcresced in the thlrenu for ( txed poin u when [eduQnl eer-
tlin pr obl ems In cdaWtl mccblnia to
emphl sae thaI the tluee probkms de&<:ribed do not make up t he
whole set of lopolo,ical problems lit al l. Consider anol heo- U Ml ple. Riemann In-
troduced the notion of n-d imensional man ifold , \.e ., a space in wlIkh aUme poi nu
po$leSS Il.numerieu eoordlna1es de(med at leut on sufficiently small puu of the
space. All aencrali.lalioll of the. notion of surfla in ee thrtc-dimeos ionu Eucli-
dean I PKC, the notioll. of manifold has cmbrl(l quOte:. nwnbo:o" of 8lIIlCiric: 011-
jed.sIIw arite from d assic:al mechanics, differ Ential rquaUolll lDd surface IhnH'J'.
PoiJx:an! p'tO[:the (mal tb.ape to Ihe concept of manifold and ck>odoped d emen u of
1lDaI)'IiI for IUotb sp&ca.
Thcx COftC%p11 wac elaborated in smooth manifold theo ry (0. de Rham,
L. S. Ponlr}'qIn, H. Whitney et -.t.) . Followinl the aladx"alc 10polosy IMt hod ,
these wen l$$Ocilued with new algebraic obJcets, Le.. with ' the u terio r dif-
ferentlal fonn cohomoiolY rint,:i'. 5rnool h mlnlfolWi themselvCl were also 'O'lllni.t:
ee' Into . 'ri llS of interior homoloSles' (tobotdilm rins) (V. A. Rohlin) . The ac-
cumulatio n of var ious a1sebrllc objects In aliebraic: topoway tun- to the
emetiCl'ICeand developmenl of the so-ealled ' homologic:a.l aJaebra' .
In the post -war period ai&dXaK: topo loJ)' has been e:ssentlally rwructuud. By
dlc bea.UuUnl of the mtics IIWIY raulu of ai&cbrU: topolou had been ec-
ClI. I. Flnt ND< loou: of Topololr
cumulal N due to the ru.eareh of such mathem&1kians . s Hopf.
Whitney. Stnrod. Ei lenbug. M:oc::Lan e. Wh itehead eI al. II Ihen bcc.ame
Desury 10 WOC"k out. uni fied approach 10 all the various datalhal. have bcnl ob-
IlIiMd and 10 create new general rnetbo<1s. This rearuauri lll o f t opology was
Iellcral ly innllCDCC'd by the French tofIOloPcal Khool (I..en.y. CaNan. Some et a1.).
111 pan.itulM. th is do:ve1opmet\l led to the formally complete soI U1iOl'l of t he fun
damana! problem ofhocnotopy t heory eM. M. POSl.nikov). althollJh t he prolMmu
related 10 me determinatioft ofthc homotopy type of eeeerese spaoes an: sti ll a long
way of( solut ion.
The development of l opolol)' over lhe last 20 yearl hll reached a hlah Ia-el in
ml ny direct ions. This prOCC$.S of da-elopin,g has still not finidted , alt hough a
number of the imponam pl oblcou t hat have fa<:ed lopologh u were solved . An K '
live part In this has ta ken by Soviet rnathcmatkians . We can not Jive even a
sItort descript ion of these direetlol1.'l. llJId so we sha.II onl y one import ant
fcalufC of modern topology. l.e. t he very w1dc UK of iu memods in many of t he
Olher branches of modem mathematics u those dealing with di frerentlal eqUI '
dons. funct ional ana lysis. cllWical mechanics, l heoretical physics. Beneraltheory Of
rda.l ivlt y. mathematical coonomies, biology. ell;. Topology has become a powerful
instrument of ntlthern:aJ.ical researc h. ana its I.... UI:l,uircd a import -
Dctalls Of t he dcvdopmc: AU In topo!DaY may be fou nd in Hist ory of SOllie'
MatMnffI' K:r (4Z].
I . Metric Space. We have alr eady mentiooed Nt l opology h.s worked out an
t:l:SClllial1y wider 00DI:qJt of space t hUi lbat ofEttl:lldeall . We shaU con sider the ne -
tioll. of met rlc spKe (....bkh is less genCTlli lhan that oft opok)s:ia1 space) as our fiut
step both of its greater simpl icilYand due to t he wide usc of thi, notion in
modem m' lhnnatics.
In the Eue:lidean spKe R I. Ihe dlslancep"'. y ) I, defi ned for each y o f its
points. The disiance p possesses the rollowing properties:
1. p lx. y) Oi:
II . etx. y ) .. 0 if and only if x .. y .
lII . p (.ll'.)') " PO' . x ) .
IV. p()C. y) " plx. t ) + p (.t. y) for any x . Y. t e R
(the Iriangle inequality).
Thus. a db t....O;:O; is Ii rul function or . pair of l'OlntJ CIr.)') Jalisfyina Properties
I IV. f\l nttions like this can uis( not only on II I but abo on other kindJI of HIS.

' - . X be llD arbiuary set . PIlt p(x. 1') .. 0 if 11: and y are COincidenl dements of
X. l nd p (x. y) I olfterw;se. Show thai sudt II function p satkroesPropcrt ilCl I-IV.
Z . Let (t I ' h . f,) be the coordinatoCS of a point x t! R
. Sh(lWthat the f\l.fKtionpl.- ,
.1) . mu. It( - . , 1. when (.1' .1' are Ihe coordinazcs of a po int r e RI.
I" , ,,)
also sat!srlCS Properties I IV.
In l, od uGlion to Topol"6)'
The functiolllp from EKerdscs l and 1 are natur ally call ed the dlslanc:n bel WffIl
Ihl! t!umenrs o f the COrresponding seu.
To introduce a general ecncepr of d1uance, recall the definition of the product
of lwo " IS. If X and Y lLh: two seu t hen their product X )( Yis lhe $d. consisting of
..... ordered pairs y), where x E X, Y E Y. In particular, the product X x X is
dcrmcd .
DEFINITION I . A set Kalong willi the llUIpping /:I: X x X - R
(iQto the number
axis ), llli SOCiat;Dg each pai r Ii! X x X wit h II real number and iJltisf yiog
Properties I-I V, is called II metric and denoted by (X. pl .
Thc ffiappilli P iscalkd thc disuma or metric 011 thcspgX. The clemfllSof X
arc usually caUed points.
Any ser may be made into II metri c space by cndowina it wilh the metri c
described in Exen:isc ' '' , Such a met ri<:. space is said 10 be diurele . However , this
way of 'rnetrlz.uion' is not very ef fective.
EXAMPLE l. Let X C R ) be II subset of II Euclidean space. A distance in R) may
simllllllDeOllslyserve as a distance in X . Th e melr)e onXiI obtained then by restri ct-
ing the metric on R 3
. If (X, p) Is a metric space llnd Y C X Is a sub$et. then (Y, p) is also a metri c
space, whe re p; Y x Y - R
is a restriction o f t b ma ppinll P: X x X _ R I.
Th e mctrle on Yls said 10 bc indllCtd by (to be hereditary ftom) the me lri c on X.
and Y is said to be I. o/ the mct ric sprKc X .
A number of examples of metr ic spaces naturally arise fro m problems in
EXAMPLE 2. Consider the set of all continuous funeti olUi on the Ilee-segment 10 , I].
II is denoted usually by C
. II' If x(t). )'(t) are lwo cont inuous functi ons from
1I then set
pCK.)') " miIX lx (t ) - )' (/) 1.
' . l". 11
Ex8rciu )". VerilY that functi on ( I ) iJ a metric .
Th e !oCt C
. ll lOiether wilh th e melrie dc-scribcd above Is calltd o/ con-
t;nuous/ uru:t;QIl.t; it plays an importanl ro le In analysis.
.. " . Let A be an arbitrary set , and X the set of bounded real functions on A. If
f: A .- R 1,8; A _ R I ue arbitrary elemcnh of X , then we pul
p(f, I) 0 sup 1/ (1) - 8 (1)1.
Show that p u: a metric on X .
S". Let P be a prime numbet. If n ;>0 0 is an intege r and, when decomposed into
prime fKton, cont ai ns a power P"'. then we pill \Op(n) CI a . EJllend the function \Op
fro m the set o f positive int egers 10 the SCI Q'\. 0 of rational number$ wit hout zero
using llle formula vp(lI:r fs) '" v
) - vp( s). PUI
PVc , )' )= p - -" fJ< -Yl , x*y.
pVc, x) = 0
0., I. Fiul N<.MiQns ofTopoIoI)'
lor arb"n,ryx.y frOfll Q. Showthat the funeOOnp(.t,}') b lkfil'ed aDd ila
_ric on Q{JNIdr distlllltC).
2. Converge nt Sequences and Cont inuous Mappings. Thenotions
lkal &eoenliu the inili al CODttptl of mathem:uil:a1 llI&Iyw CIID be illlroduced
...urally for l mo:uic$pace tx, pl.
A mlppin,1I - of the sa of numbcrl into a metric JpUc tx.... )is
eal1ed u q Wll o/ poill(So f Ihis Jpace aad den oted by (,lr.l. Asequence islaid
to to II poi nt fI ue I limil 11') if for any e > O. Ihere iI a natural
numbcTlIo{d web lUI II) <; c for all " .. "o(e).
Thil b onen written
11', or jusl x.. - o.
E:xemst 6 . LeI - <H,'2, E1)! be a sequence of points of t he three-dimeMionll
space. and p the metric. Prove that x" !.. fI if and only if
t1- = 1.2.3) as II - OIl. where a", U?
r"1.lobiC l se-
quetlcc in the metric ip;>a:C
II' ll'erNly speak of lhe eonvCJlence ofthb; sequence
10 an e{emeDt x
= xo{r): !. XO' Sucha eonvtraenu is often Aid to be IIffi/rNm
0/1 tIN Kfnwllf 10. I I
Exzrtiu 7 . Show that the of ruon ions X.(I) - 112re-'" on the sq;ment
o " l " 1 eonversa to the aere funetiOllfor any I but doa nol converae llIIifOf1ll-
We lKlW ddittethc notion of continuous mappilla of a metric space tx. pJwo
. 1lloCtrlc space (Y, 1',.
OEFlNITION 2. Ld/: X _ mappina ohSC1 X illtO a lei: Y. If, roe lily point
Jto Ii X and any ieClucna x.. Xo in X. the 5l!qucncc o f the im.a&eI in Y con..efll'S
f(r,}. chen the mappi ns / b called . l'(IIIfill llOUS tnQPP;"1 oj the
me/ri" spIKe (X, Pt) into thr metric: space(Y. po) .
Thil definition II C"ildenlly a aeneraHUt lon of the concept of continuouJ
numerical funnion; It (oven . gfeat dell!of mappinas of l eomet rk figures in Eucli
dean spaces.
If the prope rty of cont inuity given by Definition 2 is eonsldeeed at a ernain
point Xo- t hen . definition of a continuous mappinl ll the point Xo it obt.lned.
r . Let S2 be a sp!lrre in the Euclidean R ) with its cenue . Ihe origin. PUltina
jfJt) - - x (II is paine symmetry). pn).-e that f ic
9". Givt an CQlJlple of a rmtppin& of a planuquare into itsdf t lW has
(IUd poinn only 0.0 t he boundary.
Ob..iousiy. an equlvaJmt dc(lIIition of a contimlOlU mappina or metril:
ma)' also be p ..en in t mns or e, f .
"mlIfJPbr,j: X - YiJCOIIt/II_lf fOf any xoe X alld fOl" InYt :> 0, lhar is
" ,(t,:rt,} > 0 suc:b ttw P)(f(.t). f lit,}) -c e as soon as p, (r. xli < 6.
I nUod"elioD'<l T<>p<>l<lJy
U, in t his definition. does not depend on t ile choice of the pOint ,lOo. t hen the
map ping ! is ,mli to be: lmi!orm{y continuous,
E.xercise 10" . Lel j : R
_ R
be a cconnucus functi on . Pro ve that lhe mapping
F: CIO. 1]- C
II' where h{r) .. !(x(f). is continuous.
Remember that a mapping of =f: X - Y is laid 10 be surjl/ve if each ele-
ment from Y lithe Image of a certaln element from X; i'liective if dirfercnl elementa
from X am mapped into dif ferent elements fro m Y: bijf!<CINe if a mappi ng is both
, urje ctive and injective simultaneously.
We now eeve t o define 8, homeomorphism of metr jc spaces .
DEP1NmON a. A mapping!: X - Y of metric spaces i:$ called a homeomorphi.1m.
and the slNIccs X , Y homeomorphic if (ll ! is.bijective, (2) / is continuous, a nd (3)
the invnsc mappIDs / -
i$ cont inuous .
Th is de finition is a me re precise WIYof exprC$sing the idea of homeomorphi c
figures which we discussed intuitively in See: I . Th us, the nation of the topological
propert ies of figurcs ese gains firmer !UQund: the /opological properties 01 metric
spoctS lite those wltietl are pre served under homeo morphisms. Home omorphic
mClric spacn are mid to be topologically et[uivillen/ .
11 . Pr ove that (I) an annulus in R
is homeomorphic 10 a cylinder in R) ; an an-
nulus without bo undary (Ihe int erior of an annulus) is homeomorphic to R without
one point , and to Sl without two points .
12. Show thai the mapping of the hal f-Int erval {O, I) or nethe circumference In the
complex plane given by the function z = t'"2. ' , 0 ( / .c J, is nc r a homeomor-
\3. Prove that ( I ) . cJo:;;td ban and . closed cube in R' arc homeomorphic; (2) t he
sphere S2 wlth exclusion of the poinl N (lhis is the spate S2'N, wheu N is the
nort h pole of the sphere) is homeomorphic to .ne plane R
(flint: Use the
stereographie pl'"ojection.) .
Ir II mapping I :X - Y is a homeomorphism on to its image/(X) coruide red a.s 1\
subspace in Y, thcn/ is called an 0/ the space X ,n/o Y.
The following example of an embedding is e nen used: X C Y, f(x) = )C.
I. The ' Gluing' Method . We now diseus.s1\ concept of soac e more genCl"llI
than a metl'ie space, vU. , the concept of topological space, and givc some initial
ideas about such spaces. First ly. we descri be a way of construaing newspactS which
imrnediatety us outside the purview of metric spaces .
Let ex, p) besomc metric space (in order 10 on e, thi ll): of X 3.$ a CCflain
of the Euclidean space R3). Let X be di vided into disjoint subsets A,,:
X :> !;fA,,; A" n A S " 0 if a * /3 .
If all the points from X thai are in some A" arc cal led t:quivalent and '.Iued' t o one
Ch. I. Am NocionJ of TQ4lOloIy
t_n---------- _n-n ---!
poin l - "" . I!len a ICC Y ". U 1I" isobtai ned . This is ailed the/ a<etorMt rdative
. .
10 aa)ymequln.lmee. NOl:e that Y is DOl:Il M1bwt of X . Therefon:. lhe metric:p hu .
JeDeralty spukm,. nothinllo do with the ' SI*X' Y.
1\ IlWDber of 'lIIdJ bown surf aas in the Euclidean spaoe: CM be: obtained by &11.1-
ina otbeT surf_IOIethc.r. CoMider some oftbern. Let X be a rectaIl&Ic (Fil . I). If
t!lOM: poinLS on Dband cd whkh OIl. a eornmon horizontal , ar e ' pasted' 101d-!ler.
Iben a faclor set Ihal can be: IdmlifLed with a cylindeor is oblained (Fig. 2). U Ihe
points on the slde$ Il b and de t hat are symmetric with t u pet:t 10 t he cen tre 0 of the
ar e 'a!ued' together men MObius is obtalnetl (rli. 3) .
A strip (:lUI be: made of a sheet of papa by pa sdtli to gether the oPPlu ite,
sides in an manner . This can be used 10 demonstrate YisuaIly I number
of Ole properties:of t be Mobhl5 strip.
1be Mobius strl p has man)' remarkabl e properties: it !llJ one ed&e (thc closed'
and. in eonuast 10 a cylinder , II has OAt side bcallfC it c:ao be paint ed
0Clt colour with I COI!tmuous mavanm1 of Ihe brush lritbout passoftaoyu I" e edge
(these propaties: an: GUY 10 see on a papcT IOgdel). The MObius Wip is a nee-
orientable sur face . Remembtt t a IiUlra is said 10 be: orimtable If an y M1 rfi-
ek nt t)' sma ll on lhe: sur face with II rued dlreaion of t he jou rney a1on. in
- Slrictly IIPCllkiD.l. tbis means lilal each lid A. or cquivakftl points from X is considered
as me a.mcal of the _ Sd.

Iftt rod llClion 1.0Topolol)/


\ /-
- - -
---,;..... ....... - /


boWldary, duq any 'm>ooth' lhiftiD4 Xl'OU in surr_. Ptesel'Va tbe orisinal
dl!ceUoo of the.loumey aIon& the boundary (lhe c:irc:lc is usumat not to il'Ilent
the edge; of tlle surface): otherwi se, the: swfta: is Icrmal noo-orienllobk. Tbt- non-
orimtabilit)' of the M6bius wip is d ew from Fla. 4.
If me sidClltb and ai of the dl C ltbcd ate putftl tOl eth cr SOthai each point of
fib mtets that point of otwbich Iin on tbe wne-horiwntal . and IIllhe same time the
sides bd and It t arc: pasted IOl ctbcr 10 t hat the POUlts OR common verticals mee,
then we obtlin I surfaet calk<l . (onu- (FiS. 5).
If , ho wever, lib and cd, a, well.,Mand 1lC, ar e 11111 t oBdher SQ th all hc polots
which are $ymm.etrn: with re$JlK{ to t he ceerre 0 _ (rll. 6). men the factor Kt
tannot be rqlfnmlcd as It fi&urc in the Ihreo-dimmlional Euclidean space. More
aKtly, AldJ all "temp: to pUlt equiYaknt po!.nu tosetber 'fI'OuId lead to It wrface
lhaI would pirn:c Itself.....hO\lt 5d flllterxainJ. We andd oni, Ibis li. rf llCC in
R' by tcariq it aput in lconvenlent manner, but this would vi.o1a1c our tacit priD.
a pte of lbc ' CORtinlLity' o f stuias (i .e. , the points that ar c nur to eqllivaknt points
mnai n near points . ftu api.). The obtainled factor 5et is caned
ti N plaM and denoted by RP .
NOle that tbe il hDmeomorphic 10 . disc wi'l h Ibe boupd.arytlbdt:.
and the projeCilve plane can also be de$aibed as . disc (Fig. 1) whose dillrT\e1rlcally
oppotlte boundary poinls are glued t08ether or, finally, Ii$ hemi"phere whose
dlametrica1Jy opposite boundary poinls are Blued locether into one iioint (FI, . 8).
If IIOIIWOld CIllla'wUt . bylCINI tIle .....r.... 11 -.... Ilk boot (tr. ).
Ch. I. Firs! NoIio", of TopoI03Y
Thus, forming the fact or set s in the lirst three cases leads 10 figur es in the Buell-
dean space R
agai n, and gives iI new objee-t in the last case.
Verify that cylinders , lori, and spheres are oritl'lt able sur faces , whereas t he pro-
jm;"e plane is ncn-orientable.
Obtain, by an apprQpriate gluing ope ration (faClorization), a circumference
from a a sphere from a disc, 11 circum ference from R I, and a torus
froD'! R i .
2. On the Notion of Topological Space, We I:a:\ see now how the idea
of a topologkal space comes intOplay. We mentioned above th at a fact or set cannot
always be placed in a metricspaceIn a namra! mannerand therefor e a met ric: deduc-
ed fot the set. One of the functio ns of a metrlc is to char acte rize how near twO
points are, andin the defi nition of a continuous mapping, a metric: plays t his r ole
(d. Sec. 2). To geomdrize the notion of neame:l S, consider a ball
D,<xo> .. e X : p(x , xo> < rl, r> 0,
with centre at t he poi nt X
and radiu s r . A point x is e-near to the point Xo if

It Is easy to verifY Ihal the continuil Yof a mappllll f : X - Y of two melric
spaces can be descri bed in an equivak:nt manner thus: let Xoe X be: an ar bitrary
(fixed) point and )' o -/r.r:ol an c1clllCnt of Y; l hen for any there is a baD
D, (Xohu ch c D.lYoI
The continu.iIYof a mapping may be now said to sig.nify the pre5Cr\la.lion of the
neamess of poi nts . The corn:ept of nearness allows us t o formulat.e exa.etly Ihat of
neiJhbourhood of a point : iii part 0 of a metri c space is a neighbourhood of a point
Xo in 0 if each poi nt , which is 5ufficiently near 10 Xo> belongs to O. Thus,
neighbourhood structures arise in metric spaces.
'Nevertheless, th e spaces so de fined have a Velll lllany pr operti es which can be:
alaled willIout refe rence 10 th e 'dlSU\Ilce' which gave rise: to them. For example,
enry subset which centa lru a neiahbourhood of Xois a, neighbourhood of Xoo
and the intersect ion of IWOneighbourh oods of X
is a neighbourhood of x
' These
properties and ot hen have a multitu de of consequences which can be ded uced
without any further recourse 10 the 'distance' which originaUy enabled 1IlI10 defi ne
ueiahbourhoods. We obtain srarements in which there is no mention of m.lgnit u&
or dist lll\CC' (18, p. 121.
If, In a SCi X , a distance is nOI inl reduced, t hen the neam= docs not have an
c.uet mean ing and the above defi ni tion of a neighbourhood Is inappropriate.
However , the inverse process pro ves dft(:live, i.e., each dement }tOE X isa.uocialed
with a certa incollection of subset! of the set X 110 as to fum.!the ma in prop-
ertie! (axi Olm) of neighbourhoods. Th is collect ion is th en caned a syst em of
neighbour hoods ilPd Ihe ejemems from the nt iahbourhood. O(xol ere said to be
O-near 10xo- The set X is then said to be: endowed wilh a l opololictIl sITJICturl , or a
topn!ogy and cal.lcd a t opolol i eul spate whilsl t he elements of X are called poi nts.
' On topoklgical structures have beendefined , it is easy t o make precise the
idea of cont inuity . Intuitively, a functi on is continuous at a point if iu value vartes
IntrodUCIion 1.0 Topolocy
115 little as \1111: pl ease whene ver t he ar gument remains sufflclcntly ncar t he point In
question. Th us continuity will have llT1 exact IIICaning wheMver the space of the
arpun<:nt and the space of val ues or t he function ar e topolo&i<:a1 spaces ' Il8 , p. 13].
Thus, (eplacina th e balls in the definit ion of a continuous mapping by
neighbourhoods, \1111: obtai n Ihe not ion of cont inuous mapping , and tbm the defini '
t ion of a homeomorphism of topologkal spaces. Homeomorphic: topological spaeft
lire c:aliedtopoloB;caf ly cqu;\lQ/cnt .
EXAMPLE. Let C be the complcx plane. Th e exlended plane of a complex variab le
C - C U co b a (opolog1ca! space : the spherical neip.bourhoods of poi nts 'l E C
and the neighbourhOO<b of Ihe point co of the form
D, {co) = It E C: I'l l > , ] U co,
and also subset.l cont aining them, form a to polotical st ruct ure on C.
E x e n ; ~ 3" . Pr ove that the extended ecmctex plane is homeomorphic to the sphere
51, the north pol e N beins the image of th e point "" . and the sout h pol e Ibe image of
the pomt O.
Hint : Usc Ihe ste.CIOifiIplIicprojection Sh,NonlO 1M eqllalorlal pian<: C, viz.,
u .. X +i.t, t>",J'.'l) " Sl , N .
, - Z
In ttlc cue of factor sets , a topol ogIeaJ saructure natu rally emeri es from a
lopoJoskai structur e in a mo:toc space by &1ulO1l nelghbourfloo<ls to/lether. Thus, a
f. ct or Xl bcmmcs a 10POIogical space ({a<:lor spon) .
3. Gluing Two-Dimensional Surfaces Together, Let us MOOy in more
ddail the 'ractor spal:ell Ihat ar c obtained by gluing t ogeth er pl ane figures. Consider
a pol yaon n in th e plane R
anll. induce a metric (rom R
on It. The spherical
neighbourhoods of a point x e n obviously consist of the tnte rsecucns with n of
open dim having centres at. x. Thus l umciently &mall spherical neighbourhoods of
the polnt ;l{ are open discs if x docs not lieon the boundary of th e polygon, and are
sedors of an open db<: (togetber wilh t he boundary rad ii) If)( lies on the boundary
(FIg, 9).
Let there be t wo polysons n and n . Mar k one side of each, u and u', respec-
fively. n and n ' "an be glued aklnllhese sides, thus prod ud ng the horncomorphis m
0: a - /I '. We declare the lmage and the Inverse image equivalent. The topology of
the fact or spau (II U n ' )lR respective 10 IbIs equivalence consists of open discs for
F"II. 10
0 . 1. Flu t NOliollsofTopolon
f Ia. 12 fi&. II
Interior point.s e n , If ' e n ' ), the sectors . Iued tOlelner for equiv alent poinu
.r e II , If ' GII ' , lUI d the seu containing the menrloned nng hbourhoo d.!l . f tl. to ll-
lulUlies the case when ideotl(yinl is done by Jo lninJ, the polygons along the equal
sidesII _nd II '
Similarly, tWO sides of t he sune pol n oo can be &Iutd to.C1Mr (sec Ihe CXlmplcs
ill Item I).
4- , Dacribc t he of _ cylinder, tofUS. M6b ius st rip, illId projcaive plane.
' - , Verify that the examples of filCtClC splKcs (in Ilctll l) arc borncoonorphic:to their
rnIiwiom Vcrif,. that difrCfCTIt modds (Fcs. 6, 1 Ind
I) of the pr ojc(tive plane arc bomeomorpbic.
Coosick r no w the akli.n& of $Wfaas . Let lU pask losethcr the sides of a pee-
tlloa 1$ $hawft in F" !&. I I. TIle arrow. heads denot e the I luini ruk for correspond.
illl sides(t he bqinninz of <me or;Cll tW is Clued. to the beain nilll of
moIhu, and the CDd of the former to the cnd of the Il ll er) . The desipl t iolU11. 11-
remind us (If the whm Kknt ifyina equiValent points, to travcrx alonl lhe
stde iI clockwise on the bo undary of the polygon, . nd counterd ocl:::wise 110n,
the slde Q-I (in othe r words, the side=; with opposite orienlat ioo arc a1ucd). The 1111'
illl lCheme is de$Crihedhy Ihe formula af)a-Ib- 'e. It is easy to seethat Ihil factor
spsce m.y also be obtained in anOlher topologically equival ent way (Fig. 12); here,
the factor spa l:!: represented by a torus willfe CUI -out along the CUl'YC e (R, . 13,
Ihe doll ed line denotes where ao-
and bb-
were Ilued). A 10rw with .. hole is
termed a hand Je.
Colllider tfte glllinl of two adjacenl sides of _ lriIn.le. If the ol'imt. tion s arc
op posile, l.e., the glum. scheme is fiI-te (Fl. 141, then the faclOr is
lopolopeau, to . spher e with hole 15) .
Consider Ih" g\uirII. of l""O_djlCall sides with the wneorieutaliol1, t.e.IttOtd
In& to tbe JdIcme II (rl1. 16). We ll:PR$Cflt mis Iriarlak u tWO rlJ/U tr ianp:s
allied tOIClMr a1oo& the oornmonheWn d CY,.. 11) with lhe indic:alcd orielllillion.
No'" _ chlll&e the order in which they .,e glued : ( trUly, the bypotCrtIlJCS
. , and then the q. d (FlA. II) . A MObius strip (d. FIg. 3) isobUined. the rmal ree-
lor spICe beml homeomorphic: to tN: orilinal (Fla. 16).
flt. 14
l mroduclion \0 TopolQlI'
Fit. u
Now, lf a disc is cut 0\11 or lhe spheK Sl . the n t ither a hlndle or a Mobius st ri p
can be alued wons the availabk edge c . The latter can be IS lhe eir-
CIlm(c.cnc;cs' (lit e bou.nd llty o f lhe ci rcl e which has been cut outl . In lhe fir$t cue,
a t orus Is obtained (Ra. Ill) (verify Ihe l opolOSical equlvalcDa of the ligll rn in Ihe
dr awln&) . in the seeond t he projt ivc plane R p l . Let us va iry thi$.
The pr ojea i<: plan e (Re Fit. 8) is IOPOloP:aDy equivalent t o [he factor space
dtawn in AI. 20. In fad wbtlt to show b that t he 1l$'P ' cap' is a MObius
.url p wi th the edac= c. Rc:pR1Cntl na II as lIDann\llu, whu e diametri cally oppo$itc
poin b of t hc inoer cir cwnfamc;c arcldentirKd , ....c clJllopoklgjeally u ans form it 10
a MObitu $'lfi p (Fla. 11).
The funha ronstnlCtions CIn be in 1"'0 ways; (I) by cuuina; p disa
out of the I pbCII: an4 l1uiftip handb 10 them: (1) byeuttrnc o u l q discs and t1llina
'I MObius stri ps t o th em. Th ill , 1""0 sales o f surfaces may be obtaiDed:
M " M " M
. . , M, . . . 1'1) .1'1
. . . 1'1.. . . . ( I)
ad No an otwiovs!y sptm-e 51}.
. We IhaD d.i5CUU t he properties Glthesc Iwfaoes. Fine of all , it is eas y to sec thal
they ar e oblai nod from . finite number of convex poI ylOfls by al uina toaet" th eir
Jida; and wbKquent topoJosieal tra ndol"Jft.ltiom. Such Splices an said to bcfinittly
rritlll, ,,rablt , and partitionin; of Ille space into ' C\UVill near' polyltOns is ulkd
rrlollp lollo.., The su,f..:es M
' N
Me coe neered, meanll\g t h.t they CQl\si$t of
whole ' piece' and do not spilt into t wo mutually u d usive selS of polygons. Th i.
foll ows from t he f. <;1 Ib.t any two of tile t rlanaul. l lon polygons are Joined

f'lI .n

, "
- ' ' ,'
bya continuous PJllh made up of their sides. The surfaces under consideration <10
not have a bQundaf)'. since cKb boundary side of the pol )'ll:onb:u been sJued t o one
(and only one) side. Hence, each point of such a surface bas a neiJ,hbourhood
homeomorphic \0 an open d isc; these spaces are called fwo-dimcnsiomJl manifolds.
Fini tcly-uians ula blc connected two-d imensional mani fold s are said to be dOSN
surjtJcs. If we did not glue to&ether all the pairs of the "des of the polYilons. and
left some aides free, we would ob tain a nond lJSl!d m rf oct (or a with boun-
dary). A poi nt on the boundary would han a neighbourhood homeomorphic to Ii
semici rcle. An exwn ple is the sphere Sl with several holes.
Note also that the w rfaccsM
IUcorientab1f;, and can be placed into R
as two-
sided surteces Wlfhoul $Clflnter sertiol\S. By contr ast , Ihe surfaces N'l are non-
ort entable (th ey arc cal led one-sided Uke t he MObiu s stri p) and cannot be embedded
in R
witho ut sclfint<:rStiorui (but can be in Rl).
II is shown in 01. II lhat any closed sur face is homeomorphic 10 an M
or N
typt surface (Ihe numbe rsp, q are called Ihe gmus 0/ The surf acesM
and N
, q ;;a I, are never homeomorphic, since the orientabilhy of a surface is a
topological propert y. Two d iff erent M
' and Mp.surfaces (or N and N

sur faces) can nol be homeomorphic either (sec the next nem) . Thus, the' ist In ( I) is a
complete topological cla.ssificalion of closed surfaces. If P handles and q ); I
fl l . 21
Inlrocl """0II 10 Topolut.7
MObill'S strips (tia vina made p q holes) an: alued to sphere t!'ten the obLlined
surface " IOpolosical.l y equi....lcm 10 spben: 10 whio::h "lp + q M6bius :.trips an:
En rdscs.
6- . Glu.e. ey\inder to tbe: boundaries of a Ipho:re with two boloes.. Pro..-e thlll the ob-
tained surface is bomeomorpl\io:: to spher e with a handle alued to il . i .e. a lOTUS.
7-. Show t hat IIQ annulus and . MOb;\d Slrip can be oblalned from . dis<by al ulnl
lbe bou.nd:u)' of lhe latter 10 two sldesof a nctaqlc: .
8- . Prove the eqllivalence of t he followinl dermitions of Rp 1to l l\ose l iven above:
(I) dialMlricaJly opposne pa.irs of poinls are identified in 5 1; ( ii) th e edle of a
MObius Mrl p is shl'Ull k inlo ee e point: (Iii) the edce of a Mob;u5 " rip is Slued to a
disc by a cert ain homeomorphism of t he boundary circumferences.
9- , Define Rpl by idenli ryina diamel riCllIl)' opposi le point s of the circ umference
S l . Show that (I) Rpl b homeomorphic to t he circumference 51: (il ).Rpl C Rp 1:
(iii) tho:re is a neiahbourhood of Rpl in Rp1 which is homeomorp hic 10 a MObluJ
stri p.
10- . Prove t he equivalmce of tIMfollowins defln llions of tIMKlein boUle: (i) two
MObius l u ips aIue<1 a10nJ their boundarics; (Ii) IICI annulus wit h Ihe bolllldary dr-
cumrerenoes al ued lO8ether and With directions (m)
en annulus 10 ea<;h of 1"tIoseboundaries a MObius Itrip is Jlued.
A lopoloaieti space wttkh is homeomorphic to eonvca polYlOn is ea!)ed a
'opo/ofiaJ/ po/noII. Aoeor dio&b'. we define the lmqu of the venita (rap. sides)
to be Ibe 1I,miccs (usp. ed&es) of rIMtopolop::al poIY101l. Wkhout loss of I merUi-
Iy trillll ul lLtioli of a swfau may be tiS\lmCd to oonsiA 0' topolosical
...hit h ar c edge'lltix adjac:ml 10 each ocher (to carry this OUI. convex polylolU
1"tIO$<e $ides are ident ified to obtain tbeJWfa<:c should be divi ded & priori inl Owffi
cicllt ly small pol)'goos such as triallgks). Herea ner . Olily HKh tri&n.&u1&1ioM are
For an)' trian&ulated surface n , derme t he nlUl'lber x (l1) ... e - It + I .
..her e e is the n..... bu or vntic:cs. If. t he number of edac:s and I the number of t he
tr w lulation pol)'lOllS. which b known as the D.
It polSC$SC3 the remarkable propen y thll it does not depen d on IIt riangulation. t.e.
is II topolo8i<:a,l invllriaJlt of the surrace.
EnrcLn 11-. Verify t hat the Euler char aetertll.i<: of l he sphere equals 2. Ihat o f &
torus zero, lhat or a disc unlly, t hat 0 ' a handle minus ODC. and lhar of & MObius
stri p zero,
It isUI)' to prove the topoloai cal ittvarianttof X( Sl , usillJ t he Jordan theorem 0
which Mates t hat any limple closed cu....e, i.e. CUIW' wtl idl il homeomorphic 10
the c:irc\lmfCRIICC. spliu the Jpl\ere or the plane inlO IWO disjoi nt reaio ns. t heir
boundary coincidina lritb the curve.
Thus, eonsider a lrianptll:ion of S1. U can be adIlcvcd gntdu;illy by fudna '
YCftCll (0) and drawin.a one edce aner another: we dr .... the fIrS! ed&e from lhe
vena ( 0) to a newve:rtQ. Wid then u. h Ql"e that each s:ub5eqUQII edle should
" . l ite ,,<,rtu or lUledae a1ready drawn . We count the number of rAe oblll.i.nfil
..mI ceSI!!, ed&e5Ic . and regjoru/ ttw are bounded by . tIO$ed curve made up
of the edaa Il eachste p. AJ nu t . we pill e - I. k : 0. / _ I (when we: have Ihlt
va1U ( 0) and iu complmla1tary rqion). ft is CUlly &em Uu:t Ihe number
e - Ie + I remairu un.aIwed af ter addina uch new cd&e. In fad, if an Nat coma
to. new vertU then no new Rs;ions emerac and the numbcrJ II! and Iean boc.hin-
creased by I . If the newc "s;c joins t wo oCt ile oriJin&1 vutic:a then iC w"ldose. eee-
tail' cdp pat h an d a tiC'" , q.ion will cmuse (by tht J ordan Ihto(' e11l). Thus , It Indf
will both be in<:>'eUed by unity, andII! will unaltered. t b vi q drawn the b Sl
edit , we 50hall oompktcly restore the tri angulat ion . and ll'Im II! - .t + f - l: (5 2).
Qriainal" ,1I! - k + J _ 2. therefore. x(S) - I .
It n""1 ar e t ....o sur faces with boundaries ' I) wh ieh 'arc nOlMOmOfPhio: to 5,1 ,
thtll they can be glued boundariwl$C: in accordance with the hornwmorphlsm
"': II - I) . Let II I U.. Il
I factor space. We shall prove III!, fonnu la
x{Il . u, .. :d Il , ) x(Il:J. (2)
Let us triangulate fi t and " 2 so as to obtai n homeomorphic triangulations (Ihe
tf lMaWaUon of $ l b6na made up of I vertices and the SlIIIIe number of edll ts) on
the bound aries ' t. ,}. Aft er &lui".. t he number of vertiCes Is equal 10 1', + t } - t,
W I of the cc1gc:s to A: I + k1 - I. and that of the polyJonl 10/
+ h. Formula (2)
follows from the equality
+ t} - f) - (otl + k
- f) ... (II + Ii) :: V I - *t 'to I I) + (.e2 - k
+ Ii).
Fe-muJ,atl) is lOOlCtiInescolwmlall for calaalat ins the Euler cn.r.cteftstic:.
Ld ,.s1 be . sph.ere with p holes . If p discs Ire atued bact, then we obIain $2.
Formuli (2)'idd.I the eqlYl ity :: x ct.
+ p, X<,.sl) ... 2 - p .
Tbel M
is obt.iMd by a1um. ,s l Op handJu whose Euler c:Not&CIerist k
equals -I. From (2). we obtain Ihal x(Mp) ... 2 - 1,p. Similarl y. x(N )
.. 2 _ q . since the Eule , of II MObius st rip equals zere . t ...ce
x (MP:I) onlyirPL - P1.anll)(NQI) - x(Nql )onlylfq l - ql' the s",
faces M
, . M
cannot be: homeomorphic ....hen p, '" PI due t o Ihe lopoloa.iu.lin-
variaJlce ofthe Euler characterist ic, nor can the surfaces N.
. N
be homeomorphic
when ql . q1'
Ot her inlCl"elt ins appliwioN of the Euler charaaeriltte can be founll in the
theory of convU' polyhedra. The surface of acoevex polyhedron can be imagined 10
have btm l1ued t ogether from I finite number of OOftYCll: po1nons (its faces) respee-
l ive10 the idenlity ma ppil1is or t he ed&c:s glued. We immedial ely obl.llin the Eukr
fOl'tll ula for a convex poIytlcdro n:
- a l + 0 1 = 2.
when is the numbu o f venk:a. G, the nunibu of cd.&cs. andGllhe number of
fICa of the In raa . the Iert 1wHl side is the EWerehlr:ae:ter1stic of the
l un.", of the po!yhcdr Otl ...bleh is obriously 10 $ 1.
If m faas _ 11 each vena. , and CIIch faa is a eonYCll: "-son, then the
polyhedron is saidto be oftypc (II. mI. If the ,. ..oaSlre fC&ular then tIw: polybedron
Inl<od w:tion \0 Topolozy
is said 10 belQUlor. If the type (n, mlu known, then Q'o- (:f l ' "'1 can be caj culeted . Jo
reer, m cd&cs mttt in each vc:na, th erd orc r:1if" '" ].a I; since t here are n edges in
each face , "'7!I '" la. (ea ch cdse jo ins two w:n iccs and two faces) . Thus,
"' 0 "', "'1 " 0 - "" I + Cl' 1
.. i=T =;;=r " m-
- 2-
+ ,, _l
2 4m.
2n+ 2m_m,, '
whenCClhe o f all' al' and ""1can be cakulat ed . The nlll ura] requirtment for
<110' a l' and Q] to be positive leads to the inequ.a!ity for lXlsitlve n. m:
2n + 2m _nm > Q - (n - 2)(m - 2)< .
It is !:as)' to cooduOe that there are five solutions all in all :
[l ,l l . [4,31. {J ,4I. (S,l ). [l , S1 .
Five killds of regular polyhedr a are known from elementary geomet ry, vte. ,
tet rahedron, cube . OClahcd ron. dodahedron. and icosahedron whose t Y'PC' ar c
pn:ci$ely wluil ts given in (3) .
Thus, a complet e lis! of t he {n, mltype po lyhedrons hu been Ji ven.
One of the ways leadi ng to the basic: lopol ogic al c:on",ep ls is to stud y a1gebTaic
funalolU and thei r Integrals; it discovered by Riemann as ear ly a s the middle of
the lut century.
Consider the a1Aeb raic eq uation
ao!:) w" + a
: }...... - I + . . . + a,, (: } ... 0, 00<:) <F- 0, t I)
with complex codTh::ic'lIu Ihllt are polynomials of a complex variable t ; iu fOOlS are
funaions w '" w ( t) ts e. an d analytIc under cef1ain conditions. For example, if all
the roots of eq uati on (I ) ere differen l a t a point t l)o then (hell: cx.Ist "
w/(:), i .. I , . , " in the neigh bo urhood or the point to lhat depend on :
An analyt ic funct ion w ... wI:) satiJifying equ ation ( I) is called an algebraic
/ uncriOll. Equat ion ( I) det ermi nes several bl1UlChcs w
(:) of algebra ic fun ct ions
WhOK nwnber will vary, gencrall y spcu lll8. and which change into one another as:
varies. Consequently, mll1hematicians speak of II many-valu e'd algebraic funClio n
w(::) lkIermined by eq uati on ( I) and ofits branches w
{ : ) . R iemann proposed that
the : -plane C be re placed by a sur fac-e on which th e function 10' (.: ) will be: one-
valued, while Its branches 10', (:) will be the values of 10' ( :) o n separate pvU of the
surfllCe (such sur faces are called Riema"" fUr/aces).
It is nOt compltclltcd to construct such a sur face. Co nsider the exl.ended complex
plane C ... c U ... (Ihe t -sphere) and t he Canc.sian p)duC! C )< C con s.istil18of
Ordere d pai" (t. lO'). Neighbourhoods inC x C ar e defined, nat urally. as the Cane-
Ch, l. Fin! Notion. ofTopolo i Y
- - _ / ' - ~ l l
sian products of ncighbourhoods (aRd as all the sets that contain them), Then
algcbraic equation (I) determines l lll'aph in C x C C()fIsisting of those pain te. w)
which SlItisfy equaucn (I ). Th is is Ihe Riemann sur face n of the man y_val ued
a1gebraie function w(: ); In fact , t hc proj ecti on n - C given by the rule
(l, w) - W , (2)
determines aone-val ued function on a Riemann surface ....hich Lakes the val ues of all
the branches of the many-val ued function. An illtere$!.ing quel.t ion arises about the
strud ur e oflhe surface n Md . bou t the dist ributIon o f t he branchcsof the function
... on it.
The simple$!. many-valuc d algebraic function is rclatcd to the equation of the
second degree
The cha nge of variables v "" 2... + Q
resuees this equat ion to a simpler for m
",2 _
(: ) =0, (3' )
where p{:) Is a polynomial ,
In the simDleSl: ease .vI:) = : . Th en equation (3 ' ) deter mines t he two-val ued
algebraic funcuon w _ Vi, If I = r c'" the n ils tWO values w, "" ~ , j ~ I 2 ,
"'2 .. - fie
.r1. r > 0, have opposi te signs and change into each ether when the
point 2 ITIOVes along a closed path around the point z _ 0, To prevent the reduction
of the branch WIlmc the brarn:h IVz' cuI the I-sphere along the pos itive real half-axis
(F'IJ, 22), This cut jo ins the poinu Oand ... . Two edges abut on the,cut , vir. , the up-
per (+) and the lower ( -), Consider the union (disjoint) of $heel I and sheet U
(replicas) of the Isphere cut , Call sheet It he car rier of the branch WI' and sheet II
the carrier of the branch "'2' On the t wo-sheeted surf ace I U II . t he function ,., is
one-valued . To detect the errect of the reduction of the branch 10' , into the branch
"' 1' we glut the ( - } edge o f sheet 1re the (+}edgeof sheer II, and lite ( + )-e<!ge o f
sheet 110 the ( - j-edge of sheet II . We obtain a factor space n i which is the IWO-
$heeled Riemann surface of the funclion w ~ {t. Although nnl lyill& In R' (sheen I
and II pierce each other. see the I luln&scheme. F'1lI . 23). it Bi",o=s US a l oad v;"ual
dcmolllluation of Ihe relati onship bet ween the branches W I and w l'
Introduction 10 TopolOJ)'
But, for the alticbfaic equation w2 - l = 0, t he graph D
in C x C. on which
the function ... Is also on e-val ued, is determined. .
We now snow that " I and OJ arc homeomorphic to C. t.e., 10 the ( WOo
dimensional sphe re S1. In fact , mapping (2) .
W ., w{t), where I = <.t. w) e " l '
is easily seen to be a homcomorphhm. as well as the mappin& w; OJ - C whKh is
induced by the many-valued functi on ... = {t. Therefore, the Riemann sur face of
th e many-valued al,ebraic funct ion IV __ ffb topologically equivalent to the two-
dimcnOOnal sphere Sl . "This, bY the way, can be seen In Flg. 2A when sheen I and II
wa-e'glued after t ransforml nl l bem topologically and a J""lotl lnto hemispher e!:by
' moving' their edges further away from each other.
Let us specify anolller projcdlon". - C by the form....... t(t) '" t and identify
C with S2. We t hen h a ~ two diagrams .
Ch. I. Fi, S! Not;o" . o(Topol<>,r
These diavanu ar e eommutenve , I.e ., the S\lperJ)O$il;on of two mappings (in Ihe
dirLlon of the arrow-heads) equals the third mapping (the remaining a,row). BoLh
the ho ri:ronl al mappings in t he diavam ate h omeomo rp hisms inverse 10 each olher .
Th e mapping S1 S1 is l ermed a (ramified) cov erin. of the
sphere S2 with the branch points <: - Oand t = ... (verif y Ihal circumnavigalio n o f
tbe point Z ..... also leads 10 a change of the brandl).
TIlII cove:inS stv... list 10 substitULion> f1Ilionalizinllt he lot.g.onds in Familia. lntegrab
1>1 the Form !R{c. r'pt. where R(z, .f) is a rational function in 1 and r.
Considcf tile Ilmplest integral

rqa>dcdasaauv'ilinearlntqra!inthee.pIlneCalonl acenllinpf;th1 " lU).O " s " I

.iOin1nl llte pOmU 1
0IJld z. where fi. il one of Ihc brlDdles of IIIe: many....alucd aJaebrale lUrK.
lion .I ven by lhc equalion .. ' - < O. The """'" int.gral can a1Io be considered as the cur_
vilinear intqral
j R(r)d1
Ilolllthe pIlh y;t .. ll; (s ) . "iTsmn tb. space C )( C,jolnin. tlle:pOints (l". 6.0>. re. q l. of
IIle fllllcti{)n R(t) ... R(:c ...) . let 'VUein a Ric:mann surfa<:e fl ,. Howcver . it is mor e conVe
nlatl to consider its lrnaF,in a Mlrf which Isborneomorpblc ton,. i.e.. the ...-plane C. the
iInqc belnll tlte palh .. ... ... (.r) 11....e ...(s) .. oIi18r. The telatWn between tM z plane C
ond the .... p1ane C Is q>ccified by lhc tranlfomu.Lion z .. ...' and maka it posll!b\e to
UlIlsfOl' m lnlegal b,-lhc chlUtsc of varialstn:z: .. ...' into the lntqral alon. ihe ...."'.;Yin
the ...pianc' C:

IRlt .v'i"l<4 " ...J, ,,)2IVd""
"<l Wo
The last b1cearat is or a ' allona! fUnction. Thus. _ rationalited Lhe 11lle,JUtul by uodina
(usinll a covo:nnl or the z-spMu S") the pat h of IntC&f1llion onto the Riemann
surfllOe or the many valued functlon detennl ncd by the equation ...
- 1 ... O.
No w,lct p(t) - Q(!.l + Ql t + 0
where oOO a"0
E C ,,, f - 4 0 0 " 1 ". O.
00 ". O. IXnotina the roots o f th e polynomialptz) by ' 1' ' 1' wh er. " "#- '" .... ob-
tain the algebra!, fuooion
... - "oaU - ' LXi - (6)
Obviously, It is aUo two-valued. An invo:$(iptlon simi lar 10 t hat above shows that
on. branch is l'<Idu,ed to the ot h. r d uring lh e c.ircumnavigat ion of both the point 'l
and the poi nt '1' whil. the,umnaviJlltion of boLh these point.! (aton, a dosed
path sUTTounding the points 'l and t he point ... does not alter the number o f
fI branch. Th efore , t he n sur fac n
of th is fu nction is obtained (rom the
IWo repl icas o f m e t _sph.ere which ar e cut along the IIne-seament i7",. t he C'dges of
me ets I an d 11 beina glued t oget h er as Ihey were in the fLlSl exam ple. Eviden tlY,the
space "i is stiIJ topologl,a1iy equivale nt ro the sph. re , We have agai n a two-sneered
CQvmnaof the lJIhue 51 wi lh t wo btaDdI poinu 1: .. ' I' e 't>
The &raPh O! of t he algebraic
..,z - a,p. - ' IX: .. 0
t he ( -sphere intOthe ?sphere red_,. into ' l
The change of variableJ
O. and'2 inlO 71 '" .. .
v - 10' (l _ 1) . r "" J:' -'l
""ov, - 'v 1 - '2
lransro, ms, as can be seen, alacbraic tqua tion (6' ) lero . he atsebr ail:(quallon
,,2 _ 7 = O. 1M COfTUPOIId1n& fIlIIPpi nl . : C x C - C x C, {to w,- (T, ,,).
reduces 0 2into n I .Dd is homeolltOrpbiam. and the homromorphi$m n I onlO51is
pVUI by projtiou (2): " = I' (t}, .here t ('I', . ).
Thus. we ha..., 1M commutat ive dlq:ram
If t ile
IRIi: ......ot:- rilG - rJd: . jR, w)c4
- .
", ,;wen OQ n.. lhea bonmnuJ mappiap of d/aaram P ) mIIbk us 10 tn.n d ona IlIIl'1tOtile ill-
.- .

j A(. I... )dP.

on lIIe ...sptu:n: Sl, wtme Aio nuand f\lAlCUOOlo. This _ lJfor the ra:.loaaJlUIlOllof e e
I,uq.and by lhe fo""" EllICf I:IIbl.Iit utioll
_ fr_ :........:..J. .
1 - 'J
We will come to I n essentially ne'" fcsulllf ....e cOnJidcr a polynomialp(t} oflhe
thIrd dcu. ThUll, corwd an II1l<'braK: funct ion o f the (Qrm
... .. ltl(.f": - 'IX: ,J(i rJ (I) ' di ffeR'll!. TlIc func:tiQn ... possesses two bnlnchn , but
now lhqo arc ' joined' in I. more eo<nplialed way. The ein:'umnaviaah<m or o)M
Ch. I. F,m Notions ofTopokllY
point ,,/ te5UIIJ In a of a branch of the funct.lon w, while lhlll of any two
points preserves bnndt, and that of &lIthe three poinls, just like the tircurn
naviaWon of che point 00, alter s the bnnch. To ' ban' these transformalions, It
suff""elI co m&lr.e the " t"1 and "J- on the (sphere. Then tad! bnndl of the
funaion w III on such a Jtled with I;:\lll . For cae bnnd l to be
lransfomted into the other in the: lUtuiml way, we,rue replicas (aDd U alolll che
I;:\lU "(: and "JOb , reJJ)Caivd,., cdaeJ beml sl ued as before . The lopolorkal
5pllcen j obtainedDevidenlly the Jurf.a: of funaion (I). An _ tilll dif
fe=>Ce botwem the surf ace OJ and the surf.a: ni iI lhac nj is topoklaic:a1ly
equivaknt 10a wilh a 1undle (FII . 25, whac the cuu are fim upanded iDlO
' bolu' rrom whw;h lube$ au pulled and &I\led cd&ewlse toeflher in lbe required
way). The nalural mapplal OJ - C is a two-sbceted aim'll ma p of SI wicb the
bnndl poillU"p "1' "J ' -'r.",,,,,,,,,,,,",,,,,,:;-,,,,.-::-;:;
For t he fUl'ldion. w - ".of;. - "J(i - "J(i - - ".), when "I, "J>
are pairwiH dirterem , we haVl: the Rimwu:l surf.a: n . whktI is hoaleomorphil;: t o
n j . This fDl\owJ from the one-valued brarll:bes bein, separated by the IWO t'U1S".'1
iIIKI ,'I".....d the poInc ". al:liq as the polIN. of the previous cumpk (the latter
not brill, a branch point) .
Hoce tllal lorqrar:lnl ratioPJ. ruroetiomOIl the Iw fKn n
n. teodl; to elliptic buqral
Ih.....,. .
Inlrodu., lon lOT""""'"
It IS "0( complieaaed 10 Invest;,"l' the casc of an funtlion
w _ -IQoti (9)
whue ' llirCpairwi5e Here,lI ll C\IU arc made. I.e., 'I'z.. . " . _ ...... If
and '" + l )I2 cuU l' .r
. . . , ' . _ _ .. ' ..... If,, "odd. Havinl lallm
IWO rcp1iea5 of lhc z-spbc WII.h sul;h a>u , we 111.10 them alone ,he cClfnll)Ol)di llS
cuu : The constru ct ions arc similar 10 IboJc inIDealed in r IA 2S ..o will produce a
_ (" ) ,, -1 11 +1 ... -1 . .
sphtrc Wllh __ I _ _ . , , h.nllks. n ns IS the
1 2 2 2
R,cmann surfau of fUn<:fion (9) . The number of handlnp (Ihe Bcnus of l WTface)
lSreJ&l cd to the number V of the branch poi nts of ,he Rianann surfa by the
V - Up + I).
Thus, the many-valued funetioo , which is determined by equat ion (J),
posscssC! Riemann l urfl ce t lla, is lopo1oa ical ly equivalent 10 .a wilh
handlts. This uetenem is valid for any many-valued ala.blllle f"'"Clion .
XrreM 1- , Con$lrua the Riemann surface of Ille algebraic function ..... -
- t '" 0, where n > 2 and Is an integer, and verify tlull il is .. -sheeted and
10POlopeal ly equivaknlto lbe sphere,
The inVUliption of Donalgebraic lZl al)'lic functions in the aJso ICllds 10
Rieman n surfaces QI1 wbid! the attal)'1ie fWlet ions all: OM-". lued.
Enrdfe 2-. Cemsid",. tbe Iopritbmic: fun<tlOl'l 6eImnined by the eqllalioo
.. - .. oand CDn$lrUet ' jl$ Rieman" sunaec.
Intultlvdy. the no Lion of knot $CellU unCOlltplieal.ed. The simple5.t exampkl lfc
the ' prUne' Icnot(Fi " 26) and the ' ligure-of-cigbt' k" ot (F'IJ. 27) wbidt C:&II be RIl-
ly repre5ellted witb a rope . Any altemptto l raJlsfonn a ' pri mc' knOi lnlOa 'rllure-
of-elJbI' koot without pusinllthe ends or t be rope thrOllgll a loop will fail. Tllu s,
wch.n uperimtnl mows lhat t hese knots are differenl , which brinKs up t ile wbjeet
of chusltyinl knots"a1 ly.
A, . 27
Introduction [0 Topoloty
fia;. ) 1
We sball be able 10 ba.n passm, the m ds through a loo p if we ident ify tr.e.,
tOllether) {be rope-.ends <FII. 28 and Fla. 29). Th en the following defin ition
becomes DalUrai .
DEFtNmON \. A knot is a homeomOtllhlc Irna&e of the circumflTll:l1Ce 51 in R) .
E.XAMPL1lS (a) the lrivial kDOt (Yli. 30): (b) a 'prime' kil O(, ' cloverlear kll ot or
' !nfoi!' knot (see FI&.2'), (e) a 'figw- N)(-eiaht ' ce a 'fou.-fokl' knot (I
Fi. 29) .
Note that by deflJlition all knot s are homeomotpb.ic. it is to
classify the c:mbeddilllll (homC<lmorphimts) by which the clrcumferrnee can be
embeddedin R
DEflNITION 2. XnO/$ XI lind Xl _ $/lid 10 be t!quivafMI If there wsts a
homeomorphism of R) ont o userr mapping X I onto K
A more et.... of knots is based on nOIKm of isot opy of th e
Rl , A con lillUQlU mappm, H: [0, II X R J _ R ) is called an is{J/OPY il fOf
eacb Ie (0, II, the mappi ng H homeomorphieaUy mal" R
onto Itself, whereas,
WMII t => 0, it is ident it y mapping. Th ll$, an isotopy is a family of homeo-
morphisms of the &pace R
which depend on a PlUVIle1erI and which chllJl. e I;On-
tinuowly ali t ioc.-, beSinlling with Ihe Identity when t = O.
DEI'1NmON 1. KDou Xl IltId K
are of the same isol opy /ype If then: exiUli an
i$Otopy H<t, x) of Ihe RJ, I e [0, 11, X{; R
such that H(l, Xl ) = Xl .
1 , Show tbat bcloqinc 10 an isotopy is an , d arion ,
There are examples of knot s which are eq uivalenl in the sense of Def"mltion 2
but are Of difftl"ent isot opy types. Thus . ' trdoil ' kno t and the mi rror image of a
'trefoil' knot , i.e., the knot which is symmet ric 10 ' trefoil' knol wbh to
plane In RJ, are not of the $IUlIe i,otopy type (the pr oof of this the
dcYdollment of a spec:iallecbnique). However , a ' figurN)f-ei&hl ; knol and iu mir_
. 01 imqe are of the same Isotopy type.
The basic properties: of knots euIly studi ed for knOll thar an: co mparalivety
simply tied ,
DEP"INlTt ON 4. A poJygorKIl knot Is a knot which is the union of a finit e nwnbcr of
r1 i1inear segmmu.
ClI. I . Flnl NO(ion, or Tapa&ou
DEFINITION 5. A knoI: whicb IseqUoivaknl 10 . polyconal one Issaid 10 M t tlfM. A
knOI whicb is not equiYalmt 10 POIy.on M ODe Is said to M wild .
EXMoIf' UiS. trivia!. and kDoIl ace tame. All exam
,*of . wild knoI hai_ in rll. 31. 'rxe Aumberof loopsm thillnMllica_in.
dd l.llild y Yt'hetus their size d ed'UIeS inddin.ildy while appI"OKhiIlJ: 1M poI l11 p . II
it inlcrCSlinl t bat if IlK number of kloprr; wee then knot _ Id M
eqllivalml to trivial one.
KlIol d assif"ttation is d oseb nt al ed to pr opa'ticl of spaces whidJ co m'
pkmml ary 10 knOll. For if some lopolo&kal invariaDlI of the com-
pklll m ll of knOiSX l an d X l ue different then X
is not equivalenl to X
(and nOI
i5010pic). A useful toJ)Olo&!w invari lnt II fundament al &rOUP of tbe knot corn
plement (the knot grOUp) 01. III ) . Note alsolhat the set of all kn ot equivalence
elas50el (o r isotopy eqllivalmcc eIassn) may be end owed wil b IJl algebr aic flntetu!'e .
The Idea or l uch a struct ure lill y be, ivm In t he foll owln, manner : call Ihe r:omposl.
rioIr (Product ) XI X
o! twokll ots X
t hc operat.lon o rtyln, lhcm one after
other . The o rder in which the y ate tied is more exactly, tb e Ilnot XI . X
is equi.....t to the b ot X
Xl" 1be c:ompoi tion of the t not equivalen ce c!.Uses
1IO ckrtllCdiscommutalivc and cquivalmc:e c:bss of trivi al knot
SCI'\'C$ u tM Idmlity ckmcu l . However , all . UIIpt to solve equation
X X . I to untie X by tyin, Ihe b OI Xl will flil exeept when X _ I .
T),crcfore , t.hcknot equival cnc:e da$se$ only form . xrn!&ro\lP(Md do DOl. fon. .
The 1'"_ lopolosbl 0ICIIiau canbe Ic:amcd ft c.. e>&II)' 1ICNfCCS. fit,
I.. tl;> I .......bel- of buic (iaoc:Iud.lnI 1-...;....,..;00 1 MId
mlJlirolds) il carried: 0lIl. by in f1/ DtrJW1t/aT7 AIlzt "-wtia, V. 5
f2f 1(pP. VlnlaI 1(7) by Boll)'ln'
sl111ld Etranoridlmay be Quite_rlJl rt>r bq;iDncr. lt upl""l the ide:u. basic notloflS
ad I'"LI'lIlnas of IOPOloIYin I popuIlr mannl:\". Abo r nl eo.w.plst>!ThpoJ<>u lUI by Olinn
WIdSlem.od Ib outd be noted.
1'bt: problems or ,luiq IOJfthcr lwo-dimcmional ,wraon 1ft' al s.o coveml ln
boIlkJ: Whlfl /$MQlhnntlt/ a1 [131(Ctl . V) by Co urant and Rob blJlJ. AlfSdNlueM CAomrtrle,
[19J (0). VI) by Hilbert and CohnVossen. New DI"""ioIa f rom Sdtt,,1(fIc
A/Iffrl('a" 1"'1, and Unexpect ed 1I_,In, ilItd Other MtIIJre",.. ,kaI (HI. etc .
llcy ca<dIlcr . Oatdr>cruplalN bow Ir e llScd for l'indin 'Nhm
tilt EllIer dwaetoislic. weabo ldcd _ tedu'liclues rro-! A" oft lte &.sic Itletu of
Tf:l9OIoD by BtlhYIlIlkJ' IIld Efr cll\O\icll (I6I, ..... _ from Cm.dCr (141.
The cl.aail'"atiCICI of l -.dimenslooal surracesl:s _ ed 1'ftY lill::lroq/lly in
Topo./tIu: AMl " trotIuU_ Ij 21(0.. I and ClI. 2) by M.wcy 1Ad.lso" !he
[711 (ClI. IQ by seirert ..,d Tbldf.P.
MCIril: WlICa IIIId thdr _plftas an: dQk with ill 1,,/I'Odw6tM I t:> SeI 71fer;Iq aMI
a-rfII PI (Ct. 4) by A1allftdtOl' UIdill lbc at rw.etionaI-l1IU. (461
(Q. m. 1491 (CII . nlTd1l'I.
An e1M1m!At)' approach 101Midea or. copoIop:,al be found Ia!he 1_boob
_lolled II thc bqlrICIlaa; or tbiI wnoey. Note abo ia tllD _nealon
' Hiltorical NoI.e' 10 A.. I rfOllll !be boot by Bourbati Topotjlfw 11' 1 wllidI _
_ flI in Scc: . 1.
IlIl:rodlltllon to Topoloa y
The "", o:oocepu of 00lft(lk:I wariablc f....etloo theory I h.1 we fc furilld10 in Sec. . .... y
be fOtDld. tor exUAplc., .. Inland <k\>dootftenl or \he notiont ioIrod llo<ltli11 Se<: ClIl be
,_ill 1" 1lIIId
""lIoM: buic: idcaswc diJanJe4 i1lSec. J. ilco-r'" by Kfl'"
no.c.,.ll'1 by o-cu MIl I'm.
Note tHuIe....Dal:HID.lhooIf byOln>ant)' ..,d (201wbidl_ by
VOflllllCdl Slat l./IticmIJ Mol Qk'h e:aeuiDJ <klDa.u or a-roilOpokiQ and_opy
tllwy. tMIllJXliOl)' of surflCCS. cIemo:Bu or ....fold l!ltofy aswei III Port swYeyS of bulc
M IOillau.
We ioldiWoe, tha tho:iJlif d YOI_of Hisloq <l/ Safttt M ltin.-tia 1421
caaulm: . bistorktl........". 01 II.. dc.clupoMnI or \DllI'IIo11 inthis _11'.
A -*' of tlIc prublnnI ill 00 I art from ICIllbook.
General Tapol09Y
AI we have ment km! above. the notion o f melne space is insurn
eient fOT the de velopment of a number o f Impon anl mathematital
pl"oblems . In the twentieth call\U"Y more ameraJ CODCept o f
space bas IlI'iKn and devel opm in matbemati, the co nCCJ)C o f
to poJosica"1 space. By now, this notion hu ba:omc uni venally ac;-
Pted ainu the ' atnleture' o f a t opolosfcal space , a co ncept quile
broad and pcofound, lUUa1ly preeedes the introduction of other
..tlll et Ure$. The lanBllQe of topoloskal soacc theory has become
I!I cr ally accepted In aU the b ~ DC madlcmalK:s which are
related to me noc>ort o f space. ThU c:hapter is devoted to the theory
of topoloaical spaces and thei r continuous mappil\&l .
I. The Definition of a Topol ogical Space. Let the re be a collection of
.. lUI in a se t X of an arblt ...!)' natu re so lllat it poueUe$ th e following
propcrtl es:
(i) 0. Xe 1';
(Il ) t he union of a ny co llection of set s from' belongs to r ;
(iii) the lntersectjon of any finite number o f set! from ' belongs to r .
Such . collection of r is called a lopolot>' In X ; the set X is "ca lled a
1O/1OIOlkol Sp<lce an d denoted by ex. T). and t he subsets from the co l1C'C1 ion l' are
Wd to be (in theospau X).
I . X Is the number line. A tOp</logy is by the following co lllion of su bSCIs:
the empty set 0, all possible intervals and th eir unions U '" lJ (g", b,,).
2. X .. R
. Call a set open if together with each ofiu po inu, it contains a suffic ient -
I)' smaHopen circle cenlred ill t he point, and the empty set . It is easy to verify th ai
the family of all open sets In R
forms a topolo8Y.
3. X isan arbitrary SCI. Put,o = [0 . Xl. It is a topology (verifyl) . Thus, ex, TO> is.
lopologie a1 space.
4. X is an ar bitrary set . 1'1 = lall possible subsets of xl_II is also a t opo Joty
Th e t opoJOi)' r J is sa)d t o be rntJXJmQ/ or dlscrfte. and the t o pol ogy ' (I is Cllllcd
mi1limlff or trNiof. Thus. different lopolog ies. e.g. , t he tr ivial or discrete one, may
be deflfle<l on the: same set .
The dual noti on of cloudset Is clOKly re lated to the not ion of open set : It is a st:!:
who.., c;omplement is o pen. Thus. if U e r Ihen x,U is closed. and, co nversely. if
Fit c10Kd t hen X 'FIt open.
) 0. Verify that the fo llowing sets an: close d: a line-segment In, hI in RJ ;
and a dosed di $c in R1.
As a result of th e dualil y of set- t becrettc o perat ions , the colltttion of all closed
letS of a spa ce X sa lisfles t he followina pro pen ies :
(I) the sets X , 0 are closed,
( li) the cuersecnon of an y collection of closed seu ;s closed;
(iii) (he un ion of any finite number of cloKd St:!:S is closed .
Various lOpa logies on the same SCI form a paniauy o.dered sel.
DEfiN ITION I. A topology , is said to be Wlkrr (eOQrur) thM a to po logy
'.(1' < ,.-') If it renews from II e r that U t.e., if all sets from, belona tc ,. '.
TlH topa!o&Y,. is then sai d to be stronger (flner) Ihan the topology r ,
Note that Icr any lopo logy ,.-, we have TO < r < 1'1' It Is clear thai there al$o ex-
iIt incompVlIble topologies. Topologies T ' and 1' " are inco mparable if each of
thm! contains on ly so me of the set s belongi ng to the ether.
We will now co nsid er how to con st ruct a lo po lollY. First , an important defini .
tnll od ucll on 10 TopqlOSY
OEFINITl O:.l 2. A B = III} o f open Is eaIled" /xJse{or i2 topoloU 1'.
if for any opm set Uand for any pointE U. " et Ve B such th l u (i V
TbtRfore. any noa-mtp(Yopen set in X QII be repruented lit t he unio n of open
5ClI f rom the base . Th is propcny dlaJactaiza baK. In particular, X equals the
lUlion of al l lM $eU (TOttI V (UlY colkttion of 5ClI "'; !h sudl .. property iJ, ealIcd "
of ttlc space) . ConYCnl'ly, if a see X is n pra cnted a, the Ul1IonX = IJ V.
the n undu what eonditions can a topok)sy on X be c;olUlrueted sc tlw the fllmily
B IV. Jis " baM: fOC" the topology?
n1Oll.... I (AC1lIlEUG.'10F" A IlASE). L" X .. lJ Y" . A co!lUin6 B .. lV.l in
baR 101" i2 topo/OV 1/tmd only if for " " y .' fifty v,/1'OifI B "lI d,."y
E V.. n ",. "'..,E 8 Sitclr , /rllt X lii V., C y. n V...
PROOf'. If 8 .. IV.)is " base (OT" Iopolou" then Y" n v, is an open set. M d , by
1M dd initlon or . base, for any x v. n ...,> lMn aisls Y.., : XE Y.. C Y.. n v, .
CoDYUSdy , If B .. Wool satisncs the cCNldition of the Ihcol'ftD th en the sell
U :: U $I.. (aU possi ble unio ns) and the empty SCl 0 form, at can easily be vamcd.
II topalOJ)' on X (Qr 'IItilich B.= IV"I is " ba$r.
Note l bat we have abo indical ed in tbe pr oo( . wrJ ofeonSlroc:dnl ;l topokl l)' If
a family B satb fyill, the f;Ond;tion of lhe theorem is l iven.
Bllt can a topo lOI Yon the $1:1 X be con5trueted for an u bilrat)' co vering (S"J'
Th e follo...m, Iheorem answers this Quest ion.
THEOflEM 1. A (1)vuf" g !S"l nQlurally QtQJ)Ology on X , vh . the came-
tlolt of n tr (v _ " 5..1, K lJ on tub/In" )' finite $IIbstl from tal, lJ 0 lu:st
for lhe topology .
PaQOv. Verify Ihal the co.lltttion (1'1 $8\is fiea the cri terion of a base . In fact , pUI
V,. '" v. n V"for v.. " V".ObviDUdy. V,.'" IVl,and , l hertfore, the aiterionofa
baseis flllrdled.
Th us. the co" mn. [S.l of the set X dacrmilKll 11 IOpoloU OD X whow ope n
seu '" aJJlhe posslbk unions U ( " S.) and Ihe cmPl )' set .
DEFINITION l . The fami ly IS..J iii c:aIkd a s..bba5o> fOf t he toPOlogy which k
S.ler. X . R
. Set.5of tbt formS.. '2 < crJ, cr lJR
, and S, = Ir:i > ,/JJ,
,/Jfl R I , form a w bbLWror the lopolou of the DumbcF line R I.
6. La X _ R be an II-dimensional vector space. A base is a ccl lealon of seu
B ,. {Y In R". 'Il'hcn: v... .. - Ir E R
: . / < f, < b/, I _ I . . . IIJ. f , is me
j -(h coonliftate:of the:vectot..t - (t
, h . . . . ,(" );,, - (01" . o.J and b ,. (b ,
b,, ) an vbitn.ry "ect on III R " , 0/ < b, .
Sets lite: v.... arc c:aJItd optll In R -.
xvrirr 2". Pr O'le: rn.t the set of para llelepipedJ: described in 6 fornu
bur rOf' Ihe topolo lY on R" .
11 ls natural . for a topological spa, 10 51:1\ base wit h lhe IcaM possibk
numb of clementi . For example, sets II' .. ('t . tvin R
whae '1' / 2arc ration al.
form base c:onsistina of I w unabk set of clements.
Similarly, mere is. countable base for R- cons ulina of ra-
tional vcrtica or the fonn
...,1'1 - < t , < ,-11' I .. 1, "1.
wtlere ' 1. ' 1 arc n J:iona! WCI.OlS in R- ,
1. Neighbourhoods. Let (X, 1) be I lopokt&ica! spKIt, andz e X anarbiuvy
poiat .
DEflt,m0fll4 . A Mi4libo",hoodof a point X6 X ii an,. subset D()rl C X saili fyin,
!JIeCOlldilM)J\$: (i) x 6 D(l'), (ii) there U Ul. U 1i".lIC:h dI a. z 6 U C Q()r) .
We IMYtolUider the colkc:tion of aUneiahboumoods of :;II given point thai
poucucs lhe followi8. propatiC$:
(i) t he \Inion of any colleaioll of nri&hbow1l oocb is. lKi&hbourhood:
(d) the interwaion of ful.itc number of Ileiahbourl\oods is a ncishbou rhood;
(iii) MY set conlliniq rome neighbourhood Ott> Is nrighbourhood of the
point )c .
THEOREM 3, A sub.wt A(A *" 0)01il l opoIo, kal space(X, ..) uopeni/anr!onty
if It con faiM somt nt i, hbou,hood of tad of its points.
PROOF. Let A be open , x EA . It is dcar then IhAI A is a neigh bourhood of x ,
Therefor e , A con talll.l ll neighbourhood or any of Its PQinls. Let for any x itA ,
there u lSl a nei&hboumood of the poin t x , Iyln, wholl y In A . By the definit ion of a
ne\lhbourhood, ir co nt ains some open let U". x e U
' Consi der the union U U"
.. .
of liudl sets for all x EA. II' is open; A C U U" linee any point of Ihe Jet A
beloo.., 10 .U U". On Ibe other hand. we U
C A fOl'" every x , r.e
u U" C A . Therefore. A :< U U}< . andA is open .
x." "0'"
NeiJhbouthoods Me wed for sepaJalin, points rrom cadi ot her.
OF1l'o'lTION , . A spac e (X .,) ISsaid 10 be HtnUdor/ / if Cor an)' two dif.
feraN poInru .,. in iI. there are neithbourbooch UU' ) of thesepotnu we h
111111. U(.t ) n UO') ,. 0 .
A IOPO\o&it&l equipped wit h the t rivbllopoJoay is not H. usdorfCif
it (OQW!lsmore Ihan 0l'Ie point (YUl f )'!).
'Ibt$e pt openltSohhc:neia,hbour hoocbor . pai n! (wbidt arc now dedared to be
uiomJ) are oftee ,,2<1 ali II basil for Ihe folio..."" dtrmil ion of II10POIogy.
DEFlNrtlON 6.. A l opolo,icrzfspPu is stI X for wtIidi each po inl x has a s of
StIMdS1D.(x)J. ealled tbe neip bou,"oodJ 0/ llIe poh'f x lal ' liryina the followin,
(OI'Jditioll.l: (i) x belonas 10 eac:hor iu; oc-'ahbour lloods O.. tr): (iiI il " Sd U C X COIl
Introduction to Topolo8Y
laim some Q,, (;r) then U Is also a neishbourhood of the point x; (iii) for any two
nd sh bour hoods n", (X), n.. (,x) of the point;Jr, their interwction n.. (,x) n is
abo a ncighoourhoJd of pointx; (iv) for e\let)' neighbourhood n'(x) of the point
x, th ere is a n (x ) C O(.r) S\I<,;n tn"t it is a neighbourhood of each
of iu poi nts. "I
Exercue J ", Show t hat sets which life neighbourhoods of each of the ir point s Vld 0
fonn a topolo8Y on X,
3. Cont inuous Mappings. Homeomorphisms. We wall diK\l ss now
the definition of a continuous mapping of topological spaces,
ut f). (Y, 0') be two t opologieal SJ)ll0C5 endowed with topologies f and a,
respectively, !.rt/: X - Y be a mapping of the seU,
DEFINITION1. A mappi ng I of topological spaces is $aid t o be oontf"uous if the
full inverse imager 1(Y) of any open set V of t he space ( Y,.,.) is an open $C'\ of the
space ex, f).
" . &8le the deHnition of a continuous mapping in terms of a base and subbase for
a topolO\lY.
'0, Show thaI a continuous numerical fun ction )' c l{x) ( - ... < x < +...) deter-
nueesa continuous mappingJ: R
_ R
6' . Prove that J is cOlitinuOUS if and only if mveue imager I (F) is closed roe
any elOKd. 5e1 F in Y.
IfI: X - Y,, : X - Z are.mappings of topolOlical spaces then it is natural to
de(lfle the superposit ion gf: X - Zby t he rule {gf):;If - , ((X .
THEOIlBM4. ifI Qnd, rue co",inIl.OflJlthen II is olso conlinuow;.
The proof fallows etuily from tbe remark that
W)- I( W) = r 1<r- ' ( W ,
where w e Z is an arbitrary 5e1.
We now $late one of the most Imponam
Off1NtTION 8. Two t opologleal spaces (X. r), ( Y, crj are said to be hOrnffVnOrphk
if there exi!u a mappin,/: X - Y thaI S!' t lsfies the condi tions: (i) / : X _ Y is a bi
tecr tve map pIng; (iil l i! oont inuo us; (lii)r 1 is continuous.
Note t hat this definition el\8.etly roucws. in form. the definition of a eomecrecr-
pbism of met ric spaecs.
DEFINITION9. A mappina J :X - Yk said to be OPtIf treso. clo:m/) if the image
of any open doooed) set in X is open (resp . closed) in Y,
1. Pron t hat a mappinl/: X - Y is a homeomorphism if and only if the
mappina r
Y _ X is defined , and the mappings! and r
are butn open and
ThWl, a homeomorphism Ir&nsfor ms open sets inlO open, and dOKd. sc:ts into
AsJodll11na o pen lee U o f the spaa: X willi Its IfI!.l&e I(U) W>dcr II
j : X - Y w abl i.l.hd; II bi jea.i1: conupon dcaCf:; bet ween the
topoloJies 011 lb.e spaces X and Y. Henu. ......y of the X Kaled if!
tmnS or II lopolosy on this $pC is also nlid for the space y ..hid!
pbX III X, and is il EnilatJy " at ed in terms o f the lopololY on Y. ThIQi. the
1pa.teS X and Y poue$S idc:nUca1 and I.I'C tn
di!lin&viIbabk from thjs poirn of kw.
The: propnties of lOPOkIsicaI that are preserwd undcT
arc ealkd Note, in th is COllnec:tion, lbal the main o f
lopolOl)''''''' for a lonl time (and st UI remains partiaD)' utIso1YC'd today) 10 discover
an dfeatvc method o f dm ill.l uu.hing bd.""'em nonhomeomorphic: spKeS.

' ". Show thl.! II homeomorphism dacnninC!S ill oom:spondcnoe bdWf\ t he bases
and . 1Ibbases for homeoIIl orphie spaces.
9", Show that ure homeomorphiJ:m relation is an tq uht.l cnce relancn .
HI" . Show thll' the Interval ( - I, + I) of the numbcTline II homromorphi<: t o the
wllolc numw line and ce nut\K:l lhis homeomorphism .
II ", Show Ihat II closed line sqment and an open mtuval on Ihc number line are
1101 homeomorphic.
Thut: u isl$ q11iu II usefl&l elIlaWon o f the notion o f honIcomorphi$rn. viZ. , II
This is II (ODIinllCMQ ma ppin, f : X - Y SIKh IbM for any
x .}' .}' " .1,,") , the re IR U(.K"J. YO')fon,hich/:U(x) - Vcy )
is a hoIneomotphitm.
Ir . Verify t hat the mappina :R I, {OJ - R I, (OJ detmrtined by the for -
Illalay .. r is a 101;:&1 homeornorptl l$m.
4. A SUbspace of a Topological Space. II QD be: teen from the abO'le
lhat SIIb#tS of metric and topcMolkal lpKes are oRm c:onsider ed indcpc:ndent ly. In
addi tion. a subsel: Y of a metric naturally irlherits the metric:on X . We no...
defIlle Ihe nolion of hercditaly copo!oaY 00 Yif X is topolok:aj spaot.
l.cI. tx, T) be: a topoloPcaJ spaoc, Y C X a ....bsee in X . COnsi der. fami ly of
" W : II - un Y, U Iii .'1.
THEOR.l!.M S. Tha l ami /;! on Y.
TN!! PIIOOFis left 10 the reader (it is
The topology r r Is lUI 10 be I n Illduad Or Jrrnd flqry topoJov fro m X and tbe
q>a ( Y, fyl is c:.aUed a sMWpo ot the space ex. f) .
If f : X - Z is a CODCdlUOWl mappi", of lopo1op;:aI SPaca and Y a subspac<= of
X. tlI m!he mapflin&f: Y - Z can also be ooruidered . This is ca1fed ansrrlcrlOll off
10 Yand denoted by f l r
Y are ofl...
iotmllflod IJId written II X . Y. We -ut a.Isorollow tlriI cunvendo.n .
1lll1OClualon to Topolou
THEOll.EM6. n co f/Il1ppirll/ l r : Y - Z is ron,i"lIOlU,
Pl OOf. Lei. 7, be . topo!osY on the Iplce Z, and W e' T Then Vly)-I ( W)_
'" f - I(If') n Y and l inter l ( W) E r we will ha ve III y)- '( W) e "y
Mr(l;u .
1) 0. Show that UI open set in l subspace Y of . i Pace X is nol opm in
X . Conslckr the cases of X _ R' , R}. R
;,tte:mpt Ihe IOlDIC qucKioo rot closed
xu in Y. Pro!: . priori !hlll. any cloKd F" in Y is of u.e form F
'" F n Y.
where F .. . closed K1 in X.
14 . Lc1A . 8 C X be elo$ed :leiS o f . topoloP:al fPllCcX . and In X _ A U B.
Thcn l mlppin. ! : X - Y is eontln uoWl If and only if/I,.. : A - 1', / 1, : 8 - Y
;u"c co ntinuou, .
We no.. introduce ano ther importMl notion. A INppi", I: Y - X ii c:alled an
embeddi116 of Y into X if (il I is eonLinu_ . [Ii) i : Y - i (Y) is. homeomorphism,
when i {Y) C X is . SlIbspaot of X.
Embtdc\i.Dgllfc useful wMn..-e inlaid to 'sir!sk OtIl' subspK'C Y c X of the:
ambient iPUC X and. to e<JCl$idc:r It sep,arl.tdJ. conncctiotl wil.b X is prncrved.
via the natura.l mappina Y - X which UIOCIales an ek lIIoeIl t of Y wilh the same: de-
ment of X and is an embeddin .
J. Topology in a Melli e Space. Let (X, p) be some metric space eooowed
with I metric p . A topology on it can be constr ucted in 1 natural manncr. Cons;d(J
all possi ble tetS .. ()' : p (y. x) < rl, whe: x E X . e -> O. Th e Set D, (x)
c:a1lcd an opDl boll of radi us e wilh IU ce ntre at Ihe point x.
The coUm;ion o f aUopen baUs: 1D,f,x)1fomu I or lhe rncuic': space for
.midi the cnterlot\ o f I base ('1'beorel2I I, Sec. I) it fulfilled. In fact , let 0, (x.)
llIId D' I"' )) be 1"1'0 M1ls ...hos.e IrlIClWdi<:Kl II llOnC!Ilp(y. ' Le
YED, ,{x, ) n D' l (xi) . .5 = nun (t
- p(y,X
- " u-, xi)l, and let t E D, (Y);
"" P(y, XI) < .5+ ..(y,xll ' ' I'
p(.t , Xi) " p(.t, , ) "" .. (Y, x i) <' + p(;l, xi) " ' 1'
E D' I"") n D' l"' i' , wfttnte D,(Y) C D., (xl ) n D. ){x,) _ l'h\l$, 11K
t:ODditions of Thellfml I an fIIlfilled .
DEFINIT1Of'i I . The 10poloIY f dct mniDed by Ihe base COClSlSlinl of al l DPa' barb
in I lIIelne space (X , ,,) is Qlledlhe topolOlY' Mllt ed b, rhe mcfrk p, Of .hc -mt
I OpoIoU ,
Th us. opc:n set s or lhe topology T. I TC all the pou ible unions of Opcl'1 bal l.l or thl
met ric 5J)aOC (X , .. ) (and 0 ).
Ch. 2. em...1TopolOlY
THEOR M 1. Tlt t: I Opo/OO t:O/lJ1111r:lnf is Hausdor/ f .
' 100f. I..ct X __ r- TlKn P(.r . y) .... > 0 (by I propt:n y of a metric) . Setting
e '" i .we. D. (.r) . D. O' ) . II is t:as)' to Iha.! D.t-') n D. O') ,.. 0 In
fxt. if wt: asswncd!hr: con trat)' o-e: would have
.. .. pf;t. ,. ) " p(.r, d + p(t , ,.) < - ... - - -
l , l
for apoi nt (E'D. t:r) n D, {Y), which is impossi blt:.
Anotht:r an d equi valmt defi nition of open St:\$ in a met ric space can be given.
DEFINITION 2. A set U '* 0 is 0{Jt: /f if for any:t e U. th ere is an open bail D. txl
with tbe centre II x which wholly in U.
Not e Ihat we. defined a lopolo gy in R
in preci$ely th e Sli me manner. IIIId,
therefore, it eoincidCli wilh tilt lopology ... generaled by the Euclidean memc p on
Ihe plane R
. The vcri rlClllia n of t he equivaknet: of th e IWO defi nitions is It ft 10 lilt:
"",U .
Consld u a mappina!: X - Y of a met ric Q)aCt: (X, p I) iftlo ;0. mtl nc tp aC'C ( Y.
PI)' Now two definitions of t he tonlill ully of lilt: mappiftl/r:an be C1vet1. m.. as a
Jtt.appifll. of metric and u a mappi n, of lopolosical spaces. The$t: two dcfilllllons
arc. equivalenl . vU: . Ihe folloW'illll hcorem is valid .
TlfEOREM 2. A moPPIJI,!: X - Y o/ tI _ rir: SJ]tIIC.T <X. PI) IlI t Otl mt:( rir; spa ( Y.
is COtl ti,ultnU VOT lopolo. 1n by 1M /rIt(riCl) if _lid 0111,. if/or twry
X lind t:"IIWJ' ..llll X wJrkA C'OtrwTJU (o x
VUJf'3 10 ! f.rr}III Y .
' 1.00". Let!: X - Y be . tondnuoul mapping in X . Yinduccd by Ihe.
me. lrlCl. and let x" xO. We tht:n lhow IhI / (,I(,,) / f.r0}. which mean s lhat (or
any t > O. the re iJ a nalunll N" N(t , xr} 5uch t hat Pl (f(,l(,,>./f;tO -c e when
II > N .
Consi de.r an open ball D.VCxr}) in Y and denot e 11 by V . lIS inverse Image
1- I(V
) is an open ser in X due 10 the cont inuilYof! . mceecverXo er' (V. ). The
poinl ..-ob elonp to/ -I(v. ) tOj elhe r wilh some ball D.Cxol o( rad ius <S . "There
a number NIJY _ N fft. xO>I weh thai x. bdOrllliiO D.CxO> (an d IOr 1(V. "'ht:n
" > N . bUI IhcnF v. (i.e . Pl (f(,r,.)./f;to < t ) wltt:n II > N . Therd Qft:.
11M: ll'IlppillJl: f is COIllinuous as I ma ppm, of metr ic: SPica
Let Ihe tonditioo f(,r.. ) If;cr} tit: fulfillal for InY sc.qUer1Ct: tz,,1wtl lCfl 1$
con" q Cl'll t o some poilll ...Om t he spaoeX . Wt: m ow then th at th e inver se.' nIagc of
anyopc.nKI is opt:ft. Let V open llet ill Y, and U .. / -I (V). We a n 100W Ihl l
Uis open in t ht: usina the second de. rut.ition of an open SCI . If x e r l ( V),
"'en il su ftkt:$lo rmd t: > Owdt IMI D.txl <!i r '(V). If we assume thai sumt does
00t erist: , lben raere t:ii" scquen:s 1e. 1. sudt t hai t .. - O. x .. e D (x ). but
J"" l'r l (V) . Tht: rt:for e,x" X. "'ht:nc:e/f.r) ! (.f) . Havlna noticed Ih,Il / (,r)
.. l nl rodll,:tlon 10 Topolol)'
belong.s (0 Y toget her with a cert ain open bllll, W(: concl ud e that f(,rft ) E Y and
x" 6 r '(Y) bclJinnina wit h some number ". which is co ntrary to the a.s.sumpt;on .
Thus, the mappins f is continuous in the topologies of t he spaca X and Y whictl
were induo:ed by the metri cs. _
2. SpaceRI! . We shalJ consider an impo rt ant eJlamplc of II metric space, i.e. , t he
E",cl ldetllf
R" - ((E . . , E,,), - 00 <: E;< +00 ,/ _ 1, . .. n)
consisting of all ordered sets (called pohm or vt'CfOI3') of " real eumbers: t he
numbers E, are called the CCQrdlnOll!$ o f II poinl (VedOT).
A metric (tbe Eucli dean mctrH:) on R" (n > I) is defined similar ly to the metric
onRl :
( I)
.. (fl ' . Ell)' Y '" ('" . , 11,,) arc 110'0 .rbill'a1y vect ors from R

Let IUveri fy that this il a mieTie . Evklently. Properties I , II , III of a met ric (sec
Sec. 2, 01. I) are fulfilled . Con sider Praputy IV. II is to prove the inc-
qualit y
for ar bitrary real numbers E,. "'_ fl'; '" I . . ,n. The proof is broken into two
", i = I, . .. n , inrqUD/il y holds

PROOF. For an arb itrary real 1\. we have E (fl + 1\11;)] ;;, 0,
,. ,

E E: + 1: E:/l/ + >,Z E ,: O. Consider t he left-han d side of the in-
1 - I 1 _ I 1 _ r
equall tt as I polynomial in 1\. It cannot have t wo different real roots. Therefo re, its
d.Iscril:ninant is lIOI\opolltive. Hence, the inequalit y
E: E 'If
,- ,
Ch. 2. C."",al TopolO!y 4?
I '" I . . . . n. inequality is valid
i: " , +"" )'" ( i: 'i)'" + ( i: ,i)''',
0 .. l I. .. I
PlOOF. By using the Ca \lchy-Bouniakows lr.y ineq ual it y,

Q', + >1, )2 '"
+ 2l:,l1, +
; I
, - ,
+2 (
r r
,,1 +
,. , ,. , ,. , ,. ,
+ (
'r r
'i r
" '
, -,
and by tak ing the square root of bolh sidrtofthls inequaHIY....eobtain the r equired
We can no... complete rbe verif>eation of Property IV of t he met,ic. Usins the
Minlr.owski Inequality, we obt ain
. )'" ( .
c +
Thus, p is a metri c on R".
Ut x
_ . . .. , be lhe centre o r a ball an d x .. . . . its
arbitrary poi nt, Then the coordinates of a point X salisfy t he ino:quaillY
_ + .. + _ < r
, ( 2)
A ball in R" is often denoted by U;""ol and called an oJNn 'I_disC. A set of pointsx
whose coordinat es 58tlsfy th e unsmcr inequal ity
is called a cloud ball (d OSlid n-dl$c) TY: V r;). The (n - l)-d imensional sphere
S; - 1(.l'r;) wilh radius , and cent re at lhe paim xl) is defi ned by the equ ality
11_ + .. . + _ = r
, ( 4)
We will call It th e boundQry of tht! disc 15'; or JY; .
A metric on R" can be defined in other ways, for e:<amPle.
,1> "", )' ) = rna" - 'fII J.
,." ."
llltrodlldioo loTopoloty
I - _Describe II ball in R" by means (' ). Show th . Ihc ElJdid ear
mel ric and metric: (S) ind uce Ibc same topology.
ConsIdft" the complC'Jl .. -dimmJionll1space C" ;
c- .. l:t ; c .. I' . .. c,,). c,. .. x. + iy,.. x,.. J',. I! R I . k .. 1 . . . . Il l-
llIe ma.rk on II iI. introdl.ll::l ln the same: 'II'lIy as in the real case ;
p(t ' , z " ) .. ( Ici - :t:i ' 1
+ . ' . + I:t:'; - :'; - 11)11lI.
wher e.t .. k ; . . . e ' - (t j ' . . . , are: elements of C" . The
10POlosY is det mnined by the: marie
p(t .ZH). mLll ICk - t
.. . I.
We now for mulale: a condition for the conl inuilY of mappinp of Euclidean
spe.ees. A mappingf; R" - R'" associates each poi nt (fl ' .. . fIll wilh a nain
point (" I ' ... , 'I,,>. so that we:a n wrile
'" - f t U I" . . f ,,),
...... f.(f l ' . . f,,>.
wheref" " I _ . , m ia a fuoction of II variables . This fUnCiion deter-
minc:s a mappinzf,..: R " _ R
by the: n de
'Ii -f,(f l' . f .). (7l
It if evidml that th e COIUinwty of th e mllppill a /' is cquivalml to continuit y
of the nwtlCfical functio!t Jj UI' .. . f.> as iI is dcruted IJl
CaUmappinl (7) the i ..fl\ component of the mapplnlf. The mappina l is det er-
mined by spc:cif)'inl aU itH mponcnts f ,. j - I . . no.
THEOREM). A nuzppilfZ f ; R" - R- is cot/' ;""ow if llnd 0..1)<"nlch of ,ts com-
ponent"l, : R - R
i .. l. . . . . m. fS contmWOI<li.
The proo f follows fl"OUl l he - / (x. ). k - ... . Iuquiv.lenlto
- /, (x"). k - ... . for i .. t . , m.
a. The Ball Dm is Homeomorphic to Rm. Consider some subsets of
R" . .. ); 2. Let S" - I be:a sphere, and D" an open .. -efU(: wilh unit radi us and centre
at 1M po int (0 , . . , 0) . Den ole the pan of Ihe spher e where i . > 0 (j.e. the nor-
t hern hcmi$pherd b y - ' . We prove tha t the disc D" - I IS homeomorPhic to the
hc:llllsphcn - I .
The space R" - I may be: consider ed 10 be coinc ident with the subspxc:ofpoinn
(( I" . , I II _ I ' 0) of tbe space R" if the poinls (( I ' f . _ I) and (f l ' .. .
f. _ .. 0) arc idMliflCd_ ThctI D" - I and - I lie in R and arc aiven th us;
- 1 .. fl' . . _.l.): e + + f; " I. i . > OJ .
U -I- l(i .. . . . . + < 1. ( " - 01
III the: euc of we hI''"': Is the upper hal f of Ute sphere ...,thout t he cqUllor,
Fl... n
and D1 is the inc.erior of th e lll'lil ci rcle in R 1 (AI. 32) ,
. - .. , J1 " 1(\.h.OJ e0
Th e Pr ojcd>on U I _h. h ) - (f l ' h- 0) is . bomeomorphism of lh e ht;mis pha-c
UMI dil<: D
Similarly, the projection
j : ({t o , f. _ I. E,.) - tE l' . . t" _ , ,0)
dunmincs a conlinuOWi bi jective mappml of - I onto D" - I in R" (verify!) .
Co Midn- the invusc map pins. It is easy 10 sec ll'lal. it is of the f Qrnl
r: ' :(fl_ " . f" _ 1, 0) - (t, . ,f,, _ 1, (1 - ft- . .. - t)l ll) (8)
lnd co ntinUQus. Th us. a homcomorphism of the disc D" RlId hemisphcfeS". - I h u -
bem eonSlr uacd.. CalI lh e 0C't of o Cthe sphere S" - I that laru f)' the Inequll1l.
... ...- ' .11 ill:lurthat:5': - I .. so:. - l U SO - 1. It
is M lu ral lO c::alI t he spm" S" - 1 tM bo ll,ui:l ry oj 'he 3": - I (o r
- NOlC lbac S" - 1 is sbnultaneously the bowld.ary of the di sc D'" - I (or
D" - ). It ill easy t o sec thai: h.omco>orpbisrCl (8) is also dcrlrled o n S'" - 1, and lh al
r II SO _ > - IS" _ 1- Thus, 0- - I is homeomorphic 10 St'. - '.
We now csu,blish llnOt hrr impon ant
THEORE..'Iot 4. disc D'" .. II ortWomorpJrk to /II( space R"'. m ;;0 1.
PII,OOI' PUllinS m .. " - I . we use t h( pr( vIou s constructl on. We tl'3nslace the
. pace I, II "" 1, so Ihal ch( orlsin of coordinate:s 10<:$ to the pomt (0 , ." , O. I),
the Nonb Pole of Ihc spher( - I. Eve, y poinl it> the ee w plan ( has Ih( fOl'"m (t l '
h. . . . . t . _ I' I) . t r we draw chi: blIlf. lIne .
.. tt" '11 '" th , " , . " .. tt",
I "" 0 t hrouah eac:h point x .. (( I' " . " , E.) '!S'" - I, il will inlawa tile cee-
p1_;l t a uniqu( poinl COlTespondin. 10 t be value l (r) - lit . By usisn
I A(foducl!oa to Topolop
ia& ltl iJ interstttioo poUK 10 l ilt: point Jf, _ obt_ the ltI appi q +:
- R" - I , h 'CDby tbe l'\Ik
(f l' ... .f.l - (!l ......!L:..l . I) .
( .. (.
TIW IlUoPJlin!. Q il ill euy"'o .airy. The M1papos;cion ottbe
: D" - I _ R" - ' ,If > 2.
)'idds the rc(l uired homeonloc'phhm..

2 . Sllte . crilUion of the l:OlItinully of. mapp il1l / : CO - C'" of oomplell' spoeet'l .
J . Prove lha t C" ill homeomorphic to R
4"'. Prove that the balls in the .pace R '" which are defi ned usins melrics (1) and (5)
ar<: homeomorphic.
' . Pr ove Ihe continuity of lbe function,
/(( ., f:J '" ut + e..),. (ft + . . . +
6"'. [)I, rUlCdiscs and 3. $pMtc IDthe .spM% CO by COCldltions (2).(4) and denote than
' , respcaiuly. they
1P," and S, - n:spcaivdy
.,.. . Pro'I'C th.. dUo:::so(1l1li, ractii arc bo rmornolllbi<;in R'"; prove. similar SlllnrlClll:
for t,phUCl.
I. The Definition of a Quotient Topology. We wi1I aivcutrict defini-
tion of . topoqy In a (lCIor space. l.e. quotient topoloay. and analyse the ell'
amples frOltl Sec. 3, 01. I , from the new point of view. WI a relat ion x _ y be,
t ween 50me demcn tl x, y " X be defined on an abst ract .etX. Thi, relalion
an jf the foUo"';nl are fuUlUo:<I : ( I) x - x for any z" X
(re/lQlvily); (2) if z _ y - x(symmclry) ; (3) i f x - y and y - : the nx -
The set X is then split Into di sjoi nt das:se$ of equiva.lent elemenu . orequ/vrl/eflCfl
The X1 IDJ of all equivalence dassel ,.;11 be de _cd by X I R,vtIItte R denotes
lhe eqllivakDD: in X .
DEFINITION. 1be XI X I R is c:alIed lhelllCltN sel of lhc set X . ith respect to tbe
equivalence R .
Let lX. rl be a and koIan equ ivalcQ rdation R be o n
the KI X. A nanuaJ topololY ma y ltlcn be introducecl lntOtbe fact or set X I R in !he
followin. marmcr. we call a ....bset " c ro.1 dc:mcnts of D. open If
M d on/y if the \ID;OIl U D . 01 dl;eICU D. 35subsets of X is open in the sPKe lX, r l.
Naturally, we rdel" 10 t he empty set as an open set. This collectio n of c pen subselS
in X I R is a IOpo]OI Yand d cnol:cd by 'R'
Eurcist 1
Verify tha t-'R is a topology <Ill X I R .
The topology TR is called a quo tient topology, and is lUUally implied whe n a rae-
lor space is beillJl spoken of.
The motives for defining th e topolollY "R will become clearer if the mapping
.. ; X - X IN associating every clemen t X6 X with the equivalence cws 0 " is <:011-
lidcrt<1. This mapping is called t he projrc llon o r th e space X on lOthe facl or spa ce.
II is usy t o see th at a set V C KIll b ope n if and only $el :r -
( y) Is e pee In
X. ThIlS, the projectloll'" is continuo us as a mapping from (X, ..) 10 VU R, '1/)'
(Nole that th is enTails the principle of the cont inuity of tbc 'gluing' mapping whicll
mentioned in Sc<: . 3, Ch. I) .
There may certainly exist other IOPO)ogjes on the SCI X I R in which t he peojec-
tioo 'III is oonlln\lous . The follQwing theo rem the lopolo" T1/"
THEOREM \. The 10pology T/I. is fhe stro"Iles' of 01/ lopolollio 0" X I R J or which
the "",ppi"':If is comi" u.ow: .
If {WJ is . topo lo,y on X IR in whkh the mapping ... i$ co ntinuo us, t hen
. - ' {W);1 open in X . TheTdore, W i$ open in the facwr spaceXIR, i.e. , W e T/I. '
This mean s that the topology [WI i$ wea ker than Ihe topology T/I. '
Exercis6 2
Let X .. [0, II c R ' . We de fine the eq uivalen ce t h us:
x :I. x - y is ra tional. Show that the fact oTspace X IR is not HaU$dorrr.
2. Examples of F actor Spaces. Con$ider t he exam pJe$of Sec. 3, Ch . I . If
X is a rlanllk abed, and an eQuiva.l.c:nce n: latil)O R is defbled SO th at :x - x for
eaeltx E X andx - y If a nd only if x E ab, y (l cd and x ,;l' lie on the same horizontal
in X, then X I R is a topological space which is homeomorphic to tbe cylinder (see
Fiat. I and 2) .
In ract , t he ba$e for the topology of the cylind er is formed by tWO'"dimen5ionai
'disu', i.e. , the intersect ion s ofbalb in R)with the cylin der (All . 33). Ifl he cylinder
isa ll aloD& the line ah and developed into a rectangle then the "disCIi' will be eatTied
into the base for th e topology of the lalter . Monover, the 'd iscs' intersecting the
-----. --

lnlrodllCtioA10 Topo!olY

- ,
. , ,
line: /libwill be all mlO $Cpnmu wh icb each nthn to ''''cles and lie or:
th e:oppl)lltc: sides of the red.ullJe.. If is d ue' thaefore:d Ull it i$ Il:CSSarY10
the: complementary searnenu loaeth<r alon&Ihe:line of the c:ut i!I order 10obtain tbt
base for the topology in X I R ( F... ).4) . It is tlow NS1 10 see Ihat by
equivalent poin.ll of the:rcetanlic wilb the poinl mlOwh ich the,. have hoeD' a1ued',
_ obIai n a homeomorphism of ou r fattor spa X IR witlI lhc: ""Under .
The lOpolosy of a MObius Krlp can be invat!p(od in precisely the umc WIly (we
the: nut examp le: o f Il\e: ' a!l,Img' in Sec. 3. Ch . I). Some: open !leUo f a MObi us st rip
arc represeeted in Fig. 33. Here, t he .epntflU ' glued toget hn-' consist of poinlt tlult
ar c: s)'nImetnc: wit h respect to the: oenlre and lie on the: sides ab and cd.
In the: third u ample of ' a1uin, ', the corre$pondina facl or space is homeomor
ph ic to the IOrtl S: th e dement s o f the base for ll$ to pol ogy ar e rc:pr e5ellled In
Fill. . 36. Here, t he $Camcnts are not Oll[yaJued together along tile ver-
lieal b-.,.es lying on (lb . t:d, bUI also alQIl8 tbe horiZOl\t ll bases lying on at:, btl .
Finally, in t he last ob tain . project Ive: plane. E1cmen LS o f the Iwe
for lU topoloSY are rcprcxnte<! In Fig. 37. Here , lhe KgmenlS are glUed lo, ct!ler
a1on, bolh \lCTliQ.! and hor ilOnl al boundaries of the rce:tartAk by joinin. poiou
whicb are symmet ric:a.lwith respect to lbe eemre .
Here is IDOt bu useful nample of bow to form faclor Let Y C X be .
sulpa/;:c of . lopoioaic;ai qllICle X . We dttlare"cry poilll o f Y to be equi"alcnl kl
every OIbu perini , an.d.D t he poi nl.lx. X , Y equialc'lI t o thcrnsc!\cs . The fKUw
lpace- with rcs pccc to Ihis equivalence. il de not ed by X / Y, and Ihe projcct:ioo.
: X - X / Y ;n .lkd shrln.til!I 11l1t.set Y tOa poim. E.., . , 5 1 _ 11/0, 11iuhcf..,.
lor splice- of the I _ [0, II with rapccc 10 Ihe sec of end -po;ntl .
CIl. 2. GenO!aJ TopolOSY
J.Mappings of Factor Spaces. LttX,X' spaces andR,
R equivalence on Ihem. Consider II mapping/: X-X' . We ..... ill u,y lhal the
ma.pping / prtservrs If it roue.....s from x r t hal/<;x) i!. 1(Y). For
luett mappings, it IS na l urili lo define the mapping I :X IR - X ' IR ' of the factor
&p_ as fonows: Jet D", be an equivalence d;l.Ss in X , X e D" any dement and Dit
lhe equival ence dll$S in X ' containing the point f<x), u,en](D,,) .. Dit .
EHrciH 3 . Show Ihal l he defin ilio n oflb valid . Note that the mappins]is a
CfiUS mapping.
THEOREM 2. if a cc" j"UQUS mopping f; X - X' preurvu tquivalenct thtn tht
rorrtSpo"di", closs mapp{n,}: XI R - X ' f R ' is oonl l"uoU$.
PROOf De nole the projections Qf the spaces X , X ' omo the cor respo nd ing factor
lollllCC$ by ..., .... , respectively . The diagram
iii commutative , i.e " for each x X we. have. (/"1I")(r) = (... If a sct Vis open in
X ' / R' thcn (.. 'f) - I (I') is open in X, beca use ""1 is c;onlinuous. But rJ..)- 1(V)
.. (5" ./)- 1(1') and therejcre the set (/.. ) - I ( V) is open in X . Since (/"r) - I(V) ..
.. ...- I V- I( V), the sel/- l( V) is open in X / R (by the. definition oflhe. topo lOllY of
factor SpKC),
We. now fonnulate. a tes t to see. tf Iactcr spaces are. homeo mOrph ic,
THEOREM 3. ifl : X - X ' is a r1l1d IfWppings/,/- 1
tiluiva/enet Ihen the residue.class mapping!; X I R _ X ' f R ' is a homeomorphism.
In fact , t he. mapping 1-1 in this case determines me residue class mappi ng
1_1 .. (j) - I (verifyl), and Theorem 2 can be app lied bal h to} and vv: I.
Here arc t hr ee more. ' mod els' of the peojecttve plan e. Rp
ln addit ion 10 those
listed in Sec, 3, Ch, I. The forst is obtained from thc sph erc X .. 52 by past ing
togethe.r dia.metrieal ly opposite poi nts (Fig . 38). Thc second consists of l,n alght

lines in III that pass through 2;erO '" - y .. Jr,)' lie on one such st raip t line and
x 0, y 0) (Fig. 38).
4. Describe the topotOI)' oflhe Sp3ces Obtained as the topology of the. fac-
tor spaces S
/R an d (R J10)/ R , resplivdy.
The. thi rd model of Rp 1can be.dcscrlbed as folJoW$. Co<uldcr an arbItrary plane
Pin R ) which d OC$ no t pa ss t hroll gh the.ori gin. Fix t he. poim a, r.e., t he. projCC\lon
of the origin of II I c mc P. In acco rdance wilh the scC011 d mod el of Rp 1 jus t co n-
sidetcd , this space consists of the straig ht no es in R) that pass through the Orilln.
Associale each of Ihese.51 rai ghl lines wilh t he poin t where it intersects the. plane P if
it intersect s P, Or with the str a;ght line In P passing thro ugh a III'ld parallel to the o ne.
li ven i f not. The straight line. ob lained on the pb ne P is symbolically idcnt ified with
a point al infinit y mese parallel lines mett. '
la ll'D< TopokIcy
\ ,

Thus. ...e obWncd a eee-ee-eee QDfJcspond.mcc bctwftn R
(second IlWdd)
and P wiUllhe poiau II inrll'li17 lidded 10 ii , one poU>t {Of cadl direction (i.e. , far
Qd\ through the ofi&jn) ill P. In the Itt obIained. the p!aDe PiI.
con sidered 10 be mdowcd with tbe usual to pology: 0/ 11 poifl, fi t
ittj"", lty corrtlPODdini; to a direction d on P is defined to be: a part or the plane P
(the shaded region In Flg. 311) bounded by an Il1bitrary hyperbola with the &!lis d.
The set of all poinLl at iorlllil )' added to tile plane P is also c'alkd the or
st,w,IIt IUre "t itiflJtir:t .

' . ProYc: the bolncomorphism of all realizat ions of Rp i .

Comider closed di5( 1)- lLIld lu bolUld.afJ S" - " We identify all boundary
poinu. OctIotc the f. Clor space obtained by ti" IS" - 1
ct>. 2. Gwcral TopoioSY
THEOREM 4. The jjtt I S" - , IShomeomorphic 10 Ihe 5".
PROOF. t n Item 3, Sec. 2, it was shown that the disc D" is homeomorphic to me
closed hemisphe re 5"... This homeomorphism is t he identit y homernnorphism on
the eommon bou ndaryJ.S" - I) of t hese SCIS. Therefore, the equivalence relation
fromD" is induced on and D" IS" - 1is homeomorphic to .. I S" - I by th"
last theorem.
We shall now sho w that S".. 15" - I is homeomorphic 10 S" . The inclu&ion
1".. C SIt1.5 natural . Denot ethe South Pole (0. 0, ... , 0, - I) of the sph ereS" by _.
There must therefore wst a continuous sur jective rnapp!na 1'" ! ".. - S" such t hat
..,(5" - I) _ . , and ", IS".. : SIt - S" , l- j is a homeomorphism. The larter can be
eeestructed, for exampl e, es follows: if x and x '" N fI" is Ihe North Pole)
then we draw a two-<!imetuiotlal plane through t he poi nts 0, N, x which inter sects
S" alool a circumference (meridian). Shirting x along the meridian thr ough an arC
that is twice Ihe arcxN, we obtain the point.,.",). PUI"'CNl - N . The residue class
mapping is thus defined
1_ 5" / [- J = 5"
whIch is evidently a homeomorp hism.
The produ ct of the two homeo morp hisms
DnIS" - I _ 5"..I S" - I . - I _ 5" ,
is the requtred homeomorphism .
1. Surfaces and Their Triangulati on . Let uSret urn to our invwigation
of ciosed surf ac:es. The defin itions of a topological spa, f;;u:tor space, homeomor-
phismof topological spaces givco abo ve and the examples eonsidered make up a
1I01id buis for t he proof of t he t heorem mentlonet1in Sec . 3, Ch . I. It states that
IJIY closed' surface is topologically f:9.ulvalent to ilTI MJ! - or N
- surface: i. e. , to a
sphere with p handles or q MObius strips &! l,Ied t6 II. Here, the correspondine no,
lioJu will be roade mor e precise, and the proof of the ..hove_ment ioned theorem
A. topological space X each of whose: points has a neighbou rhood homeomor_
pl>ic to the open t wo-dimensional disc wlll be called a t wo-dimt nslonal manifold. It
is more convenient to Mudy thC5e spaces ir they are broken into elementary pieces
wbieb are topo logically equivalent to t rlan&!es in the two-dImensional Euclidean
plane. Let us make thls representation more precise.
OEFINITION L Cal l the pair (T, ...), where T ;s a subspace in X , and.,. , .& - T is a
homeomorph1.5m o f some tnanel" 4 C R
T , a topologkDl 'rllJngl" in X .
If the homeomorphum \<': 4 - T is fixed (when t hi' <;<InnO! be a cause of am-
bi.&"ity), !.hen t h" subspace T C X will be called, for short . a t opological triilTllde.
Th" imase s of the ..."rtlces and t he sides of Ihe triaJt8le <1 (along wilh a rest riction or
tile homeomofllhism 11') are called, respectively, Ihe tTl/ees, and the edgtS of the
hllf odllClioa 10 Topoloay
... ..
lopolo&ieal t rlanaJe T. For unlfonnil)', II is also to can lhe $IdC'J of t he
Inanale'" the celan.
We now define an o ric:lltatilln of a trl anlle. Different or dered tripla of point!
can be formed from tile of d. We coruidct IWO tr iples 10 beequivaJenl if one
can be oblained from the alber by . cyd k permutation. C\c....ty, arc
tWOequivaiClOll classes. A trltln,k '" if ori#Ittr! i f one of th_ equi vaieoce elasm
is ra ul. A l opdo, lclll ,,,"r/w(T . ,,) is said 10 be orlmttd If the triantk '" is
oriented. It is ob rious lbat ori entilll a t rian.&!c 4 is eq ulvalmt to siina: ""aiD
direction to the c:imlrnnaYiJltion of its vtttka (cklcln.Uc or coWl tadoc:lr.wisc).
This Qr CllmAilviDtJon di rect ion drtc:nnir\e$. via the bOlM()lN>rp/'lism .... c1ittioD
of lhe circumnaYi&alionof lhe venicu of the IOpologiClll triu&le. l.e. an orienla-
Uo!l induced by lbe homeomotJl/ti sm " . An o(i ent at ion of triAnaJe obviously
detennlnes the orientat ions of ils cdtl" Il.e., order ed pain of Its ven ieaj .
Note for Ihe future tha t an ori ml81ion of lUI lI-gQn ud lUi edges when " > 3 is
del'ined in pted$ely the same way (by aMna an orient at ion for tbe eircumnaviat ion
of Ihe vert iceS).
OEFl NmON 1. A rmil e SCI X _ l(T, "'i)-"' . I of in X Ihal

fulm the eondiliOll$ (I) X . U F

and (2) lite of all)' pair of
Iri anaiCSfrom X is either cmp! 1 Of cciDcidcs with thei r rontmon vertex 01 tommOll
ecIa:e. is called a IrlDnp/tltiQn of the l'IO-dimtftsionaJ man ifo ld X .
A manifold for which mere exUl$ a trianlulatlon is 10 be frian ru/flbft . If
any IWQ vmitts o f the trlan,lcJ from X tan be joi ned b)' a PlI!h made up of the
eda:a. then we o;aU X oonntc:ftd.
In rIB. 4(}, VI uampk of a trianlulall on of Ihe .sphere 52 consis tina of eigh t
trianaJes is shown.
OE.FINrTtON 3. We c:al.I a connled. t riCl au lable. Iwo-dimenMorul mamfold a d os-
N swr/ llU .
Note that the u.amplo:s o f e:1osed l unacies wbldl ca n be triansllb":d HlIO
tollOlolPc:al poIy&Oftl aDd wh klt we in Sec . J , 01. I. arc: examples o f
do$cd l ur faCCl in the:ICIIX of Definition J (to pt'Ove this , it 5ufl'ic:c:li 10 l riansulate
Ihe polyCWU) .
E:MrriH l - . Const ruci t rians uhtt ions o f a to rus and a pr oject ive plane . Verify Ihac
are: d osed sur fal:eS.
The lopolopcal pr olXnies of . closed sur face are dele:rmined by Ille strue: lure of
its lrim aulation. To ;n",""ls ale: lite: Iria ngullllion, it Is eonvenlenl 10 consider ilS
IdItmatk repr esenl ation on the plane . Moreove r, plan e t ria""es l1/and lite:' nveue
lrDqes or the t ran&!eS T
e K ..,.y tK: coll$idered 10 belOfil to the sameplarte and be
llltMuaUy a dusi\ 'C.
We will dacrib:e s..cb rqoraetu ation . Let (T
" ,J, (T
"') be IWO Irian&Ies
ft Otll K, and T, n _ tJ the;'" common cd&e; lettl; :a " ,- l (4') and tl
'"' "i I (lI ) be
tbc edScs in 11,. 4/" The s1wna bomeoft1Ol'llhiYn is detltlcd as
"11 - "j l;I.. Q;
Thus. the 1riansuill ion K can be as:so<:Iated with a set 11 .. (14,t; = I. of
lrianates of tile plane alonS with tile homeomor phisms 'fI1/ fot the corresponding

pailSof the ed gCl. We declare Ihat poinu in U 11/ lhal e:orrapond to each ol her
,. ,
und Ibe homeomorphisms " Ii arc equi....lent. We will <knote thU equival ence
., R.
UMMA. ( 4
) I R is lt omuHl'llN'p" ic to fMQJ,jllm X .
,- ,
PJOOI'. The homc:omoq'l bisml ",; 4 , - T, nat urall y detennilte the surject ive

m&pp!nl ol: U 11/ - X. the Inverse Image 01 - '(.0') for any e X being an
R..equiv&1c:n<:c dus. The residue class mappinl +; ( 4, ) I R - X Is con-
,- ,
tioIuo... mappinl by Theonm 2 of Sec. l . Obviou sly, it is blJCCI ive and ks iftvcr5e
1. The Development of a Surface. We sball n4 l.rcr some f)'Sletnli
which arc malo,OIIs 10 Ihe fllll ily 11 sc hcmatkall y rcprcsem'ft Irianau 1aliOfl K
or Ihe surface X. bul such Ihal along ""ilh t riansIu Ihey may e:ontain " ' I ons
(IT> l ).
DI!F1NrTlON . A family Q (IQj]' hPi/ll,where IQIJ is a flnite set or disjo int plane
polYlons and I.. ill a finite K1 or &l uing homcomorphi5ms of pairs of edSel , each
t dae bdni slu ed lOonly one ed, c. is called a Olu; nl the cdt. es or t he
SlIM polylOtl totUher is perm itted .
60 IOlr OOul;(;O/lI OTopoloay
'D '----------
, ,
-t 0
I ,
, ,
- ,
.... - --71' - --- ;
Fit!: .
Note thill if the t he location of a polytlon Q, on lilt: plane is al tered by I
homeomorphism ..,. then we act new homeomoill hisms (OJ''' u-at IJ t ha t s:Jue iu
edges, and which weshall not distinl Uish hereafter from the hOmeomorphisms (YOu! .
In particular , thc famil y <) = (14; 1. (" v)) is a deYelopment . The development 41 15
said 10 qree with the l rianguation K.
Consider tbe laclor-$pace aof the union y Q, with respec:1 to the equivale nce R
ddcrminel;l by .. (UQ) /R for lin arb ltrarydcYdoprncnt Q.
We wW call "the factoc space or l he development Q. It is clear tllal lhe fact or ,pact
of a devdopmelllis a two-dimensional manifold; it lIdtPs at riangul at ion aen erattd
by a sufrlclently fine trianl;ulatlon of t he polygons QJ. Thus. if t he factor space ai$
connected tben it is a closcclSlIrface (hereafter, only sud! " arc JlUiden:d) . We will
call Q t he dewlopmenf of surfQ,.. " in .web a case.
A residue crass mappina lndu0C:5 a decomposition of the 5urfillXainto the im-
ages or polygons. imases of eda es (or the dccompositKm edacs). images of vert ices
(or the dcoo:omposition vm ioes). the dcoo:omposition not bcUJg. geol:f3!Jyspeaking. a
tria ngula tion.
In F'I$. 41,there is Ihe development of a torus repuJC: nt lld as a polygon. The ar
roW! and designations of its lldges denot e t he rule for gluing t he torus.
Here;dl er, we will orient deVelopment polygons by ruting an orientation for each
of them. The orientations or the polygons tite corresponding orient al ions
ofthe edges. Under Ihe'g)uinJ; homeomorphism "'if: tl
- tlJ or IWOedges. the edge"J
acqu ires an orientallon induced (from the orientation of the edge Qi ) by the
homeomorphl5lll Geoer ally spea king. thil orieni lltion m8y be diff erent from the
orimtation of the edtl;e tI'r
A development Q is said to be odl' lI/abll' if for the sarne orientation of all ill
p(llygons (e.g. circumnavigat ing t he vmices Ihe edge glu-
ing homcomorph lsnu induce the reverse crientaticn in the image edge. Othe......tse
u.e.. if the oriamal orlcn tlUion coincides with the Induced in al least one edge). IlK
deVelopment is to be II(W -orlenl"ble.
A surface X is said t o be omntQble (resp. flon-oril'n/able) dependi ng upon
whether iu development is oriemable (resp . non orientable).
J. The Classification of Developments.
, . Two devd opmcnts Q and Q" aft A id 10 if theW f actor
J!!"KIIlS bomeocnorphW;: .
We lOme elemental'J' OVCf dcdopmel>t wni(h will
ll1UlS!0I11l it into lUl cquivakm (mIO.
SU8OtVISlON. l..d. then be an 2 1 f" > 3) In <kvdopmom. We dra... "
dU&oaal d ..mCb Q. inlO t wo P"l>'lOns Qi Qi ' :and moYt the polYloru
Qi -.ui Qi ' oOllSnuctinl a new development Qfrom Q by rqJ 1adna 1M.
pa&Uon Q,b)' IWO pol Y&.O<U Qj . Qi ' . The I_new ed&csd ' andd . t .e., replieu
or 1M c1i'JOMl d . ar t rc laled by lhe natura! K1cnl ily ho rneomorphism. "hile the
Ilomcomorphilmsof the ori &in.... edB"" are prcser ved. The dndopnxnt Qis c:alled.
SllbdiYiJioll 0/ /lie Q; it b obriOlU that 1M)' arc equ1njf:Ql.
GWI1'IO. This open.tio!l is invux 10 1M luI e ee . Two polyaons Qi and Qi ' of.
dtYtIopmenl Q art l1ucd mlo one polygon Qj undco" on e ohbc homeomorphi$ms of
l!1drcdaes d ' and d " ; the of the remainlna ed&= Qi and Qi ' in-
o:lIll;% homeomorphisms of lhc cdt:a of lhe pOlYloO Qt
CONVOLU'T'IOI'I . Let two adjacerol eda;e. in polygon 2 1 with o pposite orienta-
tions be duro t olrth."., After !hey hllve been '&1I."e<l. '. '"' oblaiD development
wIIleh. iOSl ead o(Q/. o;ontaiJu a pol)'l,on in which the number of is two I,,",
and the number of homcomorphi$ltlS is One leas (F1,. 41).
Wc ...rm thlt lhe descr ibed operations pr eserve the development ec crvarence
dw. We leave the proo f to t he reader ,
for convenseece , in Ihe theory to come, we will d<:r;be COlCh development in
IYInbolioc word s as follows: Biven an arbit rary development Q = ({Q,l, "'lIl>, we
3pCCify. ciralmnaviBation (i. e. , ori enta!;on) for eaeh polYlon. Each ro ge of each
polygon Q, will be denot ed by a lett er accordi ng 10 th" following rule: given a
tIomcomorphl&m "' lI for a pair of edges. w" uenc te on" of the C'd, es by II and cltcc:k
wMthn Ihe Olienlatlon that the homeomorphism '1' /1 induces (eartiel; over) from II
01110tbe edse ari""ick:s with t heorieDlatlon Mlh" laller . If thc)' do coi ncid"
lbal lhc IoCtX)ftd edse of Ih" pa ir is also <:knoted by II : if not it is denoted by ., - I.
Edacs wtlich au DQl Blued 10 II ar" denoted by Other leU.en, e.... .c or b-
c- I,

!l>lroduellon to Topolosr
ere. See CII. I fo r Ole words of 9 f ilIId triana:1e wblch are the
developments o f. hM dlc and M6bius st ri p, rupectivdy.
Ha >inS deooI ed the ed.&es of aD Ihe pol),lOm Q, ....e obtain a sa o f wonls
(wCQJ\. ...CQ,) is a word dc nodna Iftc ' Vui.llS ruIc: Of l he polygoo Q" In ldeli
don. tllle lcUef1l in Ibe won!. ...CQ,) arc ....ritl Cft In the onier in whicb ""' tM ax-
respondinl sides of!be poInoo Q,.eeordlnl lo itl o riental ion . It i5d ear that the Ia-
sa of $YRlbolic 'IOOrds !o-CQ.)I the "'elopmcnt Q.
Two IIWn types of devc:lopmcn u can be ou t .
OEFlNlTIO!'l 6. A T'ypr I autonicrJJ is. dc'Iocloprnent consisti.Dt of ODe
poInon detntnincd by. word who fonn is . -
lI,b"" Ib, IlIP }!'i 'bi I ... lI.,b"p;'Ib;' I. ", > o.
OEPINrTlON 7. A ItCilnoJt/all dewIop_1 is of llIlr
pot)'lon with word of the: form " I""'}!'! . . . ""pM' m > o.
We now formulat e the basi c resul t.
THEOREM I. AII)' dtwlopmMr Is 10 " / ()T JJCtmr",icDI de...m,p.
mornlocclHdin, 10 ir" orienr"bility lH
PIIOOP Two mt'IIIrks II nut. To bc&in with. it Is eaJ)' to see tbat by s1uilll, lite
development C(ItTapondios to a triangulation K of a w rf aec X ean be redllocd to,
development a:msisl ml of one pol)' gon. We shaD ther efor e consi der onl )' lbi.l kind
of development . Sc<;ond ly. If the"" I re CGCllbi nallo nl of Ihe fonn QQ- I In I wo!1l
other l han (Ill - I in our devdopment . t hen we may get rid of Ihem by the
tion of tbe II IIId II-I a rou nd their w mmon vertu A . The word of t he nC'fl'
develop ment i.I derived from Ihe OriJinal by cfOS$lng oul all CGCll binllions ",,-I.
Finall y. We ecme a lha 10 a twc-lener word (01,, -1 or w) o r 10 a word no ICSI
d'ilII four !clle" 1011& IIId withou t co mbin.ll ions of the fonn 1lQ- 1 (rccall lMI IhI
surfao;c il dosed) . Slnoc Ihe WOlds 1lQ. QQ-' describe. CItIonkal develop menl. ollir
Ote IIUt eese should be considered furth er .
We sball bleak thls analysi5 inlo a number of steps'
( I) The obl&ined dewlopmrnt Q. an be Il"IlUfonncd inlo one all
are equiYaknt . i.e. , a1ued on facl orUalion . In fact, auwnc there ar c vertice:lill
Q' whid! ar e not equlvaleru . Then then: lti llIl cdCCII in ' 2" WhO$eendsA , B an: I\tll
Let" be mother edge adjacml lo lbe nna B and ...bose other vertc:Jt it
C. Join A 10Cby a diqonai d. Thm tbe to wbich Ole t!febmllSl
ill ouuidc Ole triana\CABC. Ot hcnwisc. eiOier" or" .. II wbic:h is contrary
10 the usumpllon that tbe veniocs A and B arc I'ItII CQuinlCllt or that OIcre arc CD
cornbloal:ions of the fonn ._1.Now, I pp l1 the opcntion of subdivision aJoDa dlf
diq:onal d. and thea the opcntion or &Iuirll aItma Ihe cd&c b (we it 10" .). II
the rcsullant devdopml:D1 po. the sa of wniocs whldl ar e equiYllletlt 10 A incn<Ull
to cee lDOI"e in n\llllbcr. and the set of vertica CQuivalent to 8 red uces 10 one IeIt
(F., . 43). In acktit.iClo, if rombinati.olu of the fonn lltl- I appeared in the word oftltc
dcvdopmatl P" then wcdelete them b)' con vol ul ion.. Moreover. il should be IIOtd
that .he: 1:l3t c::annoI aha the di fference bdwcm tbe sa of vutiea,
....hich arc equivalenl 10 8 . and Ihe set of lhQSC equi valclll ' 0 A (vaify this It
ya Uf SCIrl) .
0..2. Oc:ncra l Topalol Y

1'"'8. 43
Furthermor e, if slillsome vert ices which au not equivalent to A remain, then we
lilt whok=p rocess descri bed until we obta in a dev elopment with the required
Thus, we shall assume fro m now on th at aUthe vertices In ou r development arc
equivalent, and thaI th ere a re no combinations of t he form QQ - l' ln h.
(2) We mow now th at two similar leUen in t he word of a development can be
llwaysplaced In r...." lei two let ters Q and Q be nOI placed toget her. Th en
draw the di aaonal. d joining lbl' initial points of th e two edges <I and II' in the
polygon. By subdividi ng alo ng d an d then aluing along o . find thai there i, no
letter" In the new wor d a$ can readily be sun. However. the combinalio n dd docs
appear, which is what we were striving fo r (Fig. 44) . (I t is Cll$Y to veril)tlhal tbe ccn-
sequences o f the firs t step are preseTVcd.) ,
We pedonn the same proeed ure for other identi tallettn s nol placed together.
Note, rncrecver, thai indicat cd procedure, we do not separat e
otltcrcombi natio n$ of lIlc form aQ, since only those edges which are adjacent 10 Q
are separ ated and t hey certainly are nOt equlvalent to it .
(3) A$Sumina lIlat the condi tions of steps (I ) and ( 2.) are flllfllled, we will show
that jf the leu ers a and a - I 81e not placed to gether in a word , then mere ar e olhcr
letters b , b -
such lhat the pairs a, a- I and b , b - I separate each other (Fij:. 45).
Wc shall do thi s by cmployina red uct io ad absurdum. If the re is not a pai r b,
I then ther e are only combinalions of the for m cc between Q and a- I. But thi s is
Fig . 4S
.. In"oductlon 10 Topology
cont rar y to the equivalence of all yenil:e$ of lhe development, since 51,1cl'la situation
is pos.sible only j f the vcrtlce$ A, B of the edge (l are not equi valent (Fig. 46).
(4) Thus, there au two pairs in our wor d , Q, /1- t and b, b -
t hai &epanue ea.:h
other . We now demo nst rate that Ihac: fout can ee al ways replaced bycombinalionl
of !he form -'J'X- 1y-l whilst kecping1hc conditions of u eps (I ) and (2). Fi rst, join
the origins of the edges4 ande " with the di asonalx and make a subdivision a100S
it ; then glue a10nlllhc edge b (Fia. 47). Join the ends of the edses x andx-
in rlK:
polygon obtained by Ihe d1aaonaiy, subdiVide along)' again and then glue alongl
(Fig. 43).
We oblain a development in wncse word then is the combinat ion X)'X- 1y- 1 ig.
stead o f the letters a. b, /1- I, b - ' . If combin&lio ns of the form ee - ' appear aflel'
these operatioM. Ihm. they are removed by convolution while combinations of the
rormdd and a/c- 'd-
an: not separated. 11111.', the sit uat ion reached after steps (l)
and (1) is
By applying the cOnstnK:\i01l5of steps (1)-(4), we the ori8ioll
word to that oonsist ina of combinations of the form }C)lIe- ly-l and aa . If there art
DO aat ype combinations in the word, then this is a Type I canonieal development.
(5) If th en: are blllh 1e)lJt-ly - ' and ao type Ih en the wold can be
reduced IQ the Type \I canonical form ill the followi ng waY. Join the common
vertCll of the edges u and a to the wmman vertex of the edge s )l1lIIcI Ie- I with I
diagonal d. Subdivide along d and glue along (l (Fis . 49). The two palu of the
Ch.2 (><,"et'31TopolOSY
separated edges thus obtained, viz., Jt and Jt, )! and y, are then turn ed into the eom
binatlcns az, ww by applyinlj: step (2) 50 and 51). Afl er Ihese operations are
over, a separated pair d - I, d-
appears, which we t urn into t he <:ombinat ion v>'
(Fig. 51) agai n by per fonni ng step (2). We thus ob tain a word of the required
canonical fonn.
Hence . t he pair of combinatioosJtYJt- Iy_ I, Uti is replaced in Ihe word by an ar_
raogem<:nt of three au- type pairs. In doing w , omee .Q'Jt- I)!- t or tl a combinations
are nOI dishlrbed. The process can be repeated untUall t heJtJ'Jt - ' y -' combinations
lIan dil.appea red .
Jtercise 2". Verify that two closed surfaces X , X ' whose developn,ents are
equivalent 10 canonk al of the same type and with t he same number m lire
4. The Euler Characterist ic and Topological Classification or
Surfaces. Let uSnow tur n to the geomet ri<: interpret ation of the rheorem thaI we
have jusl proved. II was sho wn in S. 3, Ch . 1, l hat Jt)!Jt- Ly _ 1oombinatlons in the
....ord of t he canonical developmenl of a X C(l rrespond 10 II handle . and an
stl-form C(l mbi nalion to a MObius strip , boLh o f these being glued to t he remaining
part or t he surface X along its own boundary. Thus, if the canonical developme nt
of II sur face is of Type I Or II then Ihis surface is glued logelher (rom a finite
number of handle.'! or a finit e number of MObius stri ps, respectively. Thi s gluing can
-be easUy as the result of gluIng Ihe handles or MObius strips to the
sphere S2.
Consequently, we see Lhal a surface with a Type I eanonical development is an
onenrabje Mp-type scrrace, where p ii the nu mber of the handles sl"ed t o the sphere
(tbegenw If. however, the canonical development of a s" rfaee ' s of
Type II, then II IS a non-Qrlent able surface of Ihe N
' ype, Q .. I, where Q i$ the
number of MObius strips glued 10 the sphere (also the genll5 of the surface) .
In proof of the theoftm, soown that if P handks and II "" 1Mobi us
st rips arc liltedtc Ihe sphere. Ihe!lwobtained surface Is non-orienlllble and o ri lle
N" .. . 1)'pC.
1llt devdop:ncnl dassificatioo lbeDrcm Iuds us 10 the conclusion that Any
c\o$ed. surface is homcomofllbic: to. <>main swratz: of the type M
N." To make
the reNh mon predK, COIlSidn' the EuJtt charact.erUtic of OW" sur face. Let the
deeompositioll of _race x contain CIlo vertices. 0, cdaa and 01 imqa of
poIYJOr1l. 'I'M number x (X) .. 00 - al + <%1is alkd the Euler chtuUCIcrUl k of
the wrface. Obvioudy, this lkfillitloa acnctii%cs the one si.marlier (see Sec. 3,
01.1). since lIOW the im..I# of. poi)'aon Mcd Ilot be , say, topolocica l poiy&On
(the 5kLes of. poInon rnay be &Jued l"Set her).
tr X is of the M... and P its canon ieal dcelopment whC* won! i$
lb. I .. . 1l,!J1l; lb; I, then it is evident that ee .. I, 011 - ]P. 01 .. 1 and
:t OO .. 1 - 'P.
If X Is of lhc N.<type and Il Jl'IIl' :zIll' . . is Ihe word o f its canonical dcvclO!>"
mcnt , thcn .. o" 1, 01 " Q,Oll " I and:d A"]. 2 - q .
HQ b an afbitrary devdopmau. Of t bc sur face X tbe n il ClUI be: trandonned into
QIlOnlcaI development usin. demtntary operations. It is easy \0 see t hlt 1M
c1C'1lCnlllY opc:raI ions do IM)t alter X(X}. In fld, 5lIbd:ivWon inCTCUtS thc
ft\lIl:lbers QI andQ} byone, QO beina unaltcu:d; I,Uina dea"cascs " , anda} byooc.1lt
mnallWla lUlCba.ol cd , an d I coavolutioo deenues tlfIl.lld "I by one. llIerdOl'C, t ile
J\1DI <llo - <II + <I} wWurcd. Hence. wecan lQake tbe important d)lle!u.
sioD tbaa the <::UI01Uul ckvdoprnent P 40es!tOt dcpeDdCUI the: dloic:eof demetll ay
uamfonnations of the dev dopmem Q_ In fad, if Q could be reduco:d to 1"-'0
caaonical deeklpmenlsp. r , and bolh were, Ay. of Type I, i_e . ,

'.- 1 ,,, - 1.- - , -1..-1

A' l Ilil' ) 1 - A'r'h ,...... 1'"1 I - . '1"" 1 ... .. , '
t ben tJle Euler charkterlstic for I decomPO$ltloo 'o f Q would be ItIt;
same &$ that evaluated fot do",posiOOI1$ of P and p ' . HCIlCe, wc wowd hive the
cq" alily 1-1p c 1 -1pI ,whencep _pl, i.e., lhewonh for PandP' would
OOincide. SimiJar rU$Ol'ling is held ....hen the developrncnl l P Ind p ' are bot h of
T)1)C II.
If, bowever, P isI development of Type I. andp ' iso(Type II , then the eq uali-
Iy 2 - 1p .. 2 - q II possible only if q .. lp. Thcrefore , the above n ,u olll ni
merc:ly estll.bllshes that a development canDot have 1.....0 canonical form. , e ne of
Type I and.1he ot her of Type It wilh the l enCrilp an d q '" 1p. The general cond,,
linn tbat the $imuUanCO\l5 redlld.ion 10 born Types I and n forms is ilfl.
pouible follow5 from Ihe property 10 presc:rve III ori.enllbility (resp. noo,
orietLlabllity) of I devdopmtnt IlO.der dcmentltY Irlll5fl;lTm,u iom (verifyI}.
ComcquentJy, we proved lhe firs t part or doc foUoWinI o.
thc topolQlieal or swf llCel .
TH201lEM 2. An)' cknJ SUr/flU it /opoIDrkatl)' eqtIu'A' ''''''r "' A' sur/1Kt oJthe M
ot "','l)'pe. SIIr/f;lS oJ 1M M, - Md 1'1,,-, q .. I , 'I JXS gn fIOl l opoIoriclJU1
eqll t\IGltnl if P .nd q gn MI boll! eqll ll'/1o U f O: 1M SUr/lICts M, fot" N,l/or di/
..,llIa of p (rrsp. 1101 /ll'poiOf k;il1{)' r llhu
Ch 1. G. ... ral Topology
The ileCond pan o( th. theorem Wall explained in Sec. J, 01. I (It em 4) an d
above. This expl anation could have been consi dered to be t he proof. had the
topologi cal invariance of the characunst lc X(X) (oc- an arbitrary closed sur-
nee X (we have only don. 50 for X = S2). and th e faetlhat M
and N
ar e not
homeomorphic . when q = 21' . p '> 0, been proved . Th ese fads will be established
In Sec. 4, 01. Il l, usin g th e idea of th e (undam.ntal s roup of a space.
Exerci#.! .
3. On.... the diagram (or sl ulns a surface whose eallonil:al. developm. nt has t he
Qlbtoj ' bl lazP'J!tZlbi"topflJ Ib
4. Oaw the diawam fOT BJuin s a surface chm cter;zed by the word Q1Q IQ-PPPJ'
Imlicate the t ype and genus of this surf ace,
S. Veri fy that the following cl osed surfaces have t he Indicated t ype an d genus:
(l) the spher e has M
- No:
(2) the loru s (t.e., the with on. handle) M
(3) the double to rus (i . . th . sphere with two handles) M
(4) the pr ojective plane N
(5) the Klein batik N
Draw the diagr ams of their dClCOmposition s.
6. Call a topolosical space in which each point has a neighbourhood hcmeomcr-
phlc to an open inte rval of the number line, a mtmi/oid M
the dcccrnpoiit ion of M
into al'Q which arc th e topeloSical imq . s of t he line.
IC8"'ClIt 10. 1) an d whose ends ar e adjant t o each other (i .e., med at vertices) a
f,*,nglllQlion of M
; we UIIume th at M
consist s of a finit e number of arcs.
Prove that a trian lulable manifold M
is homeomorphic to the cir cumfo:rence S ' or
some of its replicall.
I. The Definition of an Orbit Space. We cort.lider her e imponanl ex-
amples of spaces arising when gr oups act on topolQgicai spaces,
Let H (X) be the set of all homeomorphisms of IItopologieal spaceX onto itself.
The product of two homeomorphi sms hI and h
is defi ned as follows:
- h.p. I(x) In addition. for each h E H (X) , there is an inver se mapping
h -
e H(X) and hh -
"= h-I" = I x. Thus,H(X) is a mu ltiplicative group (non -
commutative. gen erally Speal:;inll) with the ident ity element I x .
DEFINITION I. We will say that an a bstract S!"oup G acts (Jrom lhe Ie/t )on a sJX1Cf!
X if II homeomorphism of the arotI ll G into StOUp H {X} is given,
If G acts on X then to .ach , e G, there corresponds h, e I f(X):
t - h, ; 8 182 - h' lh' a, g -l - (h, )- I.l
- iX'
Let x e X be an arbit rary point; t he ser U h,(x) is caned its OI'bll and denoted
by OJ(' a_a
.. l nuoduclioft 10 Topol lllY
' - . Sbowthat two orllilll 0, . 0, either eoiaadc or arc disjoint ,
TIle: lui SlatCiDQIl enables li S 10 intn>dlltt on X Ul eq"jYakncc R , x ! ? ..
.. 0.. _ 0,. i.e., bdon& to 1!Ie same orbll.
DEFlNmON 1. 1bt rlt\Or X I R is caIkd the orllit spo of 1M/lrtJUP G .00
6cnotedby X/G.
This method of C<HlSU'llctinJ; faetor SpateS plays u importa nt rok in modtm
topology. CoNider lOme mmpk ,.
1. Projective Spaces Rpn, c p n, Consider the sphere S" c I. Lei paintx = (EI . . . , ,) II S be associat.ed wit h ilS dia melfi(:ally oppolitt
poin t Ax - ( - E . , - E ,) E S". The mapplna A : S" - S" is homeomor.
phism llIlel called " "'rtfl symmetry. TN: rollowina relations Me obY;OUI :
A - A -' . ,, 2 .. IS"" Therefore. the lei \A . IsJ is lfouP (mvltlplicative) <:OIl-
Nllina of two dClJlcllU; it is isolnorpbie 10 Ole sroup i; (addit ive) of residua
mod 2. C<lnscqumtfJ. the: a<:bOQ of .l,; on 5" is defi ned.
DI!flNmON l . The 5paCC SO' ill talI e4 tile nvJ projti -re$pOl:r and denoted b1
Thill, RP" can be; obWcled from S'"by identifyina cli.amrtrical11 oPl)O'ilc )lOinU
X . -x.
Consider the set G '" R' O (I,e., all real number! u'Pt UfO) . Thts is
multlplicat ive SJ"Olip and we define 11$action 00 the space X - R" + I , (Olto
1r.... (I' ) '" Ar ,;I. I O,xfii R" '" 1' (0).
Oz is o bviou5l, tlJe 5tt o f all tlJe points or the slJ'allh l line in R" .. I. P&SSina
lhrou&h 0 ilJld s, without the point O. <K' .. I , [On/O is 5Cl of aU
su-alght UN:, in R"" I pusina throuJh thf: origin. spaa: til" .. I , {OID i5
bomco>norpbie to RP". The borneomorphiml is cRa bmbed by the COrrcspondena
in -..bkh ,. pait (1'. -x) is &I5OCiated wilb lbe It r&ight lillC paWnS throuBh the poinu
x and - x.
2". Describe Ihc IOPOIot.J o r (R" .. " lOOID and vtrifr that \be.spaoes RP- and
(R" .. " are bOllleomOrpbio;.
) ". Gille thedi&melrtcally opposite o f the boundar)' of the di$cfY' tosctha.
SIlowth" t the faclor spEc obtaiMd Is homeornOfllI\ic: to lI.P".
COnsilkr now the compleJl space c- .. I. Lei 0 .. c' {OI be the mllltlpti<:ativc
IfOliP o f complex nwnben. It aN ill c- I , (OJ by the rule Irklt .. Ar, >.. E' G.
x E C" .. I, (OJ. The. crorc, {c- .. " [Ol )/O can be identl ned ""ith the Jel of aU
sttals ht UDell In C" .. 1 pan in. thr olltb zerc .
DEFINITION 4. The space {C" .. I, (0)1/0 is rcrmed the avnplu ptoj/;u
and cknotcd by CP" .
We sh&II anotbcT modd o f CP". COlISidcr lhe uni t sphe re in C" .. I,
viz.,"* '" Ir: rEI12 + ... + IE,. .. 11 2"' 11. Tbe IfOlIP 0 .. Ir"'. O" .. < 2.
0>. 2. Gcner.ll TapolallY
iKlSon it according to the rule ...x .. I' ..... .. I ). ThUs,group a
WI be identified Wilh the un it circumference S l in the complex plane C . Hence. S '
ICUon the coordinate {, e C, and the orbit o f the poinl tj ln C is t he clecumference
of radius if "" O. Therefore. Ihe orbit Ox :::> (r'"xj (0 " (l> <; 21r) of each
poinlx E is lI grut ci rcle on But oS?- can be Idenllfled with S loo .. I and Oz Can
be lWumed to be a p eat circle on S:ll< +'; Ihere fore, Ihe action 0 _ S( has bee n
ddcrmined on s- .. I and we have lhe homeomorp hisms
Sc lSI - S'2A I /SI _
Tb. firsl harncomorphism has al read y been consreucred . We shall now establ ish the
- (C" ... " IOJ)/C. We define t hill homeomorph ism by ning .0each complex straight line (Le. a poinl of CP") Ihal gW;l! clrclc on Sc
(a point of SCIS I). whkh Is t he inte rsecu cn of the complex st raight line witll Sc
3. Lens Spaces. AI ille end of 2 . we deal t wilh the group S I o f complex
numbers whose moduli were eq ual to unity, and whIch acted in the co mplex
COlUider t hose finite subgroups of the group S I whi ch are known to be finit e
qclic IInd jso morp hic t o the addit ive groups Zj; o f residu es mod k . Lei such a group
Z. act in Ihe j -Ih replica of the space C as follows:
wbe!'l: k
is 1I certain integer. 0 " k
<; k. Then th e actlon of Zj; is determined in
C' .. I and in Sc thus;
{{ph. . t

- e k{ l"e . .. ,e 1'.
DEFINITION S. The space SC1Z j; iscalted agenerali7.edlens i f any k
and k are
relatively prime. and deno ted by L (k . k , . .. k
) . When n _ l ,lhe space L (k, k ,)
i$ called a lens space.
:U fCl$t$,
4" . Show Ihal if any k
and k are relatIvely prime, the n each orbil of the actJon of
the group Z. described above CO<Ul$t f of Ie points.
,e.Show'lhal lhe following Iormute determines lhe a<;tion of lhe group S l 011 a
l eneraliled lens
e"" (( , .. . ,) ..
6". Showlhat L{k.1e
. . . . _ C p n.
In this $leClioo, we qain tum out . tteDllon 10 the in_iplion or tlle propetties
or topolofPcal 'PKa and conlider the o::lcmlu and int erior operations and the boun-
dary operat ors on a K'I and also two l'IOlio n. elol.Cly re..ted to them. that i,. the cce-
c:epts of limit a.nd bound lU)' points. AU thcse Ideas gel'lcral il.Cwell_known concepts
of malhematkal analysis.
t . The Closure of a Set. Let lX, Y) be . tOpo!o&iu] lpace ,
DEFlNITlON I. We dd ine the e!ol un:Aof . setA C X to be the intcrsec1ion of all
doso:d $l:U coar.a!nl.n& A .
1be foDowin.5IlJecncnU ate obriow:
( I) 1bc Al$the $tIWIe$t dosed let eontainins A .
(2) If A closed th al .i A .
A dosed sct CllDbe charllClmud by limit poinu. whicb _ do bdow.
Dl?FlNtTION 2. A polntx E X Is said to be limIt one: of. aivcn set A C X If there
11111 least one pointx' e A ot her IhllllJt in each neighbourhood of the poi nt x.
I " . Verily thll! th is deflllilkm can be restri cted to only ope n
bourhOO<bof the point "'.
EXA.\WLES. Consider tht scUA .. "' I. B .. ( .;] ,II .. 1. 2. . " C (0. 1). 0 ..
_ la , I) iD R I, TH KI A "as no fuN! points , SCi B has one limit potnt ,!."" O.
and the limit poin ts of the sets C and D rlilihe ""hole line-$C:pIeDt 10. I ].
n..: DOtioDof limit point in a topolosk3J u. u un easily be _ . a
I cncr8lizallon of th c concept of IlmIt poinl in analy sis. Wc . haU 0010' provc $OI1K'
U&efulllatmtcnl$ usociated ""jlh limit points.
THEOREM I . A Rt A C X Is closed if rind o,lIy if iI CtJIII"iru ,,/I its Ii,"it points.
PItOOP Let A be c:k>scl , x a limit point of A . and )( E A. Hcnce.
x II! X 'A _ O(l' ) ""hich is an open set . a nclghbourhood of lhe poi nt x. Thercfore,
n A _ 0 . whid> is c:onUlU'}' 10 the dc:rlllition of a limil poin l .
Let A oontain aU i1s Urnit points . To show thai it i$ doied. i.e. thai its comp'"
ment U c X ..... A is open. M sumas to P I"O\IC that f or an y poinl x e U. ttlnc isI
neiah bourbood sudt IIuII C U. By aDumina Ihe c:ooU'vy. find tba
for a cuuirI poInl xoe U and any iu nci&lt bourltood lhere is a
x Ii! O(Jro) sum thatx' U. Th en X-EX..... U ., A . Ihcrc fore.xo is a limit point g/
A . wttic:h is contrary 10 X
i" A
The setA ' or all limit pointl of a Sl: I A is called the ckn"Wd N t or A. Th us. a nrw
operetlcn arises. viz. L\.&is nlnl lo each sct A C X Ihe de ried see A ' .
THEOREM 2. For Qny Slet A e x. 'he Rt A U A . is clwl.
J'1l00F_ We wal show thai Ihc set X ' (A U A "J Is open. LAt x be an a, bitrall'
poin l of X '(A U A ' J. Then Ie is DOt a Ilmit poiot of A. therdore. t her e Is ill
neiahbourhood RId> Ihat n A .. 0 . Le t.e " II! be an arbiU'lU'}' poud.
Then for any DeiahboUrhood v(r ' ) of the poiDt)t ' such lbal 1'(1") C O(r). we
kne V(r' )nA _ '"' 0.
1'bIu. OU') C X '.CA U A " ) . and is vbitrary, the 5C:t X '(A U ", ' ) is
Eumx 2". (I ) Vcri(y WI (A UB)' _ A ' U B ' , (A nSf CA ' nB' and
(A'S)' :::>A" '8' ,
(1) Lei X .. la. bl be .. spa cc of two clement' cquippro wilh lhe topology eons;st ins
Qf lllc thte" sets: 0. X , la) . Gi ..." an ex.1lmple of a KtA C X fOI which the ind usia n
(A T CA ' is 001 valid.
We shal l now prove .. buic st atement abou l lhe structure of the:: closure of .. set .
TIlEOR.M 3. X - A U A ' l or anyMt A C X .
PJOOf'. 8y Theorem 2, ee KI A U A ' is Therefore. by the defin ition of
.. do$urc, A C A U A ' . On t he other hand. it is obviou.sthu an y clcna1 Jet con-
tairlinl A also COIltaUu all limit poi nu of .4 , and ma do!c oonlairu A ' . Heoce ,
A U J!' C A. ThIlS, X '" A VA ' ,
EnrfiM 3 , Let A W 11v XI oj ""tioll4lpoi1!u on 1M. ,"1$trai$"t liM R
l.!lacii - R

If. topolopeal lPKC X h., .. eounable subset A ..mote do$ure urinddcs wit h
X, Ihen It Is t o be sqxupble. (I is cu:r to verify that is a lopoloPea!
4", Show that the Spate the dise D
an d the sphere S" - I are separ able .
j " , Verify t he followina properties of the closure m '" A U B,
A " A n B, A ' Be A'::B,
6", Let Y be a of a topoloJical space X and A sulurt of Y. Denote t he
doIure of the set A in the SIIbspaa: Y b:r A y . and Ihe c10lIIfCof A in X by A. Show
that Al" - A ny.
DEFlNlTION 3. A pol nt x is oaid 10 be isolDlftI if there is . nci&bbowhood 0(%')
of the point x JUdI that it docs not contain lilly points of the Jet A olha than x ,
A poin t X 6 A is iloJated i f and ol\ly If x e A ' A ".
OFt1'4ITtON 4. A set A is said to be di$r:,c,r If each of its points is isolated .
z.The Interior o f a Set. COll1idef t WO other lmponant no tions co nnc:cted
wilh that of neighbourhood.
OeFINITION ,. A point x e A IS call ed lUI iIl/mo, poiflf of a set A i f it hu
nci,hbouthood fl (x') sU<:h t hai fl (%'} C A ,
TIle set o f alll nteriOl' PQintl of a set A is U1llcd the In/rn o, o f A and denoted
XN.U>U- Co lUider A _ [0, II, Ihe line sca,mc:nl of the l u i st rap line It I. II IS
cur10 sec lhat (nt (0, I] - to. I) .
TIle operation Int is dual of the operation. which follows flll m ilS ","0-
pcnics as al unciated In Ihe fol lowin, thcoran.
lnuodu o' ion Co T..."oloV
lliEOREM 4. For 1m }' XI A ex. It't' /IQ,'li': (l ) Inl A Ol l nt A isIIw
Ja,.,ur 0Ptll st.1 COnlD;nM ill A ; (l) (A IS O/Hn) (In cA .. A ) ; (4)
I,l"GInIA) (I' E A orfd}l is 110/" J"n" polit I of X 'A): (S)X' ''' = X , IntA .
PIl00f. Properties O){l) au aImasl e'ricknl . We wit Y'tTif)', fOf Propm)' (I).
Lei x E Inl A . Then Ihne is an ope n nclshboufbood U(.l' ) of Ihe pai nt x $uch that
U(I') C A . The rcrOft:, IJlI.A is IIOOBbbourhood of of Its poinU and eeeee u
AI for prapmy(4). if x E Int A lMn , obviou, ty. }lEA andx'l"(.X' A )' . ConVUK.
Iy. if Jl EA and Jl (.X, "' r then il; :anei,lIbou rtlood 0 ",") CA. ther efo re,
X l' lai A .
The vm fica1ion of propert y (S) is k ft to !.bl;: rc.clu. _
lbe ltI1(.X' A)has to be quite oflt:n II Isaflcd 1M u.tcrior of
the lei A IUIddmotfd by u t A .
3. The Bound ary or a Set. The fo11owinS important conceP'S.llfC those0'
boulldary point and the boundary of. Jet A . They ..-c with the intuitive
kle_ of . ' Sep&l SIOr' be t.... een II region or Euclidean space and i" exrertce, Some u
. mples will be considered In the not Re lion. Hert: is t he ICDual defin ition .
OEFINlTlON 6. We uJl the s.c:tX, ({nIA U elllA ) thc boUM(1ry iJAof a s.c:t A , and
call ""cry poi nt of Ihe boundary. boundary IIOlfll of the Jet A .
Thl, X 0 aA If . nd only if each nci,hbourhOO<i of x contains a point from both
A and X,A.
EXAMPLe. Lei x .. pI and A ... {O, I] . The n Int A .. (0, I), X'A .. ( _00,
0] V (I , +"), In l (X ' A ) .. (-"' ,0) U (I . +00). Therefore, iJA .. 10, I] is lhe
set or two poin15; 0 and I .
Thus, wc h. ve Ihe IU relatio n to the d osure and tnt oprn
lloJu is elearrd up by Ihe followina theolem.
THEOtlEM S. For a"J' A C.X,_MW: ( l ) aA .. A n (X' A): (2)aA _ ;h
lOlA ; (J)A .. A V ,M ; (4) InI A ... A , aA; (S)(A udoUdl (aA C A)i (6) (A
Is optII) .. .lA) n A - 0).
P1I.OOF WCshall pr O"t some o f lbest: stal t a>cnu.nd Iea,'c the ot hen as Q<errna..
(J) ld x E itA, then in any neighbourhood UI,r ) o f lhc poin t x, there Me pointu "
Xz wdl lhal x1eA, and Xl EX , A HOI'l<:C aDd z I!'X , A . i.e.,
x EA n tx ,A), Con 'tCnCIy, ICn i A n (X' A), ttlcn z EA,zE(X' A) Silll:ll
(X'A) .. X ' lntA , A .. X'utA (1 h cm S of TheofClll 4:l1ld EJ;ermc: 1), ""
roncl thal Z El.nt'", x EQ<l A , ....heace XI!' aA.
(2) By dc:rmltl on, aA .. X'\,(IDIA U ea tA) _ (X' Q<.l A) ' IntA ... A' InI A.
(}) SuKt: Int A C A, It follows from (2) tl!.J,t A Iot A U <lA C A U <lA : tina
<l A C. A,we SftthMAV ;JAC AU A _ A.
IS) II A IS closed Ihcn itA .. A . Con,ftsdy, if iJA C A then by (ll,
A .. A V <lA h em)) wt\encc A .. A. I . C. , A is closed.
L" . 2. Getlcfal Topolou
r . Ln U bc opmIn X IIfIdA - au. Show lha t aA '" A . Prove the converse stat e-
,.. Let Y be a 1IIbs.puc of a lopoklgkal spac:cX , .andA a sub$et in Y. the
bounduy oftbe idA in Yby ay4 . and the bourw:!.an'or A in X by;) A. Verir, thaI it
istlOt ahfayS lnIe Ihal cJJ"'l .. (aA ) n Y. Give some examples.
1. Operations Over Sets in Met ric Spaces. Here we consider Ii'll' COII-
Sludied in the previous stet ion as they apply 10 metric liPKu. RemernbCr thai
11Kbase for the lOPOklsY in fJ.I. p) COlllUts ofall poIIible ball s D,t;co>. where" > 0
isthe radius. md"'
is wanlnorthe balL TheP'lCtric ,. makes it possible for U$ to
$peak of aoD1ltflCnt scqumccs in M ( $CIl: Sec. 2, 01. I). We can CllPfcK A. A ' .
Int A . CIA in Ihea terms Ihus:
(a) the cODditioa x Ln.t A is cqU!v. ltnlto the ball Dc(ir). for aC'elUin e > O. be-
in& contained ..molly in A: this folo\WS f, om the 6f:rmi(ion of the marie topoJoay

(b) the condition x EA ' is equivalent to the ctistencc of sequence "'.1con-
\'l:l",ent to Jr . where a A , a.. If.
In fact . if Jr GA ' the n for anY"1 > 0, there is an clement " I in A such that
IIle D,. ,,"), III '" x . Lei 0 < "1 < p (.c, a ll . then alain there is an element
"1 E D, (xl. a1 *' Jr , etc. Th us, the sequences ir..Jand 1a..1C A (ire constructed such
thtp';... Jr) < "., ". - 0, a. '" If, Le. a.. - Jr.
Conversely. lei there emt a sequence a.. - s , where a. oil x, a.. Ii A . Then for
any nriahbou' bood 0(:0") o f Ihe point .... there W SI a b. 1I D.,,") C Q(r) ud N (e)
SIKh th.l p {a x) < e fnf It ;l= N(e) . Hmee G" 0 ,,") It ;l N (c) :l nd G. *' Jr,
. hich completes lbc proof.
The doerlDitioa o f . limit poinl in tmns o f KCI_ to it livu aboe
isa1.... ys used in anal ysis as lbc de flnitioo nf a limit point or. set;
(c) the condit iOn tha i a itt A is dowd Implies . just like lOt to polngkal JpK e,
lhaol A conta!ru lllJ its llmi l poi nls.. This condition n. eqlli vak'ntlo the fac1 Ihal the
condition z. A fol ln.. from the emlen c:enf a scqucnoe \ll.l C A convusellt 10 ....
III face. the condition that A is dosed is equi valent . for eumtlle, t o lhe con di tion
lb. l A C A (ICe 5: . $) which Is equivalent to the previous $IDtemcnl ;
(d) llle condi lion ;It 11 llA is equivalent to Dr "" ) n A * 0 and D , (K)
n (X 'A) 'fJ 0 for any , > O.' ball wilh cent re althe poinl'" will ' JCOOp'
OUI the poinu of A I.fId X ' A . Th is st.tement is
We ar e also liv inl an equival ent definition which Is n lt m used in anal ysis;
(e) Ihe OOIlditiofl x E aA is cqui'flllenllOthe uistrncc of a Jocquenr:e X ' A
(OIIYCf'1lCf1.t tox. and to t he exlSlenoc or. It:quencc 1a,,1C A "OIIVCIlIenl to x.
In fact. suppose Xli! 'M. Then for . ny" > O. the Dr,,"l ' KOOPS' poi nts OIlt
of both A (i .e. , tbc point a, ) X 'A (i.e. the poinl G; ) . AswImina!hlll. ' .. "
". _ O. we obt&in th.. sequences G,. E.4, C X ,A sudl tha i . '. _ x, G;. - x,
Introd uction coTopo\oJY
Convtndy, ih. - x.Ia.1C A. - C X , A., thmany baUD, (.l") coa -
tains both the point " . U>dth e point ,,; fCll' a sv.rrociently IaraCIi .. " (r); lhererart ,
2. Balls and Spheres in R". We lba.Il invcstip lc the sptlcrc S , 1heopcn 4ise
1>" .. I an d the dosed disc1)- ... I in R" .. "
TH.EOREM I . The/ allowing are Wllid: U- .. 1 .. u)i+I) .. (D" '" ' ) .
PROOF If llle 'r ay' [txoJ, 0 " t < +00 , I, co nsidered (i t emanat es from tbe cen-
In of the ball, the poun o , and passes t llrou&b the poinl Xotii b" .. 1' %0 .. 0), then
lbe poinlSxi .. Ie ; 1xoOfthis ray Imd loxOand lie ill D" " l (vuify this by ou.inI
lhc metric on R" .. I ) , aDdthe points h '" %0also Jieill D" ... I and to :mo.
Therefore, (D" " ,)' ::l D" .. " On the ot her hand, (0" .. I) c b" .. I (JIere
(L)i'TT) is lbc lopolocical doI ure of the ball D" " I). In fact . it x. - "
Xl ii D" .. I . i ,e., Ify e (D" .. 'r tllen
p (Y, O) " p()' . x. ) .. p(x. , 0) < p(Y ,.ll"... ) + J.
_hmce by taklna: lnto accounli llal p(y . Xl> - 0 as Ie - _ . we ban p (jo. 0) " i,
i.e.YE D"" I.
After eombinina: the Indl.lslon malions Ihu we b vc obtained wilh Ihe eviclmt
relation (d' .. 'r c we have
u+ I c w .. 'r c (D". I)C 1Y'+ "
wheGl% the I tt.teme nc of t be readily foUowI .
THEOREM l . Is boundary Qj o boll : S- .. a(D" + ' 1) .
' - 1
PROOf. IA. .1'05 S" (S" ,p. 0l). Then XI< .. - . - .1' 0 E lY' '' I, and the tequem:e
<:GDVCI'ICS to .1' 0 foI k - 00, Therefore, S C i(D" .. I). Converset)', let
.1'0" a(lY' + I). Thm XcI eO" .. I li llee 0" ... I wnsislS of int erior poi.all. and lhC"l"e
exists a (rtl l'O" "+ I o;on,et"IIent 10 .1'0 (sec Ilem I, (e. Therefore,
.ree(D" + r .. &' + I,X."S-, .
1- , Pr ove that S" .. a (iii' '' I).
2- , Let .,: R - - R I be a corIti nuolUl function. t' rove tha c the set
A .. E R- : .. (1') < al is epee, and the teU B .. f E R" : .,(1') " aI,
e .. Ix t! R" : lI'(I') = a ] are closed for an )' a GR l (lh tit Jets aee caUed the
LdJague .'s of the function ll'l.
3, Show for the It'tli of Excrcite 2- Ihl l A c B, Give an en .mple "'hen A .. B.
aA .. e, .net alJo an aamplc when A :#. B and oM .. C,
J . Bails and Spheres in Ar bitrary Metric Spaces . Consider a rmuic
1p.Ke eM. pl , We dd"me a ckntd btHJ D, (xol and S,(I'O> u.e., with radillS
0 . 2. o.ncnoJ TOPO!ou
r > 0 and at Ih" poillt by the eqlluun
,., ll' IE M . " rl. S, tlr'ol .. 1M' e M. /Itlr' , xol .. rJ.
Not" tl\1I1D,tlr'ol. S,tlr'ol are eIosed XU IDM. l.ll faet , i ( ll'.J E D,tlr' ol and ]C. - ?
p(E-.. ?} " Ptlr'o-:r.) + Ptlr' ?) " r + Ptlr' ?).
YoiImoc pl;co-?} " ' , Le. S,<xol is dosed &5 the oomplcmcntln the
doKd Jet b , <xtl to tbe opel> iet D,Cxol .
Aze the theDrcm5 o( h elll 2 vali d i n the Inrtric IJI'&Ccl The foDo'lrins aampk
pwtcs tbaJ. lht: UlWcr is ocpUvc.
Let M bc II nnkcloU. W" spcci (y ll mctricp<X.
rJ .. O. Ptlr',?} .. I when:r ". ? Then (or , c 1.
... ,,"oI.O,Uol .. lrol. .. 0
(D,(xol) .. .,. (.D,tlr'ol)' ,. 0.
S,(xol .. .. 0
\\'hm, " 1DIS:!L:..lxol .... .D.(xo> = M. SI(xol .. M ' lxol and (01(}CO C D
(}Co) ,
Fu.:1.humOfC. (D .(X0l) DI,""ol. $1'""0> 0 .
Fillll Uy. when r > l,we have
D,tlr'o> = D, ,""ol - M . 0:
mOfCO"et".m) '" l'J,Vol *" (D, <.rolr .. 0 . S, tlro" ao,(xol'" 0 .
'The (oUowin, theotcm provides II nec:t:Uaf)' and SIIHlcienl condition for II
qJher" In metric apaa t o be Ih" boundar)' of II ball.
THEOREM 3 , /olJowinK tquivolOlCl! is "({d;
<5,(:&'ol = ... .. "fJ,l.xol)
Pl OOf". It (ollows rrom. (D,(;rol) - b , (xol thaI
.. D, (Xol ' D, vol - D,{.l"ol,D,(xol aD,(;rol
COO\"C:f1ely. If S,l;col '" <lD,(xol, thell
D, (xol- U D,(xol U .. . M .. Cro, II be the rpaa. of conlinuous wi th Inc $I;ano,1ard
Il'drio: (loOC See. 1. 0 . I) . Gin one inteflll" of D,. D,. S, and Ihow lIIat
S, .. aD,..
. Completeness o f M etric Spaces . In anal)'$is. Cauclty' s cri terion of thc
fOll'/U&C=nce o( II sequence: of rtIUIIbcn (lll lbe l pace R
h&5 been est.ablWlcd: 11.-
quencelx'..1tolIve,.es to.som" poinl xll<x" -:rtl i( IUId only If .. b/"ndlJJftl:1ltfl l.
Inlr od uet ion III T OpOlo&y
i.e. for any t > O. t here is an integer N{e) such that I x" ... m - x
I 0:: t as soen 11
1I ;;a N(t ),m I.
If x" !. xoiDW . p ) , then lx,,1ean be calIil)' st.,, ""n to be fundamental 8$ i. t rue
in the case of R I, l.e., for any e > 0, there is N(c} such lhat
I. (I )
However. Ihe conven e i. nOI always t rue.
DEfi NITION I . The space lM. p ) in which Cauchy' s criterion hokl ' true Il.e., any
fundament al sequence h M a limit) is eaIled a clImp/ere spare.
2. Let M = Q c R I be the set of rational number s in R I. Th is met ric space i . not
complete since there W s! of ral ionalll\lmbcrs convergent lo an irrational
number (i. c . , funda mental, but havina no limit in Q ).
3. The. spa<:e M _ R ' ts coei pjere.
4. The space M = R" is complete. This follows from the fu t Ihllt the {undan,en.
tali!y or ccnversence of a sequence of li nes . .. of length n is equivalent
to the fact t hat sequences of t he numbers (tll, I _ I, . . . , n, are fundamental or
con vergent.
S . Prove that the space M .. C" is <:; omplete,
BX/.MPU, , . The spatt M OM C[O. II is complete in the metric
PI (x (I) ,y(I) :: max Ix (I ) - y(I )1
0 ':'': I
but not in the metri c
, J,n
Pl(x(I), yl l) '" (1Ix (l ) - y(I)l ldl .
The stateme nt just fonnulntc:d is proved in an al )'$is.
The examples show that t he property of completeness is not topological, t.e.,
genera1ly speaking, It Is not preserved under homeomorphisms (e.g. , the inttl'Vlll
Ill. b ) C R I and R I itself are homeomorphic: but (Q. b) is not co mplete).
The f onll ",i n, Slat.ment holdllruc but we leave its ploof \0 lhe l eader M an
THEOREM 4. Lrl (M, flJlw a metric sptZ . and M
C M asubsf}fl. // M
is camp/tIe ," onH
.. closed in M; if M is and MI;S c1o.ud '" M. IlIcn 101
is comple/t .
I Equival ent Definitions of a Continuous Mapping. We shalt c>;.
press the propen)' of uie cont inuity of a mapping!: X - Y or topological spaces X
and Y in terms of other topological concepts, i.e., of the neighbourhood and im
closure of a set.
ClI. '2. General Topolou n
THEOREM I . u lf: X - Y W Il COllI /nuoUSmQpp/II . T1I' loJJow",. Pf oPNtiulln
eqll fwll l!lIl : ( I) I is COIIti fl llOUS; (2) f or Il lly A e x. /(A ) C nil); (J) frK Il fl )'
A C rl(A) C rtIA).
pJOOf' We sh an prove _ impa tKxls. (1) .. (2); We rondudc from the defmi
tion of thai t he K1/-
mJi is dosoed in Y ",d contains A . "ThercfOl"e.
A C r I qvm .!"'hetK'C / (Al C f (A). (2) .. (I): Obvi ousl y. it follo ws from (2)
thatA C r IV(A fot any 1 ' whtre F is an ar bitrary c1os
edICt in Y. We obtai n thalr ( F) C r IVV- (1')) - r l(F). "ThercfDTe. r I( F)
is fOt any clos<!dF C to i.e.. (is cont inuous. I ll .. (ll: The cOntinuilYof/
implies Ihl! cIOKdness orr I (A). Hen. (3) immed iately follo ws fro m the inclus>on
rl(Al C.c ; IA). (J) .. ( I) ; For a closed A, the chai n of itIclurion relat ions
r l(A) r (A ) r 'IA) follo ws Item (J) . Whenccr l (A) i. dosed , and thc
mapplna / Is therefor e-eont inuolU. i
On the analogy of t he deOnltion of the continui ty of a mappln8 in a mettl c
contln \ious mappi ngs of topological spaces can be defi ned as bein a con -
tinuo\is at every point by intToducina the noti on of continui ty o f a TRapping at a
palm in a topol oJ,ical space .
DEFINITIO:><l. A m.lIppi"l/ : X - Y of t opoio&ic:al spae:ts is COIflill llo14 Il t Il point
X if for any nciah bou rhood aV(;fO>J of the point ff;t.o>. there Qisu a
tlri&hbourbood OCKol of the poin t ..., SllCh t hat/lO(.x-oil C av{col.
1-. Thl! fol1o'lrina propeny of. X - Y is cqWTalm t to the
cmtinuity aI. poiM: the luJI inverse ima&er l'OVf;t.oI of ...y nciahbourhood of
Ibc is a nci&hbourhood of 1M poml XO'
TKEORE.... l. A : X - Y is COfJlIlIUOUS if lHtd onJ, if Jr is conri nwou:l ll t
tcJt polll l XE X .
' lOOf' . U:t/: X - Y be cont inuous. ro e X llII ",bitr&ry paim, llIId OVf;t.olJ an aT-
bilralY nei&bbourhll(ld of the pe int/{coil. Then then uan ope n set V C Y $\1ch thai
YcOVf;t.cll ) and/f;t.oiI11 V. Put U -rl( l'}. U I5 an opc n,Jet and xoE U. Thc:n
I (U) c nV<riY). which pr oves the continuity of/ at the poi nt :ro.
Convem ly, let/ be continuous evcry poi nt X lii X. Let V C Y be an arbi!.
liU)' ope n set and let A _ r I( I'}. Since V Is a nc:i&bbtlurhood of c:ac:h of its potn ls
and / is continuous at each of lu points. for any :r e A . there is an
nex) ncipbourhood o f thc poinl X such thal/COf;t.') C V. Thcrt'forl!, n V) C A,
which proves that A is open. The contin uity of/ is thus proved .
Exrrc'- 2-. U:t X .. A U B be the union of two closed sets. Th m tM mapplO&
I : X - Y is cODt inllOUs if and only if the mappinas / I.... and f i B arc tOllt inuous.
cn-e COIlnt tTcu.mplc:s ...hen the condition of Ihe closedness 01 Ihe scu A and B is
DOl fulfilkd.
2. Three Problems Leading to Cont inuous Mappings. In t opoloJy
&Ildin app!iatiOIlS. the fol lowin,a t)'PtS of problems have to be: solved oflc:n:
Ii}GIven tWO 5lIlOCS X . Yand a mappin./ : X - Y f"l>ctlt whet her
{ is conti nuous.
(0 TQpology
(ii) Given a topological spaceX, a $el Y and a mappinlf : X - Y. Equip Y with
a topology so as 10 make! conlinecus.
(iii) Gir e" a topol ogical space Y, a w:t X and a mapping! : X _ Y. Equip X
with a topoloiY so as to mue] conlimmlls.
Problem (i) has already been <;(Inside.ed for space> and mappinp. To
solve it, Ira information about X. Y, and! ;' rtquired.
Problem (ii) ClI.Jl be t olved withollt any additionalauumpt kl ,. Let iUl = .. be a
topoiolY on X . W. endow Y wilh a topoloJj' by ea.lIing upen in Y those and only
thO$esets V C Y whooe inverse imagcs ! ' (V) .. U arc open in X (incl uding the
empty inverse image) . It is not di rn<;\l !t 10 verify that the colltttion of such sets lY)
forms a topology. If V.. are some ids from ('1 then
(2) V.. elVl , sinccr
( Va) =
, I ' , _ I I

n r'(V..)
.. ,
(3) Y e 1"1. sincel ' CY) = X fi r;
(4) 0 e (VI. sincer 1(0 ) = 0 e r .
The topo logy coru;trllC'(edwiD M called the t opology indu ced by the mapping f;
Ihis is the SUOIlgest topology in which f is coedn ucus - .
ccnstser now the cont inuity of a mapping g : X I R - Y. where R is a certa in
equivaknce, anti X IR is 11factor space.
THEOREMJ . u t g : X I R - YIJfldf : X _ Y belwomappings,and fl ; X - X IR
tlr" proj:tion. u{ tire diagram
be commula(iv", i.e, / /;K) - (gfl )tt), x E X. Tlren g is continuous if and only if / is
PROOF. U:tf be continuo us. Consequent ly, if V C Y is o pen t hcn r I(V) open in
X . Owing to the commulativity of th" di3.jlram, rhe SCi ".-1("1) '" U is open iD
Th ISrnctt.od or equipping with I tapalDgy"'l1 when we inlroduced
I"" co.....pi of lIuot i011t .I0p0 IDlY(_ Sec , 3).
01. 2. Qc,ncral Top01olY
aiM. Since! .. , .. .
r <r ' (V "" ...(... - I,- I)( V) .. , - '(y).
tIldol"e. t uwnt;nuoU$.
La , be COlItinu.ous. i. e. , , - l ( Y) it open in X I R if V is open in Y. Then
" . 1(1- ' ( 11) is opn1 in X d ue t o the eont inu ity of .... Ho....otV1:,
- IfI - 1(11 .. r I (II). and hmccf is contlnuo...s.
We mw.t find Oul when the sp aee Y wlth lbe lopolOJY dd cri bed above is
lIomeomorphic to the f&do.- space of Ibe spa X ...-ith r5pea to the fol lo" inS
cq:rinlmoe by f) :
x l - X2 .. fVrI) -
Tbc:dus of equivalent in X is the ruu invel"$e inuacr l O') of some vlIllle
Y. l.f:l 'It : X - X IR
be: the pr oject ion, lind): X I R
Y t he res idue class
In3ppmS tnnsformin! the clau of eqll1va}m1 polnU LKI into I ","). We thus h ave the
equal ity I (r",") .. f",") . x e X , which meallS the corntnl,lUltivity of The diagram
THEOREM 4. /1 11 ro polQI)' On Y is induced by II mappmfl f : X - Y and l is surJer:-
l in , tlren!ls a X IRfand Y.
PROOF The ma pplna f b C<)ntinuous if Y is el\dow<:d wilh lhe indicated to polo&y.
ByTheorem 3./is cont inuous. Since! is biject ive, It is sufficient 10 pr ove t he con-
linuity of J I. which Is equivalcut t o ' he opcrm css ct ], To prove it , let U
be: lin
Q\Xn set in XI Rfollnd V - ! (U
iu ima ge in Y. U l ! .. &. Then we have
rl( V) .. c, 'It) - I ( V) '" :r - 1c, - 1(l1) .. :r- 'lU
) .
Since. the set ,,-' ( U,,) is open. r ' <V) Is also ooen: by tbe dd mitiOCl o f the
$Irongest: lopalo, y on Y in which f is continuous, we make a cooclusio n tbat V IS
open in Y
nrci# 3- . Show lhat if a rna.ppmaf is not surjecti.. then t he f"a oc spaee X { Rf ls
to the , ubspag:! OO C Y, ,.,hue lhe topolOBY on Y is induced byI ,
When coruidC'rin.a conhnuous mappi nt! : X - Y of two a
qllCSlion ma y be asked under ..hat wnditions the topolosy of Y is ind uttd by tnc

nreoP,E,.... 5. w I: X - Y M tl SUr]cc1ll1<r lrltlppitl' 01 1_ topoloekol spa ond
In! bit COiIIUlIIOWS and opuo (or r:kJsrd). Then /opo /Ou on Y u a
/l1f1OIou ",dUC'UJ by [ ,
PlOOt'. ConUdu the c::uc whcn f rs open . Let fVJ '" 'I be the topol ogy on Y m-
c!..cecI by 1M. mappinl/. and r, ... IUl lhe ori&inaltopoloBY OR Y. We shllll!J'low
IMI they coi ncide In r.a. lei Vl;' r .. V 1&' 0 . Th en. ioIncc f i, lu rjecu vt".
r 1( V) "" 0 1nd/-
( V) is open in X (by the method of conuruction of 'I) Srnce
so Inlr od uClJo n 10 TGPOloJy
l i5open, we find l the $Ct/<T ' (V - V b opcn in Y. I.e.. V E r1" COlI"u l ely,
lei U e "1; then u follows from th e oontinuit y of f thaI r I( U) is o pen in X .
Therefore. U e 1"1 by tbe deli nit ion or'M lopololY r . ,
n.: whtn J is cklscd is mnsidered in an alIabeou s .... ay.
h remaiN for us to consider problem friil . UtI : X - Ybe. mappinl. Or. Kt
X intO SJ2CC' Y. La 1'. IV) be .. topology in Y. Put
" - V- '(V)I... ..."The s)'Stem " the u.iorru o f Il)pOlolU' ("eri ry!). It is ob,
iou. Ih" / b CC)rItinuou.s., .. mapplna. oh opo!osielll spKe$ (X, tr) . ( Y ). II is elear
also ItLat 'I ili the ","kest of the IOpolosks po5Se$$m, th is propoerty.
l. Topology in the Di rect Product of Spaces. ObUining the direcT.
product. of topoloaicallpaccs nukes the constl'llCtlon of new lopol op:;al .speas
Remember that the dlrtCt p f'Odul;' X )( Y of th e 5dS X , Y is t he mllcaion or
order ed pail1l t-" , y ), where x E"X . y E Y. The direct prod ucts of any number or rae-
lors can be consldered . An element of such .. product n X
is a set lx..J...A'
x" E X.. 0 ' , In oth er words , the clements n X", arc funel iolU x : A - UX .. suc.h
. "
Ihat .x(cr)6X" . If A ...II. 2, ... . nl is .& finite set then me prD<luet o f X l ' X 2' ... 'X
x Xl X _ _ x X". iUclMnem, bei Il8theordertdseIS(xt,
X2. _ ,x
where X/E X" i :=. 1, 2.. . , n.
We endow the di rca product X )( Y wilh a topology by giving the fam Uy
IU.. )( V,I ali tu base, wher e IU..l, !V, Jere the buts for the IOpologjes in X U1d Y,
respect ively.
1- , Verify Ihat Ihe eoverin. 1U.)( V, J of 5et X x Y satisfiu the
Criterio n of. base lsee Sec. I ) .
The lopolou determined by the bese IU.. )( V, I is called Ihe produef (0/I0101J' .
EX_ PlE. 1l\e piancR
1st he di rca product or $ lines : R
_ R l )( R I. 'The
basefor Ihe topok)lY on R
i$ Ihe set of open . ecta n.Jl.tsor the fonn U. )( V,. t.e.,
Iwo-d imCi u lonal parallelepipeds (Fig. 52), wbere U.. , V, &I"r intcrvw.
eh . Z. Ge".... ITopol"IY
2 . prove that t he two-dimensional10rus r
is homeomor phic to lhe l>rodu ct
s' x a'.
3 . Pro" e that the space st x R I is homeomorphic to the circu lar cylinder.
Consider the project ions
p \ : X x Y - X , (I:, y j -x; P2 ; X X Y - Y. '-". y) -y.
THEOREM I . The mappings PI' P2 are comjnuous in the producl IOp% gy.
MoreOYl!r, this is 1M weakesl topoloBY in wh Ich P I endPz arc cont inuous.
PROOF. We show that PI is con tinuou s. Let U" be a SCt from the base for X. It suf-
Iiees to show that P i"I(V.. ) is open. Since the spac e Y ca n be repr esented Ill; lhe
union U V, o f all the sets of the base

P i"t (U,,) _ U" x Y _ V" x U V,, "" U (U" x Va)

and therefore P i"I(U..) is open in X x Y_The continuit y of P2 is vertfled in the
same way.
Let us the second stateme nt of the theorem. For PI 10 be continuous, it is
necessary that the sets p i"I(V..) '" U.. x Y should be open. For Pz to be con-
t.lnuous. the scu X x VII "" p i l(y
) should be open. Hence for b<!th PI andp2 to
be continUoWl simultan eously. it is neeemry that the sen V", x Y and X x Vll"
and therefore. lhc sets (U.. x Y ) n (,X )( V
) ... U" x should be ope n.
Thus , any topology on X x Y in whiehPI andpz arc cont inuous should contain
the sers U.. x VIJ (and abo the topolOi Y generat ed by them). Therefore, it is
stronger than the product topology of X x Y
Cons ider the dir ect product . !,IA X.. of an arbitra ry (pos sibl y. infinite) number of
factors. We int roduce the weakest of all those topologies on in which every
projection p", ' : - X..' whi ch associates the funct ion x wilh the value
x{a ' ). i$cont tnucus . nth topology on X" iscallcd the product tcp%t)' or the
Tl honov f OpO/CD' .
We shall describe il in more detail . TIle subbase for t ile Tlboecv topo logy can most
"sily be characterized as Ihe collection of all the possible set s in the produ ct ..
Which have the form 8 " ... f% : x(aOJ C V.. I. Where U" is an atbitrary element of
Ihe ba se for lhe and a oE A isoabo arbitrah, . It i$ easy to see that
_ P;; I (U" ). Thus, fo? a certatn "'0' the sets (B..J fOf"m the weake n t opology
on n X"oin wh'kh the p.ojccl ion P", is continuous. :rIieref ofe. having declar ed t he
10 be Ihe subbase, we obl ain the weakes tt opoloSYin which all the pro-
jcaions p,, ' arC CQnti nuous.
Hence, "t he for Ihe TIl' onov t opology COn.iSISof sets of the fonn
U .. p ; ,I CU"I ) n p ;.I(U" I) n .. . n ...'.
Intr oduClio" 10Topolosy
""hu e", . . " "11 1$ an arb itrary (inil" $C1o f "lemen IS lO A , and V.. an arllilta ry
dement of Ihe base III X" . In othe r words, an open .setof the base a .set of fun' -
tl ans I
x u..
For QnY " o A , Ih" projtio" P"o : nx.. - X.." ..ousond
opt:n mll/Jpml.
PROOf. The continuity of P" has already been verified. Since IhcP"oimage of a set
from Ihe base for t he IOpo!t gy i, open, t he image of any open ISaha o pen
4. Silo... that the base for the Tihonov t opology ;5formed by all possible .sen or lhe
(SIIt h sets are of1m referred 10 as cylinders) .
S . Verify Ihlll R" " .RI )( , . , >( R I, D!::$Cribe Iht base and the subbase for the

Tihonov topology a ll R
6", Verify thai tile ,,- dimensional cube I" in R " can be repr esented ns
r .. J x xJ,wherc/ =- IO,I ].
7", Consider t he n-dlmtnsionaltorus "" .. 5 1 X . .. X 51, (there are n factors)
and eesert be the subbase and base for it s topo logy,
2. Continuous Mappings into the Product of Spaces. We in-
vestigate the lIlappinss / : X - from a topological space X inro a product.
weean C()I'l sider the components/ " : X - X" and / .. '" pJ of lhe mappmg/ . Con-
versely, If a of lIlapping$' !to : X - X
' cr e A l is given, then the mappin,g
/ : X - X
is determined uniquely.
Thus, there extas a bljealon between the set or mappings/ : X - n X" and
the fami ly of the of m"ppin S5 !tol.. A ' " ...
THEOREM 3. VI mapping/ iscontinllous) ." (Ihe mupplng/" ls ronrinuous/OT NCh
ere A ).
PIIOOF. u t all/" be cominuous. In order to sho wthat/ is continuous, it sufficc$ to
show th.atr JI U) is open in X for any U from the bale for n X"' Let
. "
U ( n X
) )( U"l X , . x U
\., ' ''k
r l(U) .. X.. , er '#. 01 ' " 1 = 1, 2. , . " k)
n r.;1(X,.) n/;/ CU..,)n , . n/;/(u..,)
.. .. " I' . ...
Ch. 2.
V, ... .t;, I ( V..) is an open $et In X owing to cont inuiry aU.."
r IIV) is open in X. The proo f o f the eo nver$<: is left to the reader .
COnsider II?W the mapping ! ; - X eath f;unily !x(c<), ..A
..1th the t orresponding elemen t rrom X.
Exercise ga, Varify lhal if X '"' X" = R
a e ... . A '" (I , 2 . , . , "J, the
mapping I Is a numerical funeti<m in /I
In the general ea se. lhe mapping! can be: consider ed 10 be a genera lization o r a
numerical funetion in /I afgWIIUlIS, assumJ.ns thai it depends a n the variables
zeal .. X" . H all value.lx (a) are rured (t.I<.C<p\ x (aol) t hen a funet ion in o ne arg ument
il ahlained, the artumenl var ying in X" ' We make these Ideas more pr-ecise,
Conuder a subspace x; of the proJuel colUisli1ltl o f all funct ions x ta king lh e
value x (a ) .. Y". e ... ao> .. t! X" is a certain clemen l .
E:xerclM9". Veri fy that is homCOlTlO'l'hic to X"",
Let ,.." ; X" - be: the" nal.ural homeomo'l'hism (depending on o:rtain y",
. ." .
a '" 1>. ) , an d I Ix;. the restricuon of 110 X"". The diagram
1/xa, '"' It

can be: nal ura lly completed 10 a commutative One by the product o f twO mapplnlP
bee the dotled arrow) . We <knote it by This pr-oduet of t he IWO mappings
eharacteri:u:s the dependence o f I on the arg"utnen t x (a ol e X"" ra r the given valllC:S
1. of the Olher ar ..uments x (a ) ,
Eurcisc 10". Verify t hat if!is CQntinuous. lh en the : X"" - X is ecn -
tiDlIOus for all "0 e A , ' " e X" , when .. *" a ir The converse is lrue. Give an ex-
We shall consi der anot her case: of a mapplng o f the pro dueu of 10polosJCid
<J)aCCS. Let /'" : X ", - Y"" o e A be S<l me cc ueeucn o f mapplnSS of 10polO&kal
spaces, The mappln.. TIj.,, : TI X" - n Y" Is determi ned nalurall y if ell':h Iunc-
. " a "A a " A
tionx e . r;AX" is moclaled with a funetiony e Y" by the ruley(a) .. I ... (rla)).
This mapping is t:aIIed the prodUCI oj mappingsI", When A .. (I , 2, ... , /I I. the
pradU<:l. of the mapping$!1 , /
. . . ill oft en denoted by
)( r; ., . X I x X
)( , . )( X" - Y
)( Y
" , X Y" ,
II ' . Prove thaI ( OJ... is conli nuou$) .. if. is cOll1htuous for each ex e A).
i2" , Th e groph 01 II m/lppinsl : X - Y.b the subset r, c X x Y of the form
.. ((r , y );XE X .y =!(rl l.Verifythat
(I) r, is the image o f Ihe mappingl : X - X )( Y, ll.>:) (x ,!(r:
(2) if is continuo us) .. (/ is continuous);
(3) if is continuo us) .. (f'f i. dosed) .
lmroduClJon loTopoJOJY
y)ean be rorn blned into a pair (x, yleX x X ;
denote ure set of ..u such pairs by R ex x x . Sho w that (I) if X / R is Ha llsdorH,
tben the SCI.R is clOllW; (2) if the projecti on ". ; X - X IR uopen and the K t R Is
closed. lhen X IR Is Hausdorff.
14 , Show thaI the produ ct of Hausdorff spaces Is eisc a Hausdorff space.
l SQ. Show thaI 8, space X is Hausdod f If and only If the diag onal = \(.>', x) is
<kned in X x X .
I. The Concept of Connectedness of a Topological Space. The
Idea of connect edness gcneral.itts an int uitive idea of the wholeness or
unstparat cdn,ess of 3 geometric fli urC, and the idea of a disconnect Cld space
gtneralizes lItat of the negation of wbcteness, Le. separa tedncils. The se i<leu admil
8, striCt dcrmition within the theory oCIOPQlogica! spaces and arc st udi ed In det ail in
t he present section .
ConsIder a topological space X and iu subsets A . B.
DEFINITION I . Tht' seu A and B att' said t o be n paralt'd if
A"n B -An B -0.
FOTex.arrlp(e,ifXisRI, i.t'. tht'Dumboetliae and A .. (u,b),B = (b.c)art: !n
ce-rvab, Q -c b -c c. then A and B arc separated; bUI ifA '" (Q, bJ and B = (b, c),
chen A and B an: 001 sepMatcd (i.e. , A n if = IblJ.
OEFlNITIOf'l2 . A space X is said 10 be discoRlIffff!d jf it can be:",presented as t he
union of two nonempL)' St'P&"81cd St'Is.
A space not satisfying the condition of Definition 2 is saki 10 be: conllecud.
Thw. a connected space ClUlJlOI be 8 the union or two nonempty
separated seu .
We CllII speak of the CODIIcctcdm:ss (usp. <fueolUlt'd.edness) of a A a f .
topologkal space X by <;OlIsldt'rinI:.A to be: a copologkal space with the Ind uced
Tht' simplest enmples of connected spaces art' :
(I) a one-point . pact X ... (_J ; (2) an vbilrary st't X with tht' topology '0 (i.e.,
trivial) . The simplest example of a space Is a two-point space X wilh
me di scret e topol oJ Y(vetil'y that the defin itions ar e valid I).
We shall adduce ano ther de rmition of a disconnected space wh.lch It used Quite
often .
DEFINITIONJ. Po. topologi<;al space X is said to be:disconnecte-d if it dewmposa in-
fO Ihe union of t wo nonCll'lply,di sen .
Note that two mut ually complerm-ntary. ope n (resp . c1osc<l) St'lS are
simultaneously closed (resp . ope n).
We thall prove the equivalencc of Dennitions 2 and 3. (I) Let X be disconnected
;n the sense of nermilinn 2. Then we have X .. A U B. where A n 8 .. 12l,
Ch. 2. General Topol08Y as
An 8 :t 0 1U1d A andBare C X '8andii C X 'A,
i.e., A _ A, jj c: B, which implies the dosedness of A and B . The c;ondltions of
Dermiti on 3 arc Ihus fulfilled.
(2) Convcrsely, kl X be dlsconneeted in the sense of Definition 3. Then
X .. A U B,A, B are ncnempry and open,A n B .. 0 .lt is obvi ous Utat A and
B are closed. Hence, An B = 0 , since A co .4;jj n A = 0 becauseB .. B.
foll owing theorem an impQr1.ant of .. connect ed space.
THEOREM I . All yugrrunt ID, b] of/Ile number fine R
is cDnnected.
PROOF. QlI\sider a topological space: X = la, b) equip!lCd with me topology from
. Assume that X is disconnmed;X - U U V, u n v '" 0, where U , Van:
nonempty aPd open (and simult aneously dosed). LeI a e U. W e will line
ill , xl where x e (It, b) .
When x is near to <I, [a, xl C U because U is open. Denote tbe supremum of x
flleh thaI 1a, .l:1c U by fl. (D. ill X), it is clear that fl . '# b.
If fl . e U then points near 10 fl . (on the left and on the right) also lie ill U , which
is contrary to the deimition of fl . "lbereforc, fl . OJ U. However, by th e defmll ion
of (I., t he incl usion relll.1ion /J. E V is impomble. Thus, we Olll up agai nst a
contradicti on with the equality X _ U U V.
Now the oonncetednes.s of more Jeneral spaces can be est ablished.
THEOREM 2. AllY T C R" is rottnecttd; in ptlrtiollar, R" itse(f
Is amnccted.
PltooF. Let T _ U U V. where U and V are nouempt y separ ated open sets . Let (fl .
bl .. X be the line -Iegment ioinina WJnC points a E U and b E V. Th en
xn U - U
'" 0 , X n V .. V
'" 0 and X - U
U Yx is th edecompasition
of X. whith il contrary to the ccneeeeeeoess of the $CJmtnt X .
AI; an example of a disconnected let, consider t he set of rati onal numberl
Q co [;] on t hestrll !ght Iine R
. 1.C't a. e R
be an arbltr ary irr al lonal number.
Then the sets
UJ( " Q. x < ..Jand VJ( "" \r : x eQ, x > ..1
arc nonempty, open and di sj oint . Thul . the decomposition X '" U
U Vxmcam
that X = Q is disconnected.
Extrc:i.fu .
I '. Prove t bat the let of nJI irrational numbcn is di lCORllected.
1.'. (I.) Show Ihal Ute see A Is connected if A is connected; (b) show t hat in a space
cndowed with the discrete topolo&)', any set (except one-poi nt Stu) is disconnecled .
2. Properties of Co nnected Spaces. Nole fi rst that cceeecrednee (rcs p.
dIsconncd.edltcu) il a topological property of th e space. i.e .It Is preserved under
homeomurphisms. In fad, Ibis foll ows from fact th at the separat educss of set!
is preserved llIl dcr homeomo rphisms.
Connect.C'dncs, is preserved In a mo re way undo:.- COnl ;nUOIll mappin/ls.
Inl,odllCl ;on 10 Topol""
lHEOREMl. wI : X - y bt (I cOlltllluOIII mDPp;",. 1/X Ir ronnltd then/(X)
ir eo'lIrtrt ill Y.
PROOF. IhCCQntrary , i.e. ,f(X) .. VI U VI' where VI n VI 0, V V,
bcina opcalnf(X). V. 0 aDd VI .. 0 . Thu/(X)Uopt'n implies thaI there a -
1$1 two 5eU U and v 1ha1 are ope n in. Yand NdJ thai un/cX} _ V ,.
V nf(X) .. V, _But ,dearlyJ(X) V. U VI .. X "" r' W, ) Ur 1cYJis!be
11IlM>n of llOnlhpt1,dbjoint wbseu. SJnccr I W I) .. r 1(U),r' ( VI ) .. r I(Y)
(why1) Indr I (U), r'cn are opt'll Ids (due to the eontiDuily of}), the decom-
po$Mion X .. r ICU.) ur lCV
) tsCOll U'at)'l o the of X .
Eurti# J" . (IJ ShowtIw the r/or, oonLinuous mappmc!or. Jnnee'ltd
I:J)IllZ is Cl:XUIt cd.
(b) Hcoce daSuee the thCOrall that the nume rical eon tinlIOUS funetion I : [0,
II - If IW. ZCft) f ; / (0 .. 0 in tile intcfYIJ (0. I ) IfJ(OJJ(I) < O.
Stat ana-cl (b) of J is a varia.lll of the dauical Boluno thcoran Pl"ovui
.in anaJ,ysis. To the Bollano theorem, I more peraI lnlermec1iatc-val\K lhrorml ls
reWed, viJ;. , If . numeriea1 fUftetion I fIt) is tontillllOU. on a ,,", 61.
J {fI ) "/UJ), and nUlllbe:r C is inc:ludcdlJcotwa:n the Ilwnbers / (D) and/(b), th(:ll
there ClII$U . point CE" (Po 61such thatf(e) .. C.
Thi s
is equivaknl 10 the nonemply interseciioll of the , ra ph r, of _ numerical
funclion f (';) with the .. C in die plane R
wltic:h follows from Ihe
eonnccr:ednc:ssof the ,,_ph r, and the choice of the number C.
The Bolzano en d the intcrmedille-val ue theorelll could been proved
wilhoul rerol'tlq 10 lhe "aph of the map,plns f . instead, lhe proof could have
relied on the (in the space R ) ofltte bll an d the property
of connect ed fClS in R I io contain evee)' Inl mncdiate point tOSether willi and be-
tween artY 11110 poinu (prove!) .
Extrr:istt 4- . Pr ove that tbe circum fere nce s ' il conncaed
Hl#tf: ConlIIdcrtbo mappiq [0, 1} _ S' livcn by Ibc fonn:u!llcx '" c:os2.-I, ,. dn2.f.
The followina thCOl'm1 is intull ively obvious.
THEOREM4. A SptIC'r X i..- QJfUIttdif11" )11_ QjIUptJUIu ctVJ iN 'joUud' bJl_
CtNftw:t:ttdsa.bW tllq lk iIt 11 COIf,,ttt/
PlClOP Aaumc the ODDltar)'. Then X .. U U Y is the oorrespondinl decompoAi
tieD into opnr putl (U n " .. 0). Let Wo e' V aDd VOE " be lWO poinu , an:!
L C Xa conneeud let roIItailun& " oand VO' Put V I " v n L and "'I .. ",n L .
They open (and llontD'lPlY) in L , m<M"coYef. L - UI U Vl and
V I n Jf. '" 0, iu:ontfvy 10 the taIlnededncss of L .
E.urciM 's- . Vrri h thai : (a) A U B is COlInnud ifA. B C X are con nected sell;ill
X . and A n B '" 0; and (b ) A U B U C is connected If A , B , C C X arc COll. -
ncctallUldA n C '" a , a n c .. 0 .
It foUO'MJ from j thii t, for aarnpk.L the IPl!. cre S"'. 1I ;l t 15 COIllledcd.
In faet , S'" COOIdtsDf two d osed 5". aRd 5"_ ""hose ;nl C'fsectiOrt is Ihc
Ch. 1. Cene,al Topology
equatori al sphere Sf' - I, and each hemisphere is ccnneesed as it is a cont inuous
Unase DCthe disc (see Sec. 1) .
We shall now establls h t he following more general crilertOll of connectedness.
THEOREM ,. Giwm a f amily 01 g t.. IA,,1 tllat contrt ffl in X fI"d PQil'l'lfise
t ile" C = U A ...isconnted In X .

PR.ooF. Ihe contr ary : let C ". DI' U D

, D
n D
.. 0, lUl d D
nonempty and closed. in C. For an arb itrary A ..., the following cases arise:
{1}A... C DI, roA... ...
HoweYICI", ease (3 ) can be excluded due 10 th e cnnncet cdneu DCA " . Hence, we
the sets A..., C D
, i .. I. 1, but t he of D
in C implic:s that
(A" n C) C D/,' _ ..I. 1 . _
ills evident that (A"J n 0 n A 2 = 0 . A ... n (A!'l n C) .. e . an tak-
i!!s inlo ace:ount t he mcluSl Jl ,lations A .... t: c, i = I , 2. we obtain that
A", n A" _ 0 and A..., n A" a e, whi ch II con trary 10 the usumption. that
A and 'Ji" are not separat ed.
" 'one spedal cllW of spaces Theorem 4. They ar e termedpai h-connectcd
spaces. To descri be them, we teeceuce the concept of palh In X.
DEFlNtTION4. Thc continuous mawins s: to, I} - X ,s(O) .. a ,s(l) .. b is called
a ptJth connecting two points ' and b DCa topolo&ical $pUC X .
Verify th at t he lmqe $( 1) of the Une-scgment I .. [0, I ] is a conntcd
set connecting Ihe points a and b.
DEFINITION j. A space X ill said to bcPQth..-orlJ1 lffl ifan,. two polDu in it QUI be
connect ed by path.
An example of a palh-conncet td space may be gival by a closed surface (5
Sec. A).
It roll ow", from Thoorem 4 that a path-connect ed space Is eonncctcd .
That the converse is not yalid can be demo nstr ated by the example . Con-
sider the uni on of set s In R
X = [(0, 0). I[G,0), G-' I)] U (0 , I),
uu:l.denote the line-lClP""nt connecting the poi nts P and Q In Rl by {p . QI ; X i.1
but not path-eo nncct ed {the point (0, I) cannot be connected by a pat h
wltlt an)' other point from Xl .
7- . Verify t hac convex sets in R" and the sphere S" ,,, ... I , ar e pat h-connCCled.
S. PJovethat if A C X i.1 conncct ed , then an)' B such t hat A C B C A Is also eon-
nected. Qiv e examp les.
FinaUy. we shall consi de r the product of connect ed spaces.
THEOReM 6. The f)'Oduit X J( Y o/COlrIWCted Sj}QCIU is contrtw .
PROOf. AMume Itle contrary. Let X x y .. U U V be a deccmpcsnkm tmc OIXn
(oonempt,.>letS. U n v "" 0 . LeI (.r(loYO> E' U. The sc t.l' o )( Yis 10
Yand. l ha'efor c connect ed; inlentlna U aI the point {.loo. ')10>. II lies 'lItboUy in U.
wtticb followl from the COMK"t od" GS of U. The leU :x x Y. ye Y. inlcncd
x Yand lhenforc U. Howeva. bdn&ronnected. they lie Mi oUy in U. Th us ,
U (X x JI) ,., X x Y C U. TherefOR , V .. 0 . The proves the
, H
9- . Thron:m 6 for the pTodo.K't of II connccleCl spac:es (II > 2).
10. PI"OC t he mnneetedneu of the TibG/lOY p.odud. n X.. .. Y of collMC1ed
lipac es X" . ....
H iJIl: Collllcler I M .-t R of tbe l!9lnu or the prodlll:t !hill can be Joi ned 10 a CftUinpoint by
oct!, aDd vaif)' that R .. Y.
J. Connected Compone nts. If a spece II d llCo nnec;lro Ihm it is natural 10
alt cmplln decompo se it inlOco nnected pleas. We describe th it decomposition. Let
x e X be a point in a lopoloakal $pace X. Consider the lar,cst connect ed seicon-
lainin, t he point x ; Lit " UA.... WhCfC all co nneded seu eoIltalniJl& tl\c:
point x. set Lx Is c1osrd.!in the L",orthe connect ed set L" Is ronnted
Isee EllCrd_ 2) and hence L., C L.. l.e.,' '" L

DEf ll'(lTION 6. The X I L" is u Ued the COIIn tl f:tmIpofle'll of a poilU.., in I
topo loPtal spaa: X .
y. L., and:
there are t1WO pouibiliti5: either (1) .. 1:, or (2) n l<, .. 0 . In
the second esse, is Kp&nlt ed (rom L:r sece n L, 0 . L, n .. 0 . ID
tJlc evitSatt eql&8lity X :0 UL.. ""befc tlie nnion it taken over all x EX , 1IIl'C n:jCC'l. all
repeated eortlpor!eIl U .
ThIlS. the (ol1o'lrin& theorem bas bcUl proved .
THEOReM 7. Any topolo,lalJ ctln M d:omf'C1Zd into unioll' of 113 t:OfI.
1I',uI COmptJM ll'lS whidf fire d ond oll'd
Non :. GenerdJy connected componenu can not also be open (Ji ve ex-
amples) .

I I ". Veri lY Ibal if a qlace X poues$CS a fin ite number of oonnecled componenll ,
thm lhey are open.
12" . Veri fy tha llbe number of con ntC1ed components of a $pace: X (a l h fini te or
underflood .. the powu of the Id) is a lopoloai<;a! clt ar aeterlstk of tbe space.
1lH: topalosical qlaea usually eDeOllntaed in nrious mathematical pr obknU
pl:ISJat other properties. A number of these pTOpa'lics are o;prascd by what are
call ed the l:OUDta bilJly and xparatJora uioms.
ClI , 2. <rt" ..a l To po lO81
l. Countability Axioms. In $. I, the ncncn of base for a topol ogy was in-
Iroduced . It bomts' clear, while inv"ligat ing topologicil spaces, that spaces
possessing a ec unt able basc for a to pology ha ve a of useful
Hence, the following definition is introduced.
OI!fINlTION I . A topological space (X, ..) is mi d to satisfy the ucond COl.mtabllity
gxlom If its top ology POesl<:S a countable base .
E:XAJ,t Pll! I. The spa ce:s Rt and satis fy the second countabllil y axiom.
It is interesting to compare spaces sa tisfyinS t he second CO\l ntability lWom, and
separable spaces . It t urn s out that a seperabtespace: does nor sati sfy the
second co unl4lbility axiom.
EXAMPUl 2. Consider an uncountable set X whose topology consists of the com-
plements to all poMible fini te subsets of the llel X, the whole set X and the empty
set. (Ve1;ry that SUCh II set of subsets reall y forms a topology.) Any Inrmite subset in
this space: is dense since it int ersects each open set. Th is Implies the separabili ty of
X. On the ot her hand, assume that there Is a countable base 9 In X . Consequently.
if x e X is a fixed poi nt then the intersection of all t he open sets c.ontaining x equals
liJ. The refore, the countable intersection of ail those clement s of the base that eon -
tain x abo.eq uals 1l'1. But then the complement X , Is t he union of at most &
countable Set of finite seu and hellce is at most co untable too. This is conln"y to
the assumption that X ts uncountable, .
On the oUrer lIand , the following tlle<lrcm is valid .
THEOREM I . A 1M Sft:OndCOWII"b'lify IU'iOllt UstP4"'ble.
I... ve t he proor or rhi. rheoremto tb<: reader.
It is important 10note chal the con versestatement that is, spea king. In-
colTeCl (which has just beendemonstrated by way of an example) happ: ru 10 hold
for metric SJXlCC$. Viz., the roUowlngtheorem is valid .
THEOREM 2. An)' S1Cparable melric space (M . p ) Ih. >lol'ld couflltlb illly
PIlOOf'. Let A "" l<> 1' tl
, . .. . .. ..Jbe a co untable and everywllere dense set in
M. Take the collecti on or open set s
siJ . [v".t: [x: P(.o',tI,,) <-i ) :n,k .I. 2.. . J
lIS a It is eil.SY t o sec tha t thi s is indeed a base.
In rae!, tnc separability or M means lhat for an y x E M , in a ny ball
D, Cx) . [y : p(x,)') < ej . there is an element E A ; mor eover, there Is Dnu mber
k such that V k C D.(x). Since any ope l in M be rep resented as th e union
of balls, it also be reprc.sented as the union of sen k from
We need the. rollowing sta lement ror the rul ure as well.
rnOOR6M 3. (L1NDEl.()F'ST HEOREM) . (/ X IWlidiu /he S1Cccmd cQurrrobili
I)' a;ctom fire" in t ts tlrbllrary open co vering IU"I. t hen is a/ most a eOlin/able $ub-
cOYer m/f.
Inl ' odl>tliOlf l<>Topo!oty
PlOOF. Ld g be a co unl1lb\e base for the lopoloJ7 on X. SiDu of tll
C'Il\'Uin,a l UJ is lJle lJPion of litU from 9 , a IIl bf amil y C QII be .!t,
wtr,\dl is It _ collJlU.bk . abo (Oven. X and such lhat eKh clancnl of C is eon
some detr\ent oftbc family lU.l. Then. tlavin. dlosai ror-eacb dement of
lbe COVUVII C . Set from lU.l t ontainina ;1, We oblairl at most a COWltablc
eovmn, of the COVU'in& [U. }.
&elides Ule blue for the lOpO!oo mrroclllCed in Sec. I , II. the important
tncqnol base for the MiJbboumood 5ysl.emof apoinl xof. topological Jp.Il" X.
OFINITION1. The family or the ndahbourhoods or . point Jl is caIltd lilt
lor tile Mf,hbourlroodsystem of x if lhue is ndlhbourhood from this family
in each nei&hbourbood of the DOint :t.
Thus. the family of all esee nelghbclurboo(b or I poi nt is base for the
neighbourhood system of the polnl .
Let X .. Mbc IImelTlc space. and
.. ( l'*CK) " [ Y ; p(jl , x) < iJf_I
base f or theIlelghbourllood systemof tile point Jl . A sphmcaJ oei&hbo\l rbood an
be maGe a rermtmenl of any nelghboUfboodob . For any sphtrical neipbourhood
D. (K) .. 11 : y ) < IJ number k can be dIosen sudI llW k < 4:; thai
C D. (:c).
1. A IJ*lC. X Ii said to satisb tilt fus r r:oIIlI flJbiJir, IDCiom If the
ncqbbcurtlOOd sy$1elD of MYof its poinh rounwle ba$e .

4. A mmic JPKC is a first COUDlabk spece .
S. l pace Of continuous fUndlonJ Go I] 58.liIfies rlr$l. co untabiJil )' Worn
, I] Atilf)' t bc lUOn'd coun tabllil)' uIom?Thai it does fo Uo...,
from CIO. I] bdns aIld Wo from Thcorr rn 2 of this scctioa.
1lIc separabilityoft!'le, pace Cia. II follows from the theorem wblch
, tates lhat ltl y eonlmLlOU, function o n the line' Kjmen l [0. I ] can be: unlformly apo
Pfo.dmated by a polynomilll to any dq.ree of Dccuru y. Thus, a countable anti
dense .set A in CIO. I' consists of lbe set of Illl polynOlJ\lals wilh
4"lllonlll cod fieienls.
1- . Veri fY that space satb fyinJ the secolld co LlntabililY axiom abo
SIIusrles the first.
TlW conyers<: Is not b clemocl.stratal by the foUowiq ex&nllplc_
EXAMPLE6. Any LIJ>COIIn lable .lpalle X with the disc:n:le lopolOlYsatis rlCS the nn l
COUllllbility uiom. 1n 1at' Y poi1It X pos.s.es5a a base for the neiahbouthoocl
1)'Ittlt1 COIlsisIin, of a linlk nci&bbouthood v _ Bll t Iud! a space does AOI
AltilCy Ihe second COWJtabi\ily utom. 1bls follows from liIlddor l theomn and
ftOm the fad l.hat the coverina formed by Ofle-poinl sets e X , hu no COWl-
l.ble lU!xOverilli .
O . 1 0.""..1Topoloay
Th IlS, Lbe fulfilntmt of the second couftUbitity axiom is . st ron&cr condition on.
"lopotopc:aI space Lban Is Lbe fir St COWl."'bi lily uiom.
2. Properties of Space Separation, SOme imponUI\ lopoJoaka.I pr Opel'
tit$ are dlaradcrlad by t be scpwMlon uiorns. These uioms mabie IlS10 rcsux.
i"'= cLais of the Sludird ill ordn to lft$idc:l' tbdr properties.
We 5b.n .sdllDe mUDMfItlration fIXiom8 T. - T . A spacC' X b Ald
10 be. TrSJNI" if J.ll uioo'I T,. i _ 0. I, :2, 3. 4, i5fulfilled for il .
(To' . At OM oj lIl'I)I ,wo p<JitIu III II space II
ndlJl/)ovrhood which does flO( r:otIftHII poill i .
( T
). Elld' point oj 1111)1ptlir oj poi"l$ possnsv II lIt!/6hbollrhood
IfM: 1l does " ot conlai" lite Olltcr point.
An y one-point set in . Tl-space b dosed .
( T
). two poinlsx, y CI X. 11 .. y , tltcre wt Illel' lIeighbourhoods U(l' ).
U(y) S\lCIl IIwl UCx) n U(Y) 0 . In Ihis cue, X is said 10 be. HIIIISdorJj spa
(lICe alsoSec . I).
In or der to further. we mlUl Introduce lhe con ecpl: o r neighbourhood o r
set in " topologic:lll spece .
OEFiNITK)H4. .It MiZlIbollrltood ojfI sct .A iJI. space X is any open set
Ucontaining A..
(T) . For IIJrY polnt xeX IIN/ li ll y do#d sct F JtWrt X , xe F, uisl
lIdr1lbofu1l00ds U(K). U(F)AIC1t IJwt UIX} n Um . 0 .
U t he uioms T. aIld T
arc rulli Ued JimulIUlCOlUl)' then lbe space X Isca11ed "
rqlliar spo.
( 7.,). For rilly two dOSl SIIbsc/.s F., F
C X . F
n F
,. 0 , t1tcN c.risI
U( F.) . U(FiJ.nd rMt V( F
n U( FJ 0 .
A,qIl X Is call ed . ,,0I7rIll( $ptlIU if the: uiorns T
I,Ild T. are bot h fulfiUed .
We rnuu emphashc IIlat cadi JubKquC/lt axi om from To to T
1sasl rongcr ee n-
d.illon on the.JpaI:Clban the pr evious. lltt: _II true rot Ihe Wom. TJT. but
only If the w om T
is rul ti Uod since T
doe! nol follow rrom either T
or T We
Jlvc lOme u amp}es.

7. LeI R I be Lbereal sttai iht line equipped wilh lhe lopo lOJYwltose base i5forrnc<l
by rl )'S of th e font! II < X < +00. II Is not compllelted 10 show that in $UCh a
topolol)' , Ihe spate R
a,llufiea the uiom To but don not eHR Ioatisr)' t he u iom T

TItcre Isan e:u.mple or . To-spaoe which isnOl1 Tl-space in Eu:rrnc :2, S. 6, 100 .
S. ConAder the line sqflICI\I IO, I] equipped with the tOJlO101Y whose open set s arc
the empty let lIlld all the sets obtained from 10. II by ditctrdina either. flnice or
CO\ll)ttble Dumber o r poinll. TlIia $pKe iatisf.ea the ulolll T.. bu l is not Haua4or rf .
i.e., the uiom T
is DOl fulfi Uod.
We iltll od uce di e toUowitla deflll.itioD:
, . In the: linc-x&ment lO, II, the neipbowbooc1sof III tr bitrary perini , aapc zerc ,
arc ordlnuy aDd all the poa{bIc 10, 0) with the
di:acarded poinlS..!. II I , 2 . ate eaUed the qhbourlt oods DI ' 1re uro

In,,,xl\lct ion 10 Topo los r
point. It is e.u y 10 see t hat this space i. HausdQrff but not reaulat , because the dis-
j oint 5C1 E ... ('; : II ... I, 2, . .] and lhe zero point are nOl: separated in
the sense of Illc Miom T
'rxese c:umplelldmJ01\Slrate that the class of rcs ular (and aLw normal) spacn is
fl8I't()wer than that of me Hausdorff spaces. the clan of or.
mal spaces ill qulle wldc81I d includes, fo r example. all met ric spaces as will be sbcwn
in the nat soclion.
2", ShOW thai in a Tl-space. for any ", bscr A . the following inclusion relation is
fulfi lled: (A " ) ' C A ' ,
3 , Verify that a dOSl:<l suffac e Isee Sec. 4. Ch . II) is a Hausdorff space.
Note ;n addi tJon th4\ the diflcrcn l:t bet ween normal and rql uJar .pa. I, quile Il iahl,
which is demonsl ralftl by I"" fQl]ow!na .
THEOREM. (VDEI"IlSOV). An)' rquUu sJXlO" SQliJlyl"l ' lte soltd coull /ability ax'Om it fIOI'-

The proof of thu lllcorcm I. here.
l. An Equivalent Definition of Normal Spaces. Thepn:tpcrty ofncr-
mal spaus thaI is enunciated in t he folJowing lemma and which can be lWumed 10
be an equlYalent definition of a normal space ;5 useful quite often.
MINOR URYSON LEM....lIO,. A spD X /.$ normQ/ If and only If lor any dOSft1 k t
F e X a"dt1!!J' olllJ neighbourhoods V, there extus a nelghlJolHh ooOU'
F JIIch Ihal U' C V.
PROOf'. Let X be normal . Consider IWQ closed sets I" and 1"1 ,. X....... V. Since the
, pace is normal . t here c.ti$1t wo_d isjOinl neighbourhood..!V ' and Vi o r l he (WO sets
, II is clear thealhat u n F
., 0. whence V CU. Conyersel y.let the
lemma be fulfilled. and let F
, F
be disjoint closed sets. Cc nslder the se( V
'" X ,
1"1.' Then 1"1 C Up and it from the data atven that t!!tre eJti ' ls a
neighbou rhood Vi of F
such thaI U; C VI ' Haying set U
'" X , Vi. we Obtain
an open set V
C whereas Vi n _ 0
COROLLARY. r" " " 01".,, 1 "P"Ct. X, .!.."'" di.f}<Ji,,' sets F
neighbourhoodt VI' such that VI n VI - 0.
Gcnen.l ly , _ 1" " " l he nor mali ly of ub$pa<:. does nOI tono.... f, om th< nonnll1i ly o r lb<
space . l-ktwc".". , it ...y subspa,ce in . OOfmal space X i' llOmI:li tb<n X ii said 10 b. h. rallt";
Iy notm.! . llIe condl lioru tOI her editary nOt lllll.l llYare &lyen by lh. fD!10,,",1I theorem .
'Tll EOReM 1 lURTSON) A is ".."""" V alid onl)' if Q"J' ' '''0 of Its u ptJro!rd
W. dOno, prQ\'C (his lheot<m llese.
A ", j ( A ' ) C/(V' ) C j d ;;' ) C j ( U' ) = U,
The itnaie Dt a normal lp a<;t,; uNkr a <;ont\nuoUl m ppin a il neu an\y nor -
mal. The exampl e is the Idenllly mappina of the sUll.ill,ht line R I endowed
wilh the usual topolollY int o the IIaJl\t lI .aigbt line ....i! h some non HauWorf f
lOPOlolJ)', for example, tri Yial . However , there ms.l surt1cient test s for the image of
normal space to normal. For example. th e following statement is vabd.
TllEORM2. LeI X nQmlo/!!poce ondJ : X - YQ oollli nuoU!lclo!!uJ!!urject ;ve
IIli2ppin, . Then ,he!!pilCe Y is ow norl1llll.
PlOOF. lei a nonnal space, ACYl. closed subset , and rl(A) .. A ' . Th en
theset A ' is clORd due t o the oontlnullYof f. Let Ube a neighbourh ood of A in Y.
Then the set r 1(U) .. U' b open (due to the. continui t y of n and contains A '
Therefor e, U' is a neighbourhood of A ' , and by minor Uryson lemma, there ex-
isu a neighbourh ood V' of th e .set A ' IIUl:h that Y' C U .
We t hul obtaln the inclusion relations: A' C y ' C V c U. A closed surjec-
tive is ope n. Th erefon:,j{V') il open, J(V') il closed . and we have the
' dations:
hence, the nocmalit y of Y follo ws easily. ' .
2. Functional Separability, The Uryson Theorems on Extend-
ing Numerical Functions. The separation C!f sets was clefi ned above in
temu of 'neighbourhoods' . trrvscn Introduced another notion 01 separation, or
wbat is l:lI1lal funct ional sepa,rablUty. It i5 quite a convenient concept for stu dying
f1 Dfma! spaCC' .
PEFIN1TI ON. Two sets A, B in a topol ogical $paoc X ar e aid to be j unclirmQlly
!/tptIrobie ilthere exi&ts a ccntlnuous nume ril:ll1 funct ion v> : X - R I such that
",,(.K) = (011XE A
I if x e S
and 0 I( ",,{x) " I at an points of X (Fi g. SJ).
Tlor d ose , el;r.tionships between the t wo concepts of separation are shown up by
e e 1'00l<I",ing ..irnple Lemma.
LEMMA . If lWOSI t!! A IUId B orr j uncl ioflolly n paroble in 0 top ologi cal spoce then
the, hun disjoill r neighbourhoods.
The proof u left t o tlte reader.
Thus, the funet;oRal sepuabiiity of any pair of closed di sjoint sets of a T1spa,tt
lntpi ies its normality . II is Intcra ting tltat thc coeverse sta t ement is also t rue !
MAJOR URYSON LEMMA. For ony IWo cloud, disjoint sets of" nQrm,,' X,
Ihert tJilsls 0 contlnuows f uncrkHl v> : X - R t such thot v> IA - 0, '" 1
I ond
0"I" (x) " Ifor ony x ex.
Pl!.OOF. 1...cI A and B b.e two arbitrary closed sets in X , A n B .. 0. We assc ctet e
uc;h rati onal number of t he fonn r .. k l 2
, wher e k .. 0, I , ... . 2", with an
open set G (r ) so that the following pl opert.ia are fuUmed:
In<rod UClion <0 TOpOlol)'



(1) A C C(O}, x -, 8 .. 0 (1);

The proof or tbe existe nce orweh . filmiJy of ope n sets will be performe d by indu c-
tion on the index n. Let n '" O. Since X is normal. Ihl:1' c exlJl disjoint
neigh bourhoods U(A ) , U(R) of t he KIS A and B. Put 0 (0)., U(A ),
G( I) .. x ,aand IlSSUInC that su ch a famil y of sets O(r) II const ructed roe an In
dex " - l. We will now const ruct it for t he indu n . Since 2m11!' = m12" - '. il
sufrlCeS to COlISlNet G(r) t orr '" kn !' for an odd Il.
Lei k = 2m + I, then (k + 1)/2" = (m + 1)12" - !, (k _ 1)12" _ m l2" - I,
and by the inductive hypoth esill , _ already have the inclusion
O k 1)/2") C G({k + 1)12") . 11 is evident that the sell Dk. - 1)12") iUlci
X , Gk + 1)12") are closed and di sjoint. The normality ofXmeans thai there ell-
isLs a neighbourhood Vot the SCi Gk _ 1)12"),which does not in!eISei:1a certain
neighbourhood of the set X ' Gk + 1)12"). Put V .. G (kl2/1). It is clear that
G{(k - 1)12") C and O( k / 2") C G(k +
Th e indlKt ion argument is complete.
We C:Xfcnd Ihe domai n of Ute sc15G(r) . PIli
G(r) '"' [0l( r < O.
X ifr>1.
No..... we spcc:ify the fun ctl on '" as follOWS: .. .. O. X {; G(O) and .. (x) -
su p (r : .:r e.,)(' G(f). We have to $how the cont!nu;tyof J". To this end. we con-
stru ct a neighb OUl'hood for each po int XoE X IUId each N > O. such thaI
- .. (xl I < 112"' , x I;' Le t r
(of the ronn be such Ihat
,,(-'Ol < r
< + 112"' + 1. ( I)
Pu tUN(x# = G(rol 'G(r
I I2
). - Then xoEUN(xol s mee "c > and
- 1/2 .. I < x CU,,/.xol lhen XI;' G(rr). Therefore .. " r
' Fur-
x EX' G(r
e x , G(ro - 1/ 2"' ),
Ch 2. Topology
therefore , o - 1I:r' .. <p(x) .
'0 - In!' .. ",,(xl .. ' 0'
By comparing (l) and (2), we obt a m
1""(xG! - ",, (x) 1 < InN, x f; U" f.rG!,
which means that 'I' is cont inuous.
It is clear from lhe method of that ""I.. . O. '1'1B I and
o " ",,(xl " I. The funf;lion Ihat we have just constructed Is also caned the Uryson
/ undion.
To apply Ihis rescn, consider me extenslon of a bounded fUnc1ion from a closed
IUbset of a normal space to the whole splice. NOle first Ihat the major Uryson rem-
ma is equivalent t o the statement t hat ther e ellisu II continuous Iuncuon b(x)
that satisfies the foUOwinll .
v> 01", - o'v>a. O'S - b , o .. b . )CEX.
where 0, b (0 < b) are arb it rary real numbers. In fael , lf ..(x) is the Uryson func-
tion th en me functi on V'a, b(xl .. (b - a)",(x) + 0 Is the one required .
THEOREM' (l'lETZE.URYSON).Fora/lY mtrllnuov.r!uncr;on'" : A _ R I
thfi1/td 01/ aclasJ .rub#t A % normal spoaX , there existsacontlnuous/UIIICl ion
t :X- Rl suchthot4> I", . ",and 1.(.%)1 "" 1", (%)1
....OOF. We $hall const ruct the functi on'" u the limit of a certai n sequence of Iunc-
ucns. Put ...
= "" and
It is clear that t he seu A
ar e closed and di. joinl. By the major Uryson lemma.
there exists a conlinuous (un ction ' 0 ; X - R I such that Igo(.%)1 " and
t (.%) = (-1' 01' if xa AOo
o 001' if )C 6 8 0-
Now. we define the funct ion "'I on A by the equality ""1 = "'0 - 8"0' Th e fun ct ion
"' I is therefor e continuous anda
.. 1'1'11 "-i ao' Similarly, by introducing
Introduction . " TOPOlDi)'
J< e B.
"" I<l lonthe scI A.
Thus, we are const ructing a sequeflc e o f f\lncli onsl"o = 1". 'PI_ ... ,'P" . . ,
mat au on A, and a sequence of functIons 80- 01'1 ' . , ' n- . .. . IhN
arc continuous on X such that
"'" ... I '" 1".. - I ". '" anI). a" .. I ""i D".
where a" _ 1\10.. ",)1, n '" 0, 1,2, .. Hen ce,

The IaUer ineq\llllil)' means that the series E oonvCTlles llbso)utely and
uni fonnly 10 . contin uous functi on In X . HavinS dmoleQ i15 SUm by 4> (K), we ob
tain an estimate
Let x EA, then the partial sum S,,(x) _ t V;") oj- + 1,,(4 by the method of
ccnsuuctlcn 01 the funct ions 'l'n .. I (x) wilYequal \Po(x ) - ",.. (x). and ",..(x) - O.
ThacfoTe, 4>(x) = "'o(x) = "" <x) for any x e A .
The Tictu-Uryson theoremcan be generalized for a mapping dlhe spaceX INa
all n-dimc:nsionaJ cube.
COROLLARV. A nyconlmuOW mQpp;ng" ; A - r of " A ojanor-
mQt X 1,, /0 On n-dimens;o"'" culn I" CQn fH extended /0 Q continuo14 nwp-
pingt cx -: r.
Prove the corollary.
Hint : Usc syUom in R" and apply <he th<:'().<= to the componmts
or _ win, '1>.
And no w the followin. importut fact can be proved.
THEOREM 4. A SPQCf: i$ "ormlli.
THE PROOf of this theorem is left to the reader
CII. 2. Qn<"flll TOPQlogy
I. The Notion of Compact Space. We tu m now 10 the st udy of II quile
import ant ctus of lopol ogical spaces that arc charaererlzed by t he propc:niu of
their open coverings. Thes.epropenies are an abstract (and convenient ) anlllogue Of
the j)foperry of compa ct ness of a closed segment or an n..(limenlio nal cube (or baD)
known f rom anal ysis. Compact spaces and their mappings am.: in many branches
of mathematics.
We shal l first discuss some of the ideas rdated to the coverings o f topoJogicai
spaces. Let If c tAl be some sySlCJll of subsets A of a set X. The uni on of all A fro m
a will be denoted by if and called the a-'ie/d.
We shall now exten d the idea of a covering men tioned in Sec. I and givm aft er
the definitio n of a bate for a topology.
DEFINITION I . A. famil y If is called II col/tri", 0/ Q sub$pIJce Y of II. to pological
In panicuJar, "is a OOVer1naQf the space X if a "" x, which agrees with the no,
lion of coyerir!tt used earlier in Sec. l ,
DEFiNITION 2. A covering <7 is said to be a rej"'mtmtnt of a 11 (I> >Il ') if
each ekment of If is contai ned in some dement of the syst em ,, ' . The refinement
rclatkm introduces II panial orderi ng OD t he set. Qf aJI covetinp of the "PAce.
Coverings consisti", of II finit e (or count able) number of d ements are said to be
jinlle (or fX}unrllblej, respectively.
DEFINITtON 3. A coverl ng a of a space X is said to be /OCtllly j/n;te if each point
X l! X posseS$C$ a neighbourhood which intersec ts with only a finite numbe r of
elements of C/. Coverin&S consisti", of open SCls arePilMlcUlarly important and sai d
to be ope".
There Me many Important pr operties of spaces which are related 10 the
properties of open coverings. Hence. the follo wing classes of spaces are singled OUI.
DEFtNITtON 4. A. Hausdorff topologicaJ space X is said 10 be (A I) comPQCt . {A
j/ruI(ly ComfHJCl, if an open coveri ng:that is (lll) fini te, (ail coun-
table. and (Q.J,IIoeaUy finit e. respectively. can be made a refinement of any of the
open coveri ngs of the apace .
Extrci.fe I" . Veri fy that we will obtain an equivalen t definiti on of CA l) and (Ail if
we require that a coverin g of (a
) or respectively, could be selected from
any open coveri ng of the: space.
h i. impO{tant {hat the properl iC$ A I> ; "" I , 2, 3. of a topologi cal spaDC arc in-
herited by each of its d os! subsets considered as 11 M1bspal:e (pr ove it by yOW"seln) .
J, Let X - [a, bl C R I be a space endowed with the topoJogy induced by that from
RI. The space X is compact. since, by the Heine-Bore l theorem , a finitesubcovering
can be picted from any covering of X with int ervals .
2. Let X .. R I; t his is an Cllampl e of a non compaet space, the reaso n bei ng t hat a
Int rod uo;1ion 10Topolo$y
fmit" cover ins cannQl. be picked from the covering I(- n, ,,)::' T I" (However ,
counta ble subcov ering can be chosen from any open covering of R . 'rnerercre RI is
finally compact . Pr ove it.)
Similar reasoning dtmOnSlrates t hat the space R
is also non-ccmpacr , ncr
arc any of il.$ unbound ed subset s. Hence , it follows. in part icular , t hai the require-
ment for a co mpact subset in R" to be bounded is a nessaty condition .
3. The spa X = R' is paracompaCl . In fact, lei tv ,,) be an open rover;"" of R
TbenR' '" U ln ,n + I] . Each line-segment (n , n + I ] is 'a litt l,,' c:<tcndcd to
t he in lCl"'a1 (n - c, "+ I + e). COnsi der the coYeri ng {U" n (II - I,
n + I + c)J of lhc liroc--scamcnt ln, n + I] . A finite covering VOl . , "1
slna.led OUI of it. The union of such coverings (for an n) pl"odw;c:s a loI.:ail'y finite
eoveri.n& of R I wh ich il a refinement of tu,,}.
If Y C X IJI a subspaa: of . Ha usdorff spece Xthen by consideri ng covcrings of
!he spaa Y whidl an open in Ihe hercdiullY topology fro m X , we obtain, from
DefInition 4, lhe concept of compact , rUUll ly and pl.rU(:ompact subspace
(a compacl , fi nally compact a,nd parac:ompact sci Y in Ow: space X is al so often
spokm about). We could, in an cquivBlenl manner, ooll$.ldcr Ihe covcri np of the
Ywbicharc opm tn X . II is u.scful to note, morecver, that a clo5Cd set Y C X
lnherIu the properties AJo I .. I, 2.3, from the seece X . In fact. 10 any open COVCJ-
ing (I .. IV.J of t he space Y, wheee Y" ... Y n U" , and U" is open In X, Ihen: cor-
responds en open covering O"w = [U". U. = X , l1 cfth" spaoeX
Now. we pk.k
a refinement; > (I. (of " r type) of the &pace X. 11 is easy 10 reduce lhe covering i
whk:h we: obWn to the COVcrinll i )' of Ihe JUb$paet Y by the ell:TDeDh of
i wilh Yand dillCal"dina thes e dements which are contained In Yw' i l is ob vious thu.l
if)' > .. .
ibe followin,s theorem is oftm used in anBlysis.
THEOREM I . A IU' inj/nllr n t Z C X of(I compact spoce X htu Dlimit point in X.
PROOF. Auwne:. on Ilw: contraty, that Z .. 12l. Then i .. Z. Therefcre, Z is cJoso:l
Md, conscqumt ly, compact . On the oth er hand. each point z e Z is isolated in X.
This implies Ihat lhere e/lists an OpeD neighbourh ood Oed In X such Iha!
O(J:) n Z = z. Neish hou rhoods U(z) = 0 (:) n Z that arc open In Z fonn an in-
finite covering of the space Z from whkh a finite wbcovering cancor be selected,
and 50 we arriv e at a cootr adiccion [0 the usumpt:ion that Z is compact .
ibe cone"pt of compactness is intimate ly relat ed to rhe cono;cpr of eloscdness.
This Is demolUtratcd by the following statemem.
THEOREM 2. Jf x 11 a compoa of a Housdorf f SjX1 Y. Ihtn X is closed.
PROOF. Let Y E X. Por any point x e X , since Y is there arc open
neighbourhoods U.. (y), u,1'(.1") of the po;nrs Y. x such uree U.. (y ) n UJ'(.1") .. 0 .
The family l U... (.-nx forms a covering of X . Because X is compact , there Is

finite sub<:overi ns !U... t-"/)t,' .. I' It i. cas)' to see thar t he selS U(X) .. U U... ,,"r)
,. - I
01.2. a-.:n l TopoIasy

and n V..,(Y) _ V (y ) ar e open ilIld di$joint. Thus, hllve shown that a com-
, . ,
paC\ set X and a point not In il can be s.eplnlted in a Hausdor ff space by t he disj oint
JW. hbourhOOds V(X) and V()'). it foUowl th ai th.t: compk:menl Y,Xil
open, and tberefort X ill do5ed .
Exna. 2- . Prove that a coO>p.Kt Ipa<;:e is rqular.
DEf'1!'lm m .. , . A l)'S'tem1M,.!of subscU of . $pace X is said 10 be crrItrwl if any of
IU rllli te SIoIb$ystanl pc>sscsid noncrnpty intc:nedion.
A dual of th e dcnnltioo of. lXlfnlMlet lpal;C Ist he foUowln. theorem.
THEOREM3. A Hausdorff spote X is tontpGCl if andonly if alty of
its closed SV_ IS<I - lM..l It ,,0II'11lfJ(:t m(t!'WCtlo".
PJ.00f". Let 0" '" 1M) be llD arbitrary CCIItred syuem of dosed svbseU of the lpaCe X,
and 111 X be compact . ' We show th at n M .. 0 . Amune the WftttatY,
. 0.
n M '" 0 . Tbcn V (X' M) - X, I.e., the system IX' MI
is an open
.... ....
Therefore U (X,M.t) - X and, coNcqumtl)' , n M. _ 0 , ...hid! is con-
I . I I I
trary to the assumption Ihal Ih.t: I}'Stml " b ocntftd.
Let the inu n1lon n M be nonempl )' for an )' omcred sylt cm " = (M] of
:Ioscd IUbxu. Let IV..I be an arbi trary open covcrln. of Jl . Then the 1)'lItem
[X, V,.! Iw the: empty intet5don and, by the: US\lCllpI>on, ill not centred .
Th US,me sub$yncm IX'U.D . I the empty inlcnection Coc iOftle a t. 01'
... ,a,_whence IV..,: I iI ar lll.ilc w boavaill&of t he covcri n. [U. ). Theref ore,
the sp*oc X is compact.
wi:. nowcon.ndCl" !be ptopen.)' of II is iltllftStina: I/) exa.mim
the rdation o f paracompaclnc:u: 10 me other propeniCi of \ opo!oPcal lJlacel. Cotl
sider the l o-QI led loca!ty compact spaocs.
DEFJNmON 6. A space X is said 10 be r::olPlpDCt if it b Hauadarrr and eaUi
point %. X neilhbouT1tood U(.t} whose dO$Wc is eomPKI .
OIIe example of a Iocalty compaa spaoc is lbe space R"; anOlhcr II I WOo
dUneruioMl mani fold (Icc Sec. " , ClI . II).
THEOREM". U It top%fial/ spoct! X g 10NJJyr::olPlP' th,,, i t is
"'-OOf . Let fI e X be an point, and F c x closed Itt not contalnins the
point fl . 1'1Ien X , Fil open, and. Q E X ' F. Because thc spece X isloo;ally compact ,
Imr od ucll on 10 Top<ll OSY
there is an open neighbouThood V(a)such that V{Q) i$ and V(ll) C X , F.
Therefore, V(4j n F ... 0 , and for x e F, (hert' exists an open
neighbourhood UW which i$ with V(a' (Re the ploof of Theorem 2, vi.!.,
the passage about the 'seceauon' of a compact set lUll! a point In I Hausdorff
space). PUI U(F) " V U(x), then V(o) n U(P) .. 0 .
The parucompact $pa<,;co f Example) is . special casc of the Sp;lCU by
the (oUawing theorem.
THEOREM S. Let X a loeafl)! co"'f)(ld (md X .. U C
where e" is (I
compacr set , Ihrm X IspofocomJ)Qd.
?ROOF. We rcprr:sc:nt Xfil11as a counlable union of nested Open sets whose cjcsures
arc cornpllCt. We shaDconstrnc! these: set s by induction. First of aU, we set Un _ I2l
when n " O. We W UIT\(! the ntlghboumooll of the set C
whose closure is compact
to be VI> Now that the 5et_U" is COII$lrueted. we ta ke a neighbourhood with a com-
closure of me set Un U e n -+ 1 and ceu it Un ... \ " The existence of such
De,ghbourhood.s is st ipulated by the local c:ompaetnes.s of the space X.
_ Now , lei [V,,1. .Mbe an arbimuy open_covering of X . Denote the compact set
U"'. U" _ 1 by D
The open set U" I'. U" _ 2 isthus a neighbourh ood of the set
D", and the family of sets
(Y" n (U" + 1 '. D" _ illHM = lw:J....
fonns an open eoverin& of the set D". We sel ect one of its finite subcQyering.l
I w:. t:.. I' Having pc1"formed the dC:5cribcd procedure fo r all n, we obta in a cou nt-
able ooveri na U [{w:.,,".. 11 (of th e whole space X) which is a refinement of
.. ,
the oovuinlll V"J.. ur
We now show lhat lhi s coyerlngis locally finit e. Let x be an arb it rary point from
min [1l :xe:U"!.SincexEU,, _l' thcre exisls a ncillhbourllood O(x)
of x lyinll in U" such thai O(x) n V". _ t= 0' . ConseqUC1ltly, O(xl can on ly in-
tersel;\ 111<: sets where I 'Iii m " no - 2 " k " 110 + I . By tlte met hod of
ronslT\lction, t he number of such K!s IS finite .
C'OROLl.AJIY. 1/Q /OCXlfly conlpQU X PQSSdSeS a coull/ab/II! bose rllll!n it iJ
In fact.)f a space is locally compact tlten it possesses a base (UC) of open sets
such thai ue is compact. By choosina from the cou nta ble base those sets of whicb
vcoonlislS, W! obtain a countable base Ivf);"_ Iluch that Yfis for an y i,
Then X "" U Yf, and its paracompao:tnes s foUows from Theorem 4.
We now investigate lhe rdatioD.lhip between the COncepti of eompaetnw and
TH1;lOREM 6. A COmpgc1 X is Ilorrml / .
nooF. Font est abUsh thai X ii rqular. Let II C Xbc. d OHd sublCl. xe X , A .
SiIlc:e X ii Hal,l$dorif, f or any:y e A, lhen a m t br; naghbou rhoods U...(1 ) . U,(x) or
the poiJlU Y. x such that U... (y} n U,(x) .. 0. The system rU... fOlmS
covering of II; since A is compact, il. finllc wbcoverilla " '" lU,,(.v/ll:". l
can be singled 0 1,11. UJI(y/) is [!\dude<! in the closed set

X ' U, (.l'), U..(Y/ ) c x ,u, (.l') C X' il'J. We.rllld , hat U U... (y/ ) C X , !rI.
I I , . I
Bill: V0... 0'/) ill closed, lhcltforlt. x '\. U U... l1/) .. UIt (xl is an open
I . I ,
ncigtlbourhood of the poi nt x , The union U V.,(Yt) .. V..(.A ) Is It l'l open
,. ,
of lhc SCI A in X . It is eviden t that V.,(A) n UA(x) ... 0 . IJId the
reaularity of X ha.1l hus heetl proved..
We now ha ve t o pr ove lb . X is norma). Lei SCl5A and 8 be closed in X nd A
n B = 0 . Then f or any point x e X. then. a i$l.$ an open nti&hbourhoocl U(x)
ror which al 1ea5t one of the rdaliol'l$ U(;r;) n A = 0 . U(x) n B - 0 is true
because X is reruJar. Conslda t he coverin&fU(x}}u x of 1M JPaee X ,..jIll nJdl
ndahboutlloods &ltd a f rom ie. For each U..,.al. kasI
onc d lbe rd ations V
/ n A ... 0 , U.
n S " il fulfilled. LeI U ' - VU., be
the uni on of those $ell for whieh U" 0 A _ 0 , and I lmilarly, V ' .. UU" ,
, '
ii O S _
l'C'pectinly, and are wljoint. Thus. !be normalit y of X !w also beenproved. Gl
1. Mappings of Compact Spaces. We st lldy .some Important proper-
ties of lXIntillUOUJ ma.ppinp of ODmJ)KI
THEOREM 1. LeI X . Y M topolo,bJI spU, X mmpoct. Y HrTIlSdOf'/J. tmd
I : X - Y tI conIinUOII.rtM,Ppilll 71fti' the is tl comp<ll:t su/MPfXt i1f Y.
PROOF. Coruldrr an arll illVy open covtrina !V.JOrt he spate Z .. f{X) , It is ob-
vious !hlt/ : X - Z Isalso tml tlnuolU, ther efore, (II (V,,)J Isan open eoveri n, of
X. We select a neue com"in, (l1{V.)ll". I which oists due (0 the of
X. Then lV.)/". I is a finite oJ)tll eovcriDg o( Z.
Extrdsr 3- . Show (hal IIdosa:I surfaee (we Sec. 4. 0.. JJ) ila eompaet
A nrontU 1ta1emCDt is Pvmby tbe foUo",;", theorem.
THEOREM &. k t I : X - Y H tI COIIlinUOtU mtJPJJi1t6 , tI/fd Y
Hllusdoiff. TM" I it tI dORd mtlPPi"I.
PAOOP, Refflffllber t hat any dosed ",bset of a compact space Is eOIDpMt . LeI
M C X be art arblt!1U')' closed (ll1Id t herefore compl et) subset in X. From
Theorem " lhe see J(M) is <;Ofllpaet in Y aM Is therd ore cklKd due t o
llteorem 2.
We dczh'e an impofta.D.t test oi a b.omcomol'J)himl .
THEOREM 9. LAr tlu /}VK1us lMotrnt brfillf"kd,fIIId1Mmttppbv/ bijtiw, tllCl
l is ..
"'OOF. COnsider lM invcnc mappin.r' Y - X. Show thai it Is contiDlJOIl/J. Let
A C X be aD arbitruy dosed subset . Since / b closed mappinc.
/(,01) _ is c\o,cd In Y, which Implies t he continuity of the
ll\appinar I
MJuly examp!et of compllCtspaces an . when rotUt ruttlna ' adeN" SPica.
EX..UlPU!4. LetXbe I Hausdorff (1(:1or space of fOlJK" romp=! space Y. Th dl X is
cornp" et sinceIt Is. continuous lmaae (.,.,;th respect lO lhe projection) of . cornpw
Colbida". coatinl,lO!lS nwnroe- ' fllll(tiOAj : X - R l on tompllCt lJ*% X.
Tbe toUowtn, Wrimlrus tbcoran wbicb plil" an imponatll part in maxheru.tial
lNIIysls is valld for it.
THEOREM 10. A ll' lXNllUIlHltlZ fimctioflJ : X - R' on .. SINI" X is
boundl fUId (lttGbu ib muinnlm (lind minimum)
vieIrf of Theorem 1, is tOmpael . By Theorem 2, any c<lmpad
IUbspacle in R1.Is d osed . It tw a1rndy been IlIClIti oDfd that lD'J compact
in R- ls bouDdod. 11Jerd orc,/(}{J is bounded and closed. 11 b the boundlncu of
JOO that illloplies me bouDdcdnc:u of the funolonJ. Slnc:e. dOKd Kl eonlalns
of itI; limit polDb. I(X) e/(X}, and e/(X). This COPlpletm tbe
proof of (be m-em. _
3. Products of Compact Spaces . lIl lhis .mion,tbe foUQ,rinllmport ant
theoran will be prowd.
THl!OIlM II (fIHONOV). n. ' opol"6kGl swodlM:t x - .. of
[X.J. eM gl eontpQCt 8pQCU i1 compoct.
PkOOP. The cmpact nC$l crlialon which we II\alI use is tha1ILDY centr ed system of
dosed SlIme" bas nonemply iDlcncctiotl . Let ... 110 be an arbittary eat tred
system of doit4 SlIbsds in X. In the set of rJI sud! $}'SlemS, <:OrtSider the partial
Ofderiq rdatioDdetermined by the: illdusIosl rd.tioIIlI >Ill ' if any SCI from Ill ' is
sub$d of Ill " Let Gbc thUd of an syslans llsuc:hthai III > 110- Ills dear that any
scrietly Okred IUhsct from 0 hal muimIl dement (the UIlion) . Thea by ZOro' s
ierruq. ther e Is IIIUiJnaI cc:ntnd I)'Stan ; in G, Le., a sysurn sudt Ihl&! for any
system III EG, dthu i > or;; aDd III lite iAcompanhle.
Lct . .. l.N"'l . It Iscay 10"n..... thai any (Illile inlu $etlioo of demenu (rom ;
belonp to 'ii, and also thai any dosed set M wllicll intersects with aJlYN' belongs
t o 'ii. (Veri fy this propenyl) O early, If it; 5 shown t hll;; pGUesK3 a l'lOfttmply in-
tersecrsoe, t.e.. n ,.,. .. 0, thm the proof will be We denOle the
",. . ;
project.iOB ce the X. by ... . ; X - X. ' For a CU1ain a , s)'ll cm
f-.(N'}}; - IN' J - ... i!,.cen tred (th e COftSlitwnt sets neednot be: do$ed) In X. '
and tlia'efore the S)'IIcm fNl11s Wo(:t:lltr od. By takiDI mi n aoeount that X. is<:om-
01. 2. Genual Topoloty
pad: . there Qisu .n dement Jt.. III X.. such thai for any of it.l neij:bbowhoocls
V.. "" V(x",), the inlerKCtion V.. n NT., .. 0 for any H:, E 'Oe- Consider now an
element Jt ... lA"J E X . of iu neighbourhoods U _ U(Jt) contains tbe clOSllrc
of a elementary adahbourtlood of t he fonn
( V x V x .. . x V x D X ) _ V
"' I "' J 1" " '.'. 1' .
_hid'! is in turn the intcnectioD of. (mite nu mber o( Ddabbourboocls oftbc. fonn
x n X
) .. Y. C X. lt iscleat W I Y. interxcts all the SCU N' '';;. sin
.... .."' / ' /
V"'; n N:.; 0 fOT au., . Consequently, if"",, ; and thenfore
V. ,.. ...... ... ;.. if..; E;;.
,. ,
Hentt, the nci&bbourlloocl U :::> U(x) interxas aDN' E ; . Since V is u1)iltary, we
dcduce t hl tJt t' n N'(lnd therdore JtE n NY)
N> ,."
are some exampla which how the eompattneu of .spaoc an
quickly WdetC'r'llliaed by lbe. Tibonov theorem.
EXA. _ .....
'I . Tbe projedive space RP" is ic is the fad-or SpKC of th e sphere
I . Th e k nl lpllOl' StIt Z, ill compllCl for the WI'C re8$OIl
4. Compactness in Metric Spaces. Compacl melric $pl=.t arc oft en cal led
comptJdll, and COmpi ct wbspaca an: calledCOmpact.1s of II splIU.
The prope:rty or COrtlpKtfloCSS in I metric space can be tllprelkd. in tenns of con
DeFlNITJON7, A set X ohrncttic:space M is said to be # qVDIlillJlycomptICI if Ifty
sequeooe of lu demcnu contains I subsequwoe which is conVCfl<:nt in M.
niEOJlM 12. A # r X oj If runic.spoa: M UWmf1llC' If If/'ld o" b' 1/11is lind
x quenrillfly JmpI.
5. The cube r ,10. I ) )( (0. I) x . , x 10. Il b . toIDpacl. space &iDee it u tb e

pnxIUd of n liDe-ses:ments.
6. Th e boundedne u and of . set in R" are cquJvalml to ItI co mpaet nm.
in (act , such. set In R" <:an be included in I clo$ed pualldepipcd (lit. b,1 )( (111'
6i1 x , .. X jll 6J, whose compae:tDeSl can be esUlblisbed u in &ample 5.
We have !bus proved that t he conditioa i:t suflJdent . n i l the: condition for
dosednas is __ (IrOYtd in cee of the theofems in ibis KdlOO.aad that
the oondllion for boun<kdnes:s il n:euaJ)' wu DOted in Example 2.
4", srcve Ibal t he S b compact.
5 , Verity that t he n-dimensionaltorul T" _ .S I )( S I )( . . . )( Is compact .
Intr odu ction to TopolOlY
Let Xbe sequentially compact and closed . Then for lilly e > O. t here cxisu
flnhe set of points A. _ (xi] sueb that balls D.(xt) witb eentru in)tlc and radius l!
cover X . In fact, otherwiSl:. for $01De t o' mer e arc points x!' x, . . .In' ... in X
IUch tlull p(lr". +.P) <;it tlo for all n, p. The availa bility or such a sequence is co n-
trary to the seqaentlal eompacmess of X. Thus. finite t-l'lCUellisl for any t > O.
Now, let (U] be ilIl arbitrary CQvering of X. Assuminglhat a finite subcovcring can-
nol be slJJalcd OUI of il we fin.!! thai in Itle flnll e f l-net A the re is an Clen'lml x
such that the closed sct X n D. , \Xt ) = X l cannot be with any finite sub-
system from Ill). It Is cuy 10 sec that the 3d Xl is closed and $eque ntially ,
and tnat its dhuneter is not gI"UIlcr than Ztt" Ap plying t he same rcll50ning to X,. we
can COI1lIlnll:t a scI Xl C X I with the same properties IIJld a diameter nOI s reat er
than < 2e

Thus, having taken lnlO8,crQunt the seq uence en - 0, we ca n construct a system

IX,,) of c1osed,sequentially cO",p8ct leU X
-+ I C X
whose diamclers lend to zero .
howthat n Xk:f:. 0 .

We infer flOm this t hat there exists a pointxoc:! n Since fUJ is a eoveri ng,
"oe V" for one of Its elemen" V" ' and because VI> is open, t here existl e > 0 such
that C VI>. By taking II suffi ciently large for !.he diameter of X
to be: less
than e, we obtain the incl usion n:latiOIlS C Ds(;tc) C U and arrive at a con-
tradiction wi!.h the: assumption that X" is un.:overable with a finite number of
dements from fUJ.
Oosedness and sequeDtial follow from the closedness of a compact
set (see Theorem 2) and existencc of a limil poi nt for any infinite sequence (see
1). iii
We jeave the proo f of t he following useful statement 10 the: reader .
THeoREM 13 (ON THE LEBESGUE NUMBER). Let X be and lu] all Dr-
bit raty 0fNII coverins of X . nllm thert:easts a real mUnbef > O:ruell thaI flny
In X ofdiameter less than.l lies wholly in a t:erlo;n elemelll of tile ro veing 1U] .
berci# 7 Let. metnc space X be: compaet,and / : X - Ya eontinuous mapping.
tbat for any eoveriol V '" IV.l of the space Y. there exbls a Lebesgue
number ... 6(U) such that for any . ubset A in X , of diameter Ie: than image
/(A ) is whoUy contained in some element of !.he <:overtng U.
One of the most in malhemat ical analys is concerns the com-
pattnas of sets in function spaces. There are rnMYspecial criteria of eompactneu
in concrete spaces . One such criterion for the space C
II which is widely used In
mathemalical analys;" is given by the Auelt theorem 461.
llle sel A . 1$Q.lled of X.
I . Compactifications. The propnty of eompaet llCSS pr oves to be: qu ile usdul
and conyenient in man, qUe$tions. For Itlil reon. il is nl tural to al.len>pt 10 find a
constructi on ..1Jic:h would enable us \0 eoftl.truet, for a liv-en IIOncompaa a
eompact Io(laUconlainin'lhc given one and to t he rdat ionshlps betwun
the lopologicli, the properties of functioN on these spaca, ere.
DEFINlTION 1. A COrrlJ}U</ijicQlion or I. lopoJoaicai SPice x is an y compact space
ex containing X lIS an everywhere de'fl K sutnpa.
COnsider I. ooJnPl.C'lf1ealion whidl ls' UJI qui te often, I.e .. the A1exandr o>'
paill! t:tmIptJdifKVlioII.
DE1'L....m O'" 2. It. l;OP'ipactilical.l on ex a Clhe formex - x U E,where fbI. poi nt
not isolalcd irI ex, is c.ueda OM-point crHrIPtijlCfl/ion X' 01 IK space X .
THeOREM I (Al.l!XA!'<l DROV). For tI $pOCIr X . uists "one-poillt c:omp'1jJaI.
liMr <: XU t 1Mtopolou o/ Jr
tomridts ...." 1M fOpokJU 0/ X os in X ' lind the I(}pOioU on X ' i.r
14f1iquriy delYnliM(/ by lopoJoU 0/ X .
PROOF. Let X = X U be I. cornpaalfkation of X . We show that X it loeaDy
In fact , ] 1 is evident t hat X Is o pen in X , tbudore each poiDt X" X
neipbou rhood U(,;I;) in the topol ogy X ' IlUCh that U(x} C X. ) {owever,
U(x) is a closed .set in X' and therdore compact In X' and X . Th e local eotnpaet-
ness of X nas tbus been prDvtcl. Note alsothat my open set 10 X ' c:onUlinin. a polol .
t is of t he fonn f U a where a Is open in x. However, the cl O$ed set
X' ' (f U G) = X ' O ir. compaa beca\IIIC X' is
Conver""')', Ic:t X be loa.1Iy compact . Let us describe a topology on X ' which
Alisrla the rcquircmentl of the theorem. We wi1I consider".sets U wtUeh....., open
in X and also of the formf U G, wberc:G b an opeo $Ctin Xsud\ that X 'G
is compaa, 10 be opm in X ' = XU f . (The ICUG alst dllC to tile Iol:aIl:OII'lpac1'
DC$$ of X ; it sufrJCd 10 we the complenw u up t o a mrn pact closure of. certain
1- . VeriI\' thai the fanut)' of ICUdescribed fornu a t0Sl01oIY on X' .
We ha ve to mDW that the space X' b co mpact ..nt h respect 10 the topalOJ)' de-
IICribtclabove. Fir51 , we veri fy tha t X ' Is Hausdorff. Th e KparatroDcss of an y t WO
poin l.s from X fo Uows from X beina HaUJdorff. We t hen $how that t an d x 6 X
po$SCS:I dlsjoir!t nei.hbou rhoods. Havm. t aken a ne\3hbo ufh ood Ul.!) of the point
x ' \leh t ha, Ufx) i.l; compact in X, and seuin, V(O _ f u V\',U(:c, we have
un v .. 0 . Thus. X is Hausdorff.
Now,let fI co (UJ be an arbi1fary open COVa1DI of X . Then lbete c.ilits an cJe...
ment U... in fI tbat 0l1'InJ the poiDt t and therefore t u a .. U"" when:
x,a - x is compact in X ' . Th e subcovuinl fI ' _ lU.I. ... CO'Hrl the SCt K ,
Since X is compact . a finite subcovcrin, an be attaClCd front :O. We dmotc it by
e" _ Iv.. . . . . , U. J. That the co1lec:lion IU. ' v . . . , . U. I is . rmite ODV",-
irJ.a of the X . 1'hut. the co mpactness of:.f ItlJ been .
A example of a one-point compactirJ.ea!Kxl of the space R
Is the
sphere S" . One of R" onto the punctured S" is, for in
stance, ISlcreogrlpmc projedion.
The Tihoncw lIIcorcm Ji ViiIl below slll&lcs OU1 ql,li te a .noc dass of speces ...hi o;h are
homeomorphic to J\lbse\ of co mpllCl: met ric. space called TIhonov cube. Boef orc we
S\.IIe it, we mu .t Pw. the n>clSU)' ddinitions.
OI:!YlNmON 3. The pr oddet (If wh.... Mis . set of powa r, l" '" I, i.
t:lI!led 11hono" l' of wdaht r .
For IUIy r, the product r is <:OmpKt . Nale that if M is C<I\Ifltalllc, the" r _ r- is lbe
Hilllert cube (by ddinitlon).
DFINrrJON 4. A space X Is Did to be romp/tlely rqulltr if uch o;]OlIed JU"" et and I point
OI.llaldc ;t an fUllcti onally
DEFlNmON.s. The It't!i6ht''(X)<lf a lopoloaital spaa: XlI . minimal Cllfdina.l number wlllch
iJ the of some hase (it briq . Ul) for the topoloo on X.
TlO!OIlP.M2 (llHONOV). An, completely spo X of lO'I!itht T Is 1IomtomotpMc /0 II
.l'IIbl>tr 0/ the 7T1I0JI0" CIlMr.
We now outlillc tlocproof of thll l!IIfem. COnsider 10nlCsct E '* [..J or oontmuoUi
funaions .... : X _ to. I) such that f<lr any Jt <I X and an, 1Ipc:nneilhbeJurl>ood U(x) 0 ' the
pointJt. therc III. funct ion " .. I! t for which ....(x) _ 0. .. IJt , u _ 1. These ' sptlultl. sets
eJ<ift for o;()mp\eldy resular spaces: c.. the Jet 0' all conllnuow"tundions / ; X - [0, IJ. It
hlIpperu thaI in or weilhl r. sud l flUDily of power r Illways ClUstJ.
A hc>meoJn<,rplWm" of the Jpal' CX into . subse:t IIf the I'ih<movcube is delmnined by
as.ociat1ns <'ad> p<llnl Jt with set 0' numben \" (x) _ (I'.. Gt)... Ne lhal. the compactnes s of
;mfollo.... from Ihc condition "OO C r (due 10 the rottlpaaneu of 1' ).
II is ClIJytil seethai llIlY Iptiltilll set IIf fundlolll on X <ktc:rmincs . certain
lilln IIf x. In flo;l. by idenll fyia, X wllh ", I,X}. X illd( a n be coP1ider<:d to be embedckd in
;00In iu c.a.p.aeity II an everywhere dense SIIbset . COnslder!he cue when the . p1illlna family
V.,l Is maximal . I.e. colnc:ide$"';!h tile sci IIf all \IOll11n1l1l1ll flllldlllJU. = V: X - 10. Ill .
Dl!F1NlTION 6. The c:ompactiflC&tilm Jl e<>t=pooWna 10 the maximal family .1.sai d III be
"'4JtinuIl \It 1M SlOM-Cech r:omptlCtlflcal/on of \he spaoc X.
The Stllne-te.:11comp ktifiation pll5JCS5CS ' number IIf useful pr \lPl:TI' a . We list SlIme
of thenl .
THEOIIJ'M ) (STONE.tEcHJ. Eilcll DI t1vft coruJilioMi$ MUWu)' tl"dS>if f rcltf/t
JOt" 1 I I..." C\lmpncI/lktttkm ex10 M homtDmo,pJrk t o rtWJtlfHOf
_ (I) &dI l und/on I : X - [0. IJ Is ext ended 10 Q ",nll" uOl4 l unainn
j, CX _{O. l ].
_(2) EncJt continuous mappinl I , X - B ittto (I compdCt.,_ B Is C()ntlnulJusly ortended
ID I :CX-8.
(3) FOr air)' comptlctl/lo:Jlion C 'X . t llen exlsu a COfIlinlifJU.f mappinl '" ; ex - C'X
ru cll ihal .. l
_ l X'
2. Metrizability of Topological Spaces. We cli5Cll$I here how 10 in -
lI'Oducc a metric 0 0 a topoloaica.l . pace: so that it induces the !alP!: topology.
Topological spaceswhi ch will admit sucha metricare $Bid 10 be mdriZtlblf!. In par.
tlcular. we may speak of the introduction of another metric: on a metric space 50
that It geIlet8tcs the ori&inal topol08Y but is itsel f more convenienl . e.I., such Ihal
the space wllh Ibis metric may be complete. Such metric speces are said to be
01.2. Oene..l TopololY
topol08kQI/y complete. One mmple of. l opolosi elllly comp lete metric space is an
inlerval (Q. b) C R
M - (-1 . I) In P1icuw. Besides the yaDdard metric p(lr,
. _Ix - )'1 in ...hidl fM. p) is not complet e, Wf: C*Il inttodlKe II topolosically
eqwvalocn l meuic
, .(.-r.y) -I."
induonS by t he homeomorphism of an iJlle1V&1and a sltlliVII line (the dhtlllCe be-
twC'l'D the point.Sof the:Interval is cak:ulat cd in tM rmI'ic P. as the:dlstlllCe. in Ihe
usual metric. betWttn thcit images on the strai&M line) . It B I:2SY 10veri fy lhal P. Is
a melric, (,M, p) and (M. P.> are and thai <.M. P.> Is a co mpkte
sptlC.1l:. One mmple of . to poio pcalJy incomplete metric spatC i..I tbe set of
ratioual number , under 1hc; f!"OlR RI
Tbe 11honov pl"odlld. of CO\lIItabIe numbel" or met ric spaces; (M. , Pro) II
Dleuiuble . ln fw . lf.r - (lrxp .. .),y '" 0' 1' )'1' " .) arc: dcmcDts from ii M,
,. ,
then. metriccan be pYUI by 1heformula :
P(lr.y) '" i: ..!.. . p" <.-r,,. y,,)
" . I 2" I + p" (X,,, y.)
urc1M 2. Verify t hat pis . metric and that the topolo,y ind uced by It II
equ ivalent 10 the Tihonov topology . In part icWar. the Hi lbert cube 1"" Ii.e., ccun -
table product of Une-lf'lPIIf'IIts /) is. melriza ble lopoloaJcal apace .
It follow, rr<lm the TIhollOY compac tln car.loll th. <;>rc:mt bt the foll owillll propoa)t ioQ.
ror In5lVICe, II tlve:
THEOlliM . (\I ttVSON). II "l1I1msptJa wilh II W II" ' lIblt bo#" mt/rlvlbit.
TM proor b based on the or 1MfPtIC'l' U>d III COWlubl ebue _urinl tbo: .--
mal lt r. of the lpace."d It=ce Its complete rCf\lllrity.
Al.'cOfdlIlI tOlbe TIhOftOY 11\.eOrcm. ""dla II*" II embeddable ill lIICI. ial:>t.e ""'" r
Mol ill ltxtr llO<\,iuhk. .
To c:oatllllloP, weII1ale A. Stoae'l Lmponulllllcofrm. 'ril tbata Jftdtiulbk rop%fictIJ
T1llI elup'tr .iI. baiaIty. a or d dudcaJ rnW or ....ma1 lqpoIon'
wbidl CUIbe fOUl'ld III"'or. cktd iD. Ioto:tcuh.. IXcratl/. e 0- IIiN: wbjcct. W. WOIIId
IQClId. tlnt 0( all. _ bookl marked by tJIcir, JIIPtIltic .pprGKIllO the dcrtItIIII or letter"
(i .. XI"theo<ie) topoklo. e.. r",todllCrirHt 10 11ttot)r tIIUI Gm6tII ttJptJIfJV III by
AkuPdrUY. (}tow'" 1'Op(MoD (4$] by 1Cd1ey. and.OI/ltrfIl ThpoIou l61 by AIaar>ciryu and.
Mirudlan)'Ul . ".. boot< by A1c:u11dr ... amtaim a !JKrfuIl&h UlCOIUIt of XI theor)r ud many
of tlIc braItdIa or JC'Ift"aI topOloJ)', i1huuatilll w. w1tll I Il>lmtlct of Ibc dauicaI o:ampla
of I tlbspaott In Il l . Ill . We Iln)qfJ . CCOIDDIClld tIlii boot 10 1lud...1I.
1lIe bask tapa; of aentral CUI allO be fCNlld itI 11tIt'Ot/IMrf w.. 10 Di _ion
7'7ttoq by A1aandrov Pd PalY"kcw(wbt\lled flllFOdwfioit to TopoJofiClfl Spt T1rtf)ry
In, roduetlon 10 Topolofy
Itd Ovwlfll DimtAAoto 141. _ putJ or !be lfUlisc by BourNkI Top%flt
1111. 1IC""":owsJd', Topolov lUI, at>dPonU1Qbl '1 e-,/roIfOou; (;ro,.ps r6oll \.
"The to&loWt&bODbare -rulUtnl nwtriailO Iopia IIl Ihit chapter : f'fnI eo-Q/
CA__ Topo/lIkJo iJr Pro/MfM Md E:r:vriJa [7J bJ &lid P-.,-. Pro-
bk.oou ill [611 by NO'iikov n aI., ..." ProbJmw I" Di//6Vl1flIJ tIItd
TopoWU 1'91 by Misbcbut:o Cl Ill .
lU rcpRls _ &aU llIe follow!llt
Foo' Iho Itvdy or tllc -..u01 aDd meuk 'P"'CaDd I1Icircontill..0U5 -w-
III (Stu. I IlDlI 2), tJwcOllapCll:1lll.q: or tlIe above tiIIes art ,ClC:CJInII\oOIl.
5. J. The of spKC 11 _ I IborouPl1 apooJfded in me boot; by JWlc)'
1"'1(Cl.tlf), IDCl lhat by BolirtIUil it] (0..1. Sec. 1).
sec Tbl: dllSlifieation or doled Iwo-dirnen1iolllll ,urf_ Is pr.wlled well '" Scifet1
and Tbt cllrlll 1711(01 . VI). UId . morcmodun Ippm.tb by Ralr.c\man et al. ln Jnrrodwtlo"
/0 Geom#try 'r,. 1M [1)1 101.and by Massey in TopoIou:
AII1",ro<!ttloll Inl . (01. I).
S. J. The COll<:epls of projti-.e &lid lens opaa call bol ah,l<l.l od from Tdeman 1191
(eb. I, $. 10). seifert and ThrC'llfall PI] (Ou . II, IX), lAd F\lc:hl et al. in Homotopy
T1wot7 [321(01, . 1-(1).
SeQ. 6 &net 7. ne c1onl. opcr"lolll. boundary oPall or of l id In' ropolo.icall pate,
etc. , u rn lcd 10 A1C1<&11dTo. \11 (01. IV. S<c. I), A1c:w>llrQ'<l uId Pasynko Yl4] (01 . I.
Sec. I), Bo... II' J (01. I. sec. I), and Ktlle7 [41] (0. O.
S. I . As far asCOtIIliDuoo.II _1lPlnai collC:Cf1>Clll. _ would like 10 , .....mtllCOCI the.
boot by Kdlcy 3).
S-. " 12. 110e IhearJ li t PfOd= tlIPlItop', CIlIIlI*tCdoClol, aorwWilJ or
!OPOlOIl<* -.- '" d taaivdy "-1lcd by AIa:androo. Ia (3) p . VI, Sec. .(I , AIQudn>
MId (41(0.. I, 5. 1), KdIey ItSI (01 . 3), CI4 EkubW (II] (01.1. Sec. .(I.
Sec. n . TIle COllCqIf of Ihl: COlftIl&CQlaS of, IoJlOloI:k:aI cao be nfcncd 10 '"
t nqln ,be ItrlIlilloIlIc'. __I dosdy follow 141. In pU1lallw. it dloouId be noted lIIat ..
pmcnl no MltCpIed II:nlI fOf tile bask 0( lIOIIlPK( spKe IIu butI
a\UllUbcd. have IIIeICnIl ' c<oa:lpeC:I spKl!S'.wbefeu \II I), sUI 10be
bicoan pa1 In ..,.,.......... willi tbc ' etlll io>uocIuced by Alaudr......... UryIOtI (la. tOf [a-
stance. A ClM\PKI Spaoa 1' 1whidl call also ror .
profoland MudyDr Ihue Ilueslionl ).
Sc. 14. , pcd,Uud Upol:Il lIr aomr"ll1S'l1lotJ (I.e..
__riz8tioo) ..e in IIUs MClIon. dceprr WIlienl&odl ....Ke 13. 4. IS, 79).
Homotopy Th.ory
One o f the main methods o f topoloJO' is t o study Ihe geometri c
properties o f topological s ~ a1a cb nUcal1y . A number o r ap-
p roaches have been u sed in topoloaY t o assodatc a I O p o l O ~
apace with a number oral gebrai c;: o bjects, '"'th as gr o upll and M il.
A!&dlraic topolO8Yh as the idea u odctlyi D&it, viz. that there
is a colTcspooden (or fwteto r) llSSOCiat i D8 a collecti on o f
t opological spaces with a ecuee ucn of ceftaj n al&cbraic cejee e .
and cont inuous mappings o f spaces wi t h the corr Clpondina
homomorphism. . TIl ls fl.loet o ri ll1 a pproach makes possible the
reduct ion o f a l opo)ogiC<ll probl em 10 a si milar aJ.,scbralc one. The
solva bility o f the ' daived ' a1.ebraic: pl"o blem in many cascs impUc.s
IM l o f the ori&lnal topolopeal p roblem.
One o f lhc lin t concepts t h at have arisen o n Ihb Wily is that of the
fundanKDW lToup o f a topolo(ic:al s.pace; later a more lIlt-ncRl
oonoe pt , t h at of bomotopy aroup$. has bcc:n in lrOd uced. 1t it: 10 the
la u er lhat the pr_ t chapter is devoted.
This studlt$ t he set of aUcont inuou s ntappinis of one lopol08ical space
to anot her . Vario us topol OSies can be Imreduced on thb sct theceby turning it
vario us lopological spaces. The con nect edness o f this space Is a pllMicularly Impor-
tant qu estion, which na! urally leads us 10 lhe idea of homotopic mappings, whe as
the consi deration of speelal classes of ma ppings an d thei r homotopies lead' uSIO the
concepls of the deformillion of one 'pace into another, of ret ract lcn, etc. All these
lncePb play important roles in homotopy theory.
1. The Space of Continuous Mappings. Ccnslder t he set C(X. Y)of
all con tinuous mappinS5 fro m a topoloSkal s pace X to a lopologk al space Y. The
propert ies of t his SCt . an d many of ui cse of the spaces X . Y, are inte rrela ted . One
dOlph: elUlmple is thaI if X is one-poiot, lhen C (X. Y) .. Y . where the sisn - '
means II biJo:etlon.
A topology may be int roduced on the:ICt C(X. n. as on III ny olher. in different
waYs. This makes us ask how It should be done in t he most natural man nes. An in-
t uitive idea of the nea rness of ma ppinss may help cQn'liderably to set tle the issue.
Two mappingsfj.f} ar e to be if the Imasesfl(x) and!}(x) for any point
x EX are near in Y. If YI, a metric then these notio ns are eJIl prC$sed in turns
of the metric on Y. Renee, var1ouslopologles can be int roduced on t he set C(X, Y).
. the topology of point wise convergence. the topology of W1i(ormconvergence,
et c.
Jr ( Y . p ) is a met ric spa ce and X is compact , Ih= lhe sel C(X. Y} is equ ipped
with II metric p. thus :
P. (jI.f2J '" e C(X, Y}.
DEFINITION]. The topo!O.ilY on C(X. Y) as determined by Ihe metric,. Is calle d
the lopology of lllli!<-m
Exttl'd su.
1. Verify t hat ,. possesses ee propenlu of a metric.
2. Consider a con versent sequencef,,!./in C(X, Y ) and give an equ ivalent defi ni.
tkmof co nvergence In terms o f a topoloSYon Y. In the case of X = 10, II. compare
Ihls convergence w hh uni fonn convergence in C
DEFINITION 2. Consider in C(X, Y) the set s (K, . VI!:.. I = if E C(X, Y) : E
E VI' i = I . . kl,where XI' x}... .. E X , V I' ... , open StU in Y. The
topo logy 1'1 generated by these SCIS in Iheir capacity as a su bbase is call ed the
IOpoJOflJ' of paill lwist! t:OIflleTgf!ftCt! on C(X. Y).
3. Verify Ihal SCIS of the form (Kf' vilt = I a nd their finite inte:r.sections satisfy Ihe
criterion of a base.
4. Consi der a sequence VII/l hat Is conversenl 10! in a given tapalOI)' and prove
Illlroc! Topoloar
:y is equivalent '0 the ronve:rael'lte of the - f ()c)
S". Given the X( (YJ.exofthe nplicuof 1. 1pKC: Y which ha ve the X
1.1 their JUbsc:ripu and the Tlbol\O'i product !1x y.. ,Ibow th.t the ", C(X, na.ll
be ilknc iflCd with svbset of this produa, and tlW the product topoJosy induces
t he topolol)'ofpoinlwisc on C( X , Y).
followilt& defU\.O)n supplies of I. onthe X( C(X, Y).
J. ConsI def.n possible Ids of _ ppinss of the fonn
IK, U] - liE C(X , Y} : / l$l CUI.
wbmi K compa<:1lel inX , aDdU anopen set in Y. TbetOpo&os,y ,encnted by
thc:KleU lK, Ul as I. svbbase is caBecl. the ('OIflpGCtoOf"" topolou on Ctx, Y).
6". Veri fy that the fam,ilyof 5dS IK, Ul , and t heir finite ia teneaions satis fy the
erherion of I buc.
-,.. ShowtlW < Ind < ror . rno: tric spaa: .
I ". t hai If Y is metric: spaa: an4 X Is compact, then the eompact-opul
10POJos)o coinciQc, with the topOIoay of uni form ro nverlence.
to. IfX is. DOllQ)m,pact space and Yis a metricspace , then sequences ofmappin;:s
wbich &n! unlfonnly eonvergem on IUIY compact $IIbset of X Ani often eonsidered..
Show that thi s converl ence is equivalent to tbe con verse nte in Ihe compact-open
t opolQlY.
10" . Pr ove that If (Y, p) Is a complete metric space. the n 1M space C(X, Y) is
eomplete met ric 'pace In the metrit: ".
II ". Show Ihl t if X Ii loc.ny compact , lhen the spaces C(X x Z, Y} and C(Z,
C(X, Y)) are hom.eomOfPhic In the c:ompac:t;r:n topoJoiy.
The JPIleeC(X, Y} is oflnl denoted by Y .. The of Eurcise I I an
then be wri llen u yX "Z '"' ( yXy (the txpOM"tW p ) .
By way of u eumpk, roasidcr the spice of crpcrlodic colllinllQW fUl'let101\$
wbkh lI'e dermed OIl the nWllber line R
. By virl ue of thei r paiodieity, cadi of
these fllDCliomj ls compld.dJ determined by lu nlllCS Oll !he Iinc-sqpnc:nf to, .. J,
ud / (0) '" j(.. ). tberdon, we .avally COII!"ider I Kt of fuDctioN on the tiIle-
stpDent 10, ...1 QU"emitks are '&!ued tosether' or, wbat is equivalent . oa !he
This is the Kt C(SI, R
) on which eadl of the topolosics
llUIy be ImrocNecd.
The fuoaioJl spaoc: eIII be in the _ way OIl the tCJr\lS:
r' : C(r' . R
) ... X ... X S l, R

Th is eIII be Intcrpm ed u the of periodic fll11etklm in If variables .

2. Homotopy. It t urns OUI in llWly probkms that lwv m.ppiDp, one of ..bieb
CIII be d1qod '';Ihou l I.bruptlleu' , t.e., deformll.'d into the Olhet , an liable to
pow1lk A c:ontiDIlOU$ defonnation of DOC IDlfppinl ioto another can
be nl tutllly thoua/tt of is path In the IPf,Ol: C(X, Y) wbkb bqins and ends at
0 . J. Ho motopy Th<<><y
alven POinu/
andh. Brouwer made the of conllnuo us deformation mor e
precise wilh the aid of lhe foUowina concept of homotopy.
DEFINITION 4. 1'wo con tinuous mappings 10. I I a C(X, Y) are said to be
homotopic (10 - I I) if ther e exists a continuous mapping/ .. X x [0, I] - Y such
that/(. , 0) = 10(.).J(., I) '" II(.) for all ...E X .
1lIt mapping lis oft en <: a!led a homotopy connecting lhe mapping l
lOl l'
Thus, if /
- I I then there is a family of mappings /, ; X - Yt hat d"epcnd on a
numerical parameter I e iO, II ilJ\d connect the mappl"i/olo/l so t hat the mappi ng
X X 10, IJ - Yinduced by l his family by 1M rule (X, r) cont inuous . The
converse is obvious .
E:arci$c 12 . Show that alving a homotopy I : X x [0, IJ - Y is equi valent t o
specifying a path t in C(X, Y) (the topology being TJ' X locally compact) .
I . Let X =Y _R
, 10Vr) -x. I l(x) = 0 for an We define
F :R" x I-R" asF(l",t) - (\ - f )x , te l . It Ise&3Yto5CC t hatFl$ahornotopy
betwten fo and/

2. Let X be an arbitra ry space, Y a convex subset In R" , aruJ l (pll e C(X, Y) ar-
bit rary cont inuous mapp ings. Then the rnapping F : X x 1- Y, given by the for -
mula FV:,I) = fII Vc) '" (I - IVo (X)' in homotop y between/oand/.
Note thJlt lhe concept of homot opy is related 10 the mapping extenslon problem.
In fact, It t J, r : X - Y be tWO continuous mappi ngs. Defmina a mappi ng
.. : X x {OJ U X x II) - Yby the formulae 0) .. f Vr), I) .. r(X), ills
easy t o seel hat! - 8 if and only if t here oislS an extension of II' t o X x to, I).
THEOREM I. A homotopy is an eq.. friO/io n Qn t/lr S#!/ C(X, Y) .
PROOF. The reflexiVity (I - n is establUhed by using the homoltlpy FVr, f)
/ (X) .
Symmet ry. Assume thar 1
- II with t he homotopy F (;f , f) , then f ix, t) ..
.. FC;f, I - t ) defines a homo topy rrom/. to l D, t.e. I . -!rr
Transitivit y. Lct / o - 11' /
- / 2wilh homotopies F
(Jr, I ) . F
(x , f ) , respec tive-
11. Then the mapping .
,. ) (F1tc , 2t) , 0 .;; f'" 112,
H .... , f ...
tc. 2t - I ), 1/2 " I " I
is <: onlin1uous, since its restriction to each of the closed sets X x [0, ]and
X x ['2' I]u continuous. It is easy to sec lhal H (x , I)is a homolOPYbclween/o
and I I'
The ecowereoce classes or homoloPic ma ppings are caned IlOfII OfOpy classtS.
The Iactct set C(X, Y)/R tsdenot ed by7:f)(, Y).lt is casyto sec ti'a t'l'(X, Y)is lhe
set of pal h ccmponems of the spac e coc. Y) . The homolOpy class of a mapping
Ie C(X, Y) is denoted by (Jl .
DEFINITION A mapptna l e C(X, Y) is called a homotopy .. if lher e
ex;sts a mapping g eC{Y,X)such t halgf- l ....n - I
l nuod uetloo 10 To polaJ)'
Dl3I'lNmON 6. A space X to be homOlopy "lli/l/flkn' 10 . space Y. or X and
y 10 have t he same ItOfttoropy tyPt if the re uists homotopy equivalence on
C (X. Y) .
The c:oneept of homotopy Clqulvalenec i ' uMful 'we.rsenio&" or lhal of
homeomorphism of tWO sptleeS. ln ran. iff ; X - Y Is. bomeomOlJ)hi.smth en .
bavtnl put, .. /-1 : y - X , _Ihall have" - Ix./' .. I y r.e., Ihccond ilXin
(OS" the: hoInotopy c:quivaknee of X and Y. ln view o f tbu, t he maWma , In the
definition o r. ho motopy cqul .... lcti ce Is & l.O be' homotopy to/'
llIe Slmpl$ (oonempty) ropolo&ical spllce is oncpolnt. We lhaII now coruida
wtIicb sp&oe$ have the $&JI'IC type as a point .
DEFINITION 1. A SPla: X It $Aid 10 be COf/r/'flcrltJIc> it the Identity mawini
I... : X - X is homotopic to conu ant mapping tte.. the mappin, of X Imo
pam .rot! X). The homo topy between them is call ed contraction of the space X
(Into a poln! .rc).
Eun:J.Je 13- . Prove th at My two mappings of a spa ce X InlO a contractibk SplLCe Y
an homotopic to one an otha-.
THBOIl.M1. A .sptIN is co"trodibk if and only if It lias 1MSIIff'HI type AS tI POi,u .
paOOF. Let X be I;OIlIr-a.ible, and : X x I _ X a contraction o f X 10 a point
"'011 X . DalOfethe OQe-1lGint space consistiDSo f the point ...
by Q. l.c1., : X - Q
be a Ulappins mto the poiIIt ....and j : Q - X an cmbecldlnS. Then!Pi = '0' artd .
is a lilOlnOlopy eonnectin, 1x ThIB, is homotopy bciwecn X
UHl.Q. The pmof of OK convene b k ft to the ruder.
I.. . PI'oc l hat any CODvn in R fm partkular, If" itsoeU) is COQlntetible.
15 . Prove thai the x Yis contractibk If X and Yan:
l . Extending Mappings. We DOW CODSidcr the mappq u lC11$ion pr oblem.
It can be fonuw.tc1 th us : Can a i1VVl ma pp!.n, f : A - Y defiJled on a .ubspace A
of a space X beUlended to the whok space X , Le., b there a mapplngop :_X Y
such Ihat its testri<.:lion op lA : A - Y coincid es with th e mllppl naf? SUch.
'" is called t11e utens.ion of the mappingf.
The solUl lon nf Ihls problem has only been found for eeme speci al cases. and a
complete e:ctCns:ODthrory has not yel been cre ated. On e example of II part ial setu-
tlon of Ihis problem Is the Tleue-Uryson theorem f or normal $paces, which we
prOftd in Sec. 12,01. U.
The theorem q"blbbc:s the ronnec:tlon between the mappi ltSl Ulen
sion probJc: m and OK mtlC'qM of homotopy.
THEOR.E.'of). U I to: S" - Y H. M,dinllolU 1ftQPpi/t4 a/ ' M " n;r spMre.-T1tenlite
eondirions fUll! eqlllwr""r:
(i) tlte _ppin8" is Itamotopk ro rite uIonr mop",n, :
(Ii ) lite '" arI'I _ C)lle"d/ ro rltl! ..ltole boll ]}"'" I C R ""
PRoo' . (I) - 00; LeI f - e . wtIen: e is Uti constant ma ppin, of S" into a poml
p e Y. LeI F : S x I - Y tiea homol: opy bctwca'lfand e. We spedfy the eaten-
01. J . HolllO((tpy Theory
sion /" or the: mappillll / t o lhe I lUi followl :
P o O.. lxt .. 1/2.
/"f,x) ... ( x ) ,
F 2id ' 1 " 'xl" I.
It is easy 10 I t hal f ' l S'" ... fand Ihat / ' is conuml0U5sincc its rcsukUons to udI
of Ihe dosed le ts
l d .. 1121. I n " Ix' " IJ
are eonl inUO\lJ.
(II) .. (0. lei r . Ihe ule!15i on of f to the whole ball [Yr.'. be gjven.
Yot!' We define the mappinl4>: S X 1- Y lU
4>f,x. 1) - /"((I - + ty ol.
II is clear Ihal +(x. 0) .. /"(x ) - f(x l . 4' f,x. I) .. /"V,p .. p e Y. and therefore
. "'. t) is lhe required homo topy .
Hi- . Show t blll any mappi naj" of a space X to a oont raalble spaoe Yis homol opi<: to
a tor\$Wlt mapping (er. Ex. (3) .
17- . Usin, the resul t of tbe pre vious esercee, deduce from Theorem ) t hat an y
mappiD, of the S" 10. contraetiblc sp.aoe t:&n be eJtl en<kd 10 the whole ball
4. Retraction. A lpo;ial o;ue of the: enension P1"obll"m iii that of a f'maction
enunciated in the roUowinj; manner.
DEflNlTlON a. Lcf.A a IUbspate of X,and I
; A - A th.c: identity ma ppm, . If
then oats a mappin.1" : X - A $\IclI that 1" 1A .. lA' l hen it is ell1Ied a retTrlCtlDn
of X onto A , and ee spate A a n lNlet of X.
II". Veri fy t h"t any point of a t opolo&lcal $paCt X Is a retract of X.
19". Verify thaI any linear SI.Ibfpaoe In J..s. ret ract of R" .
:W-. If Z .. X x Y is the Tih onov prodl1Cl. of spa ces and P E X. q E Y arc rued
poi nts, then A .. X x q. B .. P )( Yare relrac ts of the space X x Y. and the
mapp ings,X : e, y ) - lx, q). I"y ; <K. y) - (P . y ) are the COlTespondin. eetrec-
t ion, .
21- . Show that the zero-d imenswnal sphe le SO '" (- 1. 11is not a retr act of the one-
dimeml onaJ disc 1)1 :0 ( - I. IJ.
tlilll: \he lhe properties of OOIIneam opKa.
DEFINITION 9. If thcte e:x.Uu a mappina , : X - A web LhIU riA - lA ' thm A is
uIIed . _t n t rtlCt or x , where&l r . _t 01 X 00 A.
It U e&I)' to see thai. retract is a1....ys a walr rdraa. Ge nerally speaki n . Ihe:
r:onvcTle il lIot e:otTecI. which Is dcrnonPratcd by the followina u erciJe .
Jcvrbe U - . Givell alqUarc P " 10.11)( (O. l l and iu su!:oietA. a ' cornb spac:e'
eonsistlna of (a) ..c:rtical line_Kamc:nu wbosc: bas al e: aI. Ihe poi nt l ( I h l . 0).
F". 54
" .. I . 2, ... ; (b) (0, 0), and (el ltt e ba.seo f th e (Fi l _$4). Sh ow thai (j ) th e
llel A is not . retract of the $Quare / 2. (ii) A is. weak rd or J
, ( ui) if finll:c
nllmb of teeth are lcft in the com.b space' A, then t he set A . thai We obllin is .
retract of ] 1.
DEPJNITION 10. A homot opy D ; X x 1- X Sl.lch t hat D4I<. 0) .. and
D(;c , I) e A for a.lI x e X. Is ea1Ieda dd omllltion of. space X into a subspace A .
DEFIN ITION I I . if u/sts Q d(fomwUon of X into A , D : X x I-X. SIKh
tha! Df,K, t ) .. .x fox Ii EA. ,., f. IhctI A i$ a.lled stroll, dq Qmlt1t ion " /rv ct of
X. and D stl'Oll6 dif_ tiolr IVrrtJdiott.
EXAMPu;, J . A point is.. Walla dd omuuioo n: trl a of any COllell subXt of R IO c:on-
()tha examples o f $lroq dcfocmalion tetrans ar c liven in the: foUowill&exer-
23- . ut AsPIK'C X be c:ontrKfible 10 a point %ol!! X. Show t ba l X
X Y is a ..ron,
defonmoti on retnrcl o f the p rodUCt X x Y. In pat1kuJar . m nloidu two-
dltnmsiona! eyii nd er and sbo,.. t hai lu hue is $lI"on, defonnatioa retrad .
24. Verify l u t the Ye!1t:ll of. cone In t hree-d imcnslonlllspaa: is a wong
(ioI! rw aet of Ih" eene.
U - . Show th ll! a Slrong dcf or mat ion retract A of I !plIoeX l! homo (GPYequival ent
Hint : lhe embed ding' : A - X and t he o f t he X onl oA
are homot opy inverse.
, . Mapping Cylinder . Co nsider some over topological spa1: finl .
TIt" lop%lkrd"'''' (d4ft>1n1'I nio n) X v Yof l wo) spaoe$X . Y is defi ned as
tllIIiOll of dis joinl of X and Y.
t opoloay 011 X V Y Is dermed as folloW5: V is open in X v Y if .nd Ollly ir
y n X Itld Y n Y are opal In X and Y . respe<:th.cly. .
Ifj : A - Yis . eontin\lOl' mappinJ; . ... C X . then X and Yanbcpue<i
(Ol ethes- "'; th rc:spo:a 10 mapping f. With Ihis in mind . we introdllCll: In
equivalence relation 00 X v YIhl' :
R , ... - :? if x E A , :T E Yand j (lr) _ y ;
..., - Xl if "', . %1 E A *Jd/(rl)
Ch . 1, HomoI09Y Theory
The factor 5PM'C'ofthe spaaX V Ywith rcspec;t 10 the cqu i.,.1enu R II. ckaoled
byX U
Y and called YwM respect to the mawinl
f. If , in p.anku.W. A II. I poiDt Xoe X. and the X - Yc.arriax
YO then the tewiq X U/ Y 11 Q)Ied the of the lpaca X . Y and
4erloted by Xzo v
Y. Il ls easy II) see thlt t his 1I lbe factor 5PKC of the
uldon X V y wit h rupor;t 1.0 the ClIuivtlcnc:c: matioo aJWna toacther the pol,,"
ED_ _
26- , Show lbat th e homoto py type of the wedce Xx v)f. y c:olncidCll with Ihe
homot opy type of the 'pate Y if X Is tonLract ible to pot ll XO E X,
27 , Prove th at the tincsmcnt / ... 10 . I) a nd the wroae / 0 V" s'. whcrepo. s-,
oE I , hive two ditrerent hODlOtopy types , 0
DEl'Il'llTtON 12. Let/ : X - Y be II co nt inuo us mappln a. Then """,may ass ume t hat
the -ppma "' : X )t (I} - Y, .. I) - / fJr ) is ckl1ned, whae X )t (I ) is
subspal)e of X x I. The. cylirtdu Z/ Q/ 1M I : X - Y is II .ew!na
(X )( 1) U. Y of the .paces X )( I and Y wi th rcspq;t to the rnapplDa .. .
'The mappiq qUn6cr ea.ll. be leprew:nted &$ It Is depicted 10 Fla. 11.
The eeoe e of mapplna cylinder Is Imponant seeiDa tha t X and Y can be cca-
aidc red to be of Z, Thill, the a sense, by the
embocldlna of Xinto 2,. Note a1so t hat Y il a.!rOIl& deronnatioa tetrad of Z, . aIId
the embedding of Y into Z, is a homO't opy eq uivakna (veril'yl).
DEFINITI ON i3. Th e cylinder of II ronst ant mappmsc : X - pili called over
the . pa ce X IUld denoted by CX.
THEOREM 4. A mapPIIl,! : X - Y B homot opic /0 a CotUtllll l OM if (Ind onl)' if
/MtY exislS an exloos/oll : ex - Y ol /h. mQpplnll f ,
PIIOOP. Iff is homotopic 10 th e const an t mappioa '"0 : X - (0), tben
F : X )( 1- Y. Ff./t . 0) - .... Ff.r:. I) ... ( 0)., F u; conRanl OIl tb<t uppoerbase of dw: cytindcr X )( I . aDd induus
me rnappin,s F o f lbe (KiD<" spKC (X )( I)/R . whfn R Sla.nds foc shri nkirla the
lmroduet;o n TQ Topol oS}'
upper base to a point. But t he (X x I) /R homeomorphic 10 ex (vttifyl ).
The proof of the converse statement is left to the reader .

28- . l ei a mappingl : A _ Y be conti nuous, A C X closed in X and X . Y normal
spaces. Pr ove that X UI Y is normal.
29. Prove that f : A - Y can be extended 10 all X (A C X) if and only if Y ill a
ret rac t o CX UI Y.
A of a mathematical object in terms of <:alqOries implies thai thi!
object, for instance. II groupor a space, 15 considered as a member of a colkct ionof
similar object s rather IhM separately. Inl uitively, a category can be represented 11$a
collection of seu (possibly, wit h an additional st ruct ure) IU1d mappinp llgTceing
with this structure. Correspondences between elements of di fferent catego rie.t obey-
ing special rujes are caJkd/unc'on,
I. Category. DEf iNITIONI. A calegory d is said to bcll ivl!n D,regiven:
(I) 1I certain collection of objects: (ii) for each ordered pair cr cbjects X , Y, the set
Y) of from X to Y, and (iii) a mapping " socialing any
ordered Sd of three objects X, Y, Z and any pair of morphismsj G Y),
tE Morg(Y, Z) with t heir corepcsntcn gfeMor...,<X. Z) , Thu s, a commutative
diagram of the morphisms in the given category (Ihe morp/lisms being denoted by
arrows) results:

, ,
furt hermore, t wo properties must be fulfilled:
(A) AssocWtMly. l/
/G Mor...,(X, n . 1l e Mor..,(Y. Z), h e Mor..,(Z, W) ,
hfgf) "" (hglf in Mor Jiil (X, W) ,
(B) The existence o/the Idtnti ry eltmt nr, For any objtet Yin Mor..,..{Y, n, then:
exists II morphism / y S/lrh Ihot / or rmy/e Y) , g E MoruCY, Z).
t"- j
"" Il
II is amunc<l that Morp , Y) n Mor p ' , r) . .. .. hen X .. X and Y 0#- y ' ,
Ch. 3. Homolop y TheC"y
Note that t he uniquencM o f the clement I r follows from Ihe above propert ies;
this elm\Cnt 11; caUed Ihe ldenliU' morphism of the objecl Y. If for two morphnmJ
jE Mor.-(X. n., e Mor.....<Y. Xl, the equal it)''' Ix is .,.lid. then the mor
phism , ls h id to be I<ft m'Hn(! of I, andjr1lllt of,. A morpllism wltidl is
both ri&ht and lef t inVffK of 1 is said 10 be rwrHidcd itt_of f.
DEFINITION 2. A rnorph illDje Mo r...,(X, n Is c:a1lofd &1\ tqlliwlknu (f : X .. n
if there ellists a morphismr I E Moc.-(Y. Xl which i.s a irlYa'SC off.
I . Prove thai. if a morphism/_ Mor...,.(.\' . left inverse and a
risht ieverse , then they coincide.
It from t he C1Cfasc that ifj : X .. Y, thcnr I : y - X.
Here arc lOme importUIt examples of etn qoriet..
I. The col1cdion of wu and thei r mappinp .
2. The c:ollcak)n of mccric spaces and tbcir contiDuous mappinp.
1. The collCC1ion of l opoloai eal sp.aca and their continuous mappings
.. . The <:olieclOon allinear spaces and tltrir linur mappinas.
The <:oIIecr.Oon of groups and tbeir homomorphisms.
6. The oolltloo of pair. of toPO!OJ,ical19&OCS Uld lheir c:ontinuous rnappinp.
By a PQ;r 01 (opo/0llul spaces<X, ..4), we mean a space X an d us SUb$PilC'C A .
The moPpini 01P4fnj : <X, A ) - (Y. B) Is a mappin,j:X- Y such that
[( A) C B.
2". Show Ihat In cateiories ofExamplcs 2, 1, and 6, the homeomorphlsRUand only
the)' an! equlvalence.s.
J O. Verify thaI the equivalences In the cate, ory of Example 1 arc bijective mappio8s
of SCII.
4 . Sho w t hat Ihe equivalences In Examples 4 I nd are isomorphisms of linear
spaces and Iroups, respectivel)' .
2. fUNCTORS. We wID considernalural mappinp of one categorylO another. t.e., t he
mlppin,. whic:l1 t he identity t1emmu U1d compositions of morphislN.
Here we enunciat e this eooc:epl more
DEftNrrlONl . Lc I . atld !Jl be twO au,ories. AOOWlrialttjWlCN T from.,llt'lo 9
is. mappin, wlUo::h associates each objea X from .,IIt'with an object T(X) from !iI .
and U$iansto c:acb ntOt'J)hismj : X I - X) in JII"" a morphism T(f) : T (X,) - TtX:J
in 9 . ...hl le the follow. relations ar e InK :
( I) T (l x ) - ro TlI )TV}.
Properties ( I) IIlId (2:) of a funetoo" be visuaiJ)' repo-cscnted as follows: an)'
commuw ive di.qram of the ca.lqor')' d is mapped by I functor iDlo the c:on-cspond-
ins commut ative diq:ram of Ihc catqory !Jl:
x. fiX '
, \. ----,----"'1 ""
IC, """" >-.... ,
91' .. r(o,,- ..
EXJo..\lPLE7. A c.ovviant tIInccor is.. c:on-apondCtlOl:assodatin, a lOpOIop:al
with the set of all poiD[J W I mab iI up, and .. C9'!IUIIIOUs ml,ppiq of with ..
mappina o f ICU. This is .. flllnc;tor Crom theQUiory of Eumplc ) 1.0theCIltEJOry o f
Eulnple 1. II II sald to bc/Mpifwl, sina it 'fOrJelS' t he spa strtK"
Similar ly, " co"ariant fl,l nttor from the, ory aCmetric IpactS to the CIl1c:aory
of topoloplp,oes ....ith the IOpoJo,y induced by t he metric ' forget s' the metric.
DE.RNITION4. A contraWJriant fu nctor T f rom a calcllory d lo .. calegory 51 is a
mappiq whitb assoa-tc:s each object X from ,g( with an object Ttx) fr om 9. alld IJlOrPlW.m f :XJ -X
with:ll morphism from
Morg(Ttxil . T(X ,. wtliIc the follo'll'iq; rdwollS ar c fulrdJcd:
(I) TUx) IT(.\')' (2) Tfd) '" T{f) TCI)
In other words, .. OGIltravananl funaor tnnsforms tbe almmulati.c d.iqralll of ..
a llc,Ol'J' AfilUo the commuta tive diq;ram or .. Cll!q ory 9 , rnersina; the-arrows:
x, _ 1/1. '
I '( __L . _ 11 '\11/1
7(1(,1 T(gll l flC,1
lmportaat eu.mpies ofthc funaon I11died in alicbnic lOpoIogy are bomoIoO
110UP and homotopy poup fultdon. These an: f\UlC1OfJ r' QIn the dtclory of
lopoloPeal spaca to the utCJOl')' of IJ CKl p'. in the IlCX!sedloll. wesbalI d.... d1 at
knJt.b OQ homotopy ItOUP fuQCtoQ. whereasbomolou JIOUP f'uno:ton will be <<In-
IicIam iII 0 . V.
Wc naw lCIJIder aD eumpJe of how I. f'ImetOr 10 the a.lqory of S10UPSIl
plied to the invesliptlon of IiOrDe 10poloalcal probleou. In the previouS se<:!lon, the
ml.PPina u.ll:lUion problem 'wu enunciated. We now formulatc it &J foUows; let
A C X be I. subspace of 1\ topOlogical space X, i : A - X thc ratulal mappltlg
asscxbIti nlll1y point ae A 'OI'Ilh bUI In lhc space X (I.c., J is an embeddina
mlIPpin.a). and ." : A - Y I. ml.PIlUta of the A to I. ' PUC 1'. TlIe INIppl nl
;;, : X - Y u tends the rnapp\n&'I if and only if thc dlqnm
as COI'\l.lnull. tive.
By meaDSor I. funetor T (for eumpk , covariant), we c:.n derive an al&ebrlic
problem, . b there a homomorphism Tl$ ) su,b Ihalthe diaarAm
Ch.l. Homolapy Th cory
It is clar thallhc $Oln bilit y o f the orlJinal problem that of OW" llIa:cbr ltll:
problem. Thus, the exislen o f Ihe homomOl'pftl$Jl\ Tc.;) is It neo;emsy t ondition
fo r an eIlun:don ;; of the mappina ....10 exist. For ....ample, if the homomorphism
T(/) bappeos to zuo. and T(f' ) nonzero . tlw.n the homomorphism T(;;}don not
uist eommutati";ly o f the would be ";olated), ItCId then t her t is
DO e.ttension ;' of the mapping ",.
In th1J 1ICCtion, we shall reuaec Ollt steps 10 the .auctyof topics touching upon
mappin, spaces. i o some CItSCS. the sd 'I" (.X Y) turN out to be a JI'Oup. 5ClJI'lctimcs
Abdian , and may be helpful In cons.1Ntt ing various al,ebraic functon on the
ea!eJOr)' of 10pok)P::a! and their continuous mappings. The: eolUtnKtion
and use of thCJe fWlCton form the basis fo r homotopy thCOT)' .
I. The Homotopy Group of a Space. Note: at li rS! that 10 each
l opoloaical space Y a"ch :ODtVluous mappin,j : X I - Xl of IDpolog.iul ..
Xl' t here cOt!"C$ponds the N1tllRl ma ppin l
1'Y{/) .: "'(Xl' n - 'I"(XI ' Yl
More:euetly, if e 'I"(X2' y) then there is a u:ll qu . clement correspond-
ida 10 1ll'1in 'I"(Xl' Y). Similarly. 10 M YtopologIcal space X and coruinu.ous map-
pina g : Y. - Y1,the:re corresponds the mapp ing
'l"x(g) ; ...(X, Y1l - .. tx. yv
1- . Dtscri be Ibe stnll;ture of "'x(g) a nd prove the COlTectn lW o f t he dertnitiDn. of
.. Y(fj and " x Cg) . "
2- . Ulin, the nOles Jivcn. showthat for " filled Y, t he:QIllTcspoDdcnoc X - 'I" (X.
Y) is " COfltravaOanl functor into lhe calCSot)' o f sets , and the eolTlCSpondence
r - 'I" (X, n (for a nltcd Xl is a C:01lllriant fu.nt tor .
The co rrt$pOOdcr1ce (X, Y) - ...(X, Y) iJ AId 10 dcrtne a bijU1fCl or fro Ql the
of topolope:al sptlCC$ to the calqory of sets, wh ich is covariant with
IC$pecllO tbc If:<Xll1d ltIJumtDI aDd COGU'ltYariaru wilb respect 10 the flrst ,
" bi func:tCll" " on the cateaOfY of pain o f toPO)O&ie&l spaces lk!crmined by the
(X, A ; Y, B) - r,B) may be coosidued in uimilar Wlty.
Note lhat the ho motopy between mappinp j and, : (X. A ) - ( Y. B) of
pair. o f splices Is. u.ncIcntood to be a mappin, o r pairs F : (X x I. A x I) - (Y,
B ) 5uch thM
0) - f f;c)Jf;c, Il - ,f;c}.
E:rrl$r ) - . Da:c::ribe t he struerure of the ma ppina
'I"(K. AI(/) ; ...(X, A ; Y
, B
) - r (X, A; Y
nat urally induced by a conl.inuow mappin, or pai raj : (Y
B. l - ( Y
Bv . a nd
Yerify Ihal Ihe corrC$po ndcncc (Y, B) - _(X, A; Y. B) 15 a covariam funct or .
l nlrodlld,on 10 Topoloty
DEFlNln ON I. The pair K, is alled a /xlM!pt>ilrl the base point bei Da
%0 e X .
Now, _ r", the pU (I , af"). wtlne / "Is I n 1I-dimc:lISiolUJ cube. and iN" its
bouDdal'y. and a.nociale ltte pair (X. with the :I" U"at" ; X, xt;}:
Rammbu thal the dements .. (I" , iJJ"; X oCtile mapp\n&J ofpain:
.,: U . '/") - (X. whid! art homotopic to one another and oRen aIcd
EadI o f lboe rnapPinp CIl1ks J" 10 X. and , I" to the point ..-,. In addi
tion, tbiI pr ClpCrt y sbouldbe prcsenocdWMD the mappina .. Isdlll. A&! in lhc C01,lrW
of 1Mhomotopy. Thetets .. fj" , iJJ"; X and " CS" coincidt(corrapond
bijecdvel)'). Hue Po Is base point of the 59bae S", In riel , _ noted earliff
th&I the raetol space 1"' iJI" is homeomo<phie to thu pbae S". the interior Ii'll r of
Ihe woeI" bijeaivdYCOI'TapondiDa under Ihis homeomorphi$rn 8 to thuet S" " Po>
Md the botmdary ar" bcinll lransfonned irno the point p oof the Iphae5". A f'tfQ lil'fl
homeomorpJrls". i5 then sa;d \0 be pven, viz.
fJ : (I". iJl" ) - (S". prJ .
Reece, 10 Illy rnappina r.(S". - ex.rO!. there the mapplna
16: V" , iU" ) - (X, ro>. and vice versa. to a mappin : U", al ") - (X, ro>o the re
oormponds the mappillj i :(S" , PO> - (X . r o> whKh coincides with 16-
and eanics the poine Po kilOx
:uIri# ... . Showlbat this correspondCllCe bctWDlIIlappiDJs cnswesbijcctjon be-
IWIl ... PO: X. xd and. ...U, ar;X ,xr}.
Th\lll. we have lIlVCII anolhu Iatupretal.ioo or t he 5C1 Y{I" . X , xr} . .....1c:h
ma kes it possible t o COlUidn the case II - O.
ERniu ' . Slto,," tha t the set ... or path OODlponcntloh hc
CoDKlll.uCDlly. _ have dcrl1lecl a eonriarll fUDClOr (X, xol - yU" , al"; X. xo>
rrotn thc QlqOfY of base point spaces 10 the C<lICJOt'Y 01 KU .
The stnlelure 01 the set Y(l , X. xo> ill 01 the grutcsi int erest .. lar &II
homolOPYlJleory is ooncerncd.
THEOREM l. $ell "'V" ; X, xo>. If > I, 1$ 1I1f Abtrllan , roup. This ,roup is
caffJ /In homOlgpy , TOl.lp SPII X with baR' point "'0. X
lind is dnrolM by "'w(X. xo>.
PROOF. l.t't 1,,1, I+J E ... al
, X . xr). We the sum 1.. 1 + r"'J as
r""l + ' \Ill I.. + #1. where Ihe mappin,,, + '" is defi ned thus: leI
1= (' 1" 1' " . I,,)e l". tiE 1_ [0/ I) , i '" l , . . . If ,
..(2I t ' I}. ... . wben 0 "'1 " 112,
C.. + +)(1) ..
#(21 ,- I . ' ! . ... In " ,. " I .
This dot&ition can be illllSU1ltcd visually by Pi,. 56, ..bere thc squar c ehe
r!ltt (I" of l be cube I " .
We ckrJnC the zer o c:kment .. 1M dass of Ibe CODSIaltI mappina I: (I il r) -
- IX ror whiclt'U" ).. xo. andshow IhaI: 1,,1 + IIJ .. ".) for any1.. 1.i.e. ,,, +'
e ll , } , Homolopy TIteory

o J. I 0 1 ,"",1 0 ,
, "
is hemorapic 10 '1'. In fat! . t ilt required 1I 0motop y i, dClcnn ined by tile map pina
+: )( I , iJ[" x n - (,x, xol ,
wher e
+(t.r) =t (.. . t.. ) when 0" I, " r : I ,
, + I
wbCJl _ _ " t
" I. r E I.
The bomotopy +(t . r) is JcllcmatiaIly In F'!&. 51.
6". Veri fy lbat !he rq.a1ily (tl + hoI - 1,,1 b also valid .
1". " plain the reasofl why the equalit y I'fJ It,] .. 1001. wben Itli .. I' l. canace
be proved in the same way U llle I&st two SIaIement s .
FOI" any {"J. tbe in.,crsc dement In ..... (X,xci) l,the elass h> '1'1, .. , : I" -
is by the formula 'I' (I) .. (I - tl' 1
, 'n Th us. (l"lf )(t) - ,,(1 - t
fl ' ...
To .,cril y that 1,, 1 [",, ] .. (I I . we show Iha t I homot opy belwttn the map-
plnas". + <P"I and I i, iPYe n by the mapping
Xc O" t, ,, r12,
,,(21,- r , II ... .t.. ,12 "t " 112,
+(t , ' ) " I
,,(- U
. 2 - r, t
. ... , t. ).II2 " I, " 1 - rl2,
"'0' 1- ,12 " 1. " "
In Fla. sa . Ihis homotopy is reprcxnt cd diagamrnatically.
8". Veri fy that the conditions for the hDmlMopy o.t pOSaR fulrilled.
r llllUy. we AYe 10 'tCrify Ibe or addition Il'I '"".X.}rei) and tbe com- of addition wbm" > I . We rim prc ve lh.t associatirity.
Let "'I. l'fl. u.J" ,"".(X ... Weshall sbow W I
(I_I + [#J) + 11<1 - kol + ([ .. I + L- J) .
. /r.O} 4> II,tI
II --------- II
i 111'
> ' "
l ~ 1 .,
",. "
"' ..
From tbe diqronmatie POint of view, this homotopy is aplained quite simply
(F'... :19).
Now: to sho.... that if n > I , then I'PJ + 1,,1 .. ["'1 + I'J. r emember tIll I
We shlll verify l.hat the mappinSJ" + oJ. and., + <P are homotopic to the ume
rnappin . (Hcnce. it (oUow, that they are homotopic to one lUIother.) Co nsider tbe
bomotopy, II. ~ ) ;
Ch. 3. HomolopyTMOI)'
o 1-., I
o " .. 1 0
F'" '1. 61
"'" ',.U
H 1
-2 .. -
I 0 1 1 0 , ,
; .
, ,
, ,
Fl&. 60
l , J ..; ,
'i ...... 2
, .
o , 1 0 1 , 0 , 1
1 I 2"
It is eaJ)' 10 see ,hat +,(I. 0) - If> + ... and
,- ,
0 4; I," - ,-
0 <" .'
.. i 1 " I.
0 "'2 4;1/
111 " 1 '1
, ,
, 112
112, ' 1 ' 1
' ,.
.. 21
- I. fl r.l.
- t, 2l
I) , t. l.
' ..
Consider anot her homolopy +2
,- ,
- ,- " 'I "
, .
O"" C_.
. ,
II is easy to veri fy ,h., . l (f . 0' .. + I(f. I). and
Inuodwc.."" IOTopolosr
The bornOlopie$ .\' reprllKnlai ion Fla. 60 &$ d1qrams.
Thl&l. We M.Ye
( . )
We perform i similar colUll'UCClon tor the sum "I + I(J. LeI IJ5 write OUI tne
x, .
0< '1"-
- , ) '
t, -,-_- ,-' I), n. ". ' 1 "'J" I
' <', <- ,.
II ' ollow-s t rom anQl hcr homotopy
Ch l . HomolopyTh,""I'Y
Ihllt "t' 2(t . 0) - "t',(I . l ) a!ld. ...2(t.I) ... 4>1(1.1).
The homotopies 'i', (t , T) . i'2(1. s ) are represenled in Fig. 61 as diagra ms. We
find lhal
if! + 'I' - "t'1{I, I ) - "" 1(1, 0) - "+'2(t. I) = 4>2(t , 1)
FinaUy. ....e obtain from lhe lasl chai n of homot opies and the chain ( .. ) t hat
'I' + >f - .1(t . I),"f +' 'I' - + 1(/ , I ),
therefore 'I' + y, - Y, + '1'
TliEOR.nM 2. Any : (X. x o> - ( Y. yO> induces the group homomorphism
r ,, (X. xO> - TnI Y,yO>. .
THEPROOF is left to the reader.
Him : Use the construction in Exercise 3
The homomQl"phism .. ""l{f) Is denoted byIn and called the ,, di mensional
homOlopy aroup homomof1Jhi5m by the colltinuous mllPP;"fl I .
Thus. the functor r
n > 1. acts from the cales ory of base poi nt and
thei r ccralnucus mappln8S 10 the eat egory o f Abelian sroups and t heir homomor -
phisms. Therefor e. if
I: (.X. xa) - ( Y,YO>,g : (Y. y,)l - (Z. to>
are continuous mappings then fzf)n '" g"ln' wher e I n' If
(gf)" are the co.re_
sponding ho momorphis ms o f n-dlmcnslona.l homotopy groups .
2. The Fundamental Group. II will beinterestinS to consider sepa n tcly the

TI (X. xo> = ... (1 . al; X . x.) ct ... (5 I, PO; X , xo>
which Is endowed with a grou p structur e in the same manner as " " . n > I. and is
applied in many problems. By general de rmltion, ea<;h elemen t ofrl (.X' xo> is a
homotopy class I'l'l ol a certain mappins'l' : (I. aT) - ex .xo>. where the image tp(l)
is a loop in the space:X. st art llllt and ending at the poin t X
(Fig. 62). The dir ection
fOI circumnaviga ting the loop Is given by a parameler I e I . The produ ct 'I' . of of
twOsud t loops 'I' and y, defined as a loop in X such Ihat Lhe image ('I' of )(1)
.() (:).
ruM over tbe loop ", 3.5 the parameter t changes fro m 0 to 112, and the image
(", . 1/-Xl ) runs over the Ioop"i- (Fig. 63) as I rllfll es from 1/ 2 t o I , vi ;!;.,
,, (2t ), 0 .;; t .;; 112;
('" . ",)(1) =,"' (21 _ I), 112 .; I '" I.
As can be seen, the product of loo ps is d<:fined in mueh the same manner as t he
sum of spheroids. The dlfference in a.erms (i.e., sum and product) is expllined by
the generally accepted custom of employing additive notation (Le., the ' +' sign) for
AbelilLll 8fOUPS. The composit ion of loops described above is not always com-
muta tive. Therefore, the product (",I . (1fJ = l'" ofl (gencraUy speaf ing, not com-
mutati ve) may be dermed on lhe group _,(X, xO>.
9". VerifYthat the J,roup lr
of tile wedge of two circumferences is not com-
muta tiyc.
DEFINITION 2. The group - l(X' x O> is c:.Ilcd the fundatnUltal t roup of a
topological space X wlth a base point xo '
PROPOSITION. The -.ex.xO> is II group under the product opera/ion
of theproducl .
PROOf , Note thaI in t he proof of Theo rem I. lhe condition" > 1 w at used. only
",hite proving the commutat ivily of the group _.. , where the second coo rdinate of
the spheroid was talrlng pan in t he necessary homotopies. Therefore all the previou'
steps of the proof for The(WC:m I can be used for '0" 1(x, xIV without introducing any
changes. In doinS so, the unil and inverse elemell\s in "I tx, Xci are defIncd uaclly
in the way. viz. , 6 ["p,! . where "oU) .. Xo is a constant iooc : for each
[..Je lI' t <X. xc). !",r I .. (",- I, where .. -1(1) .. ",0 - I) Is the loop circum-
navigaltd in.the reverse direct ion. the required stale ment reucws directly
from the proof or Theorem L. .
In order ( 0 disl.inBUish the difference belween Ihe sroups lI'ltx. xei> :1IId
..., ex . Xl) of t he hme space haVing different base points XoaX. XI (1 X, we shall
need rome more concept s.
ClI. l . HomOiopyTheory

Thepro(}ucl "' I . "'1 of pa lhs "'I and "'1 such t hat "' 2(0) .. "'I ( ll is defmed in
the way as the produ ct of kxl ps:
1{2t ), 0 0;;: I 0;;: 1/ 2,
('" . '"'1Xt ) ..
1 (21 -1),1/2 "'/ (1.
It is evident thal "'I . "' 2 is a path in the space X. A COIIS/flnl path in X is a palh
C_ : 1 - (I) _ Xli rorl II (0, 1]. ora pat h ... iu pat h
........: f _ X such lItal ",f!;, I (n .. ",{l _ I) . Since (",_ I . ...XO) = (", -I . ",XI), the
p;lth ('"- I . w)(1) is a loop al Ihe point ...(0) .
ExercM 10 . [kaw the pllih I . ",XI ). Show that [", -I . "' \ '" e in 1l" 1(X' x,) .
THEOREM 3. A ny plIth '" : I - X joinl1l8 points Xli ond XI' t. e. , ",(0) .. %0,
",( I) .. x l' the uomorphism 0/rroups
Sr ::r1cx, xo>- " ICX, X
whkh only on the homotopy d lUS 0/ the path "' .
PROOF. Let [,,1E " I (X, xc). Consider the mappins : (J, an - (X, X I) which is
given by the formula l",(1 - 3/ ) If 0 " , " 113
.,10(1) " <p (3I - I ) i f 1/3 " I " 213,
",(3t - 2) 1( 213 ... f ';; 1.
Th e palh H I ) can be rep resented visually as the loop <f(I ) = (", - I'<p . ", )(1)
(Fig. 64): we thu.s :usociale each element I<p] e ".(X, x,) with II1l d ement
[","I E "
(X , x
) , and obtain a mappin, 51: 1"1(X, xtJ - "I (X , XI): 51happens 10 be
a group homomOr;lhism. (Verify! )
Similatly, we associate each element [If ) E ...(X. XI) with an element I<pI E 1"( X .
xol, where 1
", (3t) If 0 ... I " 1/3.
,, (t) ... (w .,10 . ", - 1)(1) = oji(Jt - I) if 1/ 3" t" 213,
w(3 - 31) If 213 .. t Iii; I.
We rhus obtai n a mappin,
: " 1(X' x
) e .. . {X, xol.
Sho w tha I Si -
is a grt'lUPhomomorphism and t hat the hQttlQm()f.
phisms Sj - I and S'j'ate reciptoe&l. r.e.Sf _ (S'j'-I)-I .
lh t path in ..,."" X U . J nlinuou$ mapJlina: of bnN ''' IMCRI.
,,' f - X.
Inlf'Qd"", lon to TopoLou
Thus, 5 j' is an lSOlllorpl'l ism It is ckar from iu eolWfUCuon dlOI l il rnnal ns
unalLcffd .. ru:a!.-cnd hOfllOlopy o f the path w
12- , Prove that i ff : X - Yis . cootin llO\Kmappi.... tbm ..
joull lll pc)IO(SXo and x" the d iqram
11 , 01, _, I - ,,--_ _ '", IY/ f_,}}
Is eot nmulat ive. Here ; .. f wIs .. PlIlh joining the pointl J'o"o> and! "",).
II follows 10' once from Theorem 3 that if .. X ispa lh-eonnected, t hen the
I1OUpl lI',(X. xol at different poi ntsxo" X an isomorphic 10 each Qthu and U1nbe
co nsidered as ODC a bSlIltct grOUP "' t (X). Th is group isca lled ,roup
or tbe plth-connccted space X.
We shall now another faCl: Ib ! foUo." from Th eorem l .
COROLLARY, Any ckw!ffll ra j E 1I' 1(X, :r ol dif_ ..n lIl uomO/"Pnum S\- , aJIM
l'I:n4p lI' l (X ](0).
Paoo,.ltI vlrtue ofTbeomn J. there Istil isomGrJ)bbm$\"1: lI',(X,xol- ",(X, xol.
ailKXa q loop It the point )(o- 1n &dclJtioI1. the isoalOfllhismSj' ooJ)' depends on
11M: bomotop)' dass 01 th e DIlh a
All imponaat daD of spaca is siaaJed out by the foUowin, ddWli on .
DI!.F1NmON l . A spKcXis said to be ;ran, t WO palhs
wI : I - X and w1 : I - X sucn Ih lll ",(0) - "':1;(0) "" x
" , (I ) "'1<1) ., x,
bdona 10 the 5&rne bou)otopy clus in "".". X . xo U x tJ. Le. are homocopk In
tbe d lW o f paths SIUtinJ at x. Md et> at x..
THEOIlEM . A pgth-conM'ael:l' Sj'lllIX if 1<OIUI ttd if tiM ON)' if ,,",(X) _ O.
Ttll5 1JleoTm\ dcscribn l -connrard waca ill terms of (Mit fund&menlaJ
l ro UPll. The proof il easy. and ....e shall skip if.
13- . Verify Ihal Ihe Euclidu n spal;e R
is l -connrard. and s' a nd lhe IONS
S l )( S ' are not l-e onne..:trd.
14". COIUlfud an clu mplc of eonnected space with non-isomorph ic: gro ups
""t CK, l! different poinu xo'
HUfI : USC: lJle:_ pic: of . -..ectcd. but lloOt r..- Sec. ' 0, 01. II .
We:IIhaU _lirlYc:sliplc: bow I\lah<:< aroaps dc:pcIodOlD . "at! a1ioa of . baM
poinl , TlIoo hoIllotopy ..ouP ".lX.zJ ,_ OIl' 10 "'.r'1 iJl lhc: _ _ r" W l'luIoduMou.l
IfOUP r ,(X. xJ """'"" ilJ poUu dlanaa.
THEOI"l' A.."pt1tIJ .. : 1 - X pohtts z 1Id 1M
S : : ". (X. z ,l - -, fX.zJ
Ch.3. HomOiopy Theot y 131
Ihptndin, on 1M homotopy clou ''''Ie ,..(I. M; X'''
u x ,). In addiflon . I or any mofJPUli
I ; X - Y. Ihe dlqrom
In whk h LIoll by lilt pol h ;;; '" -
Y, li,r,l a commutollVfl.
We will jU$l outline the ide;!. IN:hiDl! the pr oof of thi s tlllrem. LeI ,,,] .. ,... (X, x ,) Iu
_ in the eM< of me fl.Indame nt&l group, the d . _lit [" 11$ usoclat td with an t1tmenl
[-'\16" ,.., CX, xJ. This procedure can be lepr tMnttd visually as JII1Ilins a ....hilker out of Ihe
spher oId II the poinl x, 10 the poi nt ", (l ) &rid .xttndlnS lt along III. path .. to the polnl X
(F\B. ' S).
Th lJli ...... oblltina mappina S;: : - Is1tI 110m0rph ' lm with the
rcqu" .... 1 propenics, Here, we have omitted all tlH: <Ietaib.
A (0 Tht()l'cnl h ll to that any d ement ["' 16 "' , CX, xJ dctertnl nes an automor
phiMn nfthe JI'\lUp ,...(X, xJ .
ThlJli. the group " ,tx', xJ aeh on tlle llJOUP _.lX, xJ U Ihe p oop of l utomOl'Jll'lUlN.
1\ i. IlDW natural (0 defin e lhe followinl l entu liuuioll of r-eceneeted Spaul.
DEF1NITIOl'l<\. If, for . l pate X and ilIIypolntsxO'xt Ii X, lymSIn we '121m. p;tm componen t ,
the isomorphismS: : _.CX,x ,) - not depend on we clloIct oflhe path .. join.
ing x
ta x , then Ih. """"" X II said to be " .simpl, (orIwmOIOPJ' Ilmpk in di_JlSIOII tI ).
Extm# U . V... ify Ibat a l--eonneet<:d space I. ' simple.
We le:tv. the Ploo f of the fol.lowinl slatement rc the 1Clld... .
'rHEOREM 6. A spa X isn" imple /f i/M only /flor i/IIY polnrxoe X , 1M ,roup 11" t lX, xJ
am lrivially all 1I". (X, xJ . i.e., dOQ,, 0: aliI' 1Mtlt ntmU01 _. (X, xJ ,
1\ immedial ely follows fr l>mTheor em. lha l a l-oon""" led 5pate II ,,-sImple for all
n ;;' I .
In fhis section, me fundamental group of th e ciccumrerence, and alIo of a.n ar -
bil ruy M
- or Nil-type c;ked surface will be cal cu lated . The necessary com-
binat orialteclt niquc Is based on t he results of Sec. 4,01. II, and pven at the begin -
on lntr uduetl.l>n. 10 TopololY
Din, of tile xdion (see It.ems I ud 1). Meanwhik.the topolop:.u invariute of me
Euler dtar.aai:stic: of. dosed mrf.u (sa: l Inn b aublUhed. Further. the pro!>
km of computiq b.i&het" borr\O(0 py P'O'Jpt is dlsclUKd. and thcir applic:alion to
,",obft!Jl oooc:eminI the fi nd poUlU .. c:ontinlK)\lS mappiq is Jivm(the B.-ouwer
lhrorem and the fundamental thCOfttD of a1&dnll).
I. Line Paths on a Surface and Their Combinatori al Homo-
toples . Consider clo$Jed S1UfaceXaiftn. 1.1 mSec. ".01. II, by in subdiviPoft.
ThU; mmas that. devdopmml n is Pm. and the $\Irt.oe X Is horneomoophklo
t lw (.aor rpuc l1IR. wberc R b all equi...uenoe determined by uie "'lIin.
homeoInorphlmu or the ckvdopmeal. .
Denote the prod uct of !he rui<luc das$ mlppln. 11' ; D - l1IR u>d t he
homeomorphis mp: D/R _ X by)t. Theo thernapplnj: If: n - X is the one ae ter-
min1na the subdivision of X into the of pol)'Jon odl es and vcrtioes of the
de velopment (we will o;a11 thexlll\alCll of od&cS the N IQ. IUldthCKl.mages erver-
tical the ven1ees of ihc subdl Ylslon). An edIt of . subdMslon IslheximlIac of two
cdaes. II and ._1.or Q lIlId II . We wW denot e It by tile let ter 11' ; the J( in'ulI C or
verta. A will bedenoted by the samo If:ttcr A; and we will caU j nttnfN' poill /$ of an
edp lISpoints whieb llJCdl ffa"t:nt from the vcrticu.
We ahaII require the foUowlr.,lwo dcmcalal')' opentiolU over SUb<!iviiON: (I)
I newVutQ; ; an memo.- point of In mae ill ckcland 10 be IIC;W vena. of
tbe (b) add.ioa' DC'W edF: eee of the: poly,OftS of the de'YdoptllCDI ill
A1bd.irided intotwo by Its diqorW. Thcx-imqeof thls diqoo.aI in Xis ckd&red 10
oew C'dae of the dc:t'dopm.m1.
CoGsider an qCIII ill the develDprneMrt , and let 1': 1- "be an afTme I'lloIClpltla
(linear petbJ UDder whidl the poinu 0 aDd 1 are mapped Int o the vertK. of the
edae. Then me _ppiqi _ Irf ; I - X determiDa I pllb on llIe MlIfaccX , wItidl
we: wiII eaII pill". It Isevident that the imaae Of UI dcmmlaf)' path
either with one of the vel'tke$ of the or the JUbdi'lisioo of the MIt-
face or complet ely coven th e od&c. Tn the rll1l ease, &II d emerl1.lly path Ii oDI\S1IAl
Ind oonsidcm:l to be- zero(y ... 0) . In the second c;I6C. Ihe bqinnina o r the linear
palll l' either coincidn willi th e bqjnning of Ibe ori ented edge ", OT willt 111 etld.
Aa:or<tlnJl Y, we will denote In eklnetItary path by tl or tl -
0: Cl II OTT.. II - I ,
rc:spoc:tlvely) . We will Ule the l&II\e notation rOl" -:; if ,. ; f - II-I , IlSSIlmilll Ihl t
lIt - 1)-1 _ II.
T'bUl, to cadi oriented .ed,e 1I(lr- l) oCthe developmenl, there corrcsponds an
elementary path 1I(lr- I) In Ihe . ubdi vision.
DEI'lNITlON I. A fInile pTodul:! oCdemmlaty palm in ubdivision n or. nureee
X is uJled I liM Pfdli . A do$ed liDe JIiIth is caIkd I /iIw loop.
By Dcr.lll.itioa I. I 1iIIc palh ), can be- written in ee form oC Ibe produa of
dcmcnlar)' paths A = AIJ. .. . wilen: Ai = tI," I or Ai _ O. QmittinJlUDC:S. we
usoria1c the pith Awith e wont .. (A) .. ... "1: I indica linJ the order and <Ji.
lceUoct or the tl!l&e' of the AJrl"ace X aloac the peth ),.
COIlSida"!he boundary r / oC. poInoo Q.- oC. n. By l$$OCi&l.iDl
each ed&e of the boundary wtlb an dcrne:olU)' IlItb II dcxribed above . we 5ball
ClI. ) . Hom(HopyTllcory
assocIal e the who le boundary wllh the tine palh AI in X . determined by Ihe word
" (),i) '" .,(QI )' whereas the .... ol d ", (QI ) in tum desc ribe. a plan fer gluing Ihe
polygon Q; (see Ilem 2. Sec. 4. CII. 11).
For uample. a line path A conespondina 10 fbe oriented boundary of the
polYI OflQwhich repTeSCl'lISthe 10ruSdevelopment b ee Fig. 41) is determined by th e
word w(). ) = pbtz- 1b-
DI!F1NJTION 2. A co".biMtorilll deformution 01 Type I (Type II, respectively) of a
line loo p). is an Inlrocluetion Or delet ion of an pp- 1_lype combination (or the wor d
",<QI) into the word w(),). respectively, determi ning Ihat line loop in X which cor-
respo nds to We oriented boundary of the polygon Q, of the i1evelopment n .
DEFINITION J . Une paths y and r : in II ar e said to be combintt/orittlly homotopk
in II if one Is obtai ned from th e ot Mr using a finlle number of Type I or Il com-
binat orial defonnll tions _
Note that any uee palh in a subdivision n of a surface X CIIn be eoruidered as a
line path In a subdivision II I wbieh i. ohWned from II by applyina a rUlile number
of (.... or (b)-typc operatiol1$.
LEMMA I . L I!!I II :subdll>ision "I be ObfQfnft/ from QSIIbdi vulon n by QPp!yirtg (I
fini /I!! number oj (a)- or (b}-lype opllll1lfiOll$. 17IenjOl' allY linl!! loop Ain U
t h t ~
0;1$/$ QIi_ loop A ' in " ....hkh u combinll rorlQII)' homo/npk ill III to {hI!! l oop ),..
PROOP. it ia obvious th;u it l ufra<:es to eonsidn the case when il l is derived from n
by havinll appli ed one of the operations (a) or (b). Let III be Obtained from II by
subdividl na an rose q mtQtwO new edges b and c (Ihe operal ion of . ddin, a new
vertex havina been ap plied) . If the loop Acontains Qne.of l be oombina tiolU b b ~ l .
b- 1b , ,, - Ie, then ;1 can be omIlled having obtained. loop which IS
bomot opic tc x. Having omi t ted all such combinat ions , we obtaln a loop eil her nOI
COnlaining b "' l. C"'I at all or containing them in the form bc( :z Q) Or
c- Ib -1( c Q- I): in ei ther case , it i. the required line path ). ' from Fl.
No.... . Id n I bC' Oblllincd fro m II by :itdding a new edge d whietl subdivides a cer -
tain polygon in " I Into pans E and F. l.fIt the boundary pat!lli of E and F be ud- 1
and dv, respect ively (Fig_66) , If the line loop A Indudes th e edge d ~ l . (hen we
replace it by the path ..
(or u " I). The loop ).' th us olKaiMd is combinatorially
homo l opk to Aand is a line loop from n . _
Ra. 66
' a t' od llCllon10 TopoloJu
LEMMA '2,141D, be oblrrilrftlJ'fHPI n b}' QIt (4)- or (b )-l)' pe: n.elt IJ"Y
liroe loop m n wltklt is ItOtrloiopit to uro Ur nt. rdlIJUo borCO'",
bfMtt>ritlfly llomOlop;e ro uro ;tt Jl
PIt.OOf. By the dati. rCD, theft a.Ws It. S1Cq\lCJl of line 100Jl$)' ':" "00 " ,. . ..
v, _ 0 in n I' "' bere v, . 1I. obtained fro m ,,/ by me ans o f one combi natorial defa t -
mat;oa . In addition , " ,. .... v, are nOI, , ,,n"t aU)' speakin,. loops in n . For ea.:h
loop v,. I ;so I , r . we COIlJlr\lct a line loop "'I homotopic to it in n JO lhal each
loop "'I. I in t he :sequenc e a ! loops),., " \ . .. . '''', obtai ned from.., VI' one Of
more corn bllWori ai ckfonnat ions .
Amlme t hai n, is obtalned from n by subdividirla an cd..,. inlo edt:e. Ilftd c
(i .e. , by an (a)- type operation). Thm",., U$Of:ilt c eacll loop vj with thckloo"" . hay_
ias 10 In edJCdlrrermt from h i ' and c,l wsameedlC, (IvIedaco-1 10
1M cdw: b * I, and DOlhinalO lhc ediec
l l
, It is easy to "crtfy d'l. ' Ibm !h<
from ",'0 ", . to i .. I, ... , ' Is per fonncd by Typ: I CIt II co mbin:llOfiai defor-
Jr. however, " I is obulincd from n by. (b}IYJlC operation, then we an oelat e
any edge diff erent from t ile wbdivlding edge d with lUdf , and n p!lIc:ed (d -' ) by
Ih" patll u(u - ') , Jr, now, 10 oblain V/+I, ...e insert or ddet. e the combinatio n dd -
in vJ' Ihen the uu - 1 sho uld be inl ertcd or dtleted , respect;vtly. in "' i '
Type II deformations in 01 will 10 Type I or Type II ddormat ions in
n. e
2. Combinatorial Approximati ons of Paths and Hcmctcptes.
We will show her e that Ml)' c:ontinl>O\lS pcb in triululaJ.ion K is homotopic: 10 II
lil'lC padl . C'l tl. llI.JO .stud, the rdal ionsh ip bet _ c;ombinlltoriai and OlI nlinllOus
homol optes.
Herufier. we co n5Oder onl y raed-md homOlop>csof paths and klops.
LEMMA 3. u r til triGnsu/II/io" K 0/11 P4r/ OCf' X "'" ,ivm. ur >.: I e K til eo'"
(I" !IOUS /Xl'" I" K, ),.(0) . ),,(1) rhe wrtK:es o/the tritl" ,,,/,,tio". Tlun '''ere f:lC-
irIS II tiMPIIth /n K . whkh I.t homotopic ro iI.
PItOOl'. Subdivide the line-uJIllem ( .. to. II wilh a finite nllml:>c1" o f polntt
Va .. 0,'. .. 1) inl D-tr\denlly m1Iline_:a.cpncnts so Ibat for cadi int erval Vc_ "
u l
). k _ I , .. , .II - 1. mer e may be a vertex A
_ K web that tile imllll'
),.tt'_I.'h ,) of tUimen21 may lie . holly m tbe star S lAt ). the' lIn>onof the open
tnan&ks and cdp of the trillllJU1a.tioo K .c1jaeatl to II eertain "",rtex A. and the
ven"" A. uxIt. SinceSl,Ac) is an opeD sa in X . and),. is a con lmuOU$ :nl ppl l!&. Ihis
can a1 W11)'1 be Kltic-o' cd (see Ex. 7, Sec. I). Ct . II) .
Now. we associat e each point ' t e I Wi tb lbe venes E K. Nou. mor eover,
thai for an, . .. 1. .. . . 11 - I ,
),.(('k' I ,C SVt
n S (At. I)'
where S CAt ) n S Vt
.. , ) obviously con lain l the triangle whkh is adj aCCI\\ to botlt
At l\IId At . " TherefDre , If A . '" A , . 1tlten tltey ar e jo il\cd in K by an cdtc wlticlt
...e will denote by ' c ' Let A; ; 11.1" 'k. ;l - 'tc be an elementl ry path which is th" 6_
Ictl$lon of the indill:atcd eormpotodcnoc of tbe Ve"fca IIId pointS ' k' '.1'. " If
A "" A t , lben OR comidn >.t to be equal to uro. The produa of elemen \llry
01 l Homotopy Thoo. y
paths 11
determi nes a line path ),' : I - K caUed a lme opproximal/(m of Ihe porh.
The paW), and ), ' ace homotopic; 10 one anolher. In fact. ill virtue of tilt structc re
of the path), ' , for any point If: I , t he images ), (I) and), ' (I ) lie in the same: closed
topological t riallile from K. Therefor e, they can be joined by a ' Hne-segment, lhe
home omorphic image of a line-segment I II a lr,angle of Ihe development ; CQn&c:-
qutntl y, i' is natuta lrc give a linear defcrrrsuion of the po,nt JIll) int Qthe point
), '(1) which determines the req uired homotop y, Not e, mor eover, thet poim MI )
does netleave that elO$C' d triangle, edge or vert ex, in whiclJ it init iaUy was In the
course of the homotopy,
II is necessary 10 betwC"n line loops which an: homotopic to a con.
slant one ' " ' he topolog ical cr ccrnbmatorial sense. We will call .3 \oQp whsch is
homot opic IQ a constant one contraCfible or combinalorially loop ,
LEMMA 4. A COfIlracl ible lirl e loop), Ul a Iriantllllal' OnK t$comb/natorialfy COrltrocl .
(bl e in K.
PROOf'. U1 a line loop ), be given by a mapping of a Iine-segmem t : I t _ K. Let
F : I t )C ' 2 - K be Ihe of the loop to a vertCl< Xo E K , i .e"
Fl/, " !J) .. .", Fl1, ,,UI .. Co : I
It is d ear that Fl
>t/ l : /1 - Xo and FI [ll " l l : 1
- Xo-
Since. F is a contraction keeping the ends of the loop fIXed , the ediles AB, CD
and BD (Fig. 61) are mapped. into one poi nt "'o-We mack those points onAB whose
images are the vcnices ofK , and drawvutk:al Jtraight lines tllrouilt them. Then, by
drawi ng additi onally other vertical and bor;wntallincs an d diqonais (fig. 61), we
will ob tain a &uf rLCicntly floe triangulat ion 1: of the squau A BCD for lhe image of
the star S(V) of the t riangulation 1:: under the mappmg F to lie in the star SeW) of a
ecr1ain vertex of the t riangulati on K (tltif follows teem Ex. 13, CII. II).
We now associate the vertex V with t ilt vertex Wand per form a similar opera-
t ion over aUthe vertices of the triangulatio n t , Then we extend this mapping to the
edges of the triangulation I: In the same mann er as we did In the proof for
thc lemma on a line app ro!timation of a Jllllh. The mapping we ob tai n, i.e.,
: I:
- K , where I:
is the union of the edges of lbe triangulation 1:, transforms
the subdivided side AB into a certain line loop;; in K.
We now show that is deformable Into ),. In tact, dur ing a line
approx lmatjon, no po int of a path leavcs the rriengle, edge or venu.iIl whlch it was
Fig 61
lOlroduClJon (II To pololY

Fi 68
posjlioned . Therefore, the loop;; consists of Cbe same pal bs as). (if the
null pat hs ar c neaJcetcd). However, Imerally spc:aldna. some edges CiIIl be: r un
scverllJ times in differml dirmiolU. Th us, we can make a transfer frem ;; to"). by
Type I combinatori al <k:fonnat iollll.
Note nowrnat inthe tr1lU1gulation 1:, thesubdivided sideAS can be transformed
into the subdi vldbd broken Hne ACDB ...ia rombinatorial deformations of Type I
and Ii by sUCCCS$ive ' squeainJs' of a single trian&1e (fig. 68) . However, each of
the$e combinatorial deformati ons a ppli ed toABdet ermines . due to the structure of
the mapping F l ' it.: own Type I or 11comblnat.Orial deformati on of the loo p X In K
Th us , we haYe.-tlown that by rnc:;ons of Type I and U <;Qmbinatorial deforma.
I;om. the line loop )." ean be ITamformed into the loopJ:. and then into the F" imagc
of the pathACDB. m , this image is the poinexo and lhtrefore ), is w mbinatoriaUy
homot opic t o a COll$l4nt.
We lea ve the pr oo f of another t wo UIICompJkated statements which we will U$(:
lat er to lhe reader .
I" . Prove t bat a line pa th in a subdivisio n n , determined by the wor d
<oJ(>..) _ (JJl- I . is homotopic t o a coostlUlt path.
2" . Pr ove that a line path ill aw bdivi$ion n eq ulll to the image of t he boundary of
some polYlioDof the de velopment n b homoto pic in X to a co nstant path.
It foUoWl from Exercises I and 2 !.hat any combinatorial homolopy delermincs a
lUual ccmtinuous homotopYbet ween line pll1hs.
NOTE . In the na t uee. weshall havecourse to a , pccial case of rhe combinatorial
techniqu e which we devel()pCd above, -viz" subdividing t he circumference 5 I.
We r....a finile numbe r of poinl sA ' , B ' , C' , .. . on S I and speci fy a homcomQf-
phism '" of the bo undary of a convex polygon ABC ... in S ' so t hat ",vi) .. A "
,. (8) '" B ' , ,. (C) - C" ." . We will say that the bomeomOlllhism '" determ ines a
subdi v4ion of 5 1 wit h the edJC$ A"'11 ' '" ",(AB), B""t: ' '" ,, ()JC),
c"A ' .. ,.(c:::i). ... and vertices A ' , B' , C' ... . l ine pat hs and Type I com-
binatorial deformations are defined nat urall y here . II is easy (0 $(:10 that Lemmata
1-4 remain valid for :wch :wbd ivislon.s, with the operations over (b)-t ype subdlvi-
sicns a.nd Type JI combinatorial defOnn&tions vMishintl .
1. The Fundamental Group of a Circumference. We no.... can
calculate the 8l'oup '1"1(5 Ij.
THEOReM I. T1Ir rro"p ...\(Sl) is AM/ian ruJd isomorphic 10 group Z.
To prove this theo rem, we shaU require the fol lowing auxiliary statement which
will be w engthcned lat er (sec Theorem 4, Sec. 4, of the pre",nt chapt er).
r'l. 69
L."IMA J . Pot j.llldalMIf,lJI oj IfPIN:U li lY isomorphic.
p a OOF. Let X . Y be IOpok)&ic::l.l $pa(CS with !:we Yflo respectivel y. and
'" : (X. Jet} - ( Y, yo> homcomorJ)bbm. Tbc:n lhe homeomorphisms of the fun -
arc defi ned:
...(", ) ; ,," \CX.Jr r} - 'r 1( Y'YOl
and due to the functori al propcn y,wc h."c
... (", - 1)'1"") = ...(",,_ 1,, ) _ 1.. , (X ol'
11"(") .. (,,,- 1) .. 11"("", -1 ) l .. ,u ol.
therefore. ...(l"1 .. Ir (,, -l)r
THBPll.00ftOp n lI!OIt,E.'olI. 8 y the !ast le-mm" it l u m en to compUte the fun damental
IJOUPofa plane u iaflaJe. Let 4 be a ld anaIc wit h ycn kesA . B. C . oriented cdana .
b . r and Ihc bate ve:nu A (Fii; . 69).
We firs t com pUte the Il'oup 2"\ CA, A). Lei ), an arbiuvy loo p in .6 wilh t be
oriain at the poiJlt A . According 10 Lmvna J, lhcrc uUu a line ktop). ' in the
homotopY d a n o f 1M loop A. (JI is clear l hal the trianaX 4 Is II l ubdi1iision. )
AociIoIin& eadl cdl;c Q , b . c with loops , . It . t tI((Ofdina t o \he roUowins rv1c:
iI ::a alb. b _ b- 'b . t .. ee " t, wu how that tlKda5sa orthc loops 6 . 11 .t, wtU<;b
IlCf:d not be differmt. arc sene- rat on of the p oup ...\ (4 , A). .......y line
loop), ' eorL.llisu of c!ancDlary paths thlt tofTeipond 10 lbe edSts, i .r..). - ",{G, b.
c) . 8y ,rpIaem. rad1 C'd. r by its loop In th is QlM"cssioo, we obtein I
_ kJop x " II is US)' 10 see lhal Ihr and an: cera-
binat ori eJ.Jy bomo topk.
In fea, this rrplat::elnml of en ed&t' by & loop liSr"st ' raid'! ' lhr ori&in of
e e cdse from Ihr r....ed vert ex .A , end then , h&vin& puscd lhroup chis cdac,
' r"' urn ' to A alona the &bonest p;u.h (FIS. 69) . Thr rdon. dwilla cadi Sl.ln'livc
rq)bcrmeocof en cdSCby loop, we mUS! , .ner ret1l<1lln& to A from the end P of
the prrvious ed&/" 's t&n' for tbe ori&in of Ihr nut ed&/" i.e., for tbr same poinl P.
ThIlJ, . n " !hls rcplacnncnt, &rm- ' . fonn Pith is ilucrted bet ween each two ad j .
oern ed&e:s of the loop, l.e., .. path whid! i5 comhmllOrillly homotopic: to ttrO.
Consequently, in the homotopy class of the loop A' , a line loop A ....hich is a finite
prod uct of the loops lJ, b, C, and their inver se' can alway s be found .
Note now that t he loops ii, c. are homo topl<: to constant loops. Therefore , the
loop lJ (or, mo re precisely, t he homot opy class det ermined by it in "' 1(<1 , A)l is a
uni que generator in the IIrOup "', (<1 , A). The element 4 is non-trivial, bause if t he
loop IJ were contractible then, by Lemma 4, it would abo be combinatorially con-
tractible, Le.reducible to zero by a rl.ll ite number of combinatorial Type I eercrme-
tions , whid! is obviously impossible. Ccnsequemly, the loop"," is not combinatorial.
Iy contractible and therefore det ennlnes II non -tr ivial element 11 e ", .(.<1, A). Simi lar-
ly, any clement 111"1 E "' I III , A ), where I '> I, is non-c.ri vial.
'Thus, '"'1(4, A) is a free cyclic group generated by the clemenl l"], i .e. , an
Abelian y oup Isomorphic to Z.
By the structure of the proof of Theorem I , prove Ihlll. the
fundamental group of the wedge of m circumferences Is a free group with m
The follQWinll the orcnl ISa ....,ful inslrument fot ealeulad nll lhc fundamemal St oups of
mcee . patel.
THEOIlEM l (VAN JC.AMPENl 1.41 X be a t apolaf lcal oblainrd os ,h., ,,,,ion
X .. X , U X,o/ O/N" substl$ iX, flnd X,slJchIlulr sptlC'<:J X " Xlond X = X I n
"lid lltJ_mpty, flnd p " X
Cons/de , tire d?agrDmgeMrDtftJ
by Ille cmbcrldin, mflppillgS:

", /ll"p l 1"'0
", --<
Then the sroup .. , (x, p) is a fatlor Il" 0up of free prod ua .": I(,X" p ) 0 ",ex" p ) by the
normal I.lIbstlMlP Ierler.ted by lhe >tI (6"" ' t> - , ' Q" e .I(XD' p,] . In Ol-h<=r WOld., lhe
ilJOUP. ,(,X.p ) i. by the 'Ollie. or the .!cm.mtl" , (X" p), i 1, 2, l\fId tho only
relallon. bcl"'een the , eneratO" are rd at,otU In each o r the atOIlpt " I(X, ' pl . i _I,
2, an d lbe ' d at loll& "' ,', '" = <J
':n- ,wllere (> Ie ", (X
' pl.

4. U.lns the van Kunpm thWTcm, de , ;ve 111<: It al ernenl of E.erci$e , .
'0.Cakul i le t ile fundamental group of the ! p"CI: <;OIlsi5ling of two d lcum rerenees jomed by
l,nc-seJItICnl, rsu. 10).
Fill 10
01 . 3. Homowpy Theory
4. The Fundamental Group of a S u rface. TurnIng our allention to the
fundamental groups of sur faces, we may assume on the basis of Lemma' thai a
dosed sur face can be given in subdivided form det ermined by a canonical
THEOREM l . Let X M II Type 1 or 11cloud slJrjQccdelerminN by i/ word'" oj ,ht
jorm 0lbIQ! Ib
,., 01J"a; Illi
Oqllq' rtSPCClivtly,and It / Xoli X be
II ctrtQill point 011 Iltt $Ul'JOct (i.t., lrilln,uliltion W'rlcxj. T1ttrf '"'t CK,xolis a gfOlJp
wil lt gtntrotono'l' Ill ' ... , 0p' Ill ' Ill . ... . Ill/Of at. 01' '' ' Il
, f't'Sj1(c/ivtly . and one
dtjining reloljoll '" = e . where Il! is Ihc ident ity
PROOf. Let Xl be a dosed surf act , 9' its canonical development determined by a
polygon Q and the word "'( Q). Let Xl .. x(QI)' where Ql is the union of all edjes
of the polygon Q. Since all ihe veruees of Q in the development !P are C<juivalent ,
their images und er the mappin'lf coincide in X. Consequently, the 1m8.Je of each
edge is homcomocphi c to a eoeemrerence, and Xl is the wedge of ciIcumferenca
glued at the point X
whictt Is the image of the venices of the polygon Q. In addi-
tion , the number of the etrcumrerences in the wedge equ'a1s11' if the sur f,," X has
the type M
and q if X has the type:N It foUows from one propeny of the fun-
damental group of the wedge of drcumferens (sec Ell., 3) that:l"l exI' xo1ls a free
aroup generated by Ill' 11' 1' ... ,Qp' Ill' Ill> ... ,b
if X has ee type M
Of by 01'
01' ... ,Oq i{ X has tbe type N
We denote this group by G.
We shaD now cousider the embeddin g mappinlJ i : X l - X and the homomo r-
phism of the fundamental &To ups,which is inductd by Lt. viz.
I. : '"'1(Xl'''-ol - :l"ICK.xol
We will calculate the grnup .,(X.xo1 as follow5. First, we prove thlll I. is an
epimorphi!>RI . Then. using the theorem concerning epimoillhisms , we nbtain
:l" 1(X' x) '" :r ICK, ..-)/Ker i . .. G/Ker; , .
The ealcuhuion of the kernel will complete the proof o r the theorem,
We first that i . is an epimorphism. Let as :l"l (X, "-01 and K some
trlangmat:ion of \he sur face X. The n. by Lemma 3 concerning une
there is a line loop)o, (in the subdivision X) in the homotopy c1aS$ of II. K ma y be
assumed to be obtaine<l from t he carlonical subdivision .9of the surface X with the
aid of a finite number ot (a)- or (b)-type operalions.
Therefore, due to Lemmata I. 2 and I, 2, in the same class of
II E :l" ICK, xo1. the re Is a line tccc x ' (i.e., made up of the edgC$ of X 1) in the sub
division 9. Thus. a cenaio class /1" e '"'I(X' Xo1 ls defined for which Lt is obv ious
tha t i . (JJJ ... n . The surjcetivit y of " is therefore proved.
We now ta ke up the tu k of cal culatina: the kerncl Ker i . of tile qlimorphi.m i .
1.d .., E1 Keri ., and h a line loop of the subdi vision 9 from the elan of ..,. Then )o, is
obviously contractible to a point in X . Accordi ng to Lemma ' . there a islS in 9 a
<:ombinal orial cont ract ion of " 10 the venCll xl)- In othe r words, the word ", (). j
..hich determines the loop h is rtduced to the zero word by a (Illite number of
Type I o.r II combina torial deformat ions. It then be<:om=s d ear that the word <o> Q..)
may only COfl$i1t of e:ombin.rlons of the form
(1) ...- ' ;
(2).or more compla, AIdI as
"";'-PIt"'It - ',J"lti ''''l'i 'w,. (. )
whue ... . , .. Of, .., "'1 . ""J.. .. ; . ,.11
. 11 are lbe wor'd:J oflbe p;tel:l $Ubdivi-
!ion. and I, m are Ialqral C'l<poDCl1ts (they may be:boO! poIftivc SlId Del&ti..e); and
(J) oombUwioN lilniW to ( .), bw. with other putitians of tbe word. .. into
cotllpontnts. Tb.iI folJows from UN: liven 4evdoprncnt DOt bavm, MY bOWIl1ill' Olhu than ...
It G to .-lba1 1)opc 1 tcAnblutorial dc formatlolU u.e., add.itiolU or dde-
tioIIs of all ...- l-Cypc CDlllbiDaliorI) do not tab lhc loop" out of iu botnocopy
du&, siDc:e 1M loop lIIl'-1 is to US'O III XI _We may UIUlOC, thanks to
lhia fact thlC lber t an no 1'Jpc I wmlrinioN. in .. ().). The COIJIbi.naDoou: o f type
( .) an limplifled by I:Ombinatorial Typt l 4c:fonnal loN as follows :
( - ) .. ...,,;,w, .. XII- I
_ - -I'"
- I -I, ". _, . _1 10 1: 1<" _'._1 _I Jo . - 1 - I
" : :0"') 1"'," "'#'r"'" ... ... 1_=:;... x I
Il<.I"It -I/l' - I", .. 'w ..-' 11,,-'-"' 11- ''''- ''''1 ..
1' .. ,,: , 1 ..1_'_,_-
.. a,.,Ia-
wJll""'i ' ...,tIw"'/I- I .. allo-
"'4"" W; Ih1",hi '"" n", "'t1 -' ..
w ,-1
.. (.. .. )
Hence , It I, usy 10 dcd llCe lhal any combination of form ( .. ) is reduced to form
( .. " ), i.e., 10. rwk product of combinatioN of the formaJa - L(. ), where / It a
posltlve or ntplivc intearal exponl:lll .
Thus, for lUI)' element IX) E Xui . , eee exlsts tts repn:smtaUYe. viz. , tine
)oop Awhose: word w(>.) toIISi!U of c:ombirlaltolu of the form (a) only. COnvene-
ly, it ill obYiou' that If a lillc loop Ahu WInd w(>.) ant)' CClUisrina of combinatiotlS
of the fOflll I . ) . Ibm It dClmniDcsan element from Krt l .
E.xociK 6 . P'r(noe tbat tile Xl of wor ds of tile t!esaibed fOt1rl is a normal subP'OUp
N of Ihc &!'OUII G and is emffUed by the d emoenl .. . .. (Q ).
It roUo., from the computation of the kemd Kerl . and. Eutci$.e 6 that
Iter;. _ N. and there fore 1I'
tx, .d :: GIN. nw LaUct equati.l y is UlUfYilknl to In-
lIociurin , lbe uniQue rdilDOII '" .. c amonllhc: l enerators of the . 'OIJp G.
We nowtist lOIIIe corollaries III lllecn nl J.
COkOt.LA.lty I . 77wjw.. t1lI1Mflttll VOMP 1I' 1(RP J, P ) o/'llcpnJjtiYrIJID- R}>Ju a
qdi(, , 1OO4p Z, 0/onhr 1-
".OOP. 'The X _ R}>J jl'CJSK$Sft canonical dctck'Ipmenr wtlose ward Is
4't4' I' (X. is. cydic IlOUP hnin. one IflICTlltor at and the ddlnin&
tdaticmor c.
0 , J, HOtDOIoprTheory
COROLLARY 2. /N1td1l_"tIl16roup 01 till! tonu .. ,(T
, is II l'ft ANtill"
6rollP willi 111'0
f' 1t00P. tonlS r poacaa: I canonical d.cvclopmcnl wllh the wor d IIbt1-'6- ',
and , COI\MIQumtI)', __ obtain that the IJOUP b aenerated by II , b. The
rdUion IIbtJ-
b -
'"' I! provlodaI CiOftdi1ioo foc iu convnutl1iYity, viz" fib "" N , .
Ocomttrica1Iy, to tlIe &eeera1Of II , of the tIlDdammla1 of projea.lve
......u e:spouds its (lee 1M moddsof RP in Su. , 01.. II). To
the aeneraton III ' 6
of the flll'dazDe:ntaJ PtNpoft be tonu r
, lhe eon espond iu
!"aBllel and meridian, the IWO principal DODcorlltlCtlbk loops 01\ Ihe tOt\ll .
7- , FInd ali t wl\al reomelric mamin. the ,eDenllors of !he tundunmlal
IJOIlP' hi ve fOt M ,Nt.
The fundamental crou p orJe knot c:omplemc:nt pla)'J IIlI imponant pan in knot
ela.ul rlClliOll,
EJttrc/# . - , Prove that triv ial knot is not eqllivalent 10 either lit e trefon or
rl6\lre-of-eiabt knots.
HI" t : Show thal !be rundame Jllli Voups of the c:ompltmt:tlll lDIl
10 thcsc bwu ....e JIO(
5, The Topological Invariance of the Euler Characteristic of a
Sur face. Lcl Xaad x ' be IWO bomoomorpbk elosied I\,q"facr:swith somesubdivl
sions n, n ' ; let x(ll) and x (II ' ) be Ihe.- EWer eharaetcristi<:s caIeu1ated fClali ve
t o fIIbdiYisions n , 0 ', I'QPed.lvdy. We dWI proyc that x (D ) '"' :II:{I]'),
'Jbe ckvdopmeat n (11' ) is redl.lOCd to the canonical try t:q\Iivaknt Type 1 0' U
trIMl'ormulons (dcUnnIoed by tbe nwnbt:r of handla pCp') or MobilIS strip'
q W' J Ihat IR pasud to ee $Jlhere). 2p{1p ' J, q(q' ) _ the nwnbcn of acllt:rll on
(connected by the dd"mir\J relation ... = t ) of the fllnctammtal fPllUP of tftulltf.ce ,
0wiIl. 10 the bomeomofll hbm of X and X', Ibc lP"0upl .. , (X) UId " Iex- ) are
Isomorpbie. Therefor e. If dIc o::anoniea.I 1)'pC of the ckvdopmaw rt, n ' cor-
rc:IpODds 10 l)pe I, then '2p co 1p ' , wtteocc: :II: (ll ) .. :11: (11') in virtue of t he
equalities x (ll ) '"' 2 - 1p IIlId.:II: (Il' ) .. 2 - 1,p' . The CIIC of Type II c:ItfIOniul
dadopntenu a.n be:eons lden:d in an an.Uogous manner. ThUl, two diffe:t'tlll M
t ype sur raocs of dJrrerent l ent,. (this is equally true for the Nq-type surf. celI) art
IlOt hon'ltlOmofllhic,
' and Nt - (q .. Il t ype sW"faoes art not homeomorphic tUher . This
foUows f, om t lH: faa. thai the rundamcntal l"lllpa of an orient able sUl fa ce: M,. of
ICI\lISp and a DOflorient.ble fIIrfa.ceN
q .. I, of se nllSq are nat isomorphk: . In
fact. "j(M,d is I group wiIh .. . , a" b,. ,., . the dc:fUlina rda
Iklna1b"" b .
-/',11; b; 1 .. . . whcla.ube Foup ,,\VV. ) is lP"oup with
p DU'alQnIl l ' fl q vid the deftniq rd.Itt'on ""f''''1''' fiti' , - e. It is dtt.l that
thICK aroupl are not isomorphic if 1p "*" q. If we: that 1p _ q .
then :I" \(M ) is not isoInorpltie 10 "1 (0"0'. ) beca ulC in !he r&CIor lVOUP
T'lN1Vl" IWjlJ... ,(N,)) of dlc IJOIlp ,. , (N, ) rc:Iarivc: to IUc.ommlllant t,. I ( N,) ,
:I" (N. , I, then: U I coset of order 1, wftidl contains Ihe fI ,fl l '" fl . , Tber>: are
I)() dnlIeDU of the KOOIId ordc::r in the factor IP"OUP ,, \(M,.)lI" I(M,. ) . .. ,W,.)J.
the dc:meN fltb", i 1bjl , .. ttjJ,P; Ib; I orthe rn:e F ou p 'lridl Ihe.menllon
ttl' ... , or,. b, ... ,b,. 11 eoolaiDedfri U1e cammlJt&lll of this aroup,
Note that t he ThaKem. 2 of Sec. " . 01. 11. is now pro ved com-
plely. The p:nU5 of a $Urfaee aDd iU orieDlabil ily or nonorimt abilit )' compl n.dy
detennine il$ topok)&icaltype.
6. On Calc ulating Higher Homotopy Groups. The cakulnion of lhe
homot opy lfouPS of sp;w;cJ is an important b\lt a di fficult problem. Mrthods for
cakulatlna these lIfoups have been wDrtro QUI. Howeva. when they are applied to
concret e cases, consi derable dlrncult iell are encountered . Ncvenhdcu, certain
homotopy groups have been ulcul. ted for suffi ' aood ' and. pl a.}' an
Important in lTWIy problems.
The follo w\na1heorem enables us to reduce t hc computaUon of the homot opy
aroups of spaec X to th at of the eon-espondina: croups of spKl:. y which is
homotopy equinknt to X .
THEOREM 4. q J : X - rM n / ()t'tmy point Xlii X . 1M
I,, : r..(X,X) - ..... (Y./(r))
....hich is indllcH by I. if an i.romorphism.
Pl OOF. Le I a mapping, be homotopy inverse of f . and 'fJ a represemedve of . cer-
lam elass (op) EI ..... (X. xol. Then f.&IN> is . rcprcsmt l lin of its iIna&e MII I..I. The
sptlennd '" Is ' at tathcd' to point Xo- Md lhe spheroid f.I..f)p to t he point
=:0 :1: 0- Ihe fonner brio. homOiopic t o the Lwcr In virtue of rI - l x - Sup.
pose lhat the poUlI Xo sbifts 10 painl :1:0 under di is homotopy, desrnoln, path
...( , ) ill doina 10 (FI, _71).
l..u w(l } i.lIduce an isomorphk mappina ... (X, tol!!
Set. 3}. Th e holllO)p)' of lhe ' r. heroids ,. &ndCtJ)p geDc:rIleI' lhe homoloPYof the
spheroids U I" Mda from s:- l.. I. Therefore, ' J ill,,] 1IJ"'1 .. la l _ S::- l C",l ,
which means thai t he foUowlna dlagr.un is commlil l tlve:
Ch. J. HomolOllyTht<ny
S, mifarly . it may be lh own (Iry it you! $elf) t hat the dlalt:ltTl

... b',A " -..f'f/'oIH..,/J
'II commutative, where ... : 1 - Y is a p.uh from t he point 10 the point
VU)(.I"o\ equai to/ .... II followsfrom the rommUiumly of tbe$e diql:ams (tuin..
into ac;O\I.Dt thai ) - 1 ... are
,. . lhat the one-poln t space &lid the art umfereDllll: s ' have different
10". Prove that the two.dimen5iona1 di$c and t1'Ie Iwo-dinxrWoa al cyliDder over a
cin:umferenoc ha .....di fferent bomoIop y types.
A1tho uih it has DOl yet. hem OOlDllletely at pnsent . me pr oblem o f
tak" lat iJI, me ",oups - i(S") has ltimu1aled tbe devdopmmt of many brandteJiof
modem topoJoay. Hat arc two very dinmtt cases , vit . .t. " n and k > " . Though
rcqulrin development of a special method. the fanner Is dancntuy moqh. We
list the f ollowiJ\l reJiulu without proof- :
_ I(S" ) .. = ... = "-,,. (S"l '" O,1r,,(5") .. Zf1l ;;. I).
Hence. It follows. in particular, ttlat the sphere S" is noncontlllclible 10 a"y of
lu poinU.
Th e lOCondease has not been fullyinvestigated , and the diHicultlCl increase wilh
the il'oWlh 0 111 and Ie - n , Here are lome of the limplffi rnulls:
1rl (S; .. Z, -.($; = Z2. . .. '''".-+I(S'') '' Z2f1l ;:,. l ).
This refutes lhe intui t ive assumption lhal Jr.t(S"} 0 whClIt > n.
Tb Ui. WIlen n - 1. 1.. .. . the sroups ",,,(S") are free Abdi:m Itoups with one
, eneralOTv, -r" beinJthe homotopy class of the identi ty lD.Ippinj Is- , S" - S".
The mullipM: d assa I . 't" can be imagined all the homotopy dasscs of ma pplnp
.. - S" UK:h thai 'twisl' the sphere S" onto itsdf I times . In addft ion, if I > O.
then onent.hon of the spbe re under the lIUl PP;01 " is said t o be praervcd.
wlWst i t I < O. the ori eatatiorl assaid to be cban&ed (cf. t"e bomotopy dasses fro m
1rICS I .
xociu I I ". Ltt S" be: a sphcf e with the 0Cll1re at tbc: onJin of the spatt R"" I.
SIlo....thallhe m.lppi.tI. o( S" into iudf p n .. b)' the WflQpcln deJlC'C
"'1.Xl . ... x" I- ( - XI' Xl ' 1).
determines alsomolopy eIas t o ( - -r..).
lt illqulle simple lOproYe tJw 1r,,(X.... - 0." .. l . if w JP&CCX is contra<:l-
ible to a poinl (Thcomn 4 should be applied). In parlaeutar. _obtain the foUowirl
Imroduction 10 Topoloay
for the dUI: and . pace R" :
-.tW") .. 0 , ....t (D") '" O. "'t(R") e O. k .. 1,2, . . .
7. Some Applications. We first prov e an important prcperty cf the sphereS".
THEOREM ). T'Jwsp/wot S" (I .e.. the boundQry ojrhe disc D" +I) is nOI Q nlnlCt oj
PROOP. A ncccsary condition for lbe exist ence of an ()\teos}on of It mapping was in-
dicat ed in Sec. 2. It was fonnularcd in term$ of a functor to the catCJOl')' of v aups.
We apply this comlitiorus, lakinlllhc functor"." \IS the functor T. We know already
that r ,,(S) " Z. .....(D"+ l j "" O,an d If lhc sphcrc S" were a retrect ofl) "" l,theD
we wollld obtaln the foUowina commutative diagram
where i \$ !be aubeddina o r the eph ere inl o the QaIl . and , the required fClr8Clion.
SiDOC ..... is It covariant fI,lllClOT. it would ccnveet di asranl (I) Inrc the commutative
diq.ram (2) which is of form U). The laUer is co ntrary 10 it s commutativity.
t!H: llS$wnpt ion thai there is It , is not vidid.
With t he ai d of Theorel1l S. the followiug int crating th eorem , whieh hu impor-
UIlI t applicat ions , i. proved .
THE FIXEo.POINTTHEOREM (8 kOUWER/.A"y rontt""ous rnappi"t f : D" +I -
- b" +1of II1II (It + c/og:d btllt (dl.srJ lsuo itself poss_at ltG.St O"f
fued point, uttl.r <l poi", JC. e +1 such ,/wt /(;c.) ... JC
PROOF. In fact, i f there is no such point , Le., fOI any poin t JCE D ,,+I.f(X) JC,
then the 1ine-5e8ftImt joinina lhe:pomt/(;c) to the point JC can be c:Ilt mded beyond
the: pointx to meet the: sph ere SIt at. certain point r (;c). Then the rnappingr : .0"+1
- S" , JC - r(x) I.s an a teosion of !be idmtity mapping of the: iPhefe S it to lilt I .
But we just provl:d that th efe is no such extension. The contradiction proves
the theorem._
8. The Degree o r a Mapping. Th e gro up " ,,(5" ) - Z is dosely relat ed to
the nollon Ortbf desree or I. continuous mappingf ' SIt _ S", whic h is oftf n used
in analysts. l.<e1. .,,, be a generator of tbe grO\lP " ,, (5" ). The nf. h ,,) = a'Y". when:
a is an integer, andf. I. homomorphism o r t he yaup ....(S" ) Induced by the ma pp-
ina/. The number a ;5call ed the tkrree ",llppiflSland deno ted by
.5i gn of dcgJ does not d.epend on the cOOlee of a aenfrat Or).
11". The mappina of the Wlit eir cumferfneo:: s' .. : It 1 '" I) o f the comotex
plane is given by the fonnula f (t ) .. t " . Sh ow that deaf " n.
U . Show th ai iff; 51 - s' I.s a kxaI then the number of point,
in the fu ll Inverse imagef- 1(;C1of an y polot JCE S is constant.nd cqUai lO IdCilI.
lbe notion of the degree of. mappina is al so introduced neturally for th e mapp
inas! ; S7- 5; from on e replica of the sphere to another. (To do this, Ihe bui.
0 . ) , HomotopyTheory
... and thcn! . b'; .. de&{
Since is Ihe homotopy d a.s [ ls "1of the identity mappi ng. we have the
following relation for the mappinBf : SIt - SIt:
" f . (l s. ] - l/IS") - Ul ,
me-erore. dcg f ')'" is the homotopy elMS of the mappingf; thus, degf Is 'the
number" of t he homotopy cllLS$Ul
IfI .. I is t he identit y mappin/l,then deg! - I; if I - 0 (homot opic to t he co n-
Stant mapping) thcn dqf .. 0; l f /: SIt - S" , fl : SIt - arc IW{) mapp ings, then
thcy arc homotopic if and only if they arc of the same UcBTe e: des f '" eess. We
abo adduce one useful formula, deBVt ) .. (de&.n . (dcU) Ihat follows from
the retauon lIBl .. I. [g].
The not ion of degree Is used while !.nvC$(lgat ing whether it Is po"ible to el\lend
eontinuOI1S mappings! : - R " + I , (0) to the ball I bounded by the sphere
SIt. Since the space R" +I " (0) is homOlopy equivalent to S" , their homotopy
groups are isomorphic and there fore we may spea k of the degree o f a given map-
ping, usually called the churacUrisrk (or rorutlon) of Ihe Vt:CIQI'fieldf: we denot e it
by xsw(/) ,
LE."'l:MA 6. T1II! rondilion xsw{f) - 0 u nt:UMilryand sufrtclt:nl f or Ihl! utension
/ : l>w + I _ RW+ I , {OJ of/hI! mapping! 10 exist.
The proof is evident from our noIe Ihat the mappinll/ detl'nlline:lthe homotopy
f - 0 by the fOO'lluJa
!(.r. ,/) _ ! (rx }, x e S" , f lE 10, 11
(if s"is the sphere of radi us I and centre at 0), and vice versa.
&trdst 14. Construc t the extension /when f - O.
An obvious coroUaJy foUo," from Lemma 6.
COROLLARY. 1/ X$A if) 0 then ony urensio" / : + I - R w hiD a terti . s.e. ,
Ihert: oislsapointxo eD,, + I,](.r.o) _ O.
This corollary is oflen used for the proof of t he existence of a solution to the
equat ion ] (.r. ) ,.. 0, where! : l),r+ 1 _ R"" I is a given mappinll .
I. It is ca.s y 10 verify lhat with Ihe cond itions of the 'Brouwer flxcd-point theorem,
t he mapping J f,x) = - I (x ) + x eit her has a zero on or "X $"(/J _ 1(/ : s ft -
_ RH"(OJ is homotopieed lat he identity mapp ing/Cx. t) .. - rf (x ) + X , XE S W,
o '" I " I) . Therefore.jha.s a ::TOin fr
2. The fundamental t heorem o f a1&ebra : a ccmptex pol ynomial
/(t) ... + + .,. + a", _ lt + a...
has a root in the eornplell. plane.
We den<lle lhe circumference on the .;:-plane (l: : It 1 = p j by
LEMMA 1. For larse P. we hal'll'
' [OJ.
10 TopololY
und in mJdifion X3:(/) .. m.
PROOF, Consider the homotopy
J(t , l) - z'" + 1(" JZ",- l + .., + tI", _ IZ +"", ), le iO,lj.
We have an estimate
tj (t, I )1 Itl'" [1- ' ("1"':" +... +0", , _ _1_, +0", _1_)]. Id * 0.
1:1 - 1: 1"' - Itl '"
It is evident that there Isp :> 0, sufficiently large fot 1/(:. /) 1 > 0 when 1;: 1 =< p,
I e 10, II. Therefore J ;Sl - R
'- [OJ is homotcpic to the mappingg : S; -
- R
,- (0). , ez) ..t"'." AceQrding to Exercise 12, XSI (g) '" m;
"s,(f) '" m as well. To complete the proof, _ now use tlie corollary to Lem-
mo: 6.
AJ rcprds the daWca.l topks or homotopy theory tovl:Rd in thil dui ptcr. we le.:om
mend, abQ.;c aU, Hom",opy 'TMtJry by H" 14)1, a.I it providesa lboroughiJl4 quite
comple(( accowJlof homotopy theory. In IldditiOll , tile,e:adlo" will find ;l llSe ful to!the ac-
cQUnl. of lopi<:s 1CHnC: .wme whal (MmaHZfl! . 1nI1 qUlle detailed) 10
Spanier" Aigroroic TopoioV [7}1. W. ah o rtllUllU:nd HonrOlopy Thrury IHI bFudl s d
aI. and Mod"" Gtomry (ZlI] by DIlbroYin CI aI. as boIh of Ibem ere notable for Iheir
Seon>elrio;a!lP\lfo.=h. The: d ..mmll tn holIIOIopy lh<'Ol can be fO\llld in First Courn oj
Topok)gy. ClHJpters (?O] b Rohlin aDd Fw:hs, wllich colllalnl a 1)'SlenJallC ap-
proxh 10 llomotopy &fOUP Iheory. A Sooo:l book of probkms rdal ed 10Ihll chapter is pro
tJI tmSlR {61 ] by Novikov el al.
To sludy tbe nollom of category and fUlIClor, see Macl.:l nc= 's Homo/0V (SI ] (Ch. I,
Sees. 7 and 8). wdl covered ill Spani"'sA lp-fmIlc 'TbpOJou {711(Ch. I.
Sees I and 2) ,
A consider able pan of tile book by MasscyAlpbrail: TapoIoV : .Allfnrrodunlrm (52]is
de'o'Oled to fUlldammtaJ &'Oups and. rda lN Il)Jlics, 0 11. 2 and ) tid", recommmded for 1I1
inilia! study of Illese 10pks .
In OIlr proof of lbe lh<'Olmtaboul llle fuDdameruai p oop ora wequile closdy
fo.illow lMrlnH:lIthr Topolcrir (711(Ch. Vlij by Se:ifm and ThreUrall . The: lhrory ofthe fU n-
datn<=nta!s rl>l;l p II alw u poulllkd visually and fully by DuiJro\'ln CI al. in Modtnl (;eorMl, y
A strict 10poloskal llleofY of liIedear" of I mBpjlingand lhe vector field cb8llClerillil:
(based On tIomoIoIY thc:0I)') may be (ound in Tope/DIYIII (Ot . XVI. Sees. )
and. $) by Alaandrov. Some BppliciltiOllSoh lu:lhcol1'of III . degree: of I mappins are Bivenin
GrorMlrk Mtlll od$ oj NonJlRta, A"lIIysir [471 by KrasnOM:lsly M d zabrtiko .
Manifold. and Fibre
We co nsidered the gener al pr opert ies o f t opolog.lcal spaces and
their mappings in the previous chapters. However. th ere are spaces
with other structures in topology an d ils applications, C.I ., smooth
mani folds and fibre spaces,which play an important part in many
branches o f modem mathematics . In t his ch apter ,we study smooth
manifolds in detail as well as tangent bundles whi ch arc naturally
related to them. We cover t he c:lement$ o f the t heory o f cr il K:a.l
points o f smooth funct ions on manifolds and deal with the:
d ements of fibre space: t he ory.
I. SmOOIh Mapping s . Remember that R" is the space of orde red .se'lS
x _ (xl' . .. XII) of /I real numben (see Sec . 2,01. II) or vectors. We
will assume that R" l1 stQndardly in R" + t , i.e. point (xl' ... , x,,)
from R" will be identirled with the point (xl ' . .. x"' 0, . . . ,0) from R" + t . The
. x" from the set (x l' ... x,,) ar e ca.IIedthestlllldllrd coordina ty
of tht point x .. (xv . . . x,,) in R".
Let U C R" be an open ser, Ivly mapping f ; U - R'" can be rf:pre$Cnted (sec
Sec. 2. 01. II) as an ordered set of m functions:
/(x.l" ,x,,) - V1(x1' " .x,,), f , (x.... . x,,) . . . .J"'(xl" " . x,,.
DEFINITION1. A ma ppingf : U - R
is said to besmOO/1l (or dif/t rtfll fob le) of
deMC'. r .. I . on U ifeac:h functioftf,t.,t => I . . . . m, halIall contlnuous paniai
derivatives,.cc-"'"''-;;:::-. 3
+ .. . + $" - 3, On U foreveryorOc:r \lp tos '" r
inclusive: .
Smooth mappinp / of ctass C' are also called C"-moppings and written as
If aUt he fundions/ t possesscontinuOlls panial derivatives of My order then t he
ma ppinaj is said to be i'l/initd y smooth (Ie C"" ). Continuous mappings Il.U cal led
CO-ffUtppill&S. Il ls obvious thai the followi ng relations an': valid
CO :> C
:> . . . :> C':> . . . :> C-.
In Ue au \he are anal ytic (a function il said lo be 1l/IQ171k if ilt Taylor n-
paI\5";oo oonverlU to il in 1M ncipboluhood of eadl point), the mappln.. /ls said to be
IlnllfYfk if" C"). foUowlna SCI incllU;on Is val id C'" ::J C".
DEFINITION2. The matrix
of the fInt derivatives of t he mapping I . cal culated at a point X
is called Iht Jeco-
biDn matrix of t ht I/'IIlpplng/ at X
and denoted by ('\ I
iht ) "0
Th e Ja.cobian mat rix detenni na a linear mappinl R" _ R"':
whkh II called tbe dtri"'llli"O/rM the poinl XOand by Dx!.
deri vati ve is a 'l.incariwlon' of the ma ppi ll&/ . 1..1: . , the .rrllle mlppinJ
ICX,} -t (D"f!(x - Xd comdde. wi th f(x) up 10 inrmltcsimab of higher order
tban b - x
' . More prec:lsdy, Dx/it . unique Iina.. meppins of R" lo Ii.''' fot

- --0 Il$ x - xll'
Ix - X

A corollary to the thecrern abo ut t lw: deriv:ative of a C'OI11posite functwn is lhe

roUowinJI $lI U:mm l (t he ' chain ni le'): undrr Il,JuptTpt)JlIion oj moppinvf.rKI ,.
IIwit' .JocobWr m.uicu tire mul l/plit Le
(':':') <:01.....(:) L
n.: "'00I'of this is lefl t o the rnck:r as an aatiJc: .
2. The Rank of a Mapping. Let U CR" be III opm 1d./: U - R-
IAI Pplna 01 c:bu C'"(T :or.. 1) . The "",* o/tlre 1ntJPPin6/at a POint .rotsthe rank o f
iu Jacobiatl matrix cak:ulata1 at the point.l"oand dcooted by rank.1- b equals the
dimension of l he subspace In R- , viz.. , the of R" WIder Ihclinear
Dx!-Sif\f;C lbe noDI: of . maimaulDOt the lIumbeo" of rows I'll et>luUll\$,
mult have nul l: !tI " min( If. m) . Polnu at wtIic:h rant .J - min (II, m) are uid
10 be "',1447,. {alsO noncril ktl/ (K n(Jll.SjlffJIftu) . and poiii'li II which ....1: <
< nUn(n, m) ar c said to be /fOIlnlultlf (also crir icol or s!JI ,Wltlf).
The 5Ct ofrCSu1ar polnl. of a m. ppinB/ i$open in R" (owln Bto the COQllnuily of
the panlal l he determinant for which the rank of t ile Jacobl an matrix is
found. is differ ent from zero In some neighbourhood of . TtBular point) . The let of
rq ular points may be empty Wve JOllI e eJlllJlpl ) .
a. The Implicit Function Theo rem . We nOW adduce the theorem about
implidt lUnctill.s malls proved in the COI.U"SC: of analysi s. We shal l reprrsml poinU
of the space R" .. - .. R" x R - in the form (X. )'), where x '"' tl"l' . . ,
x,,1e R", y .. II" .. . )'.)8 R- . let U C R". " C R.'" be opom seta.and
V C R""
iRWREM I. U / : U x Y - R u tI .J1JCc. .. 0 _11(/
'" ('!\I .. O. tlwtt C UoItll.
Iy ) U.. N
: - VsudI ,. .. O/or
ClI . . "'_ fmdu lld !-'Me Bundlu l SI
lI11y XE' WCxo) , 1M 1nllppUI" Mbt, wlliqw. FWlhrrmon. , a C
.. _S- I A . ( I)
1M _,rXy:s B IUId .AI tmI obtllbt tdf rom fflQlrkcs
(: (A"'71)
retptlwly, 011 ''''IlIMIII y by z(A").
NOTE. If ! 6 C', r ;;t J, then, G' C'. Thi$sta tement foUowt: from equali ty (l l.
ene corollary 10 Ihe lmptieit function th eorem ithe Inverse mappinll theor em.
THORllM2. LeI V C IN IIIIO/Hll set .!: V - ;;t I,
e V II ,.""Iar poi", of the mappln, f. Theil Ihtre txlst neigh/xJurhoQlts
V(xol, W(f(xo'O of Ihe po ints X
lind / C;tol such IhDI / Is /I homeomDfph Lrm
V(.rol !. W(f(.rol and r I Ii Cr.
Pl OOf . Consider lhe m.ppina X U - R" given by t he n de Fly, xl
r - f(.rX,y e R", )( e U). Drooce Yo - It IS obious t hat F e C' and
.. O.SiDccrankJ - " , it foUowst hlldct (:;)1(10. '" .;. O. By the
implic:it fllndilxi theorem,t hen aiR. an open M' l&bbowhood Wlyol C R" of Ihe
poll>I 7oand a unique mappina, : Wlyol - V IUd! that ,lyol = x.o Mel fOC' any
76 Wlyol,
FO', ,0'.. y - f (gO'll - O. (2)
Put V(.rol - ,(Wlyoll . Since V(KQI .. r ' ( WO'oll, we find that VCXol Isopen In
vinUI! of t ile conlmuity of f . lbus. , : WO' oJ - v(.roJ ill a ma pping <;If open seu
and, due to (2), we obtain , .. / - 1. Morcovcr, from Ille not e to Theo,em I, we
e C'.
DEFINITI ON 1. A m8ppinl L : U - v or an open set VC R" onto an open set
V C Ril ls eaUed a C'-dlff eom(}'I'hlsm, r ;;t I. if (ilfis a homeomorphism of V on-
to V, (U)! e C' and (ill1J- I G' cr.
Exercise I". CollUruCl the C""-difrcomorphi$mJ : O:(.r) - R".
The inverse lIliIppinl theorem m.&y now be fOl mulllcd as follows. 1/f: V - R"
IfCf C". nVlppi", . ,;;t t , qfan DiN" V C R" in R" , IIl1dx
Ga Nlfulllr point off .
IJrtll IMn aUt opvI MjzhbC1l, hoodr Y(xol, W(f<xoll 0/ lire {JOUIU z ,, ! {;lol such
"tllt ,Ire mappifflll ; V{;lol- W (.rol) & II C'-diffHnCNphism.
2". Prove thlt a diffeomof1)hllm bas no nDnrquiu points.
HItr,: Uto the _ e.boW !he Jacobia n 1lUnU. for tile of IDaPJ'lIISf.r' .
) . V:t f : R" - R I be a mappillJ of dass C' _' ;;t I. ShoW' lbat !he: OOl\reguhlr
lntrOductiaD.lo Topoloty
ccteu oUarc charactaued by the raa t hat the fuJ I putial derivatives
chan for all variables.
. ' Curvi linear' Coordi nate Systems . Let U. to' C R- be open xu.and
f ; U - V . bomcomorphiml . The position of tva)' poIDt Y E V may be apcdl'kd
by means of the . aadatd coordinat es y " .. oJ' . of the point y . but thi' QII u.o
be done with tbe bel p or tbe a an<iard c:oordinates or tbe point x .. rib') IE U.
DEFINmON 4. The standatd c: oordinal es of the polnt r l (Y) E U ve termed 1M
'CIl",i/iMw' coonJiMru of t he poi nt J! E V.
In ot her WOTds, inst ead of 11M: pl-.ncs .1, _ bj< I .. I , . .. n , -
to.uide!' In y t he im..,es. under thc homeo morphismJ. of t he cootdinuc planes
Xi .. til' i .. 1 . . . , n. io U, Ihe IlltCr!leCtkJa oft htK lml3CS dncrmlnin, the: posi-
tion of the poi nt )l. TIle t erm 'c urvilinear' coordinates mer ely reflects th e rlet thlt
the: newccoedlnare ' planes' In V arc, llenera1ly speU ln8, ' clll'YilincST' (A.g. 72).
Y.... 72
NoIc that in anatysb, eu.rvitintu ooo rdina1es an not u$Ually inlrodlOlOCd by
rne&lISof a homeomorphism, bUI by usiJla; a C"..c1iffetJmOrphi$lll , where the ordu of
Sftl oothM:U ,. 6epa!cb 011 the problem under mnsi6n'at ton .
Jr . (uott>oD, is siYal 011 Vas a fllnetioJt of t he . &DdardroonliDatcs of pOOlt
)I. th en it QID be as I (un.ctloo of tbc sundatd coonfulat uQf a polnt . ,
l.e., as a func:tion of lhe eUl'Yillneu tolmtinates of tbe point r-In analyslll. such an
operation Is lermed a mOIl,e of WlriQbIa. In Olha wor ds, we replace t be coor
din'tea In ee evese imqe apace oflhe funa ion, . which ;s equiYll!ent to consider
iq the func:lion V ln$1e4d of , . It goes wilhou t ..yinl lhat mappiogs and s1miltr
eltal1gea of variables ean abo be eonliidered. Th est m anleS ar e al so made III th e
space of Q1app.!na images, l .e. , lf , : W - Vis I mappina of, set w e Rift th en in-
$lead of the a udard coordina tes of t he point , (rl , t: e W. the curvilinear coer-
din lles ot itic: point , (d determi ned by the honteomOl'llhlsmJ I.Te eonsidem1. Sudt
ehM&t' Is equivalen t 10 COflIideriq the mappinJ r
, ins tead of . mappina , .
Not e th al the rank of . smooth mappill, is Wlalt ered USldn smooUl dtan,e of
, . A Theorem on Rectifyi ng . Tbu ,tllfdtrnf emMddill6of R- into R .. tis
mappin, R - - R" .. . spedfted by the l;:'Clr1UpOndence
(xl' , Jr.. ) - ta"1' . x 0. .. . 01.
The stalldtudproJtiolt of R- + " 0111.0 R js tbe mlppirl, R ... " - R det er -
mined ,x.'x. .. I ' " . x. .. Ie) - (xl . , .,).
Ch. 4. Ma nif olds a nd Buodles
Fi g. 73
REGULAR POI NT). U C be On open Rt.j : U - Rift 0 C' moppinl, r .. I
ond X
<l re, ulor poinf ojf.
(A) 1/n m then exist 011 open nellhbourhood Wif(xJ) oj the poInt f<XJ.
Qn open sel WI C Rift , ond a C"d/f/eomorphism F : Wif<Xoll - WI {uch lho t Ff
on a am ain Optfl nelghoourhood V<Xol C R" Is (he standard of R" iruo
Rift ( Fig. 73).
(8) l/n ;;;. m Ihen th ere exist Onopen neighb ourhood V(xol ojthepoln/ x
' an OJH"
HI W C ondo C'.dl/fmmprphlsm F: V<Xol - W such thol fF- J On W
Is (he s /Qndord projt(:tion 0/ onto Rift ( Flg. 14).
Consider the fi)(1llll ng of Ihis the orem from t he poi nl of view of coor dinate
ch81lgu. In case (A) , t he diffeomo, phism F -I determines the curv ilinear coer-
I' , .. , t ",l in the space Rift, in whose terms t he mapping/ is of the form
.. x" . . . , t il '" x"' t " .. I = 0, . . . ,. t ", .. O.
[n case (8). t he diffeomorphism p- l deterrnlnes the cur vilinear cOO1"dinates It I'
. , the space R", in whose terms the mapping / is o f the form YI .. eI'
The idea o f Ihe proof i$ 10 comprere the given mappings 10 ma pping$ o f spa."c:s
of the same dimensions , and, by appl ying the inverse mapping l heorem, 10 obtai n
t he ncary coordi nate changes.
PROOF. ( A) Represent poims o f t he space R'" .. x R'" - " in t he form ex, y),
where x .. <xl' . . . , XII) e R" , )' - VI' . . . ,Y", _ til Ii R'" - ". Given t ha t rank
,,/ = 'I , or rank I "" n. weassume , at flnt, that the det er minant made up
ax) "n
Int rod ucti on t o Top<>1ocY



0' -
of U\c: fIrS' .. rO""$ of 1M JacobiaD m&IrUc (ID I... is differ"'" (rom eee. Con
sidu lbe mappin F, : U x R" - - R- 3iwn by lbe ruIc F,(x. y ) '"' !(.r)
+ (0. y) , The Jacobiarl ma tl'll: of tbe: F
.11 the poinl <xc,. 0) is of lbe form

.. .. .. .. . .. . .. .
'I' j . . . . ,'1. I
ax, .... ....

.'f, -,I
. . . . . . . -. . .. . .
'f_1 ", I
,)z, ,.., . ... ax. :roo
By lh e assumption, the dctClTllmaot ill the upper kfl-band corn er is Ol hu lhan eere,
lhc:rdorc rank '" orl '"' m, 8 )' the invcne mappinl theonm. there ai$t
0) a nd W 1V'<KJ) o f Ihe poinlli (x000) an4/{,1tO>. respeaiv" ly.
4. !'1aruCok!s aod Fib.. Dundl r:s
'I, 1 'I, 1
' ", . ' ._J>.." " ' ;-- ,
J "'--r' \P , r ,
such that the mappi ng FII 0) ; W{xo, 0) - WIl'{xol) ;$ a C'-dlffeomorphism.
Ihe ma pping fI ' : W11/(;(0 - Wlx
0) 1$ al.w a C'-diffeomorphlsm.
Put F ... fll . In virt ue of the cont intlity of the mapping!, there ubts an open
V{xO>oftheOOinlXO e such that!(V{xol) c W
I/<x6ll. Then the
mappingF!; V<XO> - Wlx/lo 0) is valid. The maooing F!u tile standard embedding
of into R'" on the neighbourhood V(xO>. In fllct, since the mappingF'i
is bijec -
tlve and F1(x ,0) .. !{x). ....ehave(Ff)lx) co F(f{x .. fl lif{x " (x,0).
In case lhe determinant of the first" rows of the h cobian matri;c ( ::) I"", i,
equal to zero, Ir ls finl necesswy ( 0 renumber lhe coordinates in Rift (in other
word" 10 malee a , pecial change of coordinates in R'" by means of the
C"' -diffeomorphism It ; R'" - R'" ' 0 thaI the delermlnant made up of tile fill t n
. . 'f I
rOW5 of the Jacoblllll matrIX may be difforent from zero). We con-
a" " 0
struct the C'-diffcomorphism F for lhe mapplnu ' - 'JlIS above. Thuifg - I will be
the required C' -dIffeomorphism for the mapping.
(B) We represent t he of ure space .. Rift X - '" in the form {X,y ),
wnere x "" {xl ' . , z.. ) e R"' , y .. o., . .. _ "' ) 6 R
- "' . .. (x'l,
fl) .Fromlhedata.wehaveranlc:
,c;.!=m,or rank (..!!.....) 1 = m. ,
.n a (x,y) (,II.A
Assuming at IIut thal. the made up of the fust m columm of the Jaco-
bian mat rix (-'1....)1 is different from zero. consider the m.pping
F : U _ R'" x R
- '" given by the ro l e F(x , y) _ (:C, y ), y). The Jacobian
matrix of the mappins F at the point is of the form
::: .., L.
'1.1 'I. 1
;;-, . .J>.: . . . oJ, _'"
J "'- r , .... _ Itt ... 'r'
Int , od"" limI co TopoIoay
.. at tr').
PIlOO. , Put
By tho:" ",", plion, lb onnminanl in tho:upper lefH:lMd coma' is diffen nt from
zero. thcteJ on: rank (A4. '" n. By lhc: inyenunappia. thcorem.Jhere c::ilit OpeD
qhbowtloods V(r'.',;u) Mel of the poipu tr". y"') &lid /1>,
repectivdy, sud! that the mappina
F I I'<O-. r'l : V{Jr'. yO) - Y">. yO)
is Tbe mapplnajF-1 all lhc: ndltlboW'hood ..1').tI
Islbulandard projection Olllo R". m fad,let t e Slncer
Is bijel:lNe, lhc:re is. uai que point a.)ill the neW!bowbood fm- whith
t - (f( , II). ,,) . and "'0: f1.nd that
IifU. , }. ,,) - fir l (fIf , 'II. ,, lit. 'I ).
In the determinant made up or the fU'St ", columns of the Jaco bian
...!L)I equal, zero. It is fir" necessaryto renumber the COOl'1:llnau:s In
R (t.e" to dIanIe the by mean, of .. C--d.iffcomorphiun
, : R- - R ) 10 that the detemt inant mack up of tbe: nnl m columns of t be: Jaw-
bian ma uh (a
)I may be dilfnent from tuO. We 00llSUUCt. C'.
1(r .1) (0'1.""
ditfeocDorpttism F for the mappia.. l . in th e mlU'lnCT dcsI:ribcd above. and t hCfl
F, -I is the roquir cd. for tbe: mapplnJ/
6. Lemma about a Representation of Smooth Fuaetions . We ad-
du heft wother result wtlkb Is DtICUSU)' before we UD 10 1IIly flUther .
LEMMA t . Ut 1M. C' '' (r .. 0) 011tI COftW'X Ifl ilhbourllCJOd
0/ . poitt t xO Itt R". 'nrelf am I , : - R
i . I ,
, " II , surlr Ihal l(.r) + E , / (.r) (.r, - xf> and, momlYN ,
,- ,
, /(.r) l at + l(.r - xO)clI ,
By appl ym, the dmlent ary IratUformalions tAo..... from analysis, _ obl.ain
/(.r) - If/? !W + : - .10,>dt .. 1(tl(.r/ - xf) ::, + t(.r - ;Il))dt
. , .
-L (.r, - xf> r::, + t (.r - x"})dI . L (.rj -
, oo I J , oo .
.... Let f be a fun etion of dus C' 1, , :> o. Ji veo On a CQlIYU
nci&hbourhood a poltll xO 1lI JtA. Sho....that
fl,r) f W? + - z't):, +
,- ,

r (1"/ - .f.r
'.J- 1
I. The Notion of Smooth Submanifold in R" . in the courses o f
analysis and analytica.l .ftlmet r)', Inl()()(h surfaces in the tlltcc -aimcn5ional Eucli
dean 5PK'!' lbM are IPvm by an equation: fl,r. y), whCftf is a smooth fllna;on
of l W'O variables dd'"med in a rqion Doflne plaM(r.y). ...e Q)llsidcred. Mon:c:om-
plCll IlItfac:es(e ... . closed) which are aiven on their plUtkuw regions (l .e. kalIy)
by cee of ttle foDowing equat ions t .. PI.r. ,y q(x, ;z:). .. r(y, Q are abo
msidned. Th e limpkst eumple o f slldt a swfao:: b the $phni S1. Other objects
It udi ed in anal ysis met anal )'tical loomdly arc 5mOOlh Cllrva Jiven Ioca1Iy by oar;
of the l}'Items or equtiom,;
.....(d. {Jr =: ... lJ'). {y.. ... (.-),
]I - \Io u ): : j{y): : ..
AD tbC$C objts are mlbrlCC'd by the single Mlion of smooth 5IIbnanifoid in a
EIlC1.ideaa IP'O=.
We oow c:onrider a subset M in R
1.1 lopo1opeal sp4CC equi pped with Ihc
lopo101)' lndllOCd fro m RN. Let be. poiDl o f M. and Ul,rj il s opc:nnciahbourhood
DEFINITION I. If a homeomo'llhl, rn " ; - U(r) , n " N , u Ilsfyinll the /;Ondi
lions (i) '" Ii C', ' '" n for any poinl
,. is linn, t hai Olepair (U(,l'). ,/,) is caIlcd a elrrv1ill lire polflt on M of( 11;1$$
cr,or a C'<htlN on M.
NOT&. II l aDows fr<Wn dcrmilian that the C' -clw1 (V(r) , ,.) at a pointx is a C' -<:hlU"l
at any poi nt)' IE' U(r). Th is a plains the fact tha t the pair (U(r) .,) is also a Ued a
C'-chan on Itt .
Th"",I Ospecify. chatt I!lftlIS 10 specify locaDy the SO M (i.e 10 spcQfy the
nci&hbourllood U(r in the rOt'Rl
XI "1(,1"
xJ .. ( I)
Inl rodUCLloll ,o TopololY
wher e ..,. , _ I, . . . . N au the l unniolUl of clUJ e. which det ermine the
homeomorphism .,.
The U ( ) i. o flen QUal COOI'diml(c in view of
tbe fact 111..11 homClOmOrJlbbm (I) detttmilleS lhc: curvilillCar mo'rdinat u )' 1'
:I.. on ....CICt whieh DOt,'efIcraUy ...,wedto the 51l1lldatd (001'.
dinalts of the arntria ll spaa RN.
OeFINITION 2. A mappin./ : A - R;" of " wbxl A C R'" int O the space R" i$
QIled C' ._ ppi", . r ;;t I, on A U If C' (A if l or each poilu. x eA. there a ist an
opeD nqhbourhood O{Jt) in tbe spllcc R
and . O(l" ) - R" 5Ueb
t hal ]l... n Olr ) = j .
LEMMA 1. The hOmnHl'lol'pJlIsrn ., _ 1from I)if"llIjri (m 1 Is of ctass e .
'- 1l 00P, Let x E U(;to> e RN. Th cn ., - , (x) E R" . Since rank ... -1 ).... = n, b)! the
th<:orcm on rect.ifying mapping (see See. I), ther e ClU51 an open neighbourhood
W(.Ir} C RN of the point x, an open set WI C R
8.lJ.d a C'-diCCeomorphl sm
F : W(x) - WI sud! Ibat F'", on I certain nciahbourhood Y C",, -' (Jt c It" of the
point ", -IW it the st andar d rmbtddlna of RIO int o RN, Let, : R
- R" be th e
standard projection, it belna ' lhat '"C'. Co lUilkrini the mappina
I F : W() - R" , we oblain ltull , F E C' and6F1 w""n (1"'01 a .. - I.
Dcfinltiotl 2 enabl n US 10 , encral.iu: the AOlion of dirfeomorph.iSlft of Opal Ktli
of th e space R (SCI: hem J , Sec. t ) U foDows: a homeomorphism/ : A - 8 of
subKUA C R , B C R" bQ1led aC'-difj'eomoqJhlsm If/" C' (A ).,leC' (8 ).
It follows from Lemma 1 lIlal conditiom (i) and (iI) of Dct-'niticm I o f a C'.
dian W(), ..) are equtnJent to .. beina a C'-di ffeomorpftiml .
Now we live the basic de rmi lion. ....
b called an 1I1flmuuioJull SIIbnuurifold iD R
class C' or a C'...nlbmtutjfold If .cla of iIs poinu JlO'"SICS a certain
We will dcnoc e Ihis IUbmAlllfold by M" and M" Ii C', indka1in,thllSthai
it Is of d _ C'. In ocher words, a $et M In RN is an n-dimenJional submanlfold if
for ClIch of it5 poinu, a sysl em may be COI\nructed; eadi
il delermiRai locally land caned alOQlI <:'OOrdinllfe but the whole let
of coordinale systems ' embraces ' the m tire subman.lfold.
The de finition of . chan may be extend ed to the cue when r ... 0, ami ni n. con -
di lioD(iI) in Defini lio n 1. It is nalural that In tbis case noth lna can be ded uced as
rqards ' he differentiability of the homeom.o."hism. They say t hat M" is
lopolOlK'tlI _ .. /fold and write M" II! c4.
Note mat for any polotx of a sUbma ni fold M- C' , an inf'mil e, .ennaUy
.lpe;Ulna, numb<:r of dlans isWlmftined. Suc;ha set of charts I(U.., ....)) of d_c
..... ese osw:n sets IU..) (orm a covmn, o f M" Is caIIcd an /111M/or lhe SIItmulI'i/oid
M"' . aI1as ( U.. , >I for the mani fol d M" determines the lei of coordin ate
m u ms that ' KrYe' Ihe oJe s ubmanifold. To specify a submanifol d, it J.Q(rlttS 10
spedry lUI alta .
'", Show ell&! if two charts I U, ..), ( fI, 11- ) such t hai un fI 0 011 II c-
subm.anirold M" are Ihe mappiDs +-I", : I" - I (U n V ) - "' - I(U n V)
of opm leU of space R - is a C'-diffeomorphmn.
eh 4. M;uufold. aod Fibre Bundles
2" . Show that if a sufficient number of repuces of t he space R" an: ' glued toget her'
by means of t he homecmcrnhtsnu "'- ' "" thaI are determined by the charts of a cer-
tain atlas, then we ob tain a topologlClil space homeomorphIc 10 /of'. (eL the
development of a t wo-dimensional surface, see sec.e. Ch . I I).
Thus, the choice of an atl as det ermines a sewlng' of a submanifold M" from
n-dimens ional spaces by means of a system of charts.
2. Examples of Submanifolds.
(I) A pair (R I , I I), wIIel e I
R l - R
ls the identity mapping. determi nes
one C"-chart fOI a1tx e R I and makes t he at las for a one-dimensional submanifold
in R
of class em.
Extrrin 3" " he w that a pair (R t. ",, ), where "" : R I - R l, is determincr:l by the for'
mula ""(.>') L xl , is not a C'-cllart (r ;;lo I) at the point x = 0, but makes the Qtlas
for a one-dlmenslonal manifold In R I of class CO.
(2) Similarly to Example I , a pair (R R, l it .)' where : R" - R Ris the identity
mapping, determi nes one C""-cllart for all x e and makes t he at las for an
n dimensio nal submanifold In of class C"".
(3) Using the stercoiTaphic project ion (Fig. 7j). we specify an atlas consist ing o f
two chart s on t he sphere S 1 C R
The n the seu Cit - S1, IN). V
.. S2, !sj
form an open coverillj; of t he sphere. The stereographic projections from the North
and SOuth pqles arc of t he following forms ;
""1(1') = (_X_,_
1 - Xl ' I - x )
""2(1') - C:t... )' I :\).
respectively, and au homeomorphisms from VI' U
onto R
4' . Verify that t he mapp ings ll'i"' , ",,; 1are of dus C"" , and t hat in each
point)'E R
rank yll': - ' = rank Pi' I _ 2.
Thus, the sphere otrith t he at la.s cODsist.ingof two charts (V1.ll'I I), (V
, ""i' I)
is a two-dlmensionai submani rold in R
or class C"' .
Inll od uetl on 10 TOflOloaY
(4) By means of ee st ueographic pn:ojcclion ( $el: Exam ple J), an atl as consi sting
of t wo d1aru (VI' " II), ( Ul' "1I), where
x. )
XIf + 1
X. )
, I +x" + 1
"'If '" l
x, ..
I +It" +'
' l lx") - (r , ='i----,
can be given on the sphere s -. The sphere $ " with such an al l&$ is an n-dimc lUional
w bmanlfol d in 11." + I of clasi5C"".
U)The graph of a mapping. Let amappingf: /I." - R"' ,fe: C' begiven.
Consider the graph r(f) '" c 11." x R'" of the mapping (see Ex. 12,
Set. 9. Cb. II). The ad.., on r(f) will be givento ccnstst of one chan (R". " l, where
" : 11. " - /I." '" 1ft is defined by the Connula ,,(x") = k , f(;(. Thus r(f) is an
,, -dime nslonal sub mani fold in 11. " + '" of d lW cr.
' 0 . Show that the set of polnu (x.WI of the plan<: 11.
xE II. 1, X * 0, is a on<:
dimensional sub manifol d in /1. 1 o f class C"".
(j0. Show thllt any set in 11.". coD$istlng of iso lated points. it the uro-dlmcruional
submaoifold In /I." .
(6) The solution set of a syst em of equ at ions . Let there be givena
syst em of equ ati ons
J,(;cl' ... , x,,1 = O.
f ", (;c l"" .x,,> = O.
whert /
.. ./ ... : R" - R
an functions of class cr. r ;;. I. Let n ;;. m . The
famil y of funct ions/I ' ... / ... determil\e$ aC-mappina J : R" - R"' . The soju-
lion set of lbe system will be denol:od by M . It Is clear t hat M = / _1 (0).
THEOREM I . lAt Il set M be nontmpty. IfJor ew:1I poi", % e M. tilt nmk oj t ht
I tlCOOill" /7IQ/m Lequtl ls m , 1M" M is 411 (n - m ).dimensi OnOI SIlb-
mf/n(/oJd if! R" 0/ c/ll$$ cr.
PROOf" Let %0 be an arbit rary point of M. From the GaUl of the theorem, Xo is a
regular poin t of the mappingJ . Aceordlna 1.0the theorem on reo:;:tif yina IImapp iD,
<_ Sec. I), thne a1sl an opa'l l\eighbou rhood V(xol C R" of lbe polnt ...O' anopct'l
set we R'" and IIC"'-diffeornorphism F: V(xDl - Wsuch Iha.tjF- t on the set W
Is the st andatd proja:l. ion of R" ODt o R.... Without loss of Sc:l1era!it y, we may
assume that Wis a certain open db c D;<YDl. Yo = F'(xol; then
(fF- I) - I ( O) n o;Vol - R" - 1ft n D;<YJ - 0; - "'<Yol .
Ch . 4. Ma nifol d, and Fib<. Bun':I. ,
171& 76
(Here R" - m = IxE R" : XI .. . . . = x'" .. OJ is a sub5patt in R") . II is clear th"t
a diK U' - "'\YO> which i , open in R" - m i5 the image of the Jet M n V""ql under
the F. Thus, the open neighbourhood V(xol n M of t he pOlfitx
Mis C"dlffeomorphl c: to the open disc D; - "'<xol, and therefore to the: SpaD:
R" - "' .
As an example, C:Oluid.r aa:ain the: sphere S" C R" + I, determining it by the:
equation xt + . . . + + J - 1 "" O. HC1'e: ran k (:0 at any poi nt of the
sphc:R equals uni ty. Therefore, the (:()nditions of Theorem I are ful1llltld (fOl' any
r .. 1) . Thus, we have proved once qai.n tha t the: sphere 5" is an II-di.metWonal
submanJ foJd in R" + I of c:1ass C .
Consider the case: of t he conditions of Th eorem I not being fulfilled. Let a sel
M C R3 be given by the: equlllio n.d - - r, .. 0 (Fig. 76) . on the set. M ' 0,
the: structure of the Iwo-dimens.lo;..;l C"' -$Ubl11f.lllfold 'rnay be: 5pc:cified as befon:.
Bc:s.Ides, at the pain! 0, aUmino rs ofl-hc: Jacobian matrix ar c zero, ilI\dits rank is nal
maximal. The set M is a simple example: of an algebrai c: manifold, and the:polnt Oa
sill$ular poinl of this manifold.
I . T h e Notion of Smooth Manifold . Th is ncncn i, on. of the ntra! no-
tions of smooth topology and modem analy, ls. The: method of iruroducrlcn of
coo rdi nates on a ser may be: generellzed without a$SUminsthat it II., In the: space:
Rf'J. The development of Ihis ide:a leads to the not ion of smooth manifold,
Let M be: a topological space. U e M an open set, and V' : R" _ U a
homtOmorphi.m. Then the Itandard cOQrdinat n I!'l (x) ' . .. ,!' ,,(x)l of the: point
",- I (x) in the space R" at e natur aJIy assumed to be: t he: coordinates of a point
x E U. Thus, the:hemeemorphjsm l" det ennincs th e coordinates on a part U of t he
space M. The pair tU,,,) i! caJled a ChllN on M. For any polnt }{ E U, Ihe chart (U,
'1') wil l also- be tmncd the chllrl III point x.
Let (V, ..l(V' : - U). (V, "')(11': R
- II) be: two charts on M, and
un V 0 . Then 10 . ach point x El un V, there correspond two ,yste"," of
InlrodllCtlon10 Topolol Y
the o;oordinatd of lhe poi nts ,, - l (.r) E,, - IWn Y) and 'i< - I(.r) E r 1(0 n V}
whicll . If-nerally speakm" are different. Both syllem.l of art 'equal In
ri&hu ' In d lt sense thaI thue uisu I uamition homeomorphism
Vi.,: ,.-I (U n Y) - n V}
rd. tilll both syUetm of COOI' din.l.ta and permi ttina to elptess tbe fo nna eeee-
dintles tofllU1uow.l y In IftlJIS of lbc: Iallcr :
EI '" X('I l" 'I . ) (I)
(. - X. (" I" " . 11.)
and, convtTsc ly. conlinuolI$ly u prcss the:latter in lennli of the ronner :
Z )t I n !' , E. >,
'I . '" x"U
.. , E.)
In fonnulac (I) and (2). Xl' . . . X"' Jel_. .. x" r.ianiry the coordi nate functions
o f the m3ppings "-I,,, '" (x l _ . x.. ) , '1- - '", .. (.trl ' x.) .
ll lOmeUlrICS baPlXI\l lo be nC'Ceuaryin analytic problemllhat dependences (I)
and (2) should be diffnmtiablc r tima, r = 0, I, This mtaM W I the
homeomorphism V i,. it C'odiffC'OlllOrphOOJ . (Foe cemVUliellc:c. we taU
bomtomorptWm CO-dilfromorphiml).
DEJ'ltl tnOH I. '1bc dwts CU, ,,). (Y ) on M are c:alkd C'-c'Om/K'libk i f one of
1M coaditioJu is.. fulfilled: (I) U n V .. 0. (Ii) u n V * 0 and t he
borDcomotPhisrn +-'":\l'-I Wn II) - .. - l eUn Y} in C""-ditreornorphl$m.
OEFINtTlON 2. A xl o( dwts llV. .,..)1on M ucalled a C""-mkzs 01" an I1tl4s 0/
C' If any two o( i" <:hal'lS are C'-compali bk and U V.. ... M.

NOT", Ali ltomeornorphlsmi ",.. In lbe derUlition of 11 er-allu act from 1M same:
ThUl, IptClryina an atl a on M , we thereby int rodu ce coordinates in the
neiahbourtlood of act! point x e M t hat are cal led local coordinates .
Let a C'.atlas !(U.., 1"..) be glven on Mand. therefore , lOCa l coordi nates be tn-
troduced In the neighbourhood o f each po int. In ma ny pro blems of analysu Ier
various reasons it u convt:nltot to Introduce new !lxal coordina tes (by mealU of a
C'Cl1 ain eha.rt lV. fwhich JhOllId be ' equal in ri&h15' with respect to the on,mal
coordma tes si ven by Ille cbaru of the C".atI.iu [(V..' .... )1. Thus, the: chart (Y, 'it)
mould be C"-emnpatibk wit h each dwt (V..' to..) o f the Ji'letl C"-adas . If thi s con
diUon is fulfilled lheR the set of f(V. . ...>I V (V. #) C"-I tlu. Sinn: I C'.
atlas {W... ",..)l U lV. #) deri cd from the C'-al1aI (W... ... )1by addilll an
' equal -uHi&bIl' chan . il l, natW'al to cons.idc:r theK atlaJc:s as eq uiva!cnl .
DEf iNITION 3. Two C'. Uasa j(V... .. .)I f(V,. #,)) are laid 10 be PqIIl1iOI,nll f an y
t wo c:lwtl (V. ' " ..), (v" I,> an: C'-eompatibk In ot her words . t .. o C"..rluts an
equlva!cDt if their union is a C"".at1u.
e h 4. MaAirold. and FIbu Bundles
Show th&! t he relat IOn whieb _ intradUttd on 1M set of C".at!ues is
an 'lQulvalence rd alm .
II foRoWl from Elten:bc I lhat the set or C""alJasq on M decompo_ mLO dis
joint daDd of equivalent atla$cJ .
DEfTNITI()!II4. The equivakno class of C"'-atlucs on M IS ca.lIed II C"'-stt1lt:l wn

Ea ch equivalentt clau of C'al1a5u on M is determined by IIny of its represea-
lati vct. . t.e a "YeO C"-structure ea n be rcslOred by any of iu C".aIWoes. Thi$
rema rk undcrUes the faet Ih&! a C'-st ruet ure on "" may be q>e(:ified bysped fyinl on
it one C"-&t.las from the g1vea C'struct ure.
The union o f all C" atlases from I given C'slruClure is also I C'-Illu called
maximal. Specifying I C""slrucl ure is equl val c:llt t o specifying the maximal a lIas .
SOmetimes the maxima l It las is caUed I C' st ructu re.
CO-structures are termed ft>polor1cal strur:fl;1't:I ; C"S1ructurcs (r ,. 1 .. . OIl )
Ill: calIcdsmoofh (or dlfjtrtfft iIJf) st ruclUres.
DEJ' INITION , . f'r, topolOSicai space M with 11 C'''$Cru et ure liven on it is Qll1ed a C".
mQlli/oid (or . " umi/old olrloss C'). and the dillltftSlon o f the space RIO from wh ich
Ihe hOPlCOmOlllhi$ms of dlans let is ca1Ied t he of lhe C"manifold.
Similarly 10 C'"-SlfUI:$ures. c:'-manifolds are said to be topo/06icrz/1lIId C
manifolds (r :a I . OIl) pn()Olh. SomelilM$ (for bl'CYity) C'"-manifolds will be
simpl y reJo:ned to as manVoJds .... d C"'-at1ues u lllliut$.
If in conditioD (Ii) o f Definition I. Ihe homeomorphillTlS .;,- 1.... .. u,:
analytic INppina:s (". _ 1,., ..._ t+..C"') . theD. the charts tv, ...). on Mare said
10 be CW-(;OmpIltiblr. C'-atlasu. C'4nIc1ura and C"' -manifoltls are defined
t\;Il urally. C"'-SUUetllres lIlDd CWmanifolds arc ealkd "',""ylie strucr..1U a nd.
IIIUl!yllt numijolds, rnpedivdy. To indicat e the dimension of . mani fold , we win
wri te M". and abo dim M " .
l\IOTIl llMo c1illWRsioII of a CO-m.;ul lrold Is ill i,,.-ariant. I.e., ;rldcpmdenl or 1M dloou o r an
li t.. In facl. i r M . d",it tl .,Ia04
'. l](... : R" - U.). [W, . R'" - V,l
a nd " '# "' . tben chue would be fOlS v, Ihat U. n v. ". 0 and til<: m' PP;1I1
Vil .. : ..;; IW n V,) - +i I(U. n V,l
_ uld IN:.11 bOlllCOmolJllti'pn. This '" conti V)' 10,b. Broll.... t th<:otan s1af.inS lhu _ anpl )
open ICII U C R". Y C R'" IN: in .. hn II - ... (Tbu Ihlcem
WIll be:plOYfd llI<kpmdmlly or lb. l ubjcct-illau... o! Ihis In See. 6. 01. V) . For C'.
I'WltroW.o. , ... I . til<: COITG;tDCSt or t.hcddillition of .s:-n...... is
Note Ihal a CO-strul:lllft on any space M is uni que (tillt follows from the defini -
lion) ; bul If r "" 0 t hal M m.ay M1rnlt scvcnl C"-sUUClUtn. In filet . t he
.tlas c:oruist ins: of one d\an (U. ,, ) . where U "" R I. and " ' R' - R l is; Ihe idm lity
mappiJ:tc. the s(roduce of . c-rnan1fo ld 00 R
. The atlu C'OlUistina o f
_chan (R
, " J.,hen ,, (.1") rI. also detemtittes tht sl ructure or a C--ma ni fo ld
laI roChld , on lo Topology
on R
. It is easy to thai the a11aser 00llSidc:red are not cquivaletlt and,
thonfOR', lhe C-.Itr\lo:lum. ckIerminedby them diffcmll .
II baa been proved , l'TIOrtlOVU, that I' lJInt, aists on Mtt ie:asl one C"-5lrueture
(,. ... I), lbm there uist iormitdy man y C"-WfUdura CD M .
2'". Showthat the atlases
((RI. "Ill. . . KR I, IPk)]' .... " "IX) '" X + I, k O. I, .
specify different C-struct ure:son R I ,
3 , Show that any C'subll'lanifold ln R
is I C""-manifold (see Ell. I, Sec. 2).
We list another formal of the notion of chart (U.,.) when me
hollKOQ\Ol'Phis:m " acts from a eenain opm set of the space which,generAl, . 6oc:l not coinci& wilh Ule wholespace. lJIlhis cue . alllhe notion. in
trodl.lmt above can be def1Ded by eutt17 lbe $&mC (ormulatiom;. Ho\lo"eVC. !his
dOCI no( lead to ICllcnliw.iOll of the notion of C'otrWMfold. 11I in this C'-
5b\Il1Uft., . C'...u.s KU... ,,)I ell) be: pickedsuch thai. IIIbomeomorllhislns ". act
oa it [rom opcB disc:s D. iIo the R", Sina: tbere Wsu. C"-diffeomorphUm
J. : R - D... tile C"-4l1as IW
' " .. f"ll b eoolainm in tI'l r C"-Slrvcture IIld (XXI-
au. of usual dwU.
In lOme h is ampkr 10 spuify VI atlal; consi stiDl of genc:raliud charts.
We 1riI1 use this ciralJlI$l&nCe if ,,"thout (nave.
I. Any openSCI v or a manifold M" of clus C' Is il5elf I ma nifold of class C'IUP.
p&d with the llIUClure detenni. nm by the atlas ((u.. n V, 'I.' - t (U n 1'))1. _ hM:
!<U... ".) is a ccttain atla from tbc C',trvct Utt givtD 01\ ..
2. Spoci!1 on S1 C R' a c--&I1u conslstint of sb: clwt. Pu t
Uf '" '" (,rl '.l'l' x) E Sl : x
> 01. u; :: tr E 51 ; x... < 0). k = I. 2. 3.
$p:Ofytbe IHmleomorphilm) ,, ; : R
- u;. ,,;:R
- U; :
.,t.", : - (oOk VI xl 4. .l':z,
..;; "i : xz> - * v, - Xl - xl,
* V1-
l .l"tl,
where !be sign on the ri&hl -hand side is chosen in acoord ance ";Ih the '+' er' - '
&ian on lbe left-hand side.
Similarly, a c-'Itlal consiSlIna of 2(1'1 + 1) mll'lS can be spocified on lhe
sphere S".
To make & gJal Cl\lJll.W of COIISIf\IQi(l:dli in the scudy e f 10poi opeaJ. spaca
pouib1e,_ needthe propertie:s to be H&lI$dotffand to be counlabk (for a base for
I lopolosy). These PfOpeftIes do not . acno::ra1lJ follow from the derutitioa
of. 1IlIIlifold. This QlI be illustrat ed by !he foIlowiJl& uamples.
EXAIO't.eS. 3. A __Hausdodf nwtifokl M
of dus C-. Coluider the iDteJVaI (0,
3) and bre&k It iDtothreestili (0, II, (2,)), (I , 2}. We irttrodua a IOpOIou on lbeir
Ch, 4. Manifolds and f ibre Blind""
Flo. n
fonna.l (dbj olnl) union m. 77) IS follows : lbe nriahbowboods of points in sel
(0, 1) U ( I, 2) U (2, J) uc: same IS in the topoloS)' illdu ced by (he real straigh t
use. Al tO th e point$ XI - 1, Xl 2, their neipbourhoods the SCls (1 - e,
I) U (2, 2 + e), (2 - e, 2) U (2, 2 + e). 111m poinll XI ' Xl arc not separated.
We leave iI IS lin exe rcise to show thaI the struclllre o f a one-dlmenslonlll
C--manifold ma y be spedficd 00 the oblalncd IPaoc In a natural fashion an d th at
Ittl! manifold possesses a COWitabte ba.w.
4. A manifok! M of C- not countable base. Consi dcriol the set
M . R
)C R
we define a topoiOlY on M IS Ibe Cartesian product topolo8)'.
where Itle rmt r R ' is CZldoWed.nth the usua1 t opoloJy, aDd the second .nIb
d1Jcrde. II u as)' to abo_ that lbil iI a HalUdor ff onNlitmnsional nqnjfotd of
dus C-. whose topokJc 60es not possc$:I a oouot&ble baK.
011 the bub; of the last tWO aamplcs, il non-Hausdorff manifold withoul
C'OWItable base can be tol\$Il";K1cd easily (by takin. tbdr 0u1csian produd).
Eumplc 4 CODtf*1IcU!be int uitive idea o f the plue bdnI a manifold o f dimeD -
sian 2. Thy a r=mst&DOC, even taken into aoooUn! independently. impds US 10 im-
pose a manifold the condi150Dthat !be base should be countable.
The manifol d M" js usually aulUlXd lo be Hausd orf f and wisfyinJ Ihe second
c:ountabilitJ wom. We wit! alSO do it without fuM e, eeeee. Thm, it is tal)' II;)
prove that the manifold M
II a loealIy compact and even paracompaet space.
III fact , the ltxoal co mpac:lness follows fro m the foUowin, simple exercise.
Ext rr i# 4- . Show th ai if 1U .. >Is a chan on M
, X l! U and Dnh..- l (x .
jjn(,, _1(x.)) are an open and a dosedd isc:, respecti vc!y, In R
with the cent re at t he
PQinl ,, _ I(;c) and radi us I. then ,, (Dn ll,' - I(l-)})is a nciahbourhood or t he poi nt x.
open In M - and whose closure (in M ,? Iscompact and cquaU "<ih,,,-I(.l").
paracompadnns of the manlrold M - fo llows ffOm ilS Ioca.I compact ness
and the b ue: coUlltabllit y (due 10 lhe tOJ"oll&l')' t o Theorem " Sec. U. 01. 11)_
2. Proj ective Spaces . Thedefin.llion andmffUCIlltopolo&ically cquiva1cnt in-
o f the projcdlve spaces RP" - I, cp" - t , II .. 2. were IlVUl in
Item 1, Sec. ,. 01. II (see also It em 1. Sec. 3. 0.. I). The Jl ruaurts of
C""'-manjfokls IUoJ be de fined on the spaces RP" - 1and - I. We ill ll$lrBle the
ideaof lItuodudll' tbc Ioc:a1 coordinales on RP" - I be jo,o. Consider RP" - 1 as
the SCI L - IfJ o t ail Jlrai&hl lirtel of the space R- puslnl t hrough the orilin. Each
stqht line inlcne<;U one or moTe h)'pCJJl1anesof the tOml x, _1. Fa. o ne ot thcse
hyperplanes X i '" I an d pic:k OUI of L the conection U,of al l Jl nUshl lines Intersect -
... luood<M;l _ ' 0 T l>p<>iosr
Fla. 71
ItI& lhc h)'perJllanc Jr, ., 1. Then the position of the ltniahl linc I E' U, is determin-
ed by the Cartesian coordinates (fl ' f f _ \' I. . . . . f .. _ vof i(J pol nt o r
wiltl 1M It
.. I. Naturally. 1M coo rdinatcs (f ,_
f, _ ,. E;o . . _ ,) may be lakell .,. tile IlXal eoordinates of the mai, ht line: I
(see Fit. 78). wehave the
-Jillf) " (E\, .. , f' _I.E" ... , E.. _
) : U/ _R" - l , i .. I, . .. n.
The Ioealeoordinatcs f\ _. f" _ I lUCalsoc:al1ed the pr oj livc cooldinates of
me s!.raiaht JiIlc I. II is 1101di fficult !O aprcl$ tbe loca l c:oord inaus of the: stnish l
line I in l aml of lhc coo rdinates of an ar billllTJ poiDt x .. (.rl' n ' x,) of lhc
stlllllllt litlel:E\ _x,l x;o no f l _ 1. ...' _ ,I x,. . '" x,. lx,..... E .. _ I 1t " IX,
n e atlu Or II cbutl ( Ui' " /),1 = I, ... If . whnc " I " #,-'. 1M
SUUI;I1,lfe 0( C""-manlfold of dialmtiocl II _ I 011 RP" - I, We DOW dlow the
C""'<Ompa lilrility fa.-t, kl t c U
n UJand
., .. x"x)' . . . '1- I = Xl _ " 1l1'1, .. x, ... " Xl" . . 'I. _ I .. Z,/x} be t be
\oQI roordinat a 0 tbe Itrlll &bt 1W: f in tho! fUr "!>. For ck:rmitcoesJ . let
I < j . Thea the: folSowill& relati ons arc evidrnl
" 1'''/ - fl. ''', _ / ", - f' _ I' '' , ... 1 '1<., "
"J-I''1, - E
, 1I", - E' _I '''/ 't, - Ep .. . _ I''', '' _ I'
which obviollsl 'l sho w lha t the local coordinate5f l ' . . . _ I infhtild'lsmoOlhl'l
drprnd on thr coordinates 'll' . . . . 'I _ _ I'
. Verity thai for e epro.iC'Ctivc cpace RP" - Icont.idrnd .tbe eolIection
o f pain: of diametric:lllyoppcul tc poinu or tbe sphcre. S" - I. local coordinates IN.,!
abo be &ivea in the above IlWlPCf .
6- . Sbow tbat the c:ompla IJC'Ojrctivc space Cp" - I possasr:I a C--alias
to.m n u.,; it into . C--rnanifold of ruI dimension 211 - 2.
Cb 4. Ma",rold, and fi ll'" DaDdIn
HiII l ; COnSOdnJlI, C'P'" - l .. o.c,", or a>mp!a SII';&hi koa lA C-. spa;&f1 llle MIAS b1
........1 of ,1IefOfl nubc olndlar l.O lhose In lbc Q1c Or RP" - I.
A ccnail'L manifokf .\f'" of cla.u C' on ...hidl lbe p oop ZJrads can be eoruid ered
in I mor e gcoeralized manoa (5 Sec. 5, 01. II). We will t.1Im.ethAl the orbil or
tadl poii'll COD$W . IInder th is actioo, of k diffaenC cXsnclltl,
7- . Let 11 : ZJr- H {M"' ) be a homolll(lfJlhiml o r the IJ OVP Zt (k belng
pri me) Inlo tbe &fOIJ9of homeomorphisms of M", dC1enninin. the act ion of Zt in
M", andlet. be the Imeri tOf of the uoup Zt . Show that the eon.dil ioDh, (lr) "" x
for any .t e M" is cqlllva!ent to Ihe I$IUmptl<ll'L that the orbi t of every poii'll co nsiUs,
WJder this act ion, of k different dements . In th is ease , Ihe , ro up Zt Is: sad 10 IU:f
wi/lloWI fixed points .
M UIlIe. Iurt ber, that t he ehans of t he form (Is,U,., " ,".. ) arc C.., omp;ttible
with the ehans (U" " ' ) of the C'-at las o n M".
Coll.llder the factor space M"t ZJr. It is alsoa C'-rnanl fold o f dimen sion n. The
allu i5 ,pecifi ed as follows : let 0 be the orbil of Ihe pOint x. an d U( OA) the
nelahbourhood of the orbit in M i t ZI<' conloistilll or as the orblu 0)' pa.$Slna
throup the poinl$ y of a su mcim tly srnaU neipbollrhood Y(lr) of a point x in
M"( V(.1") must nOI COlI.taio any pain; of poLnuy, ", (0) an d must lie whololy In some
chart of the manifold M"), ThC1l the Ioo:al coord inates orl lle pOOll y E Y(lr) in Y(.1")
wi!! becalledthe: loca l coordinat es oflhe ofbi l O)'E' U{O,). This may be seen to be a
Note thai the condi tion. for tlle chans (Jr...U.., 11, " . ) and ( U" "') to be compati-
ble Is not: bur densornc (see below Theorem Z. Sec. 5) ,
'-, Veri fy tblt the ienf L (t , k
. . k.) is a C:- -lDIIli f old or
dimension 2n + J _
), Induced Struct ures, Let 101" be a C"-manifokl , and f : lot" - N ..
homeomorphism of topoioPeal sp&De$ M" an d N . The structure of a C'-rnan ifold
eallcd the Sf nJCru" indwud byfmly be introd uced on N in I nalurnl manner- . ViI.. ,
If 1(0 10".)] be I C'-atlQ for t he manifold M", then I{f( U",>.J" ..)) is II C'-Illas
on N.
E.t t'dH 9". Veri fy Iha t [if(U..).Jl'" l ) is, in feet , Ihe I tlu determinina on N the
strucr uee of a C'-manlfold of dlmenslcn n.
The described melhod o r spcci fyin&IIst ruetu"" happcllS10 be quite use ful whde
speci frin a the struct ure of I C'-m.a.nifold on Ille 10po iOlical space N: can speci fy
the $ltUet ure of a C' man ifold on a ' simpler' space M ho meomorphic to N, lind
tllen ind uce the SU\letll"" of . C"-ma nifold on N . C--strueture is . iven in this
manner, e.,.. 10 various models o f RP" - I. 5. If is CI$Y to see thaI l Oy CO-mani fold is
ui.J!&\l\.Iblo: . 1bm Ift'J C'Of\MCtcd , Of,,:-dimcnstOnal , oomPKt CO_mani fold iJ
homeomorpllK' 10 lhe citc:umfcllCC S ' (stt & . 6- , see. .. , 0 . II) and therefore
llIe iJ III{1ually md\lCCd on it .
6, A two-di meuicxt.aI, oricntablc,c1oscd SIIrface, as sho"", ill Sec 4, 01_ II . is
ltcInicorrlorpfic to an 101, -surfltt (i. e.. I sphere ,.;th p which an be fUJiI.
cd ia the space R' as a C--sulHnanifold (which is islluil1....,lyolmous). Thus, o nent-
able dosedw rf:lCeS ar c .,nd o...ut with the C"'_mani fold Sltucrllr.,.
hHroc!\lC(lon 10 TopoiOU

10". Specif,. t he C-manilold sUuchal'e (KI l.he boundary of the cube / - _
.. \.z .. "''' . . . x,,> . IXiI " I. I .. I, . . . nl. iDdudlll il from Ibe sphfn
SO' I .
11- . Show IMI lbe mapping
- x
r J
. x
r 3
is . homeomorphism of the projective pla1lcRpJ e r ne I subxt in To lnduce the
of t he smooth manifold Rpl by this homeomorphiam mean s (0 realize
thereby Rpl as a subset In R'.
12". ConJlnlet the realiza tion of RP) in R'o.
. Matrix Manifolds. WcUldow the: 5Ct M (m . n) or all m x If matrlen wil h
elements from R I with the lopoioo' induced by the: nat ural mapping
i : R- - M (m , II ) :
(.l"1 , x_) -

x(Ioo _ 1)10 .. 1 _
Then the hOllleomorphlSlTl I indueeJ on M(m. n) the of a c- mani fQld of
dlmeTlloion 1M.
Denoting the subspace or matrices DC a fIXed ra nkle in M{m, Il) by M(m, " ; k ).
wespcrify theSltudureof.C--manJ foldof dimmlion k(m + If - k ) onM(m , n;
k ). Nou-. befoulwld, th' t if YE M(pr. III and rank Y OJ k, then by mtuehanJina
the I'OWS and eolwmu, the malm Y _, be transformed 10 lhe fOnll
A, I B,).
c; J D r
wbne A r is IlQn-slnjular $quare m8tri,x or order k . In Gtlter words , t here U1Sl
IIOnsinaulaJ square 1NI1ricu P r E M (m, m) , Qr e M (n, II) weh tha I
P l'Q (AT I B
) .
r r c, I Dr
We show lhat rank Y .... k if lUld only if Dr ., C0 YIDr III fact, it follow. from
the c:qul1lty

Ch. 4. Miln,folds and F1 bre Ilulldkf
It C:1llI be seen from rhe lau e!" equality Ihat rank Y . k if and only If
= Cyty l B
No w let XOli M (m , "; k ) and X I" vbitnvy matrlll from M(m.". k).
Px.XQx, _ (A
!\ .
o C
Dx. x.J
Ax . .-.. n l ma lrill of order k . ColUider an opeIl neiahbourhood
V( XO> .. rX e M(m.,,) : cktAx . x, .. 01
of the ma trill X
in M (m. n). Th en U(,XOJ - V(XOI n M (m. If ; k) is an opm
ueilhbovrbood of X
in M {m. n; k) and the mapplnt
"x,:U<XoJ - R - - I- -.""- . )
specirMld as foUo....
_ ( Ax, xoIBx. x.) !.. R _ _ (IIo_t",, _ t l
Dx, x.} Cx, x, 0
is. homeomorphism (I beiog lhe natural mappina). Therefore (U(X g), .... ) iJ .
dlan. Speci fyina thus I chart for eyeT)' manu: X oli! M (m, n; k ). we oCwn a
C--etla!t on M (m , n: k ) .
U O. Show the C--oompalibUlty of the const ruct ed atlas .
Note that M(k, n : k ) may be Interpreted, as the set of order ed sets o f k linearly
vectors in R"; M(n , n; n) is dt1lottd by OL In; R) (genera l Unear
,. Grassmann Ma nifolds. One nlluralaene r&lluttion of the projOC1lve SPiCe:
RP" - . is the: Grassmann manifold G.(R") cons15t lng of all. k-d imf1ll ionll
SUbspacCl , k ... I. of t he space R" k c I. this becomes the pr ojectiYespice).
We equip th e JPlee G. (R" ) with th e topololY Induced by the nat ural mappinaM (k ,
n: k ) - G.. (R" ) , associal.1ntt each IIUltrix
' '' .:::
.x. . . . . .xu
with the l ubspace In R" spanned by the Vector
.x, .. (xiI' . .x",), i _ I . . . k .
Nole W t G.(R" ) is bomeollllOl'phic to tbeorbit of M (k . ,, ; k) r ClJlOlC1 t o
!be {Joefi) action of the ,group GL(k , R ); lhoe dement C E GL (k. R ) ae.ts on UK de-
mml Y ,,"M (k . " ; k) in ac:'COrdance with me nde Y - CY (t he matliJl pt"odud. ) . In
other words, the space G. <R" ) is homeomofl)bic to the fKtor space M (k . " ; k)/ R
witb the foUowriq oequivakDoe relation: X' Y if there aiIts I square non-$In&ular
matrix C of onkr k such that X .. C Y. To QJCdf)' on G. CR") tbe lInKIure of a
C- man.ifold. we will equip M (k . If ; k)/ R ","lh C-lIf\1eture and ind uce me
C--st n..:t un on Gt CR" ) by the homeomorphismj : M (k , n:k)/ R - G. (R"J. Th e
muifold that ......, lie 10 obUM is c&lled Ihe Grassmann _I/o/d.
hnrOOUdion to Topolo&\,
(YIP' .
1...Qcal cocrcmeres on M(k, II; k )/ R may be grven by the :.mawg)' with the proj e<:-
rive space RP'" - I if M(k, n; k ) IS considered in place of Rm,O. t he subspace
L _ TX, TEGL (k, Rl , XeM(k, II; Ie ) , in place of lhe st raight lines I _ IX ,
leR1 ,O, xe R"" O. and the SCI Hit. , I. of metrkes from II, k ) for
which the SUbrnat rix made up of columns II' .. , i., is a unit matrix is cons idered
in place of th e hyperpl ane JC, _ J. Th e subspace TX i!lt=tsthe Set H" . . . Iki f
and only if the ! Ubmal m X 'I' . . . i. made up of columns ' I- . . . ,'. of t he mat rix
X il non-singular (r.e., del X I ). . . i. *- 0), in case XII. ' " i. is non -singular , lil t
poil)! ' is. as can be easily seen, the matr ix Y X- : I X. To
( . . ..
determine the charts, Fixthe set Ill ). . /0 (i .e., fl)< the numbe" of the columns in
th e matrix X E M (I.: , f1; k) and consider th e set Vii' . . I. of all subspeces TX
whose inrersecticn with H, . ' " is nc ncmpry. In other words. VI" . . . 1. is the
set of subspa<;es TX such thai the submatrlx X" , .. . It for the generat or X of the
subspace rx is non- singular. It is natural 10 assume t he elements of lhe matr ix
. . . . ,I. _ l formed by th e columns i i ' . .i
_ of t he matrix Y, which are
different from i
. It to be local coorc jnares. More precisely, t he pair
( U'I' ... . 1, "'1" ' n , It ' wller el<'i, . ... I
:'''' (/(, II: k )/R - - is a homeomor.
phism given by th e correspondence
x- r
... .. '" (Yll
Y,u )'kC/l-k)
is a chan on M(k, n; k) /R.
Extrrise U-. Verify that Ihe mapplngs ",. . ar e nomecmcrpbtsms.
The atlas ( VI,. . . . , I.' ", -! ... " &arts determines the structure of
t he C"'" manifold of 'k In - I) on M(k, n; k) /R.
Extrrw 16-. Sho w Ihal Ihe manifold O, (R") is homeomorphic 10 the man ifo ld
O. _
6. Products of Manifolds. If M
, N
are C'-manifolds then the st ruct ure of
a C'-manifold of dimension m + II can be natu rally on the topological
product M x N. We leave it to the reader to verify .
Two examples of me products of manifolds arc the cylinder,R1 x Sl and the
k-<limensional torus y.t: .. s ' X . , . X s ' (Ie fact ors). According to the above-
said, they are c- mani foJds of dimensions 2 and k . respeclively.
7. Rie mann Surfaces. Cons ider an cumpk: which is important for {he theo ry
of functions of a complex varia ble. teeM l be a two-<limensional smoot h manifold.
Regard R
as the compl ex z-plane . Let ( V" , <p. )] be an atlll.l on M
such that the
t ransilion diffeomorph isms
<pi ''''Q: <p; I (U" n U_) - <pil(U" n U
are complex-val ued anaJ)'tk: Iunctlo ns of l in the regiol1ll ",;I(U" U U
). Th e
manifold M
wilh such an atlas is called a Rief7lQnn surface (abstract) . I I. complex
Ch. " t>bnifold.J and Fib,e Bundle,
analyl k: seruet ure is determined by an Rllas equivalenee slXb t hal lb e:transil ion dlf-
feomorphisrns ar e compla. vaJued anaJylic fundio ns.
In particular. the wrnplex t pl.ane C is a Riemann surface. iu eomplu;
_ noClure bcin& Biven by the all.... eonWlinJ; ofa unique: chan (C. I e). whae t c i$
th e identity ma ppinJ; .
Tbe sphCO' e 5
0::: J,rE Rl : + + _ 11 is also a Riemann aurl' aee .
Sped!')' on Sl an anal)"lk: st Ndur e: VI =0 Sl' INJ . U
S l ,(S!. the Ioca.l eoce-
dinltd of lhI: pou.t P (x 1' x,. xi) in UI' V
beina. respectivc:ly. of th e form
x+ix x -Ix

I - Xl I + XI
The coordinale t
is given rise if t he sphere s- (.-: Fi8. ls stC'l' IOO8raphically pr o-
iec ted on t he equat orial pl ane fro m.Ihe po le N . while :
ar1sc. if Sl is projC'l;tcd from
Ihe pole S. If P e V( n V, then t . ". O. t1 '" 0 and, evidenlly. t' tt'l c t , Helice.
the lransition diffcomorp t . - lIt1 iJl an anal)"lle function . The: . " u:nded
t-plane: (z-sphere) C1$endowed with a compla anal)"l ie sr rucrure by means of t he
homeomorp hism ODt O S' .
T'hc two.meetedRicmann Sllrfl ce ofmefundion w . fi(SCC' Sec:. 4. 01 . I) b a
rompla a.naI)"lk: mani fold . and the &lIa1ytic st ructure on II b introduced Via me
homeomorphism to lhe t'-sphe:n .
.. Describe the rorrapondina a.l1asof the t wo-5hcclcd Ricmlllll w rfaee
of me: funct ion 1010' = Vi.
II b proved i n th e of funct ions of a c:omple:Jl variable: t1W. any analytic:
fUQetkln on the t -pJanc posse:sse:s In abstncl Riemann surfaoc and dw. any com-
pact ab$lra.e:t Riemann surfaee can be tn1iud as t be: Riemann surf..... o f . eatain
.brak fun ct ion .
8. The Configurati on Space. The: considered eumplcs of smoolh
man ifolds emerge nat ur ally in variow m/lt.hema..tlcaJ problans. Th e nolion o f
manifold is u nltunlUy \I.5c:d. in applied 1CimDC$ too (e.J. mechanics 01' ph ysics) 10
describe the set of positions (i.e ., Ihe confiaUnl lion 'f)/lCe) o f a system. We adduce
Ihe simpleS! exlmple.
Consider I hinged penduJum swingin g in Ihe: ve:rtieal Denote t he poinl
where t he pendulum is attached by O. th e mnae by 0 1' and the:end orlhe pendulum
by Oz. Each poul ion of th e sySlem is gwen by t he direct ion of the rod 00
and o r
the:rod DID' or by t he pair of angles". >It (Fia . 79) varylnainckpc:ndcnt ly In t he in-
tervals 0 " ., < 2..... 0 " .;. < 1.... oonflJufOllion spa<:e: of the given syslem is
lhu, the CarteMUi product of IWO circu mrerence:.s s ' )( S. i .e., me lWO-
dimensional to n ,,, r
mrcise IS- . Describe: the eonfiaurat ion of I plane two-hi fl,ed pendul um
More compliauc:d conri&uratioa s p.aocs _ ,e in tbe II lId,. o f more complex
nteo:hanieall)'Ste:ms consistiq of a Ifeata number of point ma.ue:s and unOn'J oi na
mo, e complu; pallerns of These COnditiON are IUU&Ily liven ,n the
form or 10 which the coordioaus of al l the: poinl masses should la lW'y
(tl1c:scequations ar e called .eometrlc rc:bl iOIU). 11 is ttte se:t of ,eomeui e rd.tions
thai deterrnina (WIder the correspondin, condilions) ATlOOlh manifo ld in t he
Inlroducuoo 10 Topolo&7

0 ,

space R :M. wtlere " is tbe: number of poin t masses (Sec Enmple 6, Sec. Z). An
Jet of coordinates in R lio of II point rnus.cs dctennillC$ a po!Ition of a
mhankal systC!ll in the conflSUration space .
9. Mani folds wit h Boundary. The nOl;oll of mani fold introduced abov e
does nOl. embrace, however . a Dumber of . eometrle objecu , e.s -, the n-dimensi onal
c:l0$0Cd dUe. rurfaces with boundary. et c. In flet , lt is Impossible to find '"
neighbourhood which Is homeomorphic: to the spICe (OT ils open Pat'l) of points
on the boulldary of the disc jj n. Thi s dr&wbll\:k is removed by intro ducing Ihc
nOl. ion of IJumifold with boundary.
Consi der tnc subspa ce R" - I of t he $pace R". The formcr subdivides Ihe sPace
R" into IWO half-spllCn:
Ro:. - Ix ., R" : x,," 0) andR': '" lxe R" : x" to OJ .
lbc boundary of each of which lbe subspace
R" - I= lx eR" : x,, "' Ol .
The h&1f-spKC lM)' suve as the simplest CUIl1pleof an ,,4Unen.l.ional manifol d
with lhe boundal')' R" - I. If now a ocrtain D\lnther of hall-sp;><a are ' al ued'
("Ictha tatina cart: 10 'puc' a boundary with. boundary, lhen wc wi Uobtain an
object called 1Jl 1I-dlmmsi0n.tJ I1WIi fold wllh bound&TJ, where the boundary is the
resull of ' ''ulna' thc replicas of tbe whspaa:s R" - I IO,eth Cl"; it is lIS
(II - l)-dimenslonaJ mani fold iUdl.
Ld" us describe: the manifold with boundary in aralCl" detail . Let M be I
topo6oakal 5P&.aad N ill subspatt. !;;tcnd Ihe nodonl of chart and atlas. An
opcnset U e M and . honwomorphism ., : R" - UOI" R".. - U fOfm a pau- (U,
,,)eallcd a dtgrt. Axt orclwts lI U ".>1iH:a lled. C"...l1/oufou be pair M , Nlf (I)
M _ - V. , thm " . I _ 1 : R" - I _ N n V. (a chart fO<'

the wb:spacc N) ; (3) lhere is a subset of charts _,.). ", :R".. - U,. .suclt that
ClI. 4. Mu i fold. and Fibre
flo. SO
He U U,.' (4) lhehomeo morphlsm$....i
....,, : ....; 1(0.. n - ....i '(U" n
ate di ffeomorplliWlS of dUll C' (Fla 80) .
NOTE. In the ease when th e homeomorphism ..; I"".. ads between set s whi<: h ar e
opm ln but Dot open ill RIO. the properties of Min,: smooth (lnd di ffeomorphic)
lU"e Wldc:n lood in the of Ddillit lon 2, gee. 2.
II ill evident that the XI. of dtans [<N n V'l )' "', 1 _ II form, a C -atlas on N.
speci fyfnJ: lbe st NCIure o f .. C -lII2nifold of It - I on iI. The-atlas {( V
,..,>1 is said to dttelmiDe: on Mthe strudure of aD 1I-dimetuiooaJ C'-ntllllifoid wil h /I
bofmd;zry N. The bouacIary is wuaD, y deooted by 1M".
un:Gt Prove that the leU iD R" liven by the Inequalities xt + . __
+ .s: <; I . .zi ... -. . ... .s: OIl I arc lHlliD:nsionai C-maoifolcb wilh the (QlfI1I\OfI
bouodary S" - I .
10. The Existence of Smooth Structures. We nO'o'l' make lOme rem.arts
rcprdina the pos:sibility oflntrodlllCilll smooth structures . Whit ney hili prOYed lhat
if there exists a C'-struetllre (r OIl I) on a space M. then there &!soc:xisI.s on it a
C--SU\lctUfe (and eYm a C""-llrodure); a C-."llll may be chosen from
tbc rnuJmal ltla$ for tbc:Jiven C"".J!rud ufe. The e.loepl ion il the case when r _ O.
II I. known that a Cl-slructu re may be introduced on any Cl mamfold of dimension
If " .. (and hence a C--st rutlure), but for any fI OIl 10, there: Cl-manifolds
.....hich do not admit the introduction of I C I-struC't ure.
Th.b andthe w bsc:qUCll t lllons ate deTotcd to the COftIU\letion of tile ckmc:ttu
of analysis 011 smooth lIWlifokis .
I. The Notion of Smooth Function in a Manifold. A (utIClion
defined In a mani fold M" e&Il be eomidcrcd. 10eaUy111 1 fuaet im of the local e:00I"-
<IiDalcs of a poin t % (E M". Le as a flltlClion of Ihe I II1lldud eo<trdinatcs of Ihe
poittt ..; l(.l) itt R" th al. ate &1Vd1 by I certain ebart (V. ' " .), % E U.., Tl llU,_ li nd
Qutselves within the: ranac of the: l\Otions of analysis. and , in panicular . can denne
aDd investiaat lt lbe not ion of $lll.OOI:h funct ion .
DEFINITION 1.l.d.M" beamanifoldofdassC' . ,. 010 I A mappin, f : M'" - R ' is
called . C'-jI4/fQioIt of da$$ C') hr " ICtl:clllKNrilood ofQ pobtt III if
t here Is . dlart (U... v>.).l:ir" U,) for M" such tballhc mapping/... : R" - R' .. a
C mappill& onto R".
xrrr:ix 1-. Show t bat the definition of C"-(unaion In a neiahbolUhood of :I
poi nt does Rot ckpmd on the choice of a chart.
DEFl HITION 1. A funct ion I : AI"' - RI is caDed C'-lurlCrjOll Oil /I <W1l1irt sel
A C M" i f il is C""-functlon in :I neiahbourtlood of clch polnt}l E A .
We orten have to consi der I f unct ion not in the whole manifold M". but
only on [u subset. Definitions I and 2 arc extended, in a nat ural manner, to the ease
of functions-! : U - RI ddi ne<! on an open subset U C while choosin, the
charts ( U... 1". ) 50 Ille.t V.. C U. However , lhcsc defi niti ons should be cl!llen de<l lf
(1,1 0<:1: 1011$/ : A - R I defined on an ar bitrary subset' A C M" an eonsidered .
DE. i NITIONJ. A (unct ion / : A - R'(A C M"} is calkd a C'-llIflCtion 0".4, if ror
1lIl)' point y 6 A,lhcre aimI,lI open neighbourhood U(Y) C M" of the point ,. and
C'functkm ", ; Ue,,) - R I MKh that fit, " I Ut.rl n {I .. I IutI\nA-
1t is easy 10 see tJw eadI of llle IDeal coordinates t ,(.I"),; " , . . , If, of a C'-
....nifold Is a C'"-tu nakln In k$ domain.
In a lpeeia! QK of Iwo-dimcMional ma.oirokb, viz. (abWlCt) Rimwul sur-
f.ce, one Unpor\aD1 dus Is rOfmcd by lmp1cx-vaIl1Cd l"uncliGlU.
Let M
be aD RXmann sudace, and I : M
- C a fun<:tlon on it
aKuminl its YllIuesin the field C of c:ompia numbcn. n.e function I b said to be
rquklr fI/WIlylfc or IIolomorpll ie at a poi nt Pil E u 1 lf, white bdftJ 6 pressec! in
t erms or Ihe IoQII coordinates t .. + (P). 0 .. +(Pol in a nei,shbo w1'lood or lhe
poillt P". il is. regular l,lIalytic: function ort in . cntain circle IzI < r, i.e.,
I l. -l ld) '" r
where the power series 00 lh c n aht converaes in the e1rcle It I <: r .
A f",ndlon/is sald'o be QrIl dyt/c In 1I cert ain open sel U c Ml if it il a reau h...
analyt ic function at each poi nt Pil l!' V .
Functions on the t sphcre ar c usuaUy liven in t he local coordinates on an open
set VI (see Itelll 7. Sec . 3), i.e., u funclions ... = Wet) Of! t he .t-plane. To in-
"a ti, ate a function in a nciJh boUrhood ofthc point COl , it is ncassary to ha.,e lea 0 -
Pl"cuion in tcrn:t:l of c e IOQi coordinarcs On Ihe set VI. The lat ter is adtic\rcd by
rcpladnl.t by 1/ .t: we obtain thc rllflCt.ion ", .. w(l /d .. "' I(.l) which we in.
vnaipte in nci&hbowbood Of the oripn.
YuH)' that the runctlon w .. 1I.t is defined in a nciahbou rhood of lhc
poInt.t .. .. of the z-sphcre and is ho\omDrJIhic: 'I th is point . The arne tuk for the
runetion It' .. i:. .
_. z
Ch. 4. Monlfoldi and Fibn O"ndks ru
2. A Par tition of Unity. The main inSlrumenl o( manirold theory In tnllurer-
rillll from loo; a l lUllUDenu to global is a part ition of unit y.
Let M" be aC"-manirotd,and l UJ its open covmn,.
DE. F1Nl TlON 4. If ., : M" - R
is :l function then its SUpPfNI supp ., is the dOSUfC:
of the Jet lr : .,(..1') .. 01.
DEFINITION 5. A famil)' of C""- funetions {"'.II : M" - [0, III is caJkd a pGrt. f Hm of
lJIllt)'of daJl C" w bordinau: to a toverins tU,,1 if (I) eath o f the Jets lVPI' "''' i5 rom-
pact and conta.incd in. eenaiD $leI U.' rli) the famlty Isupp",J fom15 al()QJly tillite
OOYtrin, o f M" , &nd Oil) ~ .....e(.r) .. t fOf aD)' point.lf t! M"' .
TIM: sullltlUlUon in condit ion (iii) mates K lUC sinceat each point .lfo nl)' a finit e
numba" of the functions '" is dt fferent from zero in -new of eondJtion (ii).
THEOREM I. For till)' 0fM" c:o'Rri". tlf. C""-MtUrifok/ M". r .. I , .. . ... I ~
autr its su/)onJiNlte C""-ptlrti lioll of Ullit)'.
To prove Ihis fundamental thtorem ,1'l'C need several lemmata.
Ihueo:ists" C"" ! unction h
: R l_ IO, l l wdl thot
C (s. c. ).
PROOF, II is easy to veri fy IhM Ihe fu ne:tion
h(X)={ e - ~ : ' when x >s
0 when x l( s
is the teQuired (Fi&. 81) .
Exen: i$t ) ". COtulrue:t t he gra.phi o f the fune:ttons h_ . V;"}. " _t(-x) and
" . 11(..1' ) -+- " . I2( - x ).
LEMMA %. For turY s > O. /Mn UlSIs /I C-fune:tion ' t : R" - 10, JI&fI,('h IJtq!
I ...hen JI c; DsIl(O),
, 'T) _
0 when XE" R"'D, (O)_

Fi, _I I
ln1<od""I ;OOLo Topoloi Y
when x E V:(xiY,
when x EM!' '\. V:(xO)
eaoce Cons lo:ler the functIon I.; R
- [0, I] (Fig. 82) given by the equ&!i ly
'.(x) "" .
h _.(x)h_.{-x) +1I./ 1(x) + h' Il(-X)
The functicn ' .(x) '" '.r(ld) : - [0, IJ is obviously tile required.
NOle that if Xo e R is an arbitrary palm, then
,_ [J whcn x E D,n(,riY.
, .... -x,y ..
s 0 when J{ e Rn'D.CxOl .
LeMMA l . UI AI" (I {;!monifold (f .. I. .. . . "") ond U C M" lin OjNfl set.
Then/or any point X
e U, theft o;i$I Its Of)ellllclgil oourhoods VI(.rO' , V
(xol fll1dQ
C'-fwnctIOll f; M" - [0, I]. such Ihill
( I) V,(xol C V
(.rol c U,
(2) f j,x) _ [ I when )( e V1(.r0!,
o when x e M
" V1(xol.
PROOF. I(U... ",.J! be a C'.allu on and let :COlO U.. n u. set
V.. n Uu. open, and "'.. Is a holllf:Omorp'llsm. lhu CI....; I(U.. f"'I Uj " open In R
and therefore there a iSls a dis;:D.('I'; l(xo1) C ""; I(U.. n lJ). Furthermore, since
"'.. is homl:OttlolPhism
..... (D.rI2(... 'P,,(D.nC<p; lexol) C <p..(D.(",; 1<x0l C U,
therefore, the sets VI(.1(,) '" lP
.n(.p; tI.rO))) . V
<.to'l '" I(xo) lal iJfy
condition (I). By Lemma 2. there exists iii C"-runetiQnI,. " (x) - - XO) such
lhat 0
_ [ I when x G D.
/ 2
(l"; 1(x0).
l . . ..o(x) - 0 when XE D, (l"; tv-iY).
Then lhe functio n
n _(,s. %gO;<>;
evidently satisfies condit ion (2).
LEMMA 4.uf M"be 0 Monilo/dolc1o" C' , r _ I, . . .. 0>; K c ue M", whv e
1M Sf!1 K is rempru;t. ond 1M Sll:t U is Optn. Theil Ihen fXt$lS 0 C'-!uncl/on
I : M" - [0, I] SIKh thot
11$.) '" [I when x E K.
o when XEM" 'U.
I' IUXlf . By J, ror any poinl Y EK, there elliSl open neighbourhoods VI (y),
V:O') sudllhal V10') C V:(y) C Uand there is a C'.runetlon/..{x) : M" - [0, I]
0 . <l. Manlfold s .nodfibre B.ofldlc.
"", _[ I when }t. e V\01.
,. 0 :ceM" "VzO')'
Due 10me compactMU of K. in an opa:I eovm lll lY\O')I,. Kohhl: wt X. ' finite
subcovcnn. 1',<1.. , _. . V,(1) _eontained. Pu t

,(.w) .. II (I - / ,./;.)).
; I
, (:c) '" (0wilen
I when

x e f(,
}t. E M"" U.
I wlien XE X,
o when X 5J.r " U.
II is cvidult th at / EO C,
LEMMA S. A ItKlJll)I cowri,., IUjl SIlCn InQ/ f'f1dt iii Is compt QM COlI-
/lIfMd Ifill ttrfQIfl U"'. mft l Q nj/nc_ftt O/ ll ftyOIN" IV.J 01 11 c-
trlllni/oid AI" . r = I . . . . _ .
Lel lW.. .. Jl bu C',aa1u oa lhc manl.fold M". T1Ic Idt W, n U",l form UI
opta COYcrin& IIuII mlflcs IUJ. Since: '" Is a borncomorphism. tbe ad
",; 1(1'. n U",) 1s open iD R- and th l;l"dore. fO'l"UlJpoUl l JtE v. o U. ' thcpoint
.. ; '00 b contained in the ad ,,; '(1'. n U.,) wiTh a otnain disc: D
", {!" ; l(.ll)). Fur,
lbn'more. since... is. homeomorphism.
...(Dst0V2(,, ; I(x)) ... .. ; I (x)) C .. ;' (x ) C V, n U"'; (I)
ainc:c the Kl ..;t(.wl) is c:ompatt. U1d M" HalLJllorrr,
". (.DAAI1("; l(:c:)) is COlllPoiet (J Sec. IJ. Ch . II ). In vtc:...of the pancomPAa nC$S
of the mani fold M" 1). a locally finite coverill' {Ujl can refine the open
OOVeMnl 1". (D' II)1l(,,;l (.ir))) of M" . Th en each U6 is contained in a cerlain
v,(Ds<oInC"' ; I (.r) ). Sinoc
ii, C e, (D' VVl('I'.- I (x))) .
we Ocrive from (I ) thaI
u; c ...(D...,,, ; IV')) c Y. n V.'
therefore iii C V.. . TI1e CO/nPldl'le$S 2 ( Vi (oUowl from The: rae;t tbill U, is a
dosed NbKl or th e compae:t Sl*>c ... (Db)I2("; 1(.1'))) (sec Sec. I ) . Ct . II)
nre PaooF OI' TKro-.o.l I. ApP!r'na Lemma S Iwlcc. we We. klc;allyfinlle CO'U-
iD. 1V;1wbk:b is . ref1Demc:nt of lbe liven (VJ. an open) fmlte
c:oUinS which is a n: rlllcrnent..9f lfT,l soIhat caeb U;' may be compact and
c:ontalned in a certain U;.and cub compact and COfllained in a certain V . FO!"
each U;' . we fIX one: set contaWns of the systnll Vi and redall-'\llC il by U;-
Inlfoduet,on to Topoklay
No.... by appIyillll.anma 4 10 t be set J( U;". find the corr e$pOlldin,; C'-
funetion/.. : M" - (0, II ' udl thaa
I when x t!! v,, '
I ,(;.-) 0 wile xEM" 'U; .
Conslder the function
(the IWIUftI.lion in the dcDcnNnator is performed over theratlF of indices of the
WveriOI lUldhu meanlP. Jince tbe eoverlllJ (U;l ill kK:a1Iy Ilnite and thadort
at each polill J( e M" , only finite number of the f\anetloft$I . is different from
:mol. Since SIIPP11' 1. = aupp/,. and the 'Stl .mpp! ., is compact (u II. d osed subset of
the compaC'l space 1;.), tne set suPP"'rll also compact . It;, easy 10 Ithllt 'P., 4i cr,
and thus we ha ve obtained th e 1)111'1100 or unil y.
DEFINmON 6. A funct 'on / : A _ R IIA eM") isC.ll:l t II. C"/wtre'ilm 00 a set A I f
It b. tatriclion 10.A. of. C'-fuDCtionaivm Of) an 09<.... ilUbKt U of die manlrold
M'",whkh comains A .
E:xM:U6... . lhiq 1M unity partidon IbeormI,prove thal Dtfinition ) of II. smooth
rWlttioll sivea on sec A C M" it eqll.ivaknt 10 Dd"1.llttor'1 6-
3. The Algebra of C,V'-f unctions on a Manifold. Comider nowthe.d
d'(.w-) of all C'{Wlt'tiooJ 011. C"-mani1oldIt'' . The fUDCtioal (rom d'(N") may
be MkIecI lOJl'It\er aDd multiplied by real number. iD aatwa! fultion : if /
iii 6tW"'). 0 E R I, Ibm for cadi DCM!)l EM", _ put (f + l)(x) ... f(x) + , (x)
and (<\1)(.1'1 cifW. Thus . d\M" ) hu been taJ)Sforrned hllo a lor J pacll".
Moteovu, uaual multipllcat\oclU,llX) - M' , "') , x II! M" t ransform. t1'(M") in
10 an ""riln om- ine Reid R.
Let x be I ceruin poinl of lIIe manifold M". Consider the followlna:
rellrlon on theI1gebnl Q(M") : f . - f
if !he point x poaseuc. a neish bo urtl OCld
U(x) l um llll ' f . Iu f 1 1j,( Call the equivalence t lus the " e,germ(Of t he runt .
tlonl ) at the the tOlalit y ot all C"'a:CITIII at t he polm x by Dtx). II
b obvious Ibl.l is alto an lllp bra . We now give Mother dellmt ion of tI'(x) .
If the difference a1&ebra (7(M" )1 i$ whe; il lhe idea! of
aU (unctions from rbe lint Q(M") whim auume lhe Ul"O value in a certain
on the f\lDttioD) ndahboW'hoodof the polnt x. tbm ill demenls CI.lI be
..tunall )' IdtIltlfied with the IffI'nI of the runaionl at the point x. II is eu)' to see
1II1.1 t1(M")/ - 6t%). The K1 o( lenDS d\l' ) could also be defined IIIt he lei
of C". fUlldions in the:JlCiahbourtloods ol llle point x and .bit:h ts fac101W:Q with
R:SJ)IIlCt to the: same equlvalmo: rdatioa 1I$in tbe ddi"l'ioa ot 6t,r). Prima facie , .
0"" objm II obtUted Uttecwe conPdcr f\<Il defined only Oft parr'of 1M
manifold M". It foGowslront the exercise thl t this .. not eertecr .
EXem. ' . Letfbe I. ( utldJon of dau: C" dd'"lDedin an open nci$hbourhood U(.d
of point x of a tIlalIifold AI" of dass cr. Show lhal emt dosed
0 ,4 , Mu!folllJ and Fibre Bw'IdICf
aeichbourhood YWof the point x , V(.l') C UOOand I C"-funoion/ defined in lhe
whole manifo kl M" such thlt ] 1ii,", IV(.).
HIlt/: Use LaRJaa 4.
Thus, ee a1&ebrlil: SII'\II;I:UfCS o f the IIII1OOlb. f unetioru and 1Ulr\' d'tr)
haw been COllStnIacd on I NnOOlb manifoid. All int eratiDJ qudion IJ'lses
..-haba it is poUIolc, by meansof the II&ebru dtM") and &emu dt,t).
to restore tbe Slf1K'[\ll' e o f the INnifold. We show below ullin IhlS can be eeee.
fi n t ofan , we f1ll., uiomatic:ally, the:most OIeruilll propc:l1ia of the alpbras of
fllnctions in llmOOl:h manifold. Coasickr a lopoioPcaI $pile>: M and rc:a l fllne:tions
I,II' . . . ,I. de:f.., ed on M . We will SoIy rhat / C'..smooI },f? on IlI lIlutI(.
l /olu f
, .1,,(' "" I) if there exists C'"-full(t kl n U( 1
It ) o f , ui
varil blo '1' .. . , I" defined on R such rhat
J ()l) .. UCNiC), . .. '/.(;<, Xf! M .
If equality (2) is val id on ly for poinu o f . certai n set V c Mthen \Wi will SlIytha t
the: flillCtlon / srnoothly dependl on the: flinetIOIll!I' .. , I" on tbe set V. Call a
on a topololical'paa: M a nonemp!y let .#(M) of real functions on
M , ....hich satilfra the conditions:
(i) lilY fllnctio:o cr, wbidl Imoothty depends on Ihe funClIoM from .I(M).
bdotlll to .l(M},
(Ii) an1 fUflaion on M, . hich eoincide:s with fu.nn ion fro m .1(/11) in I
ndchbowtlood of c:adl point x GM , bdoqli to "'(/II).
Exuci# 6- . Veri fy thai for a C"-manifold M", th e alaebn or C'-funclions d'(M-)
SlIlisrM:ll tbc: eondltioas fCK . C'..moolhn.ess.
It fo\lowl. from comtitioa 0> rhal the set .I(M) is an al&ebl1l under the natura.!
of addilion and mulllp\leatkla of functioftliand IllN muit ipl icaOOft by a
nllfJlber. The not ions o f C--aennJ"of a function/ I; .#(/11)I t . poilu x, o fche idc4I
.#o<xl and of t he lei o f C"-&ums $ (x) "" .:I'(M)/ $o(.) are dc:fioed in a o:alural
Now we take up the co nstruction of t be C"ll rudll re 00 M. Lt:t Itf be a
topological .space with a C"4IlI00I hnlW -'(M). lei the followinl condit ions be
fuln llcd : (I) fOI: any point x e M, [here are gCTIn' f", . .. . J;e $ (;l ) , a
neighbourhood V(.), rePrCSClllltiva!' : ( V()l) - RI , i I... ,II, oflhe lemu
'" luch thlt the rnappilll >/Jy ;;I - Vl (y), . .. f' (,), y e V(.lr) is a homeomor
phi$lll o f V(I-) onto tbe spacc (ii) for allY point y e vI;<), the l erms Ji. .. . ,I;
of the fllna ions/
. r beIonI: to -'0'): (til) for lII y gentl 'l e .l(y), iu
representative: 8 C"--smoothly dtp'tllds on / I, . . . ,r in a ne!&hbownood of th e
point y . ThuI , speci fyinJ a COOt'dinate S)'Ilem in a neiahbourhood VI;<) by meani
of the homeomorphism lOy . ".;; 1 : - V(.r), we obtairl a sysrelD of chanl
1(V(.), 101')1. wltidt . II can be casU)' 'lUificd with lbe hel p ofptopcrtks (d) and (jiI),
prodllOCS. C"-atIas Oil M.
7- , Show that the s)'$l al'lof dw11 !CVW ..xlI yiddsan al ias.
Thus, tbe diffemctial st rucl llre of a C"-mJUlif old induced by the a1ad>ras $(M),
M bali hem dc:rUlCd nn M .
;dfrille' . Show thlt if M" it C'. manifold;uld 1.1'/,1')1.... .,. are t he rouC$pond
i"', a1&cbru of !.be ,mas o r lhc C" -f\ln<:tions on Itt " , then the dif( a"enlia! Slruc:IU",
ddamitled by wtlh the suuaUle of lbe manifold M".
NOn. Conditio lU (i) and(iii) maho us conc:Ill6c:thai the eonsidtted $mOOthnew on
M COllSists of fUllCliom. We o;oWcl. also lllSidu C"'oQnOCCMeu on &II
.bAraClIlel: M and ind\xz the wnkot topl)Joo on it 10 !hat aDme functions: hom
l ite misht be cont.inuoU$.
I. The Notion of Smoot h Mapping. Le1 w define and inve$i,lte
Imoot h rnappinp of smooth manifol ds, whk h an naturaJ of dif-
ferentiable functions considered in an alysis. Let M", N'" be C'"-ma nifolds, , jIo I .
Regard[na N'" u topoJosleal spaces, we may sptak of contin uou s mappings
f: M" - N"' . The struct ure:l or( Ius cr, given on M", 1'1"', ad mit inlr<><l ucio
rw'rt'Wcr dQlI of roappinp . The mapp ing/ ; M" - N'" I;aD be specirted nat urally
in loeaI coo rdinata. Viz.., U x,. MY' ill an arbilr&l)l po int, (U. ", ) a nd (V, 4<) ar e
ch r'll oillhe manifolds At' . N"'. $Uch thai Je t: U,ff,xl E v, and W /,I')
is an opm nei8hbowbood of the po int x aueh t hat W(.1r) c U, f ( W (K)) C Y. lhcn
. -'f'r' 'r-I (W(..')) - . -I( Y)
b the COOI'diMtf! rrprr:szmlilfioft of fM t7IlIPPitqf in a nl:i&bbourftood of the
point lC. Sudl. m abld us 10 involve the l\(J(ioD of 5Qlooth rmoppin,
of RA 10 R- wllidl iii st udied in analysis (soe Sec . I).
DEFTNmON I , A mappm,f: M" - isaJllId a C"-nttJPPinz (IImtlJ'Pbll ofn tl,U
C') br II rtf!lp botlrltood of IIpob!r x EM" if some ClOOfdina te r<"lH'ts<:nlat ion of me
mappi"lJ in the Dei.lhbourhood or the po inl x is a
EJCert:&e I , Show that t he dennition of a C -m-pplnl in a ll<:;ghbourhood of a
poinl dCJe:ll l1()( depend o n tbe chcteeof . coord ina te rcprnmlalJon.
In definil\J a Imoolh mappi na in a ncij:hbo urhood of a po int. it is natura l lO
con,ider mappJngs defined not in the whole ef M", but in an open nci,bbourhood
or the poln!.
Defin ltJon I cae be resta ted in o lher for the cue of .submanifold$ In H,N
Let M", tr be In RNI a nd R
" respect ively.
OFI/'oIITION 2. A m&ppbl, J : M" - N"" a C-mapptfl, (ll mQppf"t.of dms
C) M" ;f t ha e exUt an opcn scI U c R"1. Jt 6 U
and a C". mappiIll J: U _ Rlil that cOincides ..,jthfOft un M".
MrcUf! 2 . Sito w lIlal OCfmi lioas I and 2 are eqllivalent for the c:ue of sub-
man ifolds in
HI ..f : ll the property or JnaPPiIllp of dlarts 10 be d1tfe'O... .. (see l..aama I. Sec. 2).
We now COIIlt' ove r f,om kN:a.l ddinil io llll l OaJobaI .
Ch. 4. Man lfol4> . nd Fibrc Bundl es
DEF1NITlON 1. A M" - N'" of manifollb is QUai a C"-nt4Ipplfl' Ill'
InlI'ppu., 0/.:4= C") if it Is a C'.mappln, in a neithbouttlood of each poi nl JCe M".
11 it evidml lhat Ihc noti on of C'-mappll\ Is a fCPC"ralLuLiOll of lhc: notion o f
CO"-f unctton.
Similarty, lhe notion of complvl analytk f1ll\d.ion on :II Ricnann sulfaor is
Into !he notion of complu analytk mapplna of JUC1IWlfI S\Irfaa:s (i f __
require the coo tdi.nate repfescrl illion t o be ana.Iytll;).
) . Veri fy thal Ihe mappin. w _ .fi of a t..-oshe("fal RicrnILlU1 surfa l;c onlO lhe
t-5phcn Is aflalytic .

AO. Verify thai t he mappi ngs w .. l i t; and w '" E considered as

, ..o:rt
of Ihe t;-spher e thenuelvcs al e analytic.
DEFINITION 4. A mappin, / : AI" - N" of mani folds Of ci a C' Is call ed a C'-
dif/eomorphiml If (l)/is bijoetive. (11)/./- 1ar e C'-mappinp.
Excrn. S". Why cannot a diffeornorphUm of man ifolds of different dimensions be
defined ?
Two C'-mani folds M" , N" are 10 be if there crisls :ll C".
diffCO/IIOtphisrn/ : ].I" - N". .
Eurc" 6". Show tha c t he coIlectioa of n-dlmaulonal C"-fIW1ifokb 1..-\4"' . If .. I ,
forms t; a te&ory W; l OSC morphisms ar c C"-mapplnss of rnaniJoIcls. Show WI Ihc
cqulvala1c cs 00 this c:arq ory an C'4iffeomorphisms of manifol4s.
THEOltEM I. q M" 'sll' m(llil/oid (lnd N"' lI' nwmifold 01 das CO" with t he
srflldun IndIl>CCd by hotrWOmoqlhism I : At" - N". M" QlId /II" fUW C'-
eecor. u is easy 10sec thac fhe required di ((wmorphbm Is / .
Thus, by indlleina thc Uru<:l lIfe of C'. manifold on a 10poloVca I space N via
the homeomorphism/ : M" - N, we Il1IIUform / lnfo a C""-dl rreomorphism.
THEOREM 1. u t f : M" - N" N a C'-dif l tOmorp hiJm of C'trIlI' ll i!olfh M". N".
T1I tll tht M" - ,.,. IIJ' (I o//opologlca! spQCtIS !nduces
Oil Nit If C".$/rvN"re r:oim:iding with Ihe orillinal.
Pl OOF. Lei [( U". ",,)Jand [ev", 11-,,) be on M" and N" , resJ)llvcly. We
show lhaJ. any chan of lhe af lu {U'( U,,),f.. ..1is C"-r:ompa tible wilh an )' chan Of lhe
alln f( V" . 01<, )1, r.e. l ba t lhe mappin,
'fi ' (l;):(I.,.)- I (I( U.) rv V.s> - 4-i ' (/(U. ) n V, ) (I )
ill a C'-d.irrC'OlI>Ofllhism for any ... and (J.
In facl . srnce I is a C"-ditrCOfT1Clfphism. its rcptC5<tOIWon in the IoeaI coor-
dinates o n IhC' optII secsr l(f(u. ) n V,,) c U f(U. ) n V" c: V,
'fi II ",, : ,,; I trI(I(U.) n V.s>l - I(/(U. ) n V, )
Inlr OOuc liOtl lOTopoJOIY
ISII C'<dif feomorpll;sm. 8Ul
op'; I V-'(f(U..) n = (f'P,,)-lif(u.. ) n V,,);
rherefcre , ma ppin g ( I) is II C"..,jiffeomorphism, which proves the l.tatt"nw:nl .
From the poi nt of viewof general topology, we do not make any disl lncl ion be-
tween homeomorphic spaces. II i$ natural to agree not to distioi\llsh between
manifolds M" and N". whece t he manifol d N fl is With the
struc ture of the s mooth manifold induced by the homecrnerphism f: M" _ N".
But Ihen , according to Theorem " M" and N" are diffeomorphic. Conversely, if
lhe manifolds M", IV" are diffcomorphk if: M" - N") then they are bomeorncr-
phic and, according 10 Theorem 2, t he homeomo rphismfinduces on /II" the strue-
tu re of II smoo th mani fold which coincides with the original. Th us, the adopted
agreement is equivalent 10 t he pfllb ke not 10 dist inguish bet ween diffeomorphic
man ifolds.
7 . Verify thai being dirrwmorphk:: is an equ ivalence relat ion for
A ques tion nat urall y ari ses whet her the re Mist bomeo mc rphic but OOt dif-
feomorphi c manifolds . This quest jon was resol ved by Milnor who shewed chat ther e
ar e exactly 28 smooth ma nifolds (Of the Milnor spheres) whieh are homeomorphic
to S' but not diffeolT1Orphic to eacf other-. It is known al so that if the dimension of
B. manifold is less than 4, then homeomorphlty ent ails diffeomorplti ly, i.e., fo r a
ma nifold of dimensio n less than 4, dirrerenl iabilil y and topology c1assificacions
2. Regular and Ncnregular Points of a Smooth Mapping. Im-
mersions, Submersions. Embeddings and Submariifolds. Lei
f : M" - IF be a C'"-mapp ing of cr-mani folds" :;;t I .
OEFINITION$. A point x e M" is called a ' egu/", (IWnm lictJl, or nonsingul",) point
of a mapping / if for a certai n coordi nate representati on
", - I/'F ; - Ij- I ( V)
of the mllppil\fl/ in a neighbour hood of Ihe pel nt x , the point 'F- l ex) is regular.
Otherwise the pa illl x is said to be nonregul", (Cf/f icol, or singu/o,) .
8- . Show that the defi nition is independent of the choice of a coordi nate
repl"C$Cf11at lon .
DEFtNITION 6. A poi nt YE N'" is siud to be 'qu/tl, (noncritical , or nonnngul",)
Wllue of a mapping / If it s full inverse image / -10') e hher consists o f only regular
points of the mapping f or ts empty.
Otherwil1e the paint Y is called II. non",ular (crit ical . or singul", ) vatve,
Lei fo t a C"mappmg /: M
_ N'" of C"-mani foJds , eac h poinr .r e M
. egular . Such a ma pping is callC'd (i) a C'".imme'sion when n " m, (ii) a C!-
The Milnor sph.....,. Can be &i_ es .ubmllnlfohUin R '
... C ' ((t
, . " , ;,lJ by lhe
ly>letJ\sof tW<l lua tJonH :" -1 + + t: + z:+ ... O. It, l l + ' . + It, I' ... I,
It ... 1,2, _.. 28
0\. 4. M anl foldsand 8undl u
FIB. 83
, .
Fig. ss
nlbmerslon when n ;;. m, (iii) a C'"-immersloo Is call ed a if f is a
homeomorphism of M" onto the subspacef (M" ) o f the topological space N'" aod is
usually den ot ed by i .
1. The mapping]; R
- R ' Slvcn by the rule](x, )') .. X is a C--submersi on .
2. Th e ma pping f ; R I - R
li ven by t he rule /(x) - (sinx, sin 2x) (Fig. 83) is a
C"'-immersion but not an embedding since it is not injective. The ma pping/ I(O,
is not an embedding ei t her, though/ is bij ect ive on (0, 2'11"). In this case , rbe ma pping
I -I is 0 01 continuou s. Note that the mapping f l (o . j (Fi g. 84) is a
3. TIle mappi ng / ; S' - S1 given by the rule 1t:X, . ... (.r , y, 0) (Fig . 85) 'is a
4. Let I
/1 : R' - R' be funct ions of class c: The mapping J > if"
Jv:R I - R
(the curve is or class C"") can be considered to be a of
manifolds 1l
, R 2 with the natural C"".s t rl,lct ure. Eluc idate t he condutons un der
which the mapping/ is an immersion. Immers ion implies that any point x e R l is a
regular point of t he mapping
(i /I'LI - Ifl ill - f ; RI - R l
FiJ . 86
Jnlrod_ ;on 10 T opoIOIY
(here , . ,. ' . , an _lhe ident ity ma ppi np o r R
aDd R l ). l.e.
""'" (tf!J. d/
) = J.
dx ' dx
Thill . f is a C -immc,nion ir all t he dmvative, ";{: are neva- to
simultaneowJy .
A curve $8.U,ryina condi t ion (2) is caUed a curve with out sinaul81 point s. Th ose
poi nu at which (2) is not ful filled ate CiLlIal. .singular pain/s of the curve .
E., ., for Ihe curve/l (;c') _ r. f
(,x) _ xl (fl it _ 86), the point 0 is singu lar .
, . The curve dr awn In Fig. 87 (eolUIOlcr:edby mean s of the Iraph of the function
r _ $in..!.. ) dCl mninQ & C""-immersion. but not all embeddi ng of the hai r-line
into lhe plane lhouah t he is bijective.
Anolher exarnpk of. aimilar Idnd is sh'cn by thc immcrsiorlf:R I - C )( Cdeta"-
rl'Iined try lhe formub. / (.x") _ 1:1.'-2'"), when. !J. is lrT1llionaJ. II is easy to
verify thai. Ihis is. bijective ma pping (of rank I) and that " s irna,ge lies on the tOt'US
51 X 5' aDd it (bcins evuywhere dense) .
Note thai t he noncompactlleu of t he str aight line played an Impon am t ole in
the sJvcn examples. In filet . the following theorem is valid.
THEOREM 3. Y"II t7Wnllold M" is compact (lfIdI : M" - N'" 1$ all InJect lWi Immer-
sion, then ! is an ember!dlfl'.
The proo f follows from t he fact 11'11.1 an injective, continuoys ma pping
/ : M - N or comPIIC1. space M on lOf (lJ) C N u homeomorphism ontO ee
suMpaoc / (M) { ICC 50:. 13. 01. II}.
N Ol c that any C"-Irnmtnion f : />r - ,.,.. is C"-cmbeddi .,. OD cert ain
AelShbourtlood of eadI pomt x E AI" (this follows fl om the rheoretll on l':'Ctifyi oK.
ma ppinz. see 50:. I).
O . 4. Mal'li(oIds and 9ou>dIes

/ ii; z
ExAMI'LE6. Amappiq j : R" - n , of dus C",r I , det ermines an im-
meniou in RN If
ran k l, . " (3)
at any point Y e R" . Thus,jpoueJSCs no nonregular points and , by t he t heorem on
rect lryi ll.g a ma ppin g, is a local homcomorphtim between andf(R"). If, in add,-
tion. / is a homeoll"tOTllhism of R" ont o / (R") then f is a C"oflIIbcddinl .
51", Veri fy IIa.I the notion of ehan on a C"-a.bnwtifold in R'"(see Sec. 2)
is eq uivalent to the C"-embcddina of R" iJl RN.
Vert oft m lI\&Difolds lie in ot her ambimt manifold$. It will be t oo Jmen.! to call
...y manifold a submani fold orlhe ambient manifold j ust like a subset I:Ildo...
cd, in a lopoloJical space, with all arb itrary l opoloJ)' wiDnot be:tcnned. a subspacc .
It is rca", restricti ons ir "'e th.altherc WSI a $impt,.
td ation bet ween the st ruct ures of an embedded and amblei'll manifo!ds. Mean-
while. th e notion or embeddi ng proves useru t.
DEFt NITION 7. We call any SII bspace M
in N'" whsch is the lmaae of a certain C"-
M" - N'" with Ihe C"strueture induced by the homcomorph.isrn/ , a
submanifold of the C'ma niJold H"'.
The subml.niloW and mani fold i tnKlUrcs happen to be retalm in the foUoWlng
li mplc fashion: ror a cenain atlas I(U... p.)J or a mani fol d Ihe intersc<Uon
U. n M': is (i f noncmpIJ) the lmqc of the subspace R" C R- '" R" x R" - ..
under me homcomorphUrn >p. ' the rCSlricdolU ..,, ' R"; R" - U. n Mj detcnnin
ii'll an a tbs on the suhmaJlifokS}.f'"I'
Th us. a slIbma n, fold in Nt" i:s given ' oea.lIy in the cOlTcl pgndlns local tOOT-
dinllCS -E"" . . , -E"m on the manifold N'" by t he equation! (" .. I 0, . .
( '" .. O.
10" . By aoolying Ihe t heorem on rttt lfylnl tOthe coordinate repeeserueuen
or the cmbcddingf, consl lUct the a bo..c l llues on Ihe maraifokts N'" and MI;.
Th u interrelation o f the man ifold and Ill bmanHoid it NCt urcs may be assumed
10 be !he bllSu for the noLion of
Inlrocl",, "on 10 TopolorJ
DEf iNITION ' . A subspace M
C tv'" is eallcd all SIIlHwanifo/d of a
C"-manifold N"'. " " m, if , in a arCof l he: manifold N"' , Iheff a i$u.
family of m..u [(U........... :R" Joe Rt- . " _ U.. svdlt hat ,..CR") .. U. n M
when 0 and M
C Moreo veF. lhe mappinl s .. .. IR. : R" -
- u" n M
determine a C'". atlas spcci fyin'lhe structure or an n-.dimensional C"'
mani fold on I'd
(Fill . 88). Such a struct llre on t he manifold M
e N'" is eoJlcd a
S(!'Uclll,. compatible ""lIh thc sl ruct U/Tof the ,minI/old N"' , or loimpl y thc J' II'U(" uno
OfIt sub_ milo/d.
The cq uh'1llcnce 01 Definitions 7 and II is obmus.
I I " , Verify m-t l( U.. n M .. ... IA.JI, (U.. n M
'I' 0 ) Is . c'-aJlas <Ml M
12", Lee M- be . C"-5Ubman lfold iDR'" _ R" )( flN - "(_ Sec. 2) and (U(X) . ..)
Ihe dl an at poi nt x e lor . Show III.aI (i ) t hat Clti "" ;II C'-diffeomorphism
;; : R
_ O(x) from the RNonto . cera in. open in R"', neighbourhood O(l')
of l he pain! Jl, slid! tha t
(Ii ) the set of chl m
,, - ..
1(0(%). ;i)nM" U (R H. ' ....>
forms a C"-atlu on R
(in 1M SCJUe or Defll\ilion Z. Sec. J).
II rono M from &acisc: 12 that R
'llrith. tlaJ 15) is I C"-manifo.ld. and M".
10 (4). is ils wbmanifoid . (This jwtilles the lenn a 'C-submmfokl in R!V' Jiven in
Sec. 2. morepreciK , t},e lerm . 'SlIbrmnlCokl or a C'-manifold R""
shoWd be used
'f:JtAMpu; 1. The t:Q1l.lor or tnc: sphere Sl (St'c Elt:unpl " J) is a submuifold ,
Ext rdse IJ - , Show that t he graph c r t he mappinaf(x) a Lsl, XE R ' b no! Il sub-
manifOld of R Z,
Subman l(olds often emerae I'IOt as imaaes under ccnain mappinSS. bUI as inverse
[maI Cl. The (olklwiJlg import ant theor em happens 10 be usefltl not only in cce-
Slructina new mani folds bul alilO ollen (acilil atC$th e proof ot the fact that the
spaca und er InYC'!tiption possess (!'Ie manifol d sereerure.
THEOREM 4, tAl I : M" - N- '" M) be " C'-n>"'II of C'-mturVoids
(r OJ I) . ""1- SIIbmlmil o/d in N'" oofISU, ill, ofOIIly rqlliv 1'<11_ of1M moppmrf.
n,en M
r ' (Nt> is empty or " SIIbmonifO/d I" III" of dimensJOII
/I - m + Ie.
PROOP, An ume thai M
'I> 0, Let xobC' an ar bitflry po int in M
Sincc N1'b aUlb-
t here u isu a chan ( p", e P) from the mlll ima! alias for the C' -
st ructure liven on N'" such lhat t he pair (r n Nt. '" IIll) is a chan of the muimal
I tlas for Ihe C"ll ruttllre Let IU, ,..), (.rol!! U) be a chl tt of the maximalallu
fewIhe pyen in M" sUoeh that flU) C 'P. Then, (rOfO the dl t. alYen.
,.. - Ilxo) is I L"t'gIllacpoint fWIppinl " .. : II,.. ; ,..- I( U) - R- and, by Ihe
Iheo rem on reaif)'irla: I , there t:ltist an open nc'-&hbovrhood
YC,.- I<.ro c R,. of lhe point ,.-ltza). an opc:n Jet W C .and a C-
dUfeornorphisll'l F : 11(,.-'(>:0>1 - W, such UQl llw: mappln, .F-
on the Sd W is
the st andard project ion of R" onto R- . Note t ha' ,,(V(,. - l<.ro>)) IS an opm
nciahbowhood in M" of the point .Ko and the pai r (,, (11(..- '(xJ,",F -
) is . chart
or t he maximal alias for the C"-S\ruct ure ,iven on M". Since flP- 1is the st andar d
proj: liOll, and thc set
or I/ (", (V(", -I (>:o>)) n M
} C R'"
consists of polnll of t he form (>:1' .. . x
O . . . , 0), Ihc SC1
F ,.-I (,,( V(,.- I (.x'Ol n " 9 C R"
Q)llJists o f points ofthc fOC" m (1' ,x. o a,x,. .. " ). Thus, the
than (..(V{,.-' (.l'ol. <Fr ') In At" the properly
c" r- I)(R" - .. .. t n W) .. \IO(II(..-' txo>))n M"
(HCI'( R" - ,. .. It G> IK E R" : X .. I .. . . ... x'" .. 0].) Sudlachart can be ( on-
SU\let ed for an y point X
& M
" Th is proves that M[ is .. subman lfol d ;n /of" of
dimension n - m + k.
EXAMPLE8. It (OllOWI, in part icular , from Theorem 4 t hat the Inverse imaae of a
regular val ue or th e mappina f : M" - N'" Is either empt y or & submanifold in M"
of dimension II - lit.
TIle follo win. fulHlamcntal fact Is pven witbout proof.
THEOREM j (WHl TN'EY) A ll )' C'-mtUlijofd M" N il W cy..mb/drd ;1I 'Ire =/i_
."" sptta RlI<.
The tbeorem may be: &iwn another enunci at ion : ' A ll)' m/JIII/old It" u dif-
jHmOrphic to (I SIIbma"i/ofd of lite & d ldl" spIIr% R z", ' .
Since we agreed not to di stinguish bet ween diffeomorph ic mani folds, it may be
seen from t he laller t heor em that the abs tract not ion of ma nifold is nOt wide r than
tl"t of subma!llfold in Eudidean spaca, and we could coniine our$Clves t o the ir
condderalio n only. However, this is not al ways expedient . Many pr ob lems leading
to manIfolds can be Wived by & method without ' .\YoM nl an embedding.
3. The Sar d Theorem. The Noti on of the Degree Modulo 2 o r a
Mapping. The fundarnentalthcorcm about w q.....nt iry' of nonregular ......uu
of a IIUOOlb manifold is used in anal ysis q uite oft en.
TIlEORI! M 6 (SARD). Let f ; M" - ;-r W (I CY-mGPI'U16 ... 1 C"-mtIl1i/olds. if
, ;a. mu(1I - m,O) + 1,lhmt1fenolU'e,ukt,vuluaol'Mwwppirr, f l o,m(l R f O!
1rtetllll U "ero i ll N"' .
Omitti ng quite II complicat ed pr oof, we make it clear that II subse t A of a C'.
manifold N '" has measur e aero (mesA "" 0) if A "" U A
, where each A
is can-
tamed in. M:I Uk of some ch&t\ ( Uk' "' k ) from t he atl n a n N'" and "' i l(A
) has
mcaure uro in R."' . Thus, the Sud t heorem Jtldes that thue is a ' relallv ely sma ll'
quar.tlty of nOPrqular values of the smaadl mappin. / : M" -
Eurriw 14- . Verify that the stl of re&ular values is everywhere dense in ,....
In conclusio n. we inu odlKlll' lit e COI:I.(:q)t o f lhot de:&ru modulo 2 o f a mapplDI
Tho. imponanl chllRCterisli c of rn.appi1l&S PfO..-a lObe quite uscful in applicatioN.
Let! : M'" - be. C"onw.Pplnl of C"-lDUli folcb (r ;J I). Moreowc1. let ..... be:
c:onneued. Wldf prop. IfYIIIi"" is. reaWat walue orltlc is
Il,lbrnani fokl in M" of c1lIMnsion uro Of mlpl y. Sincel ls proper. the wbnwlifold
ri O') u aDdlhcrcfon of iI tillite lIumba" ofpoinu k (,) (k - OJ!
/ - '0') - 0). Usinl tbe Sard lhCQl"ClP. it o;an be shown IhaliM da.u mod 2
or the number k (y) 60es not dcpmd em the choice of. rq:vla, value )! E N" of the
INPpm. J. This residue d ass II c:alled the mod 1 of mappl"l l
denOled by 1k1
We indieate 1M slmpks! applicat ion of this notion .
THEOIUW 1.ljdq2(/) .. 0 muppi",Jissurj tc llw.
PIlOQP Corider ana1bluary )foe ...... If YO E/f.M") then , obviously.rI(yr) 010 0 .
If ' 0e/(M" ) then Yo is rCl ular value of the llllIppinll: I . an d mcrecver
rl (yr) - 0 . Th erefore , t{/'ol - 0 and dta,;(f) O.
l. The Idea of a Tangent Space. To inYUl ip ,u moodl mappinpfwther
it Is MCUSIlr)' to COl1$U\IC1 an anaIOllue of the di Hamllal or. runnion. i .e. , of.
COI'ICCflI is widely In anal,as. A t-.genli-.! nu.p deflMd and AuclXd ill
Ib is sIJOn is sud! II aml'l':lliu.tion. BIll iI is necasar)' 10 amcnliu the notioa or
tanp:nl 10 II (and of tanacnl plane 10 II wrflC'l:) a l fi rs! . 'Thenec:e:s.sily ohuch II
is also QlQI:Ii by app6ations of the DOIionof manifold in mcdI anks
aDd pb ysk:s. As it was mentioned in Sec. 3,Ihe c:otlflJUmion spaoe: of a mechan ical
s)'$laTl iI. as rule $IMOth man ifol d. EadI poinI o f this mani fcMd is a C'Crtam
position of. mo:h.anicallYJlem. Under tbe action o f forees. the mecll.anical , yAnD
Men ilS posit io n. The point o f Ihe oonfJgUn.tion IPIC'l: alrrespondin , 10 it mova
dC$(:rl biAa. cerlain t raj ectory. v1L. a pa lh on smoolh ma nifo ld. An imponilllt
dllsract cristicofthl.l motion b velodty which changes with time:. galcraUy speakin, .
The of II ml!Chonictll SYSltm .1.1 each given moment o f time 1.1 the pai r It) .
where ;xis the point of the man ifold cor respondfng to the pcstrtc n of the sySlem.t
the moment unde r considerat ion, and It 1.1 t he displacement vdodt y of t he point x.
The c:olleclio n o f aIl l1atcs of. mechanical system is eaUcd JJHK'C.
A qu estion na tural ly arises what mat hematical concept can be auoclated with
l he pbysical notion of veloaty .nd, how to dncri be the llotloAo f phase
spaot with matMmaticai flaOUr . The solAno .. of Ihis qUdtioD IS plompted by the
simple:st ph)'Jical aamplet;. Thlls. when a poinl mus mova alo.., a it!
veloclly am be inl.e"pre1ed as certain YCCtor which II t.arlge'" 10 the <:Ilrvc' and
dito:<1ed tbe path 0( UIO( ion. If a poinl mus moves acrou a tw04inmlsioNl
sur face then its vdoeity is interpreted., a een:a.iD vfl:IDI t anaCllt to the &inti ....rrace
A pP.... / . X _ y or _ !.OoOIOP<:U space ' o .-bor is saK!IO bcpr<>prt" lf the ....
vn "" / - '(.t') 01..,. CDalpIQ .OI K C Y II .-.paa .. X.
01.4. Manifoktl aDd. Abl e 8,,,,,;l1u
and paUl ulf. The: sc:t or.u poui blc al ,. t;ivcn point of. eerve (resp .
rutf"tot:) i5 thus a tanl mt suai&htllne (resp. tan&tlU plalk). Tbe set of aI. poui ble
vdocKiu adlII issiblt U,. aiven of a mechatt ical sySlcm QUI be nat uml ly in-
tl!l"'prettd in ,. simi laf way, l.e .. taftlent space at t he rorrapon.
dins point of . Slftl)()(h nwtifold (Of Ihe case of . aencral c.onfi,....atjon 'PUC".
2. The Notion o f Tangent Space to a Manifold . Befort pvina"
precist of Ibis notion, it shovJd be noted that we 'IriIl now take intOec-
count the fac! whc:lher wc consider thc n-dimmsiona.l EucUckan Sj;lal% as ,.
lp8CC (Wl4er the Euclidean metric) Ol" mdow it ad4ilionally. with thc vco::tor 5pacc
struct:urc. In the fanner cue. t nc c1cmcnu o r R- arc $:ai4to be poinu . an 4 vC'C!ots ln
the. latter ; we wiU also call R
a vector space (pr cvW>usly, ..c did not make any
diu inctlon between these not ioo, ). Thus. e.I ., consi dcrina thc deri valive
: Rn - R
of a mapping/ : - Rm al a poinl Xo(see Sec. I. 01. IV). it
$IIould be cmphasittd that it u n its out a linear mapping or vector spaccs. Let R
be a subspace of R"'. cal l the pair (X. v) I! R'" )( wbere x i point and v I. a
veetc r, a vector v fi t Q poln l x (a Vtor of/,/rom IMpo}nl x. a veao r with
'oril i,,' fl l l M point x) . LeI x be an ;arbitrary point in R"'. We will cal l t he ecuec -
tion of all vectors v E R" muked off from a paint r, the SIX' R- mIlrb d off/ rom
the POUlt x , Th i$ collect ion po_ lhe natural of Ihe ,,-..dimenSlonal
Eudidcall s pact which we wiU denote by R;'
COmi der now a smooth R1 bmani fold M" in Eudilkan SI'&" R
(sec Sec. 2) .
DEftNITION l. Let: M" be a C'"-l\IbmaniJokl in Rtv (r .. I). X6 M" an ar bi(rary
point . Let CU .. )bc a chan on M", X II" U. Tr to
M" 1\ . point x is tIu: matkcd o ff from th e poilltx. l.e. the itna&eof the
veetoc" space R" under lbe ma ppin. D,, _'w'": R" _ R IJ.
R.ccall that the linur mappi na D,,_'W'" is Ji ven by Ihe Jacobian matti"
"')I .Since rank ( "') I E". the IlIl\aenl space is ofdimemlon /I .
ax .. _ 1,,) ax ..-I",
We show lhe indepe ndcnce of Ihe definition of from the ehoicc:of a chan. Lei
(V. x E Y bc anOther ehan . The commut ative diagram (on t he left) lteneTates the
diagram of linear ma pping! (on the rlaht):
<. 0'-" '/ "
., '/ItflvJ "' ., . ..wnvl ,
0 .. . \ . " ..- ,."
Since .... - 1..:..-1 (U n V) - -I - I ( u n V) is a diffeomorphism. 0 - I (...- I..)
:R- - R- is an isomor'phism UK! tbcrcrore. dmex in. lbc bnagc by have
lm D,, _/(.d(.... ,"' ) = R". Funher . we oblain
ImD.. . ,to1" . I m D I.. ))
.. ImfI D". ',",i IlD"_' wf"4- -I.. Il" ImD,.-, wof
I nlroclua" ", t .. Topol OllY
whkh prons Ihc conoeana s of Od i nifKln I.
The danenll o f . he space T,/'4" ate calkd wc,on to }.(" I ' 11'><0
po intx.
!'or a nanirold M
in R). the 11UI&1m1 spac:c T.,M'I is " t wo-dimensional p1a,M
p.a$Sing t htoud\ the potnl .... which tolndda wilh the U. ...CI'lC plan", 10 lhc S\lrfaa:
U$UAlJ)' o:onsidcrcd in an al)'1is.
Ex.AM' U1 I. Lcl VC R" be an open set alGSide..1td as . t\l b!n&nifokt in Nit. Then
for any poinl Jt IE' U. we ha.... T",u _ R;'
the notion of tan&ent space to the case of bilf aJY manifolds . In flUs
QUC". genma lly speakina. it is impot.ubl", to speak of the: dcri vati.... D _I .,.
' rom Defini tion I (of a lanient space), anol hcr approach can
U I (U, 10) be IIecnllin chan on a submani fold M" in if IE' U a po int. 11Ic
veclor <X. DJIP- I (h fr om R; Is call ed t h",coordllto' e repruttllotio n Of fll " l(mB"'"
welor (r , h) e: T:I't" In t he chart (U, ",) . A que sl lQfl ari ses how fhe eccretnete
r",prnenlation s of the , aollm l vector II in ...anoUli chll1U are related. Let (Y, of) be
another chart , JCe V. Diffcrcnll llln&t he mapp ina .. _ I _ we shal/ICC
ch, 1 the coordinale rep resentatlonl o r t he vectcr (.l'. h l in the charts (V. 10) (Y. '4<)
arc ,e1.ted by the equalit y
tK.D.. IO-
( II :- (.l'. ..'' - 1(11 . ( I)
It is 4aUl rai co identify . t lUl&Cnt vector with lhe JC1 o f .1I its coordina t e fe1lrQCnUl'
cioI:u. This nou:Qn be usumed as t he basis fD<" . new de rmilion o f a t aJl8cnc >'tor
which b JU!lab lc fOl" .,. arbiuv)o manifold.
Let Jot" be . maniIokI of class cr.r- ;> I . ar bilrat')' point X EAr and con-
sieler tbue! T ohll triples (..1' . CU. 10) . II). when( U. 1")lu d1art at th e point x . lIDdII
R'", We ddine an on th e >el T u roUowl :
(..1'. (U. !O) . II) - (..1'. (V. &,) II - D *-I(>1(!O - I..) CI') ,
1*. Verify I h.l this relation .. an equivlllence rewio",
The equivalence d :us (,r . (U. 1") . h ) is call ed the I1t or- at t he poinl JI,
an d' l he tri ple (..1', (U. !O) . II) from the equivale nce d Ull a of tlw
(u"sen{ vector In lhe ch art ' tU. !O)' Moreover. we will cal l t be veeeer " the vector
componen l of 1M ... (..1' . (U, !O) . II) and denote i t b y II; ,
We consideTthe set of all t anllent vectors at a point JI, Denotinll it by T
we Ii " a chart (U, ,oJ. x e U. an d co nstruct the ma pp inll
r.. (2)
l ha t . ssocIates each. ..tor with t he o;omponc:l'Il It of iu in Ill"
chatt (U, ..) , It is obYiollS that ,,, " a bijtiOll and thcn rore the st ruC!. ur e o f lhe
n-di mcNional ..tor space R" h IUIol unJ1y transfened to lhe SCI T,.M". A more
detailed namIn.lw.. o r cJlis fac:a shows Wiehe a1s dlnlic o f IIddi cion and
nwlliplk:abon by . number are inlnxll.lC'ed On T/of"in Icnns Of lhe COI'TaJ>OU4lnll
operatioou ovu lhe Vt'CtOr eomponenel of Ill" repruenw iva of t he tanaent ..ectors
e-a&, ( I ) cItmooutrat.. how iI>t. "*"" .... ' h ..rtbc.dlal t ,
M. " jfolds and Fibre Bundh:s
in tile chosen chart (U, .,.) , If t he representa tive. of the ta ngent vector s are given in
differe nt charH Illen Ihey should be repla cC<l be forehand by equ ivalent represen-
teuves in the same chan. Th us, the algebraic op erations on TJI"'f" are defined as
(l) l(x, ( U, 1"), lI)l + !(K, { V, \IoJ, g) l = !(,x. {U, ", I, h +
(2l q!{x. (U, I"l,II )] .. !(x, (U, "' l , ah)f.
Extrdstl 2" _Prove the com:clncss of t he de finit ion o f the algebraIc o perat ions and
vffi fy that the axiOTll S of the vector space are fulfHled,
Thus, we related each poi nt x of a manifold M" to a vector space called the
to M" al the point x and denoted by Tp .
The dime nsion of a lllllgent space at each point equals fI, i.e. the dimension of
the manifold M". In fact, this follow. from bij ection (2) (with rhe given defln ltioo
of algebraic ope rations) being an isomorph ism of vector spaces .
We adduce hu e another convenient definition of a tangent 5pace. Let M" be a
smoolh manifold and x e an arbitrary point. We call a smoot h map ping X : (0,
b) - M", where (0, b) is a <; ertai n interval of the numb Cl' line co nsidered as a
matli fold with the natural C"' structu re, a PnOOt'" curve xon the manifold M".
Two curves XI an d Xl o f the set of -'I\lool h curves
)( : ( - 0, 0) - )(0) .. x
arc called equi valent ot 0point xif for a certa in cha rt (U, .,.) cont aini ng the poi nt x ,
the curves .,.-I
I' .,.- I
in pOSilCSS the property
_,d (.,.-l
\)(I>1 __,d
I , 0 I ' . 0
Exelew ,
, Show Ihat Ihe defi nition of the !ui va!ellcc of the CU",C$XI')(2 does nOI depe nd
00 the choke of a chart .
4". Show thai th e eq ulvalen ce of at a point is art equ ivalence relott ion on the
,ct or smooth curves on a manifold .
DEFINITION Z, n ,Cequivalcnce class Or smoot " curves passi ng through a point x is
called a tongcfl l 'lJeCIOr to the manifold M" at lhe point)t.
LEMMA t . The sel 0/equil'U/ence cfasscs 0/ <:urvcs 0/1 0 manifo ld M" Ihal
pass fhr ough a poim x is an n-dimctlSlonal vector S/XICt.
In ract, havilll fixeda chart (U , .,.), the class of equivalCfl t curves al a polnrs may
be associa ted with the ,, dimensional vector CI = (",- IX) I .Co nversely, each
, d l I 0
vector CI det ermines a Sfra ight lree in the-space R" passin, thro ugh the point" - t (Xl
wilh the ' slope' a. while it s image under th e mapping 0,# ...ill determine a smooth
curve X III R" j)lUSil1g t hrough the po int xand wch that o '" (.,. -IX) I .Thus,
dl , 0
lot,oduc lion 10T l'lpOlon
we have . b1.teClive correspondence between the eqUIvalence clasKS 0( curves u a
POtll1 It and or the space: R".
Ddine the alsebraio: opcl'111iolU on the: KI of elaun of curves equ ivalcfIl at
point il ia lila t this bijection m&)' become an iso lTlOlllhism of ftCIor spattS:
(I) l hc sum lx,1 ... lx:l of two i$ a clus Juch thai
(,,-IX\)1 + .! C,,-IXaJ l - '
d l ,.0 dl /_0 .... , . 0
Vi> the product A!xl of a Dumber ), by a d3S$ Ixl LS class 5UCh tba'
.. -IX:J1 _ .. -IX)1 .
dl , .. 0 d t ._0
S . Show th e validity Qf theint roduced operation, and verify that the ex-
ioms of Ibc vector space are fulfllled.
Tbee -dlmensional vector spac of classes of equivale nt ,"Urvet.1U a point Jl on a
manifold M" con stru cted above isWled the langtttt spocc to M" al lbe point x . and
lis elcl:ReIlu an called (O"ltnl ,,t(ln. It 1$still denoted by T,.M" . Note Ihal for
RIch. derlllitioo of a tangent $pace, t hc i$Omolllhlsm r... : T#" - ecrre-
5POftdln, 10 the chan (U, .. ) , x IE U, is &lY<:n by Ihc formula
Ix) - (,,- IX) I .
c1I ' _0
I t ii I'l&WraJ10 QB eM triple (,r', (U. ,,) (...-IX)I 1M of IIIe
df , .. 0
[xl in the chart (U. ,,) and the vect or t"-'dl the WClorCO"l
ponCl' of fIlL dl , - 0
3. Tangent Bundle . Th e t. ...sent IIPKC' T.Jot" <;all be defmed for any paint x of
a $moot h manifold M". Ou r nellt 1$to l;Otn t ruC't a topological space uti
even a Imooth manifold from all VectOlSof t his family o f WCIOl"spaces thai dept:l'ld
on Ihe pol l'll x,
ConsIderi ng the di sjoint unIon TM" .. U T;?I " of all tangenl spaceS 10 a
ma nifold 1Yf". we de fine lh e projection :II ; TM" - !of" by ma pping each veclor
from TJlf"int o me pain! x, Thm
.. - I (x) _
Th is inw:ne image: ' $ caDed 1M- fibre over the point x.
Eaeh chart ( U. ,oo) of a mani fold M" Will defi ne t be eha.r1 ( r -' (fl). ..) in TM"
.. : .. - I ( U) - R" X R" (3)
u follows: usi3n to the Ul'\ICftt "C'd0l''' !(x. (U ....). .... )1in the fibre OYer a painl
& U a pair <.... -'W. ..,pl. where .. as defined earlier (sec Item 2). Le .
- (.. - ' (x) . h .. ) .
Ct>.4 Manifoldsand Fibre BundlO$
s. (V, <p). h,.l being a represmtat ive of the vector Q in the chart (V, 1"). h is ob _
vious thai r is bijeecive, t herefore the weakest topology can be inlrodllced o n
,, -I (lI) so that r may become a con linuous mappin g and even a homeomorpbJ sm
(see Sec. 8, Ch. ['f). Since t ile set of all che rt s on ...- l (U) fo rms a cover ing of TM" .
by decl ari ng !lIe eol1ec:t ion of all open sets in all chans on ...- ' eU) to be the base for
the t<.>pology. we thereby const ruct a (<.>pal ogy on TM" an d convert TM" inl o a
lI;Jpologkal space.
('IOTE. Aco::ord ing to Ihe formal defi nilion, the pairs (...- I((l), , ;1) should have
bern caned chan.s on the space TM". We reversed t he homeomorphisms for con-
venience (verify thai this cllange is inessCt'lli aJ).
Thus, chan (3) enables us 10 introduce local coordinates on lhe sel ,,-I(U) by
spifying the coo rdinates of the pai r (<p- l(x), h,.) In R" x R" , We will C<l Utile pair
(,. -I (x). h"J the coordinatt teprtSetf tul/On of the langent vect or 0 in the cllan ( V.
",) . and t ile vector h., the vector component (in the chart (U. <p of the tangent vee-
Thi s termi nology is[ustifled by tile following state ment .
LEMMA2. 1/ M" ;' ,H1fU"i/ old cqc:fass C', r ;:;. I . then the colltion j( .. - I(U). ' ,. ))
0/ all m arts 0" the $pQ r:t TM" is a C' - I. ollus.
PROOF Let (V, 'P), ( V, y,) be twochans on a mani fold M" , V n v .. 121 . Let
(,.- - I (U) , T), (...- I( V), T) be the eo rrespo nding chart s on then
(...- I ( l/) n ;- 1(11) _ ...-Itvn V) '" 0. We hav<:the commll1alive diagram
t../ i'lufll/) '-....t.
R"' R" R",R"

whae the ma pping
( ...-I (Un V - .. Vl)
is a homeomorphism o f open sets into x R" (the transition homeomorphism
from one set of coordinates 10 ano ther) . II suffices to show that r e:'e C' - '.
Since ' .u .. (,,-tv-). hi ) ' r .,o - (Y,-I(Xl, h
) and h
- D -'<4(f - t<p)h,. we easily
obtain that ,.
Note that U"ansilion tr an$fo. mat ion (4) i. of a special for m: the coordinat es of a
point x arc transformed: by means of the diffeomorphism rV '". and the vector
component II of the tangent vector II by means of the linear oe nsrcrmaucn
D _,,,,if-I,,,).
.. Thus. the: structure of a smooth manirold of dimension 2n has been constructed
on the topologi<:a1 SJl8DC tM". Due to a $pCCiill form of transi lwn lnUl$fo. -
mat l<.>n (4), such a manifold i$ called t he (ongenr bundlt of the ma nifold Th e
.newterm underlines the structure of the manifold TM" wh'ch ,olUiSll of fibres e ver
lnuoducll on to Topo logy
Fig. 89
r :l.I;h point ill M" that ar c tang ent spaces. The smooth man ifold stru ct ur e deter-
mined by the al l"" of charts of form (3) is called the III"Br nl bundle t lrtl Clllre .
EXAMPLE 2. Co nstruct the structure of t he ta ngent bundle rs
for the cir-
cumference 5 1 C R
. Considering 51 <IS the set of points e fI ts e R I), speci fy on 51
Ihe C-atlas of the two charts
V I "" [e"' :se(o. %",)} ' ''' I (S) - c" : ..) - U!'
U2 - [e-r :se (-",i)J''"2(5) '' c" : ( -T i) - U2-
In rael,the set VI n U
oonsists of two connected components VI' V
(Fig. 89)
and the transitlon homeomorphism on them is of t he form
"'21<p , (5) ... S : ll'11 (VJ} - <pi 1(V11. 'Pi J"'j(.s) .. (s - 2",) : <PI
( V
- <pi I( V
and ISther efor e a C"'-di ffeomorpbi sm. The charts of the alIas on t he lansen! bun-
dle are t hm of the Conn
0 \ = ... -t (U
). r..,: ,..-l(U
) - X R
= "' -I(UJ ....
: ,. - I (U
) - (-"" I) x R I.
NOTE- Since D fV' 2' I" I) .. I ll" Ihe tangent vector determined by l he represen tati ve
(X, ( U
10 1) ' II ) il'l lhe cnan ( Up 101) is of the rcrmc. IOV' II ) in the chart ( VI '
I"z) ' ClUing the mani fold TS
from Ihe direct pwdul:u ...) X R
, ( -",
X R I alon g the di ffeo morphism - ("'2' 1" 1' ' Il l ) , we obviously obtain
Ch. Man,rold5 a Dd Fibre
the direct product S' x R
Thus. Ihe tangml bl.mdle rs' is homeomorphic t o
S l >c R I. .
E:xen:lre 6
Let Vb< an open set in Show that the tangent bundle of the .set V
regarded as a sub manlrold in M" coi ncidu. with . - I. ( V). Descri be TV. v C
Remember that we discussed t he: phau 5P&CC of a syste m in Item I . The st at e of
a s)'Stem can be nowcharac teri zed by an dement from TAr'. Le . t he tanacnt vector
/I over a point x . Then,"( characterlzes the position of the 5y5to:rn in t he cottfiguration
space , and t he vecto r a from T,.M" speci fies ure of the $)'stem.
4. The Riemannian Metric . The tangenl bundl e is related to the not ion
which i.l.lmpo rlant in gtollletrie problems. viz., that of the Rlemannian metric on a
mllllifoid. COnsider a C"-mani fold M
, ;oJ l. a:rd Its tangent bundle TM". Let a
symmetric , positive-defi nite , bili near fu nction A x( u, y) thai , generally speaking.
depends on x be defmed in each fibre of TxM". We will auume t hat thte depecdence
is of class C" - I in the sense that in thclocal ceordlnares on the chan ('11' - I( U), ' .. )
of rhe tangml bundle TM", the bilinear functio n A...(,; IU.,; Iv) in a fixed basis for
the vector has a matrm A ll "") whose demeolS are C" - ' f\Inetions on U.
The form A...(u. ,,) !s called the of class C" - 1 on the
mani fold M". 1t is often specified In th e toeal coordinates on th e t angent bundle as a
bilinear f orm
1: QU(x )U,v,. x e U,
where Il l' . . un' " I' . "n are t he coc rdtnares of Ihe vecton U. "of t he space
Rn. 1be Rieman nian rn.ctric trlablcs UI 10 measure the ItrlJlths of VCClOU an d the
angl es between them in 13IIacnt e.g. if " E T..-M" then Ihe length I vi... oj Q
-m;lor v is defined by the equali ly _ A.,.(", II wil l be InltlCSling to consider
t he question of ex.lSlcnee of the RicmanrUari metric on smooth rntlnlfolds.
THEOREM I. 0 " Qfl)' C'-mnnVold M", r ;oJ I , (here exislSQ Ri ttllo"fl ia" mtlric oj
druse' - I.
Pll:OOF. COll$fder a certain at lll$I(U". ",,)on th e rntlnifo ld M". Let !V"l be a local ly
nnlte,open co"e riflg of M" such th at each V
lies in a cenajn U" (such II is
there due to the paracompaet ncss of M") . For eadt P. we fi x a eenam number
a '" a(Q ) and const ruct a C'"-panition Is!,! of unity which is subordinate to t he
coverillll ! V"J. The idea of con structing a Riemlll1nian metri c is (0 construct on each
(u a submanifold or M" with the bundle ". -I (V,6) ru own Riemannian
mt lrie A:(u. and t hen by part ition ing unity, glue the 'g.IobaJ ' Riem1UUlian metric
from them:
' S)
7" . Verify th at if A e(ll. v);s a Riemannian metric on VJI(fo r each P). then
formula (5) determines a Riemanni an metric On M" . .
. It remains to construct a Riemannian melric on V/! , By th e previous const rue -
hall. V" C U" lI' )' therefore ",-'(V,,) C and ".-I( V
) belongs 10 the
lnlfocluctkm10 TOJ'Olou
dlatt (..,-I{U.. ortbetUCC!l1bundle TM" . ThUS. weotnin the tnawint:
.,6 "".-111: ,. _ I( y, >- <.,;J, (1', x 1l". (6)
Conslder thc bilinear form 8 (11, 1') .. Il
V, .... . . ... with the tenstanl
mat rix (a/J(x .. (fJ/jX'v bc:ina the Kronecker dd tl) in 10Q\ tOOrdinateJ (6). We
no.... spa;i fy R1elnUuliaIl metric OD V, by the nj uali ly
.. u... e Tj>t".xeY._
...mere is . rCSlricticMl or y610 the nbfe T"M".
5. Tangential Maps . While pudytq srnoolll mappinp or sw1&CC$ (rap.
C\lt'Ves) in anaIyIil and its IpplkacloM,lhey often \IX the line:ariutlon md.bod which
eonmts in rcp1aci1ll 1 surface (res)). alnc) by the langent pilUle (rnp. strai&ht Ilne)
in ncigbbourhood5 of 101I)e poillt and its image , and replacing I ffiBppina by ils
c1irrcrmlial . l.e., by linear mappinl _Th ill method adntits I cttcra! lOD for the
c:&.$C of mawinP of llJIOOth muli rokb. .
Let! : AI" - N'" ba a JJDOOth mappina ordas cr. r > I , of tmOOlh malli fokb
or the same daN. LeI x. AI'" br; all ar'biuvy point,arwl ( U, "XI', lit) dwU: in the
m&IIiColcI.I AI". "". sudt llw x *' U. ftr) Iii V; we assume abo tha!
I {(/) c Y. Comida the rcpn:teDtaUon of the mtlppiq:/in the Jivm. C'OOfcfillalCS
r 1t", : ,,- l UI) _ . - 11)
and ltl dew atlve
oeF'1Nn1ON J. Let " Ii! T be aa arblUvy tan,att vector , t I point x , and (...-, ( U,
.,), 11 ) its in the dlan lV, ,,). u-r lNIpp(n 1
(/) : T/'f" - TNI"".
un4et whIch the 11IlIIrnt veetor G' with the representative o. (U, ., ) , II) i. Im,,-
formed Into a 1lll18Clll vector b with the repres-ent alive ({(x), (V, rJ- ),,) in nu Cllarl
(V, f ). whCfe, D D -lj.,)h. is called Ihe map oj f lit the poi nt
xE M".
Thus. WIdera polnt x Is 'carried' by &1T\.lppU1aI. and the ve<:-
l<H" COIl\pODalt 11, t:OITespondiDt; to tbe d10sen chart . of langent ved.Of is
tr&DJfonDcd by linear In&ppiq (7).
,e,Show tha i lanstnllal map TJ doeI not depend Of! the: of
The vtrlficatlon of Itle Collowm, baJic propertiet of the lllllaential map b left to
the reader &II I simple C!lIerciJe:
(I) to tbe Identity D\.Ipping 1_ : /of" _ M", there corresponds the ident ity ma p.
Cb. . MalIlrolds ud Fillfcikmdles
entails the. commuta tivit y of ure tanaential map diaanun
where Y '" l td , 'l: = ,0').
The collection of aDw.mtial jT...(()J.... ...,. detemrlnes a w Rent bundle
T(f) : TM" -
ea11ed a mgp 01mIJflijuldr tflflgUi tJal to f.
USlna iIffi()Oth st ruct ures on TM" and TN"' . t he rep,.:sc:ntatlon of the Il'UI pping
T(f) in t he cor respondi nll charts can be writt en. Indeed, let ( V, If) be a chan at the
point Iv). and (U. ,..) a c!'lart at the poi nt x , and moreover . / UI) C V. Cotl sideT
the clwU (1' - I{(/). r,,). (. - ,(V), r, )In tbe lanpt bundles TM-. TN"' , rapective
Iy. To II vec:tor #I I! T -
CU). there c:orrnponds the paU (,. - 1",). h ) in the
dian r ; simibrly. to lhe Cam b Tf,f}tz, there c:orrcspontls the p&r (i -
M .
in t he chan r
We have tbe foUowina t ransition
r .,T(f}T; I : 0'. 11)- (cr'/"xn. (51)
actina fro m the set r ( tr - '(U) C R" )( R" to the set r ",C.".- I(y) C R'" )( R
Isclear t hat mappin8' (II) Ll of unoothness clul C - I.
TblU, with each smooth mapptlll of manifolds o f dass C . ' ;;a I . smooth map-
pint: (8) or d ass C' - ' of their ta llJCfl t bundlesc:an bea.ssodated . For the tangenlial
maps of tanpnt bundles, properties (I ) and (II) remai n valid .
The defini l lon of . rq ulu poinl or . smooth ma ppill' of mani foJt1s (_ Der. S,
Sec. S) can be reformulated in ttrm$ of tln.ent ial map. Let / : M" - N'"' be a C
mappin8(' ;lJ l.of C-manifol4s .
DEFINITION . A poin l :r I! /If" is called a " ,,,IQr POint of ;0. mapp ing / if
rank T,,(/) .. min (n, m) .
E.'nrci$e 9- . Verify lbe tquivaJcnQC or Def..,ltlon I to Definitlon 5, Sa: . 5.
The .dvantage of Definition 4 is in iu bcinSSlven in Invariant form , u . in a
fonn ;,:uiependent of the choke of <:oorwDl te:, J$ItmS.

lnu od uetioa 10 TOpOIo&J
6. Orientation of Manifol ds . The noliofts of tanatnt SPaDe and W1JCD1
bwldk enable III 10 ckflllOe the cOlK'ePl of orientabilit y of smooth manifoldJl b7
!he dd\rLitioll. of an orimtable SU1faa which is qWle importalll in
tile notion of oriented T_ buts (' ., . . " . ) and
II . . . , I . ) in R- are pjd 10 ee OrlM $U1IC orirtll"tk'" it the transfer from ooe
'-sis 10 tbe other b camed 0111 by a linear mapping with .. positiV1: dd et minanl .
E:urr:iK 10". Show thaI OTIClltalion Isan rclalian OIl the; Sd of all basel
in Rft and thaI the numbel" of equivalence classes t<juals 2. Rft ls aid. 10 be Qriented if ece o( the cqul valmcc classes o f the bases II
find in il.
COnsider .. C"-I\lbmanirold M"" iilI I... !he space RtJ. A wbmanifold M" Is
said10 be oriNItllblt If orienwions .illeadl lan&eJl1 T/of" and an at!aJ {fU...
...J] in lot" e.-n be chO$efl ..a lhal !be CDn npondina diffC'OlDOfllhtsn:ls
"if :R" - U.. the otjcftwiolls, Le., for allYpoizlt E Up.the IllllJCl1daJ
map T : TJtf" - R" lIUsf_ lhc orimwion of tile Vec'lOf &p&Ot
T,)r intn .. rtud orlmtation of tbe m;t SI*C R".
Otherwise. ee mani fold is said to be IIOIt-tJI'kfllobk.
An atlas U1tiJryin, this conOitiDnII ealkd aD oriMtm, atlas. It is d ar IhaI. for
lID orimtllll au.s. tIN: diffeomorphi$ms " ..: R" - U.. al Ccompal ibk with cadi
ether, Th.. prt<:ise tIlCanina of this rompati bllily is expR:UeC! by the folklwilll excf-
Exuci# 11. Show Ihat ally two chart$ (U" . '1',,), (U
' "'Ill from an orienc.1l1, atlas
arc p<')5itivclycompatible. i.e., possc:utht propertyof the lk terminant of Iht maw-
in, Dz1.1<1 '''i I..",) : R!' - ROto be for &IIy point x e ,,; I (U. n V, );
if any tWO charts of an .tlas we positivdy <:(1l11patiblc lhen the l lW is
Thepropcn, y aPfUKd, in & t I isU$edill dd inin, au orimUble manifold
(1lOI nec:aa arit y ItlIlhedded in RI').
W'C iDuodUtt IIAequlYalmce rdalion on !he Jet of oriclltina atlases : two ori en4
iq atlasn aft' PqIIiNlml if t!lcir WIioII is an orimtill& al!u.
11I'C choice of one of Ihe cqulvaloma: classes is ca1I'Cd I DOIWtrIQtIott 0/ 1M
EurcLsr U ' _Verif, tb3t for any manifold. th'C nulIIbcr of th'C eq"';vaIcncc of
orlcntina au-:, is 'CV'CTI . andin lhe usc of I connected manifold equ.als0 or 2.
Th'C simplal uamp1e of an ori entlble mini fold 17 the RO. In this caK. the
lOlLl conslslinll of one chart (R". ' 11 0) is orienting
Exercise 13. Show that any manifold 11'111pouc:sscs lIIl at1as conslstill' orone chart
1.1 orimtable.
Ert1"eUe ,,0&iva us another uamplc: an opm XI III ROand. Ihe-dore. all,
open disc D" are oricntable.
ll>c Cartesian prodUQof <Jmlllabl'C malllfokh is anot ber eumplc of an aMnl.
allk manifold. we I"" proof of Ibis fact as an excfci5c10 the reader.
t.. ConIlNn anoricntirt& atlas on
U . Show that t be mprold is ori...nable for.n evm II. 0 < k < II.
As to non-orienttblc manifolds. Ihete arc, for uample, MObius' !li p aru!th(,
spl oe RP" - I for an even n - I > O. We do not p vc t he proof here. If
n _ I ;, odd [hen - I is orienl_ble as il follo....s from Exercise Ij O.
NOTE. Mind that when " .. 0, n _ I, any manifold M" I' eriemable .
TM nodon of orimtaliOllen.bles us to perfect the deJr cc modulo 2 of"
ins . 1M nOlion iot rodvotd u. Sec. S. In consickrina " mapPina of omote<!
ll'IalIifoids. _ will COIlllI the number of poinu in ee inVll:l,Jc of fql.I1ar
nruc alacbrlio;aIly ..i1h +' - ' sip, d.tpmdin&on whether Of" IlOllhc l.angeP-
tbl map at Ihis paiD t prexn'1'S the oricnI.llion mher than ooWllana il modulo 2. As
_ 0 u in thc QSoe o fthc dC'l1Cl: modulo 2, it..-n be sb<nmthat Ihis numbt:r don not
depend on the choiceof. reJular value; !his i' calh:dthe dqrn (oriented) o/amap.
pin. f and denot ed by de& lj). Thcorem 7, Sec. S. ;$ valid tor the detree lka (f) . In
the case of smooth nappinp of sphere" the dcgec of a mappinl 50 defined coi n-
cides with the degree o( a mappilll introduced in Sec. 4, 01. til .
I. A New Definition of a vector - weeeeueee the nudy of t he taqenl
taor and Fv-e lts derutitlon in terms of the differe lllial i<m wilh respect to . vecto r.
This enablu lU 10 li ve a new interpretat ion of the lanaent bundle .
COMid(\" the Euclidean space and CO'-(ull(:lion 1 defined in a
neig!lbourtlood or a point COnsidn the YcelOt" space of all
I1-4imensional eeton at lbe point xO. If (JI, v) is a yectOt" f l om R;o. Ihen the
detivatiYe! / txO + ,..)1 ' whCR l ;;ll Dis. nlUllCl'ieal par_n, i5Q!kd the
d / ' . 0
01 rM junerio,,1 with 10 rhe y at Ihe pQIDt,...o.(In V1atysis ,
VCClot v o f unlllcngh Is usually considered , and dirceliooa] derivative is spoken
0(.) We have the foUo";na formula in Ihe coordi nate system
..)1 _(01:) " 1+ " _+ (01
) (pad/(i, v), ( I I
tit ' .0 ax...
..ncrc XI' _ VI' . , lie ee eootdinatel or th c poinl X and Wdor v.
Denote dcti vWYc {I) by I ..(i. For a cert ain..mewv and _ bavc obtain-
ed the ronespoDdcnce f - 1.r.;!1 detennlnina a certain fullCtloa (funct ional) t;o
whicll i$ livm on lolIlooth funct ionr in nei,Rhbourhoods of the poi nt xO and with
vt1\1Cli in RI, II Uobvio\1S thilt Ihis runc1lonal isdefined o n the ItrmsJ"oof lolIloot h
(unct ions ilt the point JIJ, Thus, we have t he mapping
t;o : d(xOJ - R I. (2)
From llIe dlCrlJl ition , lhe foUO'inJ propertic of runaional (2) can be deduced:
(I) t;o<!l ) .. M t;.<I) + . f/I)f;. r.h (thIC formula rew llIe dcri 'l1ltiYIC of
prod uct ):
Int. oduet' OII to TopokIl J
(2) I;.</) _ 0 If/ _ 0011$1 (the form ula ftM" the det ivali ve o f a con$tant) ,
(3) 1;.(0/ + Il l) - Dr...(/') + D , (J e R I (the Iinearky).
Coruid,.,.t he let 1I1...0f all fl.II'ICt ioDats I : - R ' lilat satisfy ( I),
(2) and (3) . It is evident thllt llJ"4isa veeee space and t;oE 11I... Now, i f the VUlor
' ranacs O'Iet ' t he St>llCC the ma pp iroa
... v- l .. t;o (3)
Is Sivcn rise.
THEOReM I . Mopping (3) /$ an Isomorph/$m of (he vector l/l..e.
PROOF 'The Imeati ty of mappinS (J) follolllS from formula (I). Mappina (3) is a
monomorphism: If 1;0 _ v) _ w ) fo r any funct ion
/"'hkh is smooth in a neighbourhood Of puuiD3f(X) _ x/ (the coo rdhweorthe
poiflt x), obtain the equalities v, _ wI' i 21< I . . . , n, i.e . , v '" ....
Prove that mappifla ()) is epimorphk . We have
/ (x) - / (;1') +
- * ,-rp.
A/<x":l ", - (xO) . / .I, . . . ,n,
and are funct ions of cla$s C- (sec Ex. 4. Sec. I) .
Now,let I : - R I be IIfI arbltrvy lunctl onal nem 11J..... Using u ioms ( I).
( Z) IIfId (J). """ obtain from (-4) that
I el) - E - Xl> = E A ,txO>t(t;).
j . t 1_ ,
whet e I";) is the Q1 ue of I on th e aenn of the fundioa x,. i .c:. , Oft the coordinat e
of s ,
U5Ula ( S), we obtain. rlDaJJy. that
where . 1 .. . . . , v
'" / (.tlt )
Due to isomorphillD (3). the vector space can be identified with the
"-dimenslonal vector space [Il... of all fulKti ooals $It lsfyinS u ioms ( I), (2) and (3).
8 1 means of t he Sysl.em 10 R It U1d using eq.,.a1ily (6) . eac h lUllche RI I,,,,,,
eM be auociatcd. wit h the differ-entia! oper&t<w
. I
1: , -
, . , ' ax, ,p
. ' ) . ('I) I
E "I-I l - E - ",-
' _I a"'l.!' ax, jJ
ExrrcJJlt! 1- . Verify that the set o f all differe ntial opera tors (7) forms II vect or 5oP3Ce,
and Inc ind icated tor responde nce $pCcifies an lllOmorphism wilh t he vect or space
Th us. _ have anoIher iJomorphWn, t.e., that o f lbe vector wll h Ule
YKtor spAtt of diffucnUal <>pen.tors (1). Under Ihis isomorphism, to the basis vee-
tor t , - <0, " _0, I , O . . 0) (whet'e I is in the i-th place). Lhcrc
differential operator ..!. I .
2. Tangent Bund les . The rruerprerancn of the space or vectors I t a point JIl
glven in I lea.dlIto the correspondi ng general izat ion o f Ihls notion for smooth
I,.g M" be: a ma nifold of cluJ point from M". Consider the a1&clml
6\t') o r gcnnJ of smOOlh funct ions al II point ;/J (ieI: Sec. 4) and t he fUndio Mls
1.,0: - R I. (8)
Exrm2 2- . Let <U. ,.) be d UlIt point J!' of. ma nifold M". Veri fy Ihat the
fUnclionll l /,p dduml necl by the equalit y
'>'Jf!> . 1;'tJPJ(f.p) J e
for any vc<:I()I" YE spttlfib fund ional (8) u. t l$fying axioms (I) , (2) and (J j .
DEfl NITION L The set o f all funClion als (8) Mtist)'ina propert ies U) , (2) and ()) u
eaIledthe TP 10 !.he IJWlifold AI" at the
The lanaenl $pace: T#" is a YCt;tor sp..e wilh lbe na tuntl a1&ebraio; operations.
An indi vidual demmt '.0 from T Is Q1Ied. 10 lhe IIlI nifold Itt"
all he
The co rfe.lpondencc: I;- ' (.00) - 'to (see Ex. 2) happens 10 be an isoll"lOfl)hism. o f
the speees - ' c.o.<'I and T#". In fac:t, lhe lineari ty of the mappl ns is obvious. iUld
IIle inverse ntJ PplDgIs given by t he formula
.. ' ,<1(1.,0- 1),' If dl ..- I(.tl)
.mae 0'(,. - ' (.(") , alaebras er ce gcmlS lit t he poinU .. If R",
6 M". rupectivd y. II is convcnlml lO_ 11K, hence forward, that the: func:uon.aJ
I" is pven DOt only on the aerms Ie d'(il) but also011 the fWll:lioltSI which ar e
defined in a nriJhbov.rhood of the poi nt (we SCI ' ,..cCl) - ' ...(1.and wnle I,.oCl)
instead of 1".(1).
Let ., : M" - ,.,.. be a smoolh map ping o r mani fmd s and ld
:I .. +f;f> 6 N"'. Tlle ma ppina:+mdll ccuhe ma pping 4 : dtA -
Ihe algebrat o f the gwms &Q:Qrdinl to the rule I E" 0'fJP.!, I - J, f ,.. This
mables liS to deli ne tbe Ian l..mllal map T..o+ : T....". - Ty;/'I'" by the rille
T...<.".... - IJRo whc:fe -
Int ro<!lICI' OQ10 TopololY
The _dion of the IN.ppinp . , 40 ill shown in the (olJowina diagrams
Eurcisr 3- . Verify t hat is lhe WlJen! vtor It lhe point ,oorl he mani fold """
and that T II , linear mappiDJ.
Thcl anpnt ial map T is e n ee denoted b' C I", (or
. Show thai UI..,.l. J.-o - I T..ou"" lr : lor - ",.. : ,.,. - ? are smooth
lIQpplnp of manifolds Ibm. 11) . 1... - (e , ).....
S , Prove ltw. i f +is a diffeomoJl)hism. then ( ) ..,0 II an i$Omorphism of vector
spaca (and t!lerefor c m "" II).
We no w PIi" on to th e c:onstru<:lion of the tan.tl11 bundle. J u$l. like in Sec . 6,
PUt TM" . U TxM" (disjoi nt union) . The probkm is 10 determine the 5lruc--
lure of the langent bunc1tc on TM". We spa:;fy t he project ion .. : '1M" - M" by
auocillin. In element 'x *! T wilh po int Xl! M". Let (U, ,,) be lOme chan I'
the point x , We <:(lIl$l ruCi the chart on Ihe tangent space C:OlTupondln a to t he chart
l U, ,,)

Let 'x"T/4" . ibcn W vector T _Il.ol il deflMd on the allebra dt", - Jlzll
acrord1llllo Ihe rule .-
T,. - I W(g) '" ' ... (11"-1), t " d\,.- l (x) .
In vi"" of tbe bomorphism. of the space of diffenndal operators and the tangent
spuc <sec Ell. I), we ha \'C!
a a
' .. - I t,o1- v
- + + P. - .
wtlere the di rr a ettllaJ opuators !.... ad at the point ..- 1(%) _ (x l ' . . or..) and
" - (" 1' .. . ".) is . YflCIOI' deteTl'lirlcd UDiqu.d)' . Mappina (9) is aive'n by
respor'l(1enoe wfIidl is linear on each fibre .. - 1(x):
l "-(.rl ... .r..: " .. . . . . ".,) . (II)
The bljeairity of t his INIppina ia cvidml ; as in Sec . 6, we dcrmc the lopoJoo on
TAr by IRe condi tion ror the continuit y of mappinas for all charts of . ceruJn
aliu on Ihe manifold M". "
C h . Ma" lfolds and Fib.. Bund les
Show Ihal ma ppin&S (9) an4 ( I I) det umint Iht $t l uClu . e of a (anaml bundle . If
( V .;) i5 :anoIh er cha n at t h.c point ... lll ts'l t h e 1311&1:111 Ve<:1.Or ' .. - luI is <k t enmned
ii milarly:

r.. .. "'I - + .. _+ w. - ( 12)
wherew - ( wI " " . ..... ) ba vtetocatthc: J)Oint . -I (.x) - 0'1 .. . JI.).and lhe
mapPing .... aeu aeeorctina t o t he rult - 0- . _. . JI,,: 10'.. . . . 10',, ) .
Ut U$ caku lale ...,.. ; I. We ha1le the foUOWlnl mappinl of clUJ CW:
(,rl . . . Y,,) - ,;,- l"'(.l' l . )
- ) , . ,<+- t )" (x,, ,.t,, ). (Il)
Exprc.uing wI' . . . , "'" In terms of VI' " " and 5ttli ng ' e tfC..;. - I (.l' . we
dertve the following equalit y from (12)
a,l a,
'''- ' ul(8) - w, - + . . . + 10'" _ .
aYI <Jy"
T.,. _II>')!z) .. .. I..<n-
) -
Now. u5inl (10),
<J <n--
",) -arn--
- "I + . . . + y
..... 1 a....
and oomparlna two exprcssiol\$ for '.- Ito:l (,) ,
" " 1: . a (po-l,.)
w/ _ - "
<Jy, ax,
_ , I _ I
Since 1M aerm , e d'\>/I -l (x is arbitrary. we may put "(YI" .. y ,.) _ Y,. Then.
from ( Il), we obtain:
(g>/l -I .. )(.x l . . , ...,,) .. <+-l..>,(xl" " ...... I ,
and f rom the preyiaU$ equalit y,
-,' 1:
, . ,
, x. ) _ I, .. . ,1'1 .
Trandonninl the coordioates as in (13) . the vector oomponcnt of the l ans enl vector
is lransfon ned by linear tno$fonnation (I.) wllh the J,a,eobia n matm
t.e., by the linear tnnsformation D.._
(.p- l..). Tr.msfonnat lons
(13) and (1 . ) smoothly depend OIl t he: poi nt ", - I(x) and lhUl determine a tn lUfOf '
I n1rodUCIIOll to Topol OSY
IT\IItion T.,T;I o f C-. The special form of Ihis coord inate transformation
meanst ltat at las !<. - I (U). T..I) on 1M tlte smoo th tangent bundle
'1truct ure.
rri<tt 6. COnsider the EuclldCltll iJ*=C the structure ,given by Ihe atbu
con'lisllng o f one ehart l ,ll. l . Verify that T Is Isomo rphic to R;
We IT\IIY now eonsider 10 be the set of all pain (X. v) . where XE R" and
v (I R;' We I1I1lY alsoanume that
'" [(x!' ....x.;Y
.!... + . . . +

where X I ' . are the of JC. and YI' . . . Y. are thecoordinatcs of
Vi the mapplnl T
eetermtnes the only chart of the OOt'Tel,pOndlnl allas on the
tanacnt bundle Til':
( XI '" VI a:
+ . . . + v. - (xl' . . "I ' . . . (IS)
Thereby, Ihe dincl produl;t structure is inttodl>Ud on TR which is 'IlIid to be tbe
tri via/ tangent bundle.
1. Show that mappin8 (9) dc<:ompo'IC5 ;nto the product T.. .. ' 1...(\0- 1).
act ing acc ording t o Ihe role
I (,,-I) ( XI' . . .
" - ib' ,
T,.._ o,.. . .. Jr., Y
. , Y.l .
It is oflen convenient to wor k not with Ihe coo l dinate I'CprcscnllltiOil oflhe vee-
101 IX" bur with its Image (",,- 1) . 1... the veclOl' COttIponcn t o f Ihe lallCl' being
"I .!.. + .. . + "n..!.- ' On ehanginJ a chaI1 (eba nglll(j the its 1;001-
ax, ax.
( '. ....."'; ..1' . ", ,,, ),
dinal es " I' ... , ". in the basis [!.Jn arc lra.ndormed by fonn ulae (14) inlo
ax; I _ I
the coordinates WI ' , lI'nin the basi s [!.J" .
ay/ / .. I
3. Tangential Maps . M" - N '" be a 5mooth mappln8 of manifolds .
f or c:a<;h Xfj M
we have a linear mapping (40 . )... : T;/vI" _ T1""'. where
y = to",,) . The reby, the m.ppins to. ; TM" - 'TN"" i.l defined. Let us veri ty IMI
' . i5 a 5D1ooth mapping of !angenl bundles. (U, ,, ) be a chart althe pol nl z , (Y. ':') a Chan at the poi nl y, I...E T and
t - (' Due 10 (I I) . _ have
) '. ... (xl" . xn;"I' ."n.I, _ (YI'
e ll . 4. Man;fold. and Fi bre BUndln
and it III no w rectuited to find the tr ",nsfO' " Ull ion
r ",( ). ; I : (Kl ' .. , z.. : Pi' , p ..) - 0' 1" " .J'.: 10'1 . , w. ) . (17)
Sinu (of- '.. " I t-" ,; . z,, ) .. (y , . . , y ..). it rtmaUu to find Ole re lation be-
IWCftl [I'i) and [wil. If t e - I,, then tlte lo llowinl equati l;es are 1' a1ld
' ''' - ' (,l {t) _ /1 Wo-
) - +. ))(#_1) . I..Wo- 1+) - I..CI.-,,_-I)
- .. .
But ta.kinJ inlO KlI>O\llIt thai the fust aDd the lui: funetiollAls are equal to


Icspcttivd y, we obWn, jusr like iII ded ucina ( 104). by equ alirinl (11) to ( 19) and put -
tina J' j' thai

_ t.J I'J ax " . 1, ... m. ('20)
/ , J
Hence, ma pplns (17) Is of class C-. Fnnn uia (20) .rftnns the r. ct esublishedQtli""
that the vecto r componellt o f a ta.ngent vect or Is t ransformed by means o f lhe IinQt
transformation D_-1r.".loj -''''),
A. The Differential of a Function and a Cotangent Bundle. Con-
sider the nel io n of a YKI01" Jr> E T..oM" on the funa'toaf ./ E d'(:cO). U lhe fUndioft f
is nxcrl men there arisa a 1lDear f u.nct lonal on the IJlK'Ii' Tp.r : 1:.1> - 1:.I>f/) . This
funetlOn:al l'l by the 5YflIboi tcVl...and <:&lJC'll the dl/InrtrritiloflMfi...dion
/ al me OO'int ,/).
by Qeli nil ioo. (d/)rJ... _ 1,..f1l.
n us. (4/),... bdOl'lP 10 (TxI"" )", the spaoe(OQju.ple to the Tp.r baviq
the oahrral vector SU1.Idure.
let ( U...) be a chatt 111 the point ....and _ I the IOQJ COOJdinat c:s of a
point E U. Below. we idartify WlI;eftt vectOR Ihdr alffespond:in. diffen:rr -
tiJ,1operaton. Le I [!.- Il " be a ba$il for Tp .and (4r,J... me di fferential
b , ...-J' - I
of the fullCllon .>' j(l'). Ihr:Il
( 21)
11I1('Dd O,lCll oo 10 T opoIOS)'
(I5IJ - 0 ....hen f ot J. 15. .. I) . Thenrare l<<h,>..oJ:' . I is the buis dual or
f .!-I ) " in (Tp ""') - . Hence rolLows also tha t (T..Qtf")Wcoruist. or all
lbj ..,oJ, ... t
possible linear combinatl on, !lIl(dlt l)..,o + . . . + with real coefficients.
For an nbiu-ary fWlction f . J E' and vector 1..,0 .. "I!- I
<lx, ..
+ .. . + w" I .1ft have the decomposit ion :
fix" r>
af a/
IPJl ... " I - (xO) + . . . + ""
By meatU or (21). we

... (..... ( L
,. ,
and. subs titutUl&in the previous equality, we" find:
(d/).d..o "" ( L ::,(xOW,dx,)..o
,. ,
Due to arbil rarine$' or I.,. II! T..,M", we hi ve
Of ./
(41)...- .. - (,.rOX""',)... + . .. + - ....
h i h ", xO by an arbitnry point x iii U, the IaUI!!" rannula CIDbe: R""ritlm in a
mon: con \lmknt tay:
a/ a/
(4f)... ... - (,.r) <k
-t + - (x)dK" . (22)
Here {<kIt' . I are the bu ls differentials al t he point x , Formu la (22 ) j ult ifies the
nalDC or a ree (cVJx..
Let us ded...cefrOll'\ (22) the rd allon be tween t he dirrtrenlillb of the coordinate$
or variou. 1oca1coordinat e system, at the poinlX. Let ( V, .. ) be .. <;han that dd"mes
the b' 1(l'>t", ... ,. x E V. If x E U n V Ihm the toCIJ\:Iina te$ F,(,.r)r. I
In(( ... I are n::lated by lhe IransronnalWa r I,. <see (11. From (22). we
nave Ute equalit ies
(dY,l. ::' (.l)d.r l + . . .
Ch_4. Manlfolo:l. ,md 8undles
therefor e

(dy;)... .. d (V 11O ); dsJ'i ... I , . . . , II (23)

.... ax)
,. ,
Thus, in rransnion from one system of local coordinates to anot her , the dlfferen
tials of t he coord inat es considered as functions of a pctru on a manIfold are
Irarl$for med by formulae (23), l.e., by lhe linear transformalion given by t he J aec -
bian matnx .... )').
Consider the disjoint union PM '" U (T..-M") - . We ccrurrucc the scu c-
ture of the: vector bundl e on r M". The nat ural project ion p T" M" _ M" is
defined. Let (U.,,) be a chart on M" , 1x, (Xll the: local coordinates of the pomr
x e U. We <kfille on T"M" a chart
a,, ;p-l(U) _ R
, (24)
by !fl)ttifying t he mapping "" according to the rule

E op , - (x " . . . X,,; ll l . . a,,),

, . ,
where I: afix / is an element from the fibre p - I(x) .. (T,/If")- .
; . ,
Let uSshow that 1(P - IjU), f1 II is an at las on the C--slrueture if fl U. \O)J is the:
atl as on the: manifold M" . Let (Y, y,) be another chart at t be point /c .
the local roordinate! l>'/(xlY;' _ I' and
" . :p- IW) _ Rfl X R" (26)
anot her chart on PM" . It 15 clear Ihl l p - I(U n V) "" p - l (U ) n p -l IV). Cense-
quently, if x e U n V then 10 the elemel1l E of/x" Ihe coordinates in chart (26)
,. ,
may be assigned:
E apx, - "' I' " .y", b l " , btl )'
,. ,
We conclude from (25) and (27) ' hal the de ments in (T cel ncsce:
E ll, (dx; )... ...
,. ,
Inll od ..ctiOO lo TopolOS)
It is not oompli<;!uet! to !he relation bo:I;wa:n 1/1,1and [bil from (28). In ree,
sutKt itutlna the a pres&ioJl (bl).. rrQfft (23) in (2&), and then cqua.lizlnt the coerri .
dems of !he same diffeKfltials dx; on bOlh sKSc:s of lhe equality , we obtain:
whne ck:nOleS Ilie 09CJat ioQof t rans posina the m. tlU . Hen. the vector compo.
MIll o f IJ1 eleromt of the fibre p is allered in lhe coordinate repr esent l.lion on
Chlnl lnc tbe coordinates by. rule wblcb is diffneRI from tlult for the vecto r com-
pamnt of the tangent veecr, viz. , it is IrlnJforrrM.'d by meal" of the ml.l1iJ1
,,(,r I,.,)'.'
---a;-- , Wbe/elU the vecto r compo nent of the (Maent voctor is trarufonned
by the JlICObian matrix The quanti ties whic.h chanle by Ihis ""Ie
on el'Ianatna w coordlnlte syst em are call ed (Ovtors. The elements of t he set
(T.,M"'l COWC1(W$ QI 1M poUlt X .
II b dear IIOw lhlU 011 c:huu (2.5) f rK a.II dlaJ1s o f .ttrtain atl as 00
Jot", ....., will trllUfon:n the set of a.II coYe:ton, Le. intO a smooth manifold;
this manifold is called I (oIQIIIMI bwfdlt.
The conapu tnated in this ttloD are important both for I Velt number of
mllhematical disciplines (rueh as di ffentia.l eq ul tions, dynamic: syst emJ, lopolOlY
of man ifolds) and for IWl1(1tl olU to mechllIlks and physics. Hen:, these relat ions
will be outlined in lhe most demtJItary form. For the u mplid ty,of enunciations, we
shall co nsider all the obj ects to be of class C- , callina them smoot h, JU' 1like we did
in sec. 1.
I. The Tangent Vector to a Smooth Path , Let M" be a smooth
manIfold . ReeaI1 thl t I pat h In M" Is I. continuo us mlppins x : (Q. b) - Itr of an
interva l of the number line Into the SplCC Itt" . Since (a, b) i ' I smooth
submlnifold in R I, smooth m.applngs x can be considered ...hile rd efr in. to the
p"th lI.I smool lt .
Let l' be. smooth patb in M"', and 1' (/ 1 a point of lhis path, t E (P. b ).
DEFINITION 1_The IQ.nt f (J. path x at poin1x(l) is the tansent \"UtO,
1" 11CO tt1e manifcKd ttr at lbe poi nt .1(1) determi.ocd by lite equali ty
I, VI({) . djlfx (t)) I , ,]E d(-( (t )) . (I)
Ch 4. Manifolds and Fib,e Bundh's
ExerclJe 1
. Verify lhal the r,.ht.hand side in ( I) deteul\ ines a tangent YC(tor to the
manifOld M

Th e t allgent \'101 10 the path )((1) usually denOled by x "(I ) . LeI us find the
coordll\at e representation of t he vector x (I). Let (U, ", ) be a chari at the poml
X(I) . Co nsequently, if ge & {<p - I rx (t))), then
whe re tX(I) ... tl"l (f), . . x
(/ Is the con u pondioll pat h in R
Hence. we
derive the ccordt nates or t he vector x(t) ;n Ihe cha rt (U, ",):
dl .. ("lit.
W:1(f ) W:n(t)
= x,(I) , ... . . . . (2)
Here x (I ) "' (f ) . . . (f is the vecto r component o r the laJI8ent vector.
If .. . v) is the Riema nn ian metr ie 011 M". t hen the lengl h Ix of the
tanaent vector 10 tlie path and the \engtli Of the portion o f the path when
'I ';; f" ' 1 ar e delennined:
" rr
S:: .. j (I), X' (I
in loeo.l coordinates, formu la (3) is the following
S'l ... r
" !
Sq',,"{!) <It = J
wliere ' u"-'l is the matm of the bilinear form.
2. The Dynamical Group of a Physical System and Its In-
fini tesimal Generator. The nOI;ons of smoolh parh a nd iu tangent vec rce
find natural applica tion to the mat hematic al inve3tigal ion of physkal syste ms.
We will speak of the set of all possible stares o f a.physkal syst em in some process
and cal l it the phase space of the system while assuming that it is a smooth ma nifold
M". Then x EO M
eeneres a possibl e stare of Ihe system, and the correspondence ' a
pclimx _ a stat e' is bijective . Th e state of the sySlem varies with time in accord ance
with a law of physics, and therefore the point x corresponding to Ihis $late changes
iu posillo n F wil h time . We will ass ume the process 10 be detetminate, which mean s
that th e stat e o f the sYstem i, d ctetmin ed uniqUel y, in future and in the past, by , ts
present state. Such processes are described by t he dynamical group of a physical
system defmed a.s follows: if It (/ i' a point marking lhe mile o f t he system al the
present moment (when I _ 0). then to the Slate of the syslem at a moment t. there
corresponds the point X "" X(I . Itl . x(
x (O. xl " x. Thus, the point x
describe:!; the path)/ c x{I . x) , - ... <: I <: +...called the phase traJecIQry (Orb'l)
InlroduellOll (0 Topo1oay
or the poin t x, For any I e ( - .... +ao), the transformation V, : M" _ !of" is ee-
fined by the rule x - X('. x). Due to the detenninllCY principle , we have :
, + U
' l
(U,,x), 'I' 'ze ( _ OIl , +00).
Hence the family of the transformat ions {U,l is a grou p wilh the inv.:rse element
(U,) - I - V _I and the unit clement U
- I",.. "
This grou p is call ed the d)' lIl1miC'Q1 group of the physical system. We ,will assume
that the mapping R I )( .AI" - AI" : (I, xl _ u,tr) is smoo th; in Ihis case, the group
or IIII' diffeomorphiSlJIl ju,J is saidto smoothly on t. From the point of view
ofphysia: . to know the dynamic'll grQUP mews to pCl S$CSS a complete description of
the behaviour of th e system wit h time . Such a description is not always poss ible.
The laws of phy$ics are generally formul ated much simpler in ' infi nitu imal
rorm', which means the following: CQnsldcTan orbit x(l) = xV, x) and its tangent
vtor x ' (O)(at a poinl;c). For any point:e EM". we putXlKl .. X (0) . The conec-
lion of tangent vectors IX(x)] is called the vectorfield 00 the manifoldM": this field
is aJs(I called lite infini tesimal generofor of fhe dYJ1lflfl J(al group. A pbyslcal law is
lUuaIly elqlressed by describing an lnfml tesimal generator. Bm then the problem of
construeting (dcsmbin&) the dYnamical group Is given rise.
Below, weshall st udy the noti on of vector field in Steater detail .
J . Smooth Vector Field, A lItttor rM/d on a rnanifoldM" isa mappIng
X : M" - TM
such tbat Xtx) e T,IoI" for each x eM". A vector field is aid to bc smOQlh (of class
C-) if mlppil\i (4) is smootb (of class C- j. In local coordinat cs. lhe vector field is
of the form
XI" x. : X1"' t. . X
)!.... + ., . + X. tx ]. , . . (')
ax. i)x
Exerd$t 2
Show tbal the smOOthness of a vector field is equivalent to the
funct lons X/ (KI"" _ I .. n.
Let tI, be the grou p of diffcomOfPhisDl5 of a rnlUl lfoldM" , depen ding smoolhly
on I . and let x (t , xl .. U,(x) be the or bit of a point x,
DEFINITION 2. A vector iscalled thc in!initd;mClI genertl l or o/thegroup
U, if fOl" any orbIt xV) .. xu, xl . we: have :
x (0) '" X(Xl

JO . Show that cquillity (6) is equivalent to the equality
X (I) '" X(x(l) , t e (- ee, <).
Hi m: Use the OQuality ;t(/) '" U,(;c)."lJ . 1l0Up property (Il. U,(Xl _ u , (x ) .
Show that the inrtnit es"intal gcncrlIlor X(K) is a smooth vector 'teld.
C1> M. nifolds and rib .. Burll UG I II
Conli du t he problem of ' e( t;inj: a sroup V, for . Ji..-en IITIOOth ve( IQl'
We ....illlooll: for ' he:orb!1x(l ) _ x(l . <r"oJ usi na condition (1). In local
diDates. we have a S)'5Icm of dif ferc:ntial cqWll ion.l
: . - X
(. ) (1 )).; - I . If , (8)
where (,1< , (1), ..... (1 is the spcci ru:.alioll of th e: path x. an d X "
. . . X ..-c the: COOl"dmalC:S of t he: vecto r compo nent of the t angmt w:et0l" X ,",)
(_ (1) and (S . TIle fUll<:llons XI"'" , )de:pend mIOOllIly on"" .
To rllld the orbit (more Pl"c<:iscly, that pon ion of it which lies in the: elan), il I,
n_ryt o find a w tuuon of s)'Ste:mof diffennti al equal ions (8) such that sat isnes
the: c:ondll ion xt (O) - ... .. , ",,,(0) where , ., arc Ihe eeee-
dlnates cf the point xO. Uslna the t heaty of ordlnary di ffcre ntialc:q uati ons, I unique
SOlution xV) .. X(I. x) mlly be found for a 5ufrlcicntl y ' lI1ll11 li.ICrvai - e < t < e
and x from a cert ain nei&hbou rhood or the poin lx
, x lt'. x) depc:ncIins smoolhl y on
I. x, But 10 COlUtrua the JI"OUP V,. It i5 necessary t o exte:nd t he solution x (l . x ) 10
the whole axli - .... < , < "" for Uly X eM". TIIu aIInot be: a/wayl do ne <-n ex
amp le: bei ll thc equation y ' '" r 01\ R I ) . However . if M" is compaa then the re-
qulred utenlJon exiil S be easily vcrirlc:d by the methods of the Iheoryof
ordina ry di ffe:ratual cqu.ations. In this t beory, the rollowin, theorem is proved .
nreotl.eM 1. 1/At"is 12 nIllJIifo/diUJiJ X I2SIftOOlIt wetai' ftdd llour

dt/NttdJ smoo,1t17 0" 'MptITOlIWt f:T.
Not e Ihat orbir..I u e often called CWYa of thl w:et0J" rldd.
XA).lf'U I . Let M1- z. Tr;t' (I.e:.. the ease oomidercd In rnedJa:tic::s, when Q" Ii
ce conti,:lItlIIion space wbich we astUlDC hcrcaf": r 10 be a smooth mani fold) . LeI
tbe loc:aI coo rdinateS in Q" be (ql ' . . . , q. ) . an d ' hose in TQ (q I' ... q. ; "I'
... v.J.
The: \ICCtO<' on TQ"of thlt form (thlt vecto r OOIlIpon ltnt)
with smoo lh fun eti on s "' l (q. vl . , . , .... (q, v) is said to be sf)iol. The Int ea r1l1
curves of Ihis field are dC'Sl:ribc:d by the: s)'Stem of di ffer ential equations
dq/ d "/ . )
df '" "" dl - ,",(ql ' , q. >" , . ' ,v / - I ,
'II'hkIt is cquival a ll to lhl! s)"' '':1'1'1 of the second ordltf
(qt,... .C:.).I . I,.. ..... (ll)
O&ss>cal mcchan ia oper ales wil!'t aq.....uo.u of fann (9).
EHrd.2 ' . Find II' . L" . , whrre II' : Tet' - Q'" is the projection.
Inu-od uction 10Topology
4. The Lie Algebr as of Vector Fields. Let c" (M" ) be the set of all
smooth ma ppings I : M" - R I. A smoot h vector fldd X on Mil detennines the
mappl na - b)' the rulel - X(f) , wh e-re X(f)(x) - X(x)(f) for
an y point x from M". If (in local coo rdinates)
It is ob Viously . linear mappina of the vector 5Jlacc C'"(M").
U X . Yare t wo vector fields th en their produce, t he commutQtor (X . YI, may be
defmed by t he formula
IX. Yj(f) .. X(Y(f) - Y(X(f) .
6 . Verify that (X . YI is a vector field M d calculat e it in 1Qca1cooIinatCll;
show that (X, YJ '" - [Y, Xl;
It is evident that the seeof aUvector fields on M" fomu a vector space (over the
fldd R I) uncSel' th e natmal opt"flltions X + Y and a . X . Th e ecmmutatcr IX, Y]
line:ul )' 00 t he f.etors X , Y. Thus , the set of all vector fldds on Mil Is an
algebra taI1cd Lie algebrQ.
7. Prove the Jacobi identity
[(X. YI . ZI + [(Z, X l, YJ + UY. Z}, X I = 0
for an)' three vector fields X, Y, Z on M".
The: set of all vector flClds on a smooth mani fold is not anI)' a vector space hut
also possec:s th e structure of the module over the ring of smooth functio ns on M".
In faCl, for IE C"" (M" ) , t be prodllCl f X is defined which is veclor field
if X)(K) - f (K) X (lr); it is clear thai thIs Is a smooth fidd depend inS both on/
and X linear ly.
The st ud y of the s1l'\1Cture of th e Lie al&ebr ll5of vector flClds is one of the main
tr ends in modem topolol)'.
, . Covector Fields , Asmooth mapping A : M" - r oM" under which A (x)
belonp 10T"'xM" , i .e., the fibre. over the point x, Is tailed a smooth CQWf:trn-field
on M" .
In Ioeal roo:iinatC$, the ficld A is givcn in the form
A (x") = (Kl "" , X,,; QI(K)dx 1 + . . . + Q,, (l")ck,, ),
where IlR smOOlhfuncti ons in t he coo rdinal0:5 (xl ' . .. x,,) of i he point x .
Iff e C"' (M") then A (x) .. (cV>" is a cc vector field on M". It issmooth, since in
IoeaJ coo rdinates the COV(lCIOr compon ent (4f)" is of (he form
iJf iJt
- W I + . . +
and the cOOrdinlll0:5 of this CQvco;lor are smooth Iuectio ns.
U .
0 . 4. Manl tol <b and !lll ndl.. m
EXiUofPU! 2. u t M
z r et' . wh ere Q" is the conr"lIra tkln space of a mcchanil;a1
system . Let (q l" . . qll . P j . . P
) be local coord inatd on rQ". ...he re
(P I' PII) coordiDll!d ot t he eeveesee at poin t (q . . q..) E et'.
If H : ret' - R - is smooth fulI.ctioa t bell
aH itH itH all
dH _ _ l!qI"" " '" - - dq. + - dp.
aq l iJq.. itpl <JP..
is a t;OVCCCOr rICk! on the manifol d T-go. Lct us fo"" a YC<:tor field on the aamc
manifold. vii .
aHa aH it aH a itH"
L___ _ _ - - +-- + + - - .
lJp l aq-. bp.. itq.. aq l ap l iJq.. itP
The irll qral C1Irvcs (ql t ) . . . q. (t ) : P I(J ) . p .. (t o f Ibe field L the
J)'Jl cm o f di ffer enlial cquatioiU
. . . II . (10)
dt bpi d.t &I ,
1D mcchanla. th ey chooac the f u.nai oll. H 10 be the IUm Of kiDr tic and potent ial
energi es , and ea.ll ( 10) the of "",,WII ;n Ht,lmiltOIll#n form.
I . Preliminary Examples. proble ma tlaturally giye rise 10 spaces wh leh
are IJTaII,Cld. as the d ir ca product s of IJHICCI . AI present. Ibey have been
Sluclicd qui te Ho...cvcr. we will t ouch upan the YCJY fLlst eoneepts.
COD. l ld cr CJtan:tplcs of spaces havill,. locaUy. the dlrca produa structure .
Let M" be a smooth manifo ld. 1M" a !anlca l bund le and ". : TM" - M" t he
projcalon of t he l an,ent bundle onto the ma.n1fold. It is clear Ih al for lUIy point
% If M" . the fib le .. - I",) is bomocomorphic: to !.he l pa ce R" an d . moreover . for t be
ooord in lll c ncilhbourhood U of t he paint x ; we ha vt: the b<MncQmOfllhl sm
.. - I (U ) _ U )( R" ( _ Sec. 6) . Ho wever. lJlClIkin, . one cannot I.SICft
that Utere CJtist.s a llomcomoTphism TM " M" )( RIO ... fOl' CM.II.lp!e , in Ute cue
.mcp Al" _ SI .
The t anJCftI bundk II ....anJcd (which is. ccr1aialy coroDasy 10 lIS
dcrmitioP) as the direct product U x R" . That lhe Iphcre S l has a simila..- stntCh'!'*
is more N rpri$ins IIDd cd 10 the propcrtles of complex DUlIlbcn'. We sh aH COlI-
IU'UCI aD cutIJIple o f a _ppm, o f Sl IO SI for wbkb the Ia.YCrSe i.mxgc of any point
is holneomoT'phk 10 the circwnfcr cooc . CoNidcr S l as a spbcR in C
i .e .
Ss .. {(l:: I . t V: lt l , l + 1%111 .. I).
and Ihe Iphere 51 as lhe exI en.ded comptcx planc (t ' lplocrc): The fo rmula .. (tl '
l V _ t .I.l:) dcrmc& the mapptlll ". : SI - 5 1. Fo r ), .. c.... "'e h.aye 1I' (>.l"1'
a .,.(:: t " . IbcrefOle .. - 1(1::) _ S' for ... tOS) . Remcmber t hai t he
I ntroduction 10 TopololY
t -.phere Sl poueues the C--manifold IoINCtW"l: with the local c:oonlinatc t In the
rqion VI . 5
, ,", ..d lit iIl ll:tc reponU
.. S1, 0 1_Sec. :no
Codtick'r the direct prod uct s VI)C 5' , V
]1( st. Thc: aets ", - I (U,). ",- ICUiI
lWl1 OU! lO be x Sl anll V
]1( S' , rapcaively . TO ilhoW h.
wederme l.beIUppitla " : UI - S by the fonaula
' I)
. .
" , + l e13 " I + It lS
It b cYidau llw ,." '" 11 (1 IlIld tile set ".- Ik). t III VI of poinu of the
(_ ""' (c), when ). "" V I x S' - S' bYlhcfOl"
wIlcnt prEill the projce:tioo of the 4iRd. prodl>l;t lJIlto the ftnt .Iaaor COll:l'
Similtrty. we ckfme the aappGl : U
l( 51 - S' by the formula
- ( A" A. (IIt} ) I
. (l / r.).) -, VtGU
" 1 + I IIt l
" 1 + 11/:1
with ...-I(V a) _ j(U
)( 5 ' ). It Is dear !.hill thc4!q;rafn
Is e:cmmuwiYC.
nllas, UKmappioJ". is arr aoard 1oCI11, (ova the c.oo,clill.llenci&hbourhood' of
SI) u the projedioB of tbe ' dina produa: . HoweY". the .sphere S' is noc
to the dlrct pnldlKt $1 x sl (thor; aroups of Ihcse
JPMB bda& ftOft-domOfllhIl:).
The cSc:K:ribed IIllIpploa b; calkd th e HopI it is rcmal"kabk ill 1I'Iall7
r apecu. lb. , for _ pie, tbe Hop! det ennktel the amcral.Ol" of tJlc
pup .. Z. Nocc !hit for aay 11"0 pointa or. " .5
, the cirrumfeu_
.. and .. -\(11') ue b kld ill 5' (Fi&. 1lO).
Cb. 4. MalUfold<and Fib,c Bundles
Fig. 90
2.The Definition of a FibreBundle. The uamples co nsidered in nere 1
nat ur ally lead to the following dcl"mition .
DEFl NlT10N I . A IrxulJy t ri vlal /ibn spilt% is a qu adruple (E. B. F. p ). where E. B .
F are spaces, p .. surjeo:;tiv<: mapplna o r E c ute B. an d, moreover, for a ny x E B,
the re cxists .. nel&hbo ur hood U of the point x and a homeomorphism
'I'/) : p- I (U) - U x F suc h tha t the diagram

wherc p r i!I the nat ural projection, is contmut ative .
It foll ows Ir em tbe de finit ion that for any point x from V . die invenc: im.....
is bo meomorphic 10 the space F . It is caIkd .. fibre over the point x ,
The E . B . F are called the (OlllJ $JXI. W base aDd thejfbn.whUe
lhe mapping p is ealled the projtctlon, res pectively. The neipboW"hoodll U in
vol ved in o.:rlll;tlon I are call ed r:oordinilte nt ifJt!JollrJtOQdsan d the homeom or -
phl l ms 'l'ucoordi ""te or netl/)l lng JtomeomO(11JtismJ.
ThoUib a wider, t han 1oI;a1ly trivial. fibn: spaces , cla.u ofjl brt blltldlts may be
cons idered in topology. by a fib re bundle we will mean hered ter a loc ally t riYial
A fibn: bun<lJe is !I8id to be trivUlI If then: eJIlsts a homeomorphism
,," : E - B x F such that t he di agram
is munuW lve.
Thus . th e tanaent bundl e TAl- can be w nsiden:d u tb e tOtal space: of a locally
trivial fibre spa ce with the base space M". projection p _ It . Le projo=o:;tion of the
lange nt space: onto the manifold M". and fibn: R -. '" neig hbourhood. U e M".
the coordinat e neighbourhoods of the mani fol d M" may be laken.
The mapp!ns w nsi dttod above 1$the pro.iec'ion orlhe HopfbUDdle , l.e. e f the
\oat.1ly tri vial. fibn: space whose total space i5sJ-, base spa ce SJ r.nd fibre SI.
I l)I f oduaion '" Topolol Y
We now list lOme other examples or Ioc:ally lriYial fi bre spaces.
I. TKEMOBIUS S'n1PM (i .e. the taaoupOlCC of tbc:direct produa (0. I I x 1- I , II
relative to the eq ui....lerllz (O,y) _ ( I , - }') is t ola! spate wah t be base sJ*;eS
(the and fibre I-I, I ].
nc pr o}eWon pr : 10, I ) )( 1- I, I) - (0. II actOn, accotdiliS lo the
]I) - z Induca tbe resi due dau mappm, p : M - $ 1, Le. the pro)eajon of this
fibre bUndle.
2. THI! OIIU!CT P'll00UCT X " YO' TOPOLOGICAL $PAm IT, y forms a t Olal spece
with thcnaturIJ pt'ojedlOn pr : X)( Y- X . Ilbre Yand t he
1. TH2 SPHEU! S" is Bt ot al $pi with the buc RP". ,Obre consistbll of two
pa inu (ditcrac Rt) u d lht: projlion associallns a point J( E: S" wilh III
equivalence clauf . -xl E (l;cc Sec. 5, ClI . Jl) .
n m SPHlIIUl S + lisa t otal space with the base spaece p" . fi breS l and projec_
ti on ISJOdBti n8 a point x fl S 1" + I CC" + I wit h il l cquivalmce class in CP" (sec
Sec. 5. c. II ) .
1- . Show tbal lM tanJet\t bllncile of a mllllifoldM" is criYiali f and only !f th". " ubi.
II (CoatlDltOIU) vector flekb on M" sudl that they linearl y independent at Qd1
polnlz e M-,
2- , Sbow tbat the klcaI.l)' trivial fibre spaoe over aline.$qfl1fn1 is lrivial .
A 113q,p!na S : B - E 5Uilfy\nJ !he c:ondilio&I ps _ I. is called a
of tbe bundle (,E. B . F.p) .
) . Sbow lhat the aiJlmce of aou-teetion is a' c:ondi tioD. for the IriyWl.
I)' of a fib", bundle.
0 . Do lben uist a'os,..o:dons of the Hopf bulldle? (Usc the equw y
"aa ' ) - 0.)
5" . OIve an eumple of a nolltrivW fibre bun dle wbic h a cross-seailln.
Let.UI e:sublish a llefUin relatIon between m.applnlS 10 tolllspacc an d 10 It.
b_ 'Pace.
DEfi NITION2. A mapping "+" : X - E is a fil' 0/Q Mapping " : X - B if tor
M)' point ,lrEX. che .. <a> ,,"l holds. The mapping '+ is abo said ID
cover Ihe mappUla .
The inuoduad relatio n Is cha,.ete:riu d by the commutat ivity o f the foJlo wina:

Exvdsc 6 . Sbo" lhu i f . r.tll:e bundle poasessca. awa-..caian. Ihea for any map-
pma to Ibe base 1PlIOe. there Q\au lift o f thia mappin. _
C1> Fibre Bundles
We now p ve ;II necessary condition ror t he w stmee of lift of ;ll nt aPerinI In
t erms of funaon of bonIolOJl), VOUpt (see 5. 1.0.. I II).
T1-lEQIlEM I. D, F. p ) be 8 1c<TJ117 frivitll jibr-r spIIr ..,11,," 101111 ,,"d
bcKspoa Pllrtll-eotltVt: ttd. 8ttd X . PIIr'lt"'J1l nltd FO'
,fll'ppI", : X - D 10 1I8N 8 11ft ... MlJ4!)rin, 1M cOIIdi l Jon i' to> ..
'" .t,,). fl i.u'USIlIryI1l81
.. ,,(X, ...o 5:: ..o) (l)
jOTt' U II " I.
PIlOOP. If sud! a lift ... th en diqram (2) is U.inS funeto rs of
homol Op)' p-o upt. we obtai n the eo mmutative diaB:llum (f or al l " " I)
Thus. for &II)' point x IE U n Y, the homeomorphism ls defmed, i.e. , the
; U n V - H fF) o f the set U n YlOIhe p-ou p HfF) ofhomeomor.
ph.iams of !be space F is p n n: the mawm.,s ar e call ed the coo n/inll te IrrsILf/O' -
""" /oiss. If F is kx:aIIy compael and !he topoloay on H (F) is Induced by th e embed-
dina of H lF) int o the 5pu.c C(F, F ) with the compaCloOp<:n IDpok)gy . Ihen the
ooordi nau lransformlltions an: u$il)' seen 10 be eocttinuous (itt Ex. II . Sec . I .
Ot. Ill) .
DEFl NtTlON I . A .-:I(H' bundle is a loca1Iy trlvlal fibre spaee (, B , F, p ) whoM'
fibre F Is flDite-dirncrtRDftaI ..mOl" I paI;Cutd whose eoor4in. e Ir ,-,,"fonnal;OIU
v" IIla9J1inlP to th " &TO'l P of inwniblc liDeat U_formations o f the
" ,,(lC._, )
from whleb the req uir ed illChulons fo llow eui/y
LoeallJ' lrivl.1Il fibre spaea po $ICU the foUnwin, impon ant ptopat)' .
tri via! fi bre rpa.l:ewhole baK space is HaIlJdor ff and paneompad. . LeI: X be an .,
bin ary topolotPc:al spane : X M t - B a boa\()(Otl,.. X - E a Ufl o f Ihe
rnappins: . 1x .. 0- Then Lbere uists unique li ft " : X M t - E of the homotop),
satisfYlna tbe eondition " IX )I: 0 - j .
This liNeman 'IriIl be prowcl for a special cue in It em 4-
1. vector Bundles . Let CE, B. F, p) be a locatly lri via! fibre space . Alsume tha t
U &lid V v e IW(I eoordiDal. e ne iJ;hboW'hood s of painl x II D. HomeomorptrJSIN
,e",) o f the spaceF mil)' be p "m b:r th e formula
= 11 ) , x IE U n Y, II e F; - I F'
If W" Is lI. third neig hbourhood of the POUlI x; then t he follo wing cqualit ie.t arc
qIMle.F(for f"Wld U IlIId "' i!(.\") Is . fami.lJ o f lMert lble 1lneat openton wh>cllill
COIlWluously dcpcndctlcon x. u n 10') .
E:Jt'Ci# "- . Show ebat the laJ\ICnt bWldJc: 11rf" ill VK1CM" blmC1lc.
DEf1NmON . A lfIOfJMism 0/ a loaJlIy In"Wtllf lbn SpIICI tE. B. F,p) to a locally
ui"'-l fibre IPM'C (E", S ' . F p ' ) bi. pair or rnappinp H : E - E' .
11 : B - S' sudllhM - p ' H.
The Iul equ alit )' implies tIP! the dia&r&m
E ---!!-.- E'
' j I"
B " /l '
is (the fibr e Is tra nsfo rmed into the fib re) .
This defini tion u arulOlOll the ooUeo:tkm of loa.Uy tri vial fibre spaces into I
OEfTNtTTON, . La (. B. F. p ) V!d (E' a' .F' .e :)be vect or bundla wl\o$ot r.brn
F IIIt4 P' we Cdor I5J'ICQ over the _ f"teld. and (II, A) . morphism o f (, B, F,
p ) 10(6' . S ' F , p '). The morphism (H."') is c:aDed a mMplliml o/.er:tor bwItJI#:s
if for all y point XE B . tile Ju:ptrpo$llioD
- I H ' (.l-)
p- 1tK)-CP T 1Vt (.\" !!.. F
is a .appi!lJ. 'lII'IIer'e ",,, Ctt","Jl uc the hocicomOfPhimis of the fibrep- 1k),
(eJ. ) - IIt (lr)} aDd..ector 'l*'II p . (r). whkb IIC p vm ri$e b'a the COUUIltItaLi
diqra.m of DctbUtion 1.
' - . Veri fy thai. vector -.nd tbeir DlOlJIhiatu (0lUl e:atqory.
9". Verify tt1at by associ, dna . mlUli.foldwith. lan&ml bundle. ' unooth ma ppi llJ
of manifolds with a map or fibre spaces, we dcnne . covariant f\lndol
from the cal eaory of smooth manlfolds to the cate.ory of vector l (over the
Ilt ld R ).
4. Coverings. We nowdwdl on one spcdal dus of locally triviil librc spUC1 elI -
ami4in. it til 1JUlc:r dtttlil .
ColWdtr the cit C\lmfeten<:e 51 ... Il e c ' : It I II. We define a ma ppln,
p : R
_ S ' by the formLlla p (l ) _ SiDa: 'P(l I ) _ if and only if
'. - ' l " il bocnfOOlOll'bic:
to lhuet of iattacn Z 1rilhthe diKme lopoIol)' . For Illy poinl t e 51. the: maJJPin&
p maps cadi ronn"'''' CClIIl.pontril of tbt Set p-I(S', V. ..
.. R 1'p- l (dontoSI ';r. 'Themany-valutd mapptqp_ l : 5
' t _R1,p-
i.e. (lIb l) In".poucaa a counlablt nlllDbt:rof _vallled brallett a . Dtnota one
of tht1n by., .
Now. we ckl"1Ilt the: bo1noomorpblsm ; ; (5 1, .1:) )( Z _ R I,p_ ' <t) by the
f_ula iCw .t ) ... .,<- k ) . We obWn the oomm\llal lve diacram
0 . " . MaDif oids VId 'Fibre Bundles
The f&m!ly of seu lSI' :llll,s-' eat! be tu.m to be the coordinate nc:i&hbo urhood
I)'UmilO that lbe quadruple (RI, s'. z , p) is a locall y lri vial fibre space whose fibre
Z b c1iscrel:e. SIKh fibre bundles arc e nee ctloolUltcrcd in problenu of anaI yais.
OEFlNlnON 6. A locall y t rivW fibR spaoc (e, 8 , F. p) is a OOYf'm.. if the
total fp&ce E &l'Id the base: IP&CC B of the IThre apace ue pIlh<:onJltcd and the
fibre F is a IJ*lC with the cllic:nte topok)Jy,
SpeaIcina of covcrinas, instead of lbc quad",pie W, B, F, p ) aad where it does
not intr oduCIIl &n:lbiauit)', they ofim eomidcr the mappiDap : E - B whldl ls asw-
icction. The f1.brep- '",) OV'Cl' elida point of th e CDverinl ill bonKomorpble 10 thc:
SPKf: F with lhc disactc lopolop and benee Is d.iscrctelpac:c itself.
N011!! . I n the ddlnitiol1of a CDverina (and abo of It loc:a1Iy tri vlal ribR.$plleC wllh It
pat b-wnnec:led b. space) , t he requirements fex th e homc:omorphism " u may be:
weakened by assuming that .,u is. homeomorpb ilm onlOU x FIJ. where F
Is I
spaoe witb the dlxuk topoloJY 4epell4ina Del th e eoordlrlate nciabboumood U_
With NdI OerLnitioll. . n Is cvldmt that p - I(E) - FIJ (bijec:don aad hclll:e I
(ex DIy Jt " (J. But it h.l ppms 10 tbat F
- F y <bUcc:tion and
bomoeomorpblsln) fOf any coor<Una!e nclahbowboodl U, Y, aad if we put
F _ p-l(l' . ) , wbcTc Jt . Is I certain point from B, thQl Definition 6 (ot I ) wiIJ
CoUow (sec Note aft er the proof of Lanma I) .
4. 11Ic fibre bundl e o f the spbere o ver lbc projeClive space RP'" n eov ering
WbaR fibre CI)I\SUU Df IwO poinu.
s. The mappl!'lCP ; SI - S I (C' 0 - C ' 0) Biven by the corre spondence t ... t is
a eoverin g nap whose IThre C: OIUi$U o f n poinu.
A eovcrina whose: fibre eocIsisls of II points is ea1led lUI ,,. 1I. IM covoin,.
Note I.hat fOt tlIe c:oord ina te oei&bbourhood U of the coveriDI (E, S, F. p ) , lIIe
invent: imaIep - I (U) is bomcomorphK: se thc prodllCl U l'C F eoasist.inaof disjoinl
YiL, Ihc open SCU U l'C .., fIl fi F, and therefoce , ccmsisu or di , joiot
' shecU' , viz the opm R U IV.. CI ..ii l(U x fIl). whidlarc homcomorJIhil: to U
ltscl r; thc homf:OU\.Ol'JlhiSr an: Po : w. - U, l.e. the restrialom of P 10 W...
whidl roDows from the relatioll p .. /XV u u pcessiq; the eonunlltl ti.,ity of
DillUam I.
Th U$, Ole projedion of the covcrina mapp : E - B is a Jon,I hOfMO#/'l orphisrn
wilh the dlserete inverse image p - "'hlch is homeomorphi c:to Ihc fibrc F O\lU
cach po illt Jt I!! B.
lIIe convene docs not bold: lhe eo.,cring of the .pace B by the coer-
din.te ...,iahbourhoodl U eatul ot be constnlCl.ed foc every kx:a1 homeomo rphism
p : E - 8 (for t:lIUIpAc, fot thc mapp.iDa: P : (11 , b ) - s ' o f . numbcr inlerval 0lI'l0
lhe circumfcrcDCC, BiVCtl by t be fonnulap(l' ) (COSI, SiMI).
ImrOCl ualolll OTQC>OIoaY
The po!nlS from the fibn: p - I(lr ) ar e said to lie 'over' the poinr x, and the shCEU
W. ' ever" U; lhe above plopeny of the projo;tioD DC Uteo;ovc:rin, map p : - B
enabl Q las to 'lift' th e rubsdl A C U to tbe Jheet W. by COIWderiq!.he invenc im-
..esp; I(A.) and abo 'to tin ' mapptnss, pubs. hon>oIopMs in X . In
..uh DerIlliOOD 2. the path I : / - E ill c:a1Icd lift of tM: J*h 1 : J - B (wtIid1 11
cowriltllhe I ) ifpf "" .
UM.\olA I. Let P : E - B be a eoverina: ma p. Thm th e followifta S1atemel\l.S an:
t rue; (i) uy l' if) B a point btiE 8 possesses l unique c:ovcrint; pat h 7
inE wtIK:h stllU aI M Ypoint "oEP- I{boJ: 00 i f l' .. 1'1 ' l'1 b the product Or
paths 1'1 aod 1'1 in B then the eoverin.S path i& ;: .. y\ . Y1' where::r
, :;1 ecver 'l't
Uld 1'l.respc.ctively; (iii) if l' .. 'l'i I il the path invene of 1'\, then:; = 'Y;-I.
PRooP. Let l pat h 'r be give n by a mappilli l' ; 1- 8 . 1 - to, I ), g (O) .. booe ach
point of t he path ,.(t) bel 0lll' t o lOllIe o;:oordinate nd&hbourhood U" and. Iher e b I
Cl)nQted ndshboUfbood (i.e. an Interval) 0, of . point t e I .ueb thll t 1' 10, ) C U,.
We pick . finite coverinl to,ft OUt of an o pen coverinJ lO,l o f t he line-segment I .
Let oS the number of th e covcrina lO, lt. Let UI bnak the !ine-$Cll1Ienl /
int o sepleutJ 4 , ... Ct, _ I,t4 0flCl\lth h:ssthaolbydi....lon poinu t ...l _ 0, . ..
N , t il - O. t
.. I. TheD -.(4, ) lies in certain coonlinale Mi&hbo urbood U,.
1 _ 1 .. , , N . Thcn'forr, eac:b portion "" of the pa th ,. livm by the m. ppi ....
1', :4, - W. , Ii.-m by t he mappinll.!/ "" P;;' 11'1: 4 , -
_ W.... _ here p.. : W. _ U, II a homeomorphism ODIO the (:OOf"Iftnllle
oei&hbOurhood U" We theet co nlainilll the painl,.Oe p - I (b'> as W' . and
lift 1M: port ioll of the path .,." Then 7 1 s1iUtl1 at Ute point "0' w hee w.,_ hll
aJrady bun chosen and the portion ofthe path 1', _ , lifted , we c:hoo5eu W.., lhe
&beet COAlainill&the Itmlinal poinl/, _ ICt, _ I) of the panion of the pa1h 7, _ /
.... lic:I over Ihe point/, _ I ( i , _ I)' Then t he por1ion of Ihe pluh 7/'lQ a l
t he polnl Ji _ I ( f
_ I)' We Iifl t hu, al l tile po rt ions 1'/, I - I . . . , N, of t he path
1" Since Ihe mappings Jj : _ E , I _ I.. N are rompatlble 0\'1 Ihe co mmon
Cft ds of Ihe ad jacent inte..... 1$4/. Iht)' Clll be combinnt Inlo t he mappinll.! ' 1 - E,
1(' ) -I,<t) for' E 4
. The ma ppinsJ is j ust wbal determlnes th e path:r th ll coven
the path "t . The uniquenCSll Of th e ooveriI\8 pa th follows from p being a local
homeomorphIsm. Thereby. st. lement (i) Is pr oved . Statements OJ) and (iii) are Ib'
Non.. The 'U'UClure of the coord' nlle neipbourhoOlb U,, ; _ I, . N. Which
COYer the paLh ", : 1- B l11oWl' us 10 prove the bija:tivity of tbe fibres F
o"er t he
coor4inate neiabboUJhOOl1l if the horneomorphil m <Pu ilCtl ffom p -I (U) to
U x Fu (_ Ddtnition 6 of a c;.overlna iUldIUbsequent rUIOninlJ. Thb II obYiOus
if u n Vo" 0. eeee for % If U n v. we havep- I(I') - F
'nd p- I(I') - F V" tr
U n y 0 then havina diosest painu % E U. y . V, Me join them with a
l' : I - B IUiIII the faa th at B lJ pa lh<oDDeeted. For rJtc intlQ.lcd rovenna U/.
the fi tna F
arc baaneomorphlc (ill lhe discsfte t opoloJy). whence p- l(a') -
- p- I (jt ) U1dF (I - F ... .
U..... the ImmIlI ill now euy 10 prove the c:overinl homot opy theorem
menuotled io It em 2 for Ibe elM of coll'CriDp .
ClI. . Manifold< and Fibre S""dt..
cowrinll . X " topolo8fCtl/ I : X - E " _ppm,. ""d : X l(I - B "
II _ ropy such tlult PI - . 1x ,,0- 'Then tller-t a ilU If Wliq ue lift 01 tM
ltonKHopy i. r . $I homotopy i' : X l( 1 - E SU(h llull +1x " 0 - I Md
p'i' 0=
flOOP. f or E X.the hOlTlotopy. : X l( 1 - 8 ddennines. path,., : 1 - 8
!lne,.,<t) .. (I".I), I I! / . The poiol/(a-) lirs ovn Ihe poinl,.,(O) '" . (I", O) . Ac:-
c:orcfin,lO Lemma L the pub ' .,<:an be lifted to 6 . 1., : I - E under the (Xlnditlon
lIlall., (O) I:aa unique ....y. +(.l". t) = 1... (1). ThUll. we han a mappina
: X )( 1 - E. It (;()Yen the mapprlll .. since
p"t' (.l" .t) - p; ... (t l - , ... (1) " +tr , I), tr, l) e X x I .
When I ... 0, it is eviclent that "t'(.l" . 0) ... I f;r). l.e .. i' 1x " 0 .. J.
The proof of t he theorem II complet ed with t he followln, exercise.
10. Pr ove that the mapp inl. : X x 1 - E Is continuous.
The lemma on L1ft inl a path to a (Xlvcrin, $plI.U and the \:Overinl homotopy
theorem eoable us to Itudy t he relation between t he rundarnentll1 grou ps of the base
space8 and the covm llllpace. E. At riOt ,we formulate the immediate aeometri c
coroDaries to the indicat ed propositions.
LEMMA 1. P : E - 8 be " co'lWin, mtlp to GE. b
.. e B bfue poiIlIS.
1JI1'Jl l oUow;", SllI l tlnt " U hoJd:
pGlh in E wit h tlw III 1Mpol,,/ homotopit; to II COtU-
IUlt pGlh. tlrtll 13 = po. is do$J potlt with 1M oriritl III ta poUrl b
lIt1d IIl$o
Itomotopit: 10 II C'OIUIQ/l l pilI" .
(ia) (J .... is fI /HIt1I itI E wit lr IIw orlrilrIII IIw poUr / t oC'Cl "l!rifII" fI d<Mdptlth 8, tlletl
1M homotopy 01 Ihe plIlh 8 is I(/ud 10 tM flJltd-.rrtdQ/ thr 11h .... homot opy .
(lli) (J a is II prJ'"itI E wi." the! III Ihe pobtt eo co voi", II dost'd path 8
htJlflo.opk to II COlIS'''''' /HIth, ' ''en .... is lJbo daxd li nd homotopic 10 1/ cvn.rlllll'
fXlt h.
paoop. Statemen! (i ) is Obviou5due to the conUnuilyof the ma.ppinIP. Let U5prove
statemem (ii). Let fJ : 1- B, 8 (0) _ 13(1) - b
be a clO$rd palh ill 8 and
I, :: 1- B, 0 .... I '" I, f
- fJ Itt homotopy. Depotc the lift of the homoto py
I, :p+, "' / ,. 0 " t" l , bYi' , 1 : 1 - . 0" ' " 1' ''' 0 _ a. Sincc the end! of
Ihe path /, lie fixed. i.e .f,(O) - I,(l) '" b
for I IIt, the ends + ,(0) , i',(I) of the
IllI.!h"' , belonl top - l UI,) for aLi t and ckpcnd OD I contipuoU!ly. Since the topoloay
of the tibrep- J (be> is the ends of the pat h "' , (0), "t', (11arc COtISlant . i.e ..
lhhomotopy of tlJ.e pat h 01 ta kes plaoe with the cuh01(O) _ .... (1) rlXCd. FlnaUy,
1\'e SWmlcrlt (Iii). Letf, be a hOlIIotopy of the path 13, Md "', a bomotopy of
t1I.e pat h .. covmnar., . From the <WI,I, is I CO<llolMt mlppillJ and/,V) - b
... ....,(/1 C p- (bciJ , l.e. "', is I ma:ppina1mothe fibre ovcr b.. Slncc t he lm-
ace "' 1(/) of t be 1 ill ' connected set and the topolOIYof the fibre is
cIiscretr'+I(/)" eo: In p.attkuIar. ... l (O) .. . \(1) - e. From 5tlu:mcnt(u), + , is
a raed-md homotopy. Le., "', (1) - a(l ). "',(01 ...... (0'). 0 " I " I. Therefore,
Im. od""d OJl ' o Topol ol>'
a(1) - .. (O) - . ,U) - r.e. the a iii "tosed and homotop;,,; 10 a eon
st anl path .
Ln \IS rt udy the rdalioG be!WeeD th e aroups of the lotal qw;:e of a
c:ovaina and tbe
1bc proleetion p : E - B Ind_a homomorpbi$1II of the fwuSamCDlai ..-_ps
11", (") aad " 1(8) (lee Sec . 3. Q . UI) . The: ao:tion of this bomomorphism is de-
laibcd by the folJowina lhtore:m.
THEORE."" : 11" 1() - t',(8) o.!tlte/limUmurl al .1'OMPS
....IIicJ1 i.r b, 1M proJI1ott of (I ""vrri,.. i.r (I mOftOmorphism.
PJ,OOP. lAxOE E, bOlO B be baJCpoillu. and p<xO> bo: let 11" 1($ .xO>. 11", (.8. bO> be
fu.ndamcntal JfOUpI , and P. : :rl (P. xlii - 11"1 fIJ. "0> homomgrpltism by
the projecUonp : E - B. QlD.dder me iDvenc: imIl,e P; of the unil element of
the group "1 (8' , bO>o II SUff1cellO show thatp; I (If) _ e ' , wnere e ' is the unit ele-
oh he y oup 1l" 1(E.xO>. If (a ] EP ;I(/!) th eDa coven thepath l:l _ po. ....hich is
homotopic to path InB. Accordins to sta tement (iii), Q iii abo homotopic
to (I COl\$t&Ilt ptUh (in E). and thnefore (Go) :>
Th us , iT; 101l01l'li from Theorem 3 that the group ... ($) Is lsomorpl\ic: to
A1bpOUp of !be IP' OUP " t(8) (viz.. the SlIbvoup G p. (1I"1 ($). CollSkler the
cosn.I (e.a.-. rlalu) of the aubpo"" G of th e Ifoup " , (8 ) . The foll owiq: lmportalll
th COfUllis valid.
E -
witll l1le/_iJy ofCO#t$ of 1M IJlb8rf1UP G 0/ 11" 1(8)
paOOP Ld: \U as:soc:iale th e bocno&opy lIJJ E r l (B. with a polnU jJEP - I (bol
by lhe foUowiDt;rme: _ lift. the paJ.h to the palh a iDE with the oriain at tbe polnt
(\emtDa on liftin, a path) and pllt '=' a(l); by Lenma 2 {sutement (Ii. Ibe
CDd of the peth .. doeI" 1lQ!. dqlmd GO the d10lcc of a repcaeutative IS!PI.
therefo. the mapp{nJI " , (8, - p - l{bO> . lISl Is def\ned. If 1IJ 1I. !P
bdol1l 10the _e<ct.the n 1#11 . lIJ
r I Ep . ("1<' consequently , the loop
III . Il; I 'f>ith t beorl,lin albo II homotople 10 a certain loopJIa. wbere e iI a loop in
E with the orlain at to' Den ote the Un. 01the loo p fl I . fli ' with the origin at t o by
a ' and nOle that tbe (r ' and (r ar e homotopIc with the ends nxcd (stat ement
(ii) of l..anma 2), therefore (r' lIa dosed loop coverinS the loop PI . Pi I_But by
Lemma 1 (statemenu (Ii) and (ill. G ' "" 8, . Pi
. The d05Cdmlill 01 the path
gI . IJ;I llnpliCli Ihe winddence of the ori&in of th e path PI wilh that of the palh
, and a1Ioof their ends. Th erelore. "" t (l Th Ull, the mawina IIJ I - Iscon
stant 011 t he wse11i. MUII... hile,l clIffhcm there I;l)rt't$pOnd different im.
qcl. In lact . if we lUmc the eoou&f)'. theDthere '"1#11and t.B:!l f rom differ Cfll
coseu. but t, . ... hidl mc:am that the e:ncb (alld tbe ori &iru) o f th e liflSof 4
eoilJOde. 6; 1 \.s a loop in witb me orl&in at the point
P i$ 1 Pi
) .. p . Ili
is: a loop (wUh lhe orip at the poinl bO>o the
hort)Ol:op)' dus {PI . IJ; II - lIJlI 1IJ1r I of this kIop bdonp. t o P. ( I"I(E.
t.e. IIJ
], 16:1are from th e _ coset . which is c.ontrary 10 the aswmption. Fi nally,
it larWru to Iho. thzt any poinl' e p - l(b.J is t he imqe e, for a flam lISl . Con.
sider a path .. .ioitlina in E the point eo 10 the poiDll
(us.ina !.be cxmd.ilion that Is
01. 4. Mani(otd."nd BII""I"'I
pat h-<Oflneaed) and put#! .. pa; It is . PIltb In B wlrJt, the origin at the point
' the palth 01 ill iu li ft. Tberefo re ell -
COROLlAAY. IrthctoUl : E - B b l <OI1Mded. l.e. ,
r , (E) .. O. thm the fibe F and the flJDdamm t&l ll"oup t
(8) are in bijoam. COl'-
PROO". LeI. us ru.XoE" E.ptroJ .. b
IIDdcollSider TI (E, zol .. e '. "" (8. boJ . We
II.vep. ("'I(E, ll"ol) .. e . Consequently. Ibe family of cweu with the let
"1(8 , boJ Thus., ...,CB.boJ - p - l (boJ - F (the equivakACC is . bijection) .
D FINmON 1. A (OYerinl (E. B. F, p) is sUd 10 be 1<111_ ' if the . pace E b
"' t CE) .. O. The sPiIOC E is lhen ca.lIed Illll f'l'f!/Wl roveri ll, qKIa.
To know of certain , pacelli. useful in cakulat lns fun -
"' I (8).
6. n. . c;overins mapp : R I - S' , p (t ) co c
, P .. Z. We !l,nowll1ready(Sec. 3,
01. Ill) l bat "' I(R I) co O. Therd ore, "' I (S I) - Z (d. Sec. 4, 01. 1lJ) .
1. The covmna map P : S" - R p ll with the F .. 2:, n ... 1. We hi ve
"'1(5" ) .. 0, 11 2, wtIeooe "'I(RP") - ZI
Howner. the obtained resuIU ate DOl. compku. Havill. cnablW1cdthe bijre-
tioo of the 'P'OUP "' 1(8) wit h _ IJOtIP, we: eI.JUI.Ot be sure that the bijection
prnCT'\IC$ the crouP openuo<u, I.e.. is a bomoonorphism of aroups. Let lIS
strmp hcn Tbeom:n 4 IIDdthe cor olb.ry in Ihi:s_pea by auwninI that ill the total
spxc tbe ,.aioft COMl*iblc: ..rtb the st ruQute of. map of l:Crta\.tl
"'()Ilp 0 is pvcn.
We \If\Il oonsidcrthe arou pa arno.a (hom the \c:ft) on the JPlIce E IIDdidentify,
for brevity, an eternent , Ii a wll.h the corrcspcmdin. homeomorphism lie : E - E
(Ke Sec. 5. Ch . 11).
DEFlN'ITION S. A group a b laid to IKI di.Jcntcl)' (or tht G Is a dUaP.te tflVtf/or-
llftll ion 11 the orbi t 0 of an y point J ti E is I discrcle subspace I tld,
moreover , there Is a neiahbourlood U()' ) of the po ltlt)' eaIle4 cfementory hereaftet
Ilieh thltt the imaan ,(V), , 1Il G cithc:r do nor lnra lltC1 o r coincide.
DEfiNITION 9. A group G Is said to act in E ftedy (Ot wlthollt fIXer! poit/ts) If
,()') oil )' for any)' E E, whlleYer the dement, 1Il a., .. c.
If the discJ-tle transforml l ion aroup G adS f!'Cdy Ihm the imqes , (V) of t he
elemenlll")' nelgltbourbood U()' ) CONide=i above do not toincide for differ CDt , .
DEFINITION 10. A ttansfomwion 1J0up G aetJna in E diJemdy aod freel y ucaUe6
I PlOJIVIY.. diA7ontill ,",1I$ ItYlnqOtmlllKJn , roup.
Let a be . properly discontinuo\l.S tnnsformation 1t000Pof . space E. CoauIdc:r
the orbttlP*'" Et a .. B and th e U lli N!. projectionp : E - B (see Sec. 5. Ch. U).
L.EMMA l . W E be II p"III-cotrMdl spruw, _ d G lJictNIliJI,",1U
ttv,.q(WmOliolr , roup it/ E. T1lrn p : E - Et G B U ll covoitta .TltIp wfth 1M
fi bre p - ' (b ). b e B, equal to 1M cwbfl 0 , ol'Mpofllr y, p (, ) .. b.
Inlro<!uc,ion to TOp<llolY
PROOf . 8y th e definition of an orbit spece, the projection p is a conti nuous map.
pin. and p-t (b) '" if p (y) "" b. and, moreover, - O. The pat1l.
connecledn en of t he $pIa: p(E) '" B follows frOIrl the palh-connectcdness of E
and continvity of p . It remains to ecesuuct th e ecer ernete neilhlxl vrhoo<h in B.
Let U()I ) be an dcmentary neiah boutbood of a-painl)' e e , b ... Oy the orbit plUll'
ing through)' and V( b) an open neiahbou rhood of lhe point b E' B consisting of all
orbits D. , .I:E' U()o), passinS through t he neighbourhood U()I ). f or a properly
msconl invoUli group 0 and elementary neighbourhood V()o). we hive;
p-I(y) '" U , (U ). , (U) being ope n in E and disjoint. The ima ge of ,(V) i'l
'sheet' w, OVer Vof the OOYcrins mapp : E - B. In flIet, p - t(v) '" U W, . W,
,, "
beiDa homeolllorphic to V, Wice the restriction p, .. p I w ; W, - V is I
homeomorphism due t o the mappina P, being bijcdive 'and open. The
neigbbcvrhood V(b) U coocdinate. since a homeomo rphism l"v: p _ t (V)
- V )( G (0 being COIlsidued wi th the discme topo!osy) given on oPen disjoint
let s WI' by the mappingap, : W, - Y x , is def"ne<l for any lEG.
8. A covcrln. mapp ; 5
... I _ L (k, k l' . . , kIt ) ofthe spbC're ever t he general-
ized Icns space det ermined by t he pr ojeo::lion of t he complCJI , phere (which is
homtomorphlc 10 S1Io ... I) onlO the facto r space or orbils L fJc., kl' .. ,k,,)
relat ive t o the action orlhe poup Zt (see Sec. " Ch. Il). The fibre of this coverinJ
coincides with the: orbi t of the group Z/r' Le., consislI of k elements . Since
'r1(Sz" + I) '" 0, 'r1(L) - Z
9. Con lldn E '" R" as an Abelian JTOvp: It contains a subgroup ZIt of all ...mors
whose coordinates ar e int ept's. The factor !Jl)UP R" / ZIt equipped with the qua-
llent topook),y 1$ c:aUed an n-<ilmenstona1 torus"". The resIdue class mapplnl
p : R
_ T" is' coven", map with the fibre ZIt. Since = 0, we c:onelvde
th!lt 'r1(1") - Z".
For IDe coverlnll map p : E - /0 .. B, t he follo wing lemma holds.
LEMMA4. Witlr tire COrlditiotu of Lemma J, Ihesublltoup N - P. ('1"1(1:." eo)) of
Ilr eJundafMrllal ,roup 'r
(8 , p{ea> = b", is II rlortllill sub,roup. .
Pl OOf". Let lP. 1EN, (PII E I' t (8, bo)' To verify t hat 111 ... 1P
1- I . (Pj . 1.6
] e N,
we Ii! ttllc palh..,. .. P
. P . PI t o the path i '" iJ
. 8 . 8
, where $ E 7 1('
eo>, PI is from the polnl t o 10 the polnl t t ' p (ell - booH
is from the point e
th e point to- Therefore, 'Y is a loop et the point t l and P"i "" .,. Since the fibre
is the orbit O. of the group G, t here is an elemcnt I I E' G such thai
I , (el) '" eo- The maps the Ioqp 'Y to thc looP'i"YIt the point , o
so that II lil E 'r IlE. t ol . Th e Path k l"i' covetS t he pat h.,. since the mapp!ngp iseon-
nanlon the orblUof th egroupG; thererore,p(g,y) '" .,andhl .. p .(II
'il) , i. e. ,
Coverinp whose IVbgl'OUPS N .. p . (-rt(, t o) arc normal art said to be
rquillr .
Cll. ... Mlnlfoldslnd Fib... Bundles
For rq\lw- coverillp, the fami ly of t:mCU of the &fOllp " , (,It, bo> rel..lee to the
subSJoup Nis i factor goup.
Before pa.ssinA OVCT to caktt1atina we ilttrodutc aD impananl llOtion
of t he monoclromy &fOUP of 1 - erina.
Let p ; E - B be 1 CO'I'Criaa map, and bOE B 1 ecna.Itt POUII of the lmc Ipx.e.
Let \as dcf"J;M the actio n of the SJOUP '1" ,(8 , bo> in !he fibre p-' 0O> - F. Let
/PI "'1" ,<8. bO>, and e" GP- ' <b(} be an arbitrv)o poiItl of Ute fibre ovcr Ito nose
w bKrlpt is aD dancnt f1f E F. Let I be 1 lift of lhc path 10 the point c..; put
c,, ' = i(I ). whena ' is t he sUb$cript oflk fibr e eontainiltl 6U). We Utow wu dy
IhI 18 (1) docsDOt dcpmd oa the choiecof I path fJ from the d ass /PI. but don only
on the class lfJl. Thus, the class tiJl drtmnines the mappin'''1 ; p- I(bO> - P- ' Ibo>
by the ruJe t" _ t ... (or the 1l11ppi na "I : F - F by the rule a .. a ' ).
II is CU)' to $CC t hat lhc mlppin, "I coven the I PBl;e P -
The folJowm. obvious equalit ies: " fI . I - "I " I '''1 .. 11' if fJ E e (the ident i
ty elCl1lCYIt of '1",(.8. boll,",_I ,,; ' I on liftin. pathH tY
thllt the correspondence" : IPI - "} reprcsmtati on of the irouP ",(8, bo> by
' homeomorphisms', i.e. ' pcrmul atJOrU' of the dUeret e space p - I (bo> (or F ). Th is
represent ation tI is called I mOlltJdromy qftfft co'Hrin6 , and the set of peml utat ions
10,1. e ..,(8, bo> the lI'IOItodrotfly . rollp of e e coverill .
Thus. the monodromy tI b homomorphism of the aroup '" (8, bo> 10the group
of all pamutltlons o f Ute fi lm.
It foUows from Theorem l !bll tlae pointc. Ep- I(belis flud for thosc and only
those pcm1utations tI , for wtIkh IfJ l e p .("I(E, . ,.)l. Thus. P. (" ltE. c. is I
stabOit)' subpouf i)f Ihe point c. m th ego,ap " I (8. Ito> Ktlnaon the fi1Ke p - ' (bO>.
MOI"CO'+'CI" .... = tI, . {t.) If and only if IP' )E lP. ("l lE, c. J 1fJ), i. e. to tbe
coset cont&iBin.!be clcDcnt Il'J( whence 1ltCOf'cm .. follo ws immediately). For dif
rcrCQ1 points c c . lhe P1blt0llpl P. (" , tE, c.. P. (" ,lE. , .I.l"e collj uaate
wi1h rcspca 10 tbat demenl IfJJe ",(8. for which ... .. t . . In fae:t. if ' is
the eorrcspondiDi c:ovcrl ni patb the _ -r" '" i -, . ., . 8.
where bf e 7
lE, c..). cst l blW\CS IJl i50morplUun between " ltE. c. l and ... '.E, ',,' )
transformed by the monomorphismp. into the bomorllhlsm
P. (II,'.E. ...- ffJ r'p. (" 1(' 0' [8] - P. (11, (. l! .. . ).
Lo:t us caleu lal e lhe monoll romy group for the coverin. map
P : - E I G '" B .encratcd by 1 propc1'"ly mscontinuoWl trlnlromwion ItOl,lP G .
LE.'otMA S. nc mOllodromy , rowp of I/Ie col'trln, _P P : Ii - El a '" B
fC/fU1lfed by IIJHOpUIy,jtl"OlU I roNl' a of IIpatlt-1nnrctftl
spa E is /soIIfO'Ph ic to a.
Pl OOf'. E, b
- bebasc porolS. = , whe reO
is tbc ol'bit paIolo!tta !ltloup the poin l t'oof lbll: poupG, i .II:., eelet of p&nb r.
E G. Let IfJl " " 1(8. and . , Ihll: correspoDdill. lI\OfIodlom, transformatOon.
n eD - SIna: Ihe pdt 5 from "0 10 i5 eanicd by !he
bomco_orpblsat, E G 10 tbe path,6 rrom Poto,tI/J' co>. alId Ihe patb 61coven
l he path fJ ,,1#0> -
The _, _ " determines a homomorphism of Ihc moDOdromy
poup inlo the IJOUP a . 1n fatt. lf -'J. _', iJ Ibc SIlpcfJ)OSition of - ' I aDdD'l ' Ihen
(.,t,,'Jeo .... .. -'I.-'I- "1 ." 1'
Funbennore. the pcnnl.l w ioI'I -i' .. 0'0_ 1correspond. 10 Ii I the idmtK)'
pcrml.llation _, co 10 Ee) 10 '0 .. thc icklIt lty clcmmt of thc UOUP G. We
Ulow IIW the bomomorpttism _0 - I , iJ ;I lQOrIomorphism of the monodronlr
ItOUP inlO 1M aroup a . In face. if I .. so then ..lJIt o .. - "0 for an)'
1 6 C, nd thcrcfOl'c ", b the idendl)' mappin, of Ihc fibft: 0 .
The I\Iljceuity of thc bomomorpbi$m 0', - II foQo IrOlD t hc
CODJllOl:l.c<tnClol of E cnabl!q \ISto join, b,. ;1certain palbO' , the poinu
1.0the polltt
I where I . G is arbittuJ to that a b l lift of Ibe loop tJ . .. po and
- , . co '" 0(1) - I . (ea> ther efore DO. - r . ThIU, the isomorphism of the
1II0nodromy aroup wit h the 1l'0up G I. rnablishcd
Now It bomcs quite ell$)' to prove the ballk: thr:om.
THEOREM S. For Q oovmn, tMp p ; E - EtC _ 8 't!rlt fQlcd b, Q proprrl,
dl#onlmwollS ,,.,,n:;for maf/on ,roup G oj a JXIIIl ' )1Inltd e, til e j (l('lor
'fOllp of tilt: , roup '1" 1(8. ba> rrlaflw 10 1M nomllli subvoup P. ("-Ile, ' 0)) '
PWO> - b. Is isomorphic 10 fli t ,roup O.
Paoof'. Coesl4cT the botnoIDorpblsm S ; "' llB. bO> - G given by the OOIIl positio n
of the homomorphism of l be 1l0\l p '11' 1(8, bol into thc 1lI0nodrom)' &Jllup of the
OD'VCfiD, l.II.d bomofJlhism of the trlOllOdromy aroup to the lJfOUP G. I.e. the
homomtJrphism siven by the corn:spondeocc 161 - .., - I,. The wYC'St: in!.a&c
s - t{to ) COIIlUts of those daaa f6 Jfor whkbl, z .0.1. ....., is thc idmtitymt.p-
pin, of the fibre p - IfJJO> . ThCfcfore, S- "ltol P. (..- ,(. to aDd the fKl:or
"-1(8. boll,. (..-\(E. - G is.
COItOUARY. If . rot:ria.a l!llPP : E - E 1 0 .. B is Lmlvusa1 U1Cl the Po<l P
'"'t(B) uisomOfllhic 10 the IfOIJP O.
We hOW 10 b.;.k to Euu1p1et 6, 7, 1, and 9.
The llnivcrsaJ. coverial P : R ' - S', p C! ) _ e
01l' is ",nenled by a properly
dl3rontin\llOUS trans fonnat.!ODI10UPb)' the tttntJatlon t _ t + n , n 6 Z of the axis
R I. 1'bcr..for e ..-,(5 1) .. Z (lsomorphi sml. The mongdfomy ll' oUp is abo Z and
&CU on the fibre F - Z by tl aniJ l lions m - m + n.
Thc universal cover!ng p : - RP",,, ;l 2, is l enellled b)' . properly dbron
tin uou l tI&rtsformation grou p Zl with the generat or t1 : SIt - SIt acti na by the rule
- - ;c. The refore , _ Zl. " Il 2. Tbe monodrom)' aroup Is Zl ltld
leU on the fibrc F '" p- to"o, -xol. ;c {i 5"'; for the tener'tor .. , we have:
.. -;cOo o( - ;col a .K/Io Le., .. pcnnUIO the po\rIts oftbe fibre . The ameradnl
dement of the IfOllP "-1(RP", be> cqnespondinj t o lbe dement _ is fanned b)' the
homot op)' dau of the pat h"..,. where,. is a path on joinioll the poin ts xo and
The UIIivenal ooverinJ p ; s ao. I - L (4'; 1:
, .. . k..) is Imcratcd b)', prop.
u l)' discorttillllOUSaction of the a:roup Z", wil:hthe lencrlt.Or t1 : S:lo .. 1 _ S2Io I.
TherefOR ..-, (l..) _ Z",. the lrIOIlOllrotrly IJ OIIP is abo Z. and ac:IS" on the fibre; its
ptleraar COI:fCSPOn4J to the 1ftlUIl10< f'l'1E "-l (l..). wbc:rc,. it the iXojo:\iod. of the
PI th in s)o .. I ioinina the poiot;co to the paine "' (%0> ( rtod Q, flP'O> lISinl Sec. "
Item 3, 0 . 111-
Cb M.... ralds and Fibre 8l1ndLu
Fig. 91
The u.niYUUll:Ovennl P : - 1'" Is, eneralcd by l proper ly discontinuous.c-
lion ot the &rOUp With th e Itneratou Q
ac:tinl by the nl le ... ,Jel _ I' )C/ .
Je'. I' )C,,) _ ,XI _ I,Jr, + I, Jr, . l" " . Jr. ). ; '" J _ , II.
Therdore, " 1(1"') - z " and th e lata, lon h
) , ; = 1. 2, .. . " ot Ihe ItOUp
" 1(7"' ) conla1n the loops ,, / otIu.iDcd by !be projectioop ot the pWu inR" joonina
lhepolntO 10 the points _i(O). Th e moD04romy ar oup aets OG thef"IbnF - Z, its
aencrvan 0. /, i '" I. . . . " Ktin. an int qral VCdon (rom Z" by the l'llIe: (A'1'
. . . , .t: . ) _ (.t . ,.t:
_ I' k, + l , .t:, .. , . . k,, >.
To It\tdy lllIivenaI CO'I"r:1'in$S, il is nea'Sar)' (0 Iotronger Rquil'emcnu
Iban t he on t he base space of tbe
OUlNlTION I I. A lOPOloaicai spaeeXis Wd to be: IaltyP4th-eoNfeCWi t for My
poInl s e x , then exists bale or open path.colllla:ted DCi&bbourltoods, If
ndahbourboods of , bale POS$e$l, in adwlXxt. Ihe property of l -oonnee:tedneu.
then !he , pace is said to be: 10000J(y J""",lItl.
Exantples of loxa!ly path-eonntcd and loc:a11y l -eonnc<:u:d ,paces ClllI be given
euily (e.I. th e Euclidean SPIlCell R" or manifOlds) . A locaJJy l -eonneClcd
InUSI nOI be l -ccnneeted, "an tJIlUllp.!e bcinalhe clrcumfercn' e S 10
Fla . 91, II5p_ is represented (the ' comb space' ) which is plllh-conneClc:d bu t 40cs
liCIt posscu me pr operti es of toeal path-c onnCClcdntsJ (an4 t herefore the local
l-oonncet cdnea). Figure 92 illl1SUatin, an inf"mile tc quet\Ol!: of c:if'Qlmfcrmc:es of
raltii 1/.. . .. .. 1. Z. ... .,..hidt l commODPOUlt Of CQlItaet, lives an example
of. pet h<OlUlCCled U141of;a1Jy Plllh--eotlll<Ued but 1\01.. kKaU,. l -conn ected SpKc.
HowC'Yer. for it is Wfrlc:itnllo uaunlC the fulf"l1menl o r.
WQt:tl" condition than th e klcal. J-ooDDcetcdneu Of. $pUC. This condition Is eee-
tained iJt th e foUowina c1tf"Ulition :
DEJ'lNtTION U. A lopo&oa:ical X is $&ki to be ..",I../Ot:G1J)' I-OOfUSfl if ror
lilYpoInl Jee X . thtfe aisu' ncl&hbourhood in which any t wo paths with common
C1uh vt homotopic a! ku on the..mole space (or, ""a1 is equivalent. in oritk h any
loop Is C<MItraetible as kast. on !he whole
II is easy 10 see that ir X is lou1Iy JHIlh-connec,,:d and
l -connected thm at each poUlt x e X , lhue exisls base: of ()Jlm patb-eonnec:ted
lIeipboumoods peveuin. me property fOT any two PfItb with c:ouunon m<b in .
rrom this blUe 10 be homotopic Oft the whole X.
AA example of a -m-1oc&I1y l <OftlIectcd. but not )ocalty 1-COD!lected space is
ttte cone OYer the 'P3" draW'll in F". 9'1.
Note abo di u. CDJIncaed and simul Wl eowly pat hoOOflnmcd space Is path
<0"""... .
The lenD 'uniYer'M1 _erin,' Is uplaiDcd by the rac:l: tha t I l -connect ed apace
whlc:b(OYenS is a COYeriD. 5pace Ollef any other space tovmng B. Morl: p:eisdy.
lhe roUowina propo sitJon ho\d.l.
THEOREM 6. ul (,$, B, f . fJ) be tft, rovni", a conntcttd. 10000lly
ptlill-conn:ftd space B. FOI'IIny coveri ng (,E. 8. F,p) owr S, Iht re ex<stsa surj/iw
mapp Ing J : - E $\Jell 111 "1 Ihe d/(l,rQm
",- -'--."
V oommNt flflw. Mono"",., 1M _ ppUq f is 1M projtic" of tlte ro'JtriJr, ct. E.
r.n wI'IOMfibrr r v iii willi rllt
FC'1q:> ..-, (E).
paOOl . We perl'onD it in sevualst.,CIII .
l. A mappina/is ccnlSUUded in f oUowin& wly. Lctb
B, C E,
C E. We mappln, /u ' li ft oflhe rnappillJfJ : E _ B
Mllsfyia, the CQlXtiti.OD/<to> so co- For an arbiuery point Jl e E. c:oDlida I path
l' : 1 - t with the ori&in ' 0and the m d . )l. Aeeordins to Lanma I. then emu
unlque lift ( "I : 1- E ortht : 1 - B. Put / (.l-) f ,.( I}.
il l-eonntcled. lht dermition ohhe mappinsJ is vUid.ln raee, any t wo pith,,, ... in
E from)l to y art: homotopic (with the ends fUled). thenfo!e. tbrn
IUC ilsohomotopic in B an d th e lifts of the latter t ,. f .. (wit h . eonunoll o rilin)
ar e homotopi c in E. Aocorclio, to Lemma 2. f "l and t. have. common end . The
comm utativity or diagram (A) is obvious.
The rnlpp1naf is COll tiDuOUll and. mo reover. a local homeomorphism. Th is Is
clear for Qt11ain neiah bourbC)(lCb of the poinlJ' ene e, viz shts W... !yin,1n
t .E over a padt-fO:OMected coordinate ndgbbour hood V. in faa. for pIIths" l)'\nl
in nriahbourhood of "'.. , we obtain f "l= (Pi Ip..
. Uterefore the rDilPpinl f l "'.
= pi II .. is 1 10<11 bolDtOlDOrJlhilln. To ..mrytlW faa rouny pair or poin tue J.
r e E. wheref(.l-) .. T. It surflOtJ to see that )l.T may be:ta ken tD be new basepotn u
' 0- e. whereas the mappiDaf il wtalter ed (the verirIc.aOOn is left to th e ruder).
2. We DOW thow tlt.aJ:/is swjoctive. UtT be aD arbitrary point from E. ConsilI u.
pith., : 1 - Ewith theon.irt.c t o and the md at ".For thcp.athpy : 1 - B. there
aisu vclque lift.,. :1 - with the ori,aiD . '0 aDd die end at certain point
Jl .. ' ,.( 1). Thm tbe pall\i I,,. and 'T POS$C$.I' eommort ori.&in and co,"," the J&mC
ClI. . Manifold. and Fibtc:&lldlc:<
by the fo rmuJiI
P-thpy in S . Tbcrcl"ore.J.,.(I) - '1 (1) . i.e. .!tr') = y ,.hktr, mUlllitha t / lu",ja;_
t iYe.
3. Show that I ; E - is !he projeetion of the rovuilli. For lla arbitrary poinl
c e , WllSider tl'lc iotCJ'R(:(.iOf) 0 a U n Y of Ibe COdirwe ne;,;hboumoodJ U
and Y conWnina th e point for Ihe coYeriDp (E, B, and (,$. B. F. p I.
rapeaiveJy. The nci&bbouthood 0 is roordillale fw bol h eoveriop con&ldercd;
wilhout lms of Imerality, II gm be ....wncd t o be plllh-connected . Thus, the oom-
mUlallve d iagram ati iCI
Hen: . 1M restriction Oh M mappinVto any sbcct W. k & homcomor-
I I .... : "'. - W ./;.. = Pi'P
when WI = I(IJ'. >Is a sheel homp -'(O).
Consider a _sheet W, COJl1.aininasome polnl c. Denotc 1.lI u el ofthosc shcetl lJ'. ,
of wh;.;h the irIYft'SC imBler I ( W/ ) consin l , by pl ,.: IJ'. & Fi _bclnathe <:o nn ected
romponC1IU of 1.lIe Inver1C lmll&e -' (W,). We endow Ihe set Fi with Ihe dlscreee
t opolo, y and define Ihe mapp lnll
"' '''. :j - ' eW, ) - W, x Fi
"' 1I' ,(lo) '" U(lo). e(lon.
where ("(lo) Q: t be coMeeud c:omponC1l1 pla,m.1be panof !.beSUbsc:ripl oft he shed
utd the polDlf(lo). 11 is obvioIlsthaI l it': Is a loc:a1 boDlQ)morphlsm and
a bijection an d Iherefore a homeomorphism.
Th ereby. for an arb iuvy point c E E, coordinate naahbourhood W, and the
COdmate ho mcornorptlisrn,.w an: conslnKlcd (t he commutativit y o f the cor -
respondin, diq:ram is obvious). In view of Ihe nOle ana Ihe dotrUlilion of a covft'-
In" Ihe fibre do nOI depend. up to bijection. on Ihe ehoice of a point c and
wordinille neighbourhood W, C E.
4. "'UI./ : E - is. covering map . Since it If unIversal, (- ,(2) = 0). ill fibre F'
Is In bijective correspondence with the JI'Oup"I .
COROU..ARY. Any two universal coverill" (,$l' B .Fl'p, ) and tel' B . F
, P2) over a
conntetb:!,localJ.y palh-eonncetcd space B iITC equivalent. i.e. there n i$U
homeomorphismj : , - E
sueh thallbc diagram
is commut at ive.
Inlr06l1C1ioa 10 TOfIOloIY
PIlOOJ' . The kKal ltomromOfllhbm establisbed by Theorem 6 Is a bijection due to
Theorem ... .
We now pus 011 \0 Ole Iheonm for the universal COvering.
THEOIlEM 7. La X /Ie II aNVI:ttd. Iot:ul/J> po'h-<OIfrleCttd, and um;'IOCfIII,
I 'CtHIltttd spIIa. 17wtl (Mn u i$U1I11/1lvtrui Cl ,,"" X .
Pli OOf'. We realI. fVSl. thai If ill bale for a a path ....b fard ends is
holl'l(K()piz.ed, then the pIl.iI. lhat II is alsobomoIopiud wtth the ends fuod.
to poiDtse o f a l<OMeC:lell wve:rin& ' .-e, thtR bijeaively COI'TeSPQnd
!be hocno!opy dasses or the paIhs in the ba$c wtth the oriaJru It the base point
IDd mcbIt the projeaiomp (r) or the poiDtsr . Th.ii property mablt:s llS '10 rcvcnc
UMd iAthe PKVfow Ibeoran IDd restore the 1-eo l1JlCdal wvtrin&
JpICe by means of the boc.ol:opy daises o f the base I*bl.
Thus. a omaIa poiQllD X . CoaUkr $DmC1toInotopy daa h..Jof patbs "1' ..
in X with the oriIlD at die poirIl-ZolDd md II tome palm & X. The set of III
IUC!l daac:s. for attrtlinx. is. fibre ovuOle pl)inlx, and Ole UIlion E <: U r (.r)
. oX
o f all fibn:. is the total The projttlionp : E - Xii cIclmnlned in. Dat ur al
1I\IlIDa": lite proi<ctionp usociaIcs th e class h..1wil h tlIe poin tx. II is obvio ullhat

We Jive lite fIrM priority to Ihe wnstruetlon of the to poioay on E. For each
POint h..JGE, we speci fy . base of open neighbourhoods lDuCh..DJ as followi . Let
U be III arl;lluvy opcn, path -e:onllKtcd. ncil.bbouthood o f the point x. As I
DCilhboutbood o f lite poin t ("1'..1, we take O(h..n. Le. the set of homotopy classes
h(JCl flhole pa tlu T)' rtoUl X
lOl e U, wbleb ar c the prodlJoCtl.,,, _ T..-II( of lett-
.... PM!I from the d&sI b-..Jby . path II fromx to1 b'\DIln U; Iy) dcpCIIc1I 0Illy 0lI
iY..J mld the homotopy da$:I 1'1) o f tbe pat.b fl, . The lldabboluhood 0u<h'... J) is
I.e. oel&hbourhood of any of irs 0 v(IT) - Qu<tT..if
IT" I e 0u<h'.J}. ln faa. "1'7 - y.. fl
"1', ' 8; I - .,,,(/J, . 8; ') and lince fl" ' 8; I
Is I loop at poi,Qt hoatotopOc to I coM:&DI path. "1'.. - "1',, ' fli' (fixed-Cd
Iiomotop)'). Since tJ- ' - 8.. is I path in U from,toX. we obt&io. "1'.. - ." . fl... If.
I>OW. tT.1010vU.,..i{.thCft y .. 8. 1: if, boweva. f'r.] EO(Iy,l l
Ch. . ManlfOllb alld Fibre Blll\dla
rtl . 94
thea ,. _ ,. . fjl - "11 ' f/J . fj:): eence, we conc;lude the ndghbourhooch
0(/ (1"1'1') and ou<h)"ncolnelde. The reuonills performed is illUluated by F11. 9].
Note Ihat due to the l -eonncaedneu of the spaoc: X , there W'U a
patb ..:oMled opca neighbourhood v of the poin u for wllieh thc homotopy ellw
of the prociutt "1', .. "I' ll doe:. nOl depend on the choke of a path /l trorn x 10)!.
The nelp boUThood v...m be the coorditlate ue4hbourllood ot the ",vcrina unda
COIWruc:tioP. The DCi&hbowhoods 0 ., mo fono a base for the Deis;hbourhoods of
Let lISnew died" the continuit y ot the mappiqp. For thu , it Rlt f\ces to verity
thatp- I (U) is opeD tor llDypWI-con.1lcued open Qciahbollrllood U oftbe pofmx.
Let h,I6 p - l (U). Ibm h TI Is mlaino;! in. p- ' (U) tozethc:r with ODC of iu
Dd&bbowboodt, viz., the ncilb"bourbDOd. 0u(l Y,D, i.e., p - ' (U) is OpeD..
To show, furthermote.lhal p Is . local homeomorphism, we d>oosc the ' coordinaJ.e
Deiaf'lbourhood' y or the poin! X'GX ..-I the noei&hbowtlood O{I1".J) of 0<:J1&in
potnt 11"..1 of the fibR: r "" . L( 1"1' ..1is llDarbiuary poont from this DCi&hbollfboocl
tben 1", ... "1.. . /l.1'and aDpossible pathlfl
(from x to y in V), due
1<OnQec:tedne ot X, fan into t he u.n.lque borocxopy c:IassIIJ, I. Thadore, the eee-
rapon4ent:e IT, I - ,. . pIfylns the mappina p : O.,(t1"..]) - V Is bijcalve.
Moreover, tbe 1
: DvCh..J)) - Via a homCOl\'lorphism, finCll! It e eee-
timlou. (as I rC$ui clfon of i/;e continuous m. ppilll P : E - IJ10 an open K1) and
opca (sinoe P(nwllT.t1J) _ W for any 'coordina te neilhbourh ood' w e V ot the
point)! and 1", e nv\I"'r' ...J) (see Fill. 94).
Th UI, P lIa loea.l homeomo rph ism between E Md X , and for Ihc ' coordi nate
neis;)lbourbood' V of!hc point Jt EX , wc h.vep- 'W) - U W" , whcte. for
tt _ W OO = Ov<h..J)andp p : W oo -
open ill E and path..:onncaed . MOTcoYff, ....hen tt l .. ttJ' W. , n W"
_ 0 . In
flfCl, if we auume 1M c:orurary thcn Ihere arc noa..flomotopic palhs ,..: aod
palb 1".,": II V slim th l t h . 11ieI in the l.nlenec:tion ot the ne!ahbourbOOCI$
tI ..(rdJ}. From !he pre violts, "1' ; - fl ., T. - "': ' 8: (rlllcd.oend homotopies).
SiDccfl; - (due t o lhe 1ClfII1oc:al l-mnnCUcdDcss of X), we have T. - . /l.,
y. - "1'; . fl . , i.e., . fl. - 1"; fl.: havin, multiplkd both fides ot the lasI rela
Int r odllction l o Topology
lion by fJ; 1 ta king UlIO accoum rhar the loop 13 , . fJ; I is homotopic 10 a con-
stant , we. obtain Ihal "y; - wh ich i$ com....ry 10 t he original assumpt ion.
Thu s.p- I(V) . plit. into t he union of disjoi nt Sheets W.. which ar c ope n, pat h-
connected in E (and homeomorphic to V), where Q ranges over the fibr e r ",) .
II if now OatW"al to defme the coordinate homeomo rphism
\PI' : p - I( V) - VI( T(lr) by usuminJ: the 'c oordinatcs' of lhe point h,.1Ep - I(V)
to be the ' number' of the sheet W.. to which the poin t belon p and the point y e V,
i.e . the projection of the point "Y), under the homeomorphi sm p" =
'" p IIt' : W" - V. Thus, put ' ,, (h ,]) :::; ()O. h...1l if hyl E O,,(h...J). It is obviow
from th at the Ikfuti tion of the mapping \P" is Valid. 11 remains to show that
\P" is II. home olnOl'phism of an open sct p - 1(Y) in E and the t opologiclll product
V)( T(:c) , Where r(:c) Is ",guded ll.I equipped with the discrt:te topology.
The bijcctil'i ty of \PI' Is cv1dellt from tbe aboY<: consrructlons. Th e cont inuity or
\PI' foUows from that of the t wo ma ppings p : p - I ( V) - Y,p(h ,.U =y and
q" : p - I ( y) - r (lr), ql'(("YJ) .. h ...l involvl in the defmitlon of 1"1" The con-
tinuity of p wtI.S 8Sl:er1amed ear lier , and that of ql' follows from q . bcina locall y
COU&Wlt (on tad! sheet W<r = 0l'(h...J).Th e CODtinuity of I" I is a eoJUeq\ICnocof
the t opo! oaYof the fi bre r (:c) bcing di scret e and p", : W. - V beins a homeomor-
phism. In fad. . the base of open ncilbbourhQ<Kb of the point (y )( aJ C V I( T (lr)
is formed by tbe SCts SlY) x a, where S(Jt) C V is pat h-eo nnect ed, open
of the poln t r, and the inverse Imll4le ", yl(S(Jt) x a) equals
p; (S (y , I.e., an opeD$uNet In w.._
Th us, f' y il a homeomorphism. Th e commutativity of the diagram required by
the Ikfmition of . coordinate homeomorphism i5 obvlc us.
Let us verity the patlt-co nn ectedJlC$ll of the spa ce E. It lUff"iCClI t o show tha t an
arb itrary point h"Jfrom E can be joined to th e point IC...), i.e. tht bomotopy elus
orthe eolUliult path (at the po1ntxo>, by a path in E. Let ..,,, : 1 _ E be the n p'QCn.
lluive orthc ela5s h"l. We define thl!; path (C: I - X for . ocrtains . 0 " s" I, by
the formu la r"(t ) .. By asl ocia,l ns the number s with the homot opy cilw
Ir"J of lbe path r". we obtain the mapping", : t - E satisfying the conditions
...(0) ... IC....,J . ",(I) = h...l.The eolXinuity of the mapping ... can easily be establUhl
in l ufflciently &maD intervals in (0. I) whose Imases fan into the coor dinat e
0 Y([" eJ). whe", .1: "" Th erf;fore, '" is path in with the
ori gin at hJ and t he end at h...l whma: it foUows th at E II pat h-amnect ed.
Thu s, (,It'. x, r(:c). p) ill covering. To eompkte the proof of the theorem, we
esta blish the l-c:onnectednCS5 of the space E. Consi der the loop '" of the space: E at a
point ..
, wnere ..ois the homotopy class of the constant mappina C" . We sho.... t hat
Ihe loop "y = p.p : 1 - X (at the polnt xo> il homctcpje to a coostant. Not e thaI due
to the struct ur e of l ite Ipace E, for an lIJ'bilrary path ( : 1 -:. X with t he origin atxo
and its unique eovcrina path'! : 1- E with the origin at " 0' the md ,,(1 ) of the path
, il lhe bomot.opy dass of the path E( i ll the class of paths with fu ed ends). Since '
Is a unique path with the ori&in at t o covering the path j- . we ohtain t hat
",( I) .. r..,J .. Ie... J .. e' o. i.e. , t he pat hs .., and C... arc homotopic with Ihe ends
fu ed. which the contrDcti bUlty or t he loo p "'/ 0 = p ' . Because the proj ection
p induce. a monomorphism of fundamenl al groups, t he loop ", is also homotopic to
a constant .
Cit. 4. Maflifold.l and FIbre BII"dle.
Theref ore. "' 1(' eO> .. 0, which completes lit e proof of tlte t heor em. _
Not e in oondosion, that th e co ndition
!. ('I" t (X, .1"0 s: P. ('1" 1(' ecY)
whleh Is netemry for lifti ng a mappingJis sufficient fo r a COJUlc:eted, loeall y path-
con nected spac e X. The COl utIllClion of th. IiCl is in this ease based onlil'ting the
paths of the form! ' 01, wher. OI is a path inX wilh t he origin atxoand the end at an
arbitrary polnl Jl. The validity of Ihis construction can be verii>ed. by meanli of the
coveringltomOtopy property .
RamifIed Co veri ngs , To conclude Ihl. sec'lIon, Wi: dwell on the not ion of rami rltd
alvmn,., An eJIlUllple oh rami lled con rl nj (as sh"""" by thenarnplc in Se<: , 4, 01, I, oethe
Ritmaon . ur face of the fllllClion .. - -Il )may be liven by <he mappOnl of the t sphn e SJ in_
to itself determined by lbe formula/u) .. J
, It Isobviousthar. thequadruple
(S1 , 10. 001. SJ -, (0. 001, 2
(where ZI is a two-poi nt S[llIet with Ihe <fu.crcle IDPD!ogy) ;s a covenoll
OI!F1NtTJOi'lll . A quadruple rSt,M. 2 . p). where p ; I:i - M : i. called arllmlfwco_In,
If(i) 1:i and M are two-dlmensionlll manifolds; Z a spa<;< with the disaete topo!ou and con-
>istsof " points; (i1) ror . om.u. rlnile set T ee qulldrupleW, T, M ,p(T), Is
1IlI ,, -thel:ted 00YffinI; (ill) for My poinl y.; M and its $Ufncic mly ,maIl acilllboUlbood V()')
which i. homeomorphic to Ibe disc, lhe connccred compon<:nU of the set p- '(Vt)r ar e
hOttlconsorpll ll: to Ibe dis<:: .
will W1l1OinlS;1<f!J Tthe li",uhlr pain'" 0/ 1M FtU,,/f1ftl eo_I", .
I I . Show IMt a Riernum Iw face P determined by the al. obrai<: fllllCtioo
.... + alit).... - , + . .. '1" II. _ lit)", + " .It) .. 0,
where ",It),1 .. I , . . . , II, are polynomials (_Sec. 4, CII. l). is a raml fied I.P, S2 ,
2. , pl. Indi<:ale the sin,war pain.., of When II .. 2. compare the result wl\h
lhose obtaintd ln Se<:. 4. CII. I.
Con.i dor IIlI open neiJh bou: hood V(p(l-J)j of the inla.e of .mawar tluot
for all other Unf\lW poUlt.! il faUoWl from the condition p W) & th&1
p(r' ) .. p (>IJ ). in\'a" lm.,e of lbe boundat)' of thi>"cilllbowllood decom.
POW' in' o several closed Cllf'/ e., vit ., the circurn fereneq which bound the oonll ect cd com-
ponents orme setp - ' ( VfpW)) Ibal are homeomorphic 10 apen diJct . Let UV) be me con
nected <:ornpDl>C:rll of p-'(V(P(l- ' ) cont .uunl ' he po!nI Jr' . The dqreo of ille mapp\n. (_
Sec. 4, CII . III)
P bUlr' 1: au(l-I) - W <v,,",)
il aJlnd 'he mulrlpJlclry aI/he Mancil poi" , ,rl; we will denote it by III Il il evldm l IMl the
muUlpHclfY can be deimod alilO for branat polml whkh ar e not sinsutlll . If
p lut<' : vf.<') - II a hO!l!fOOlO!pl\lsllj lllen, obviOlls!y, dellP I. w.. .t. I. In the
tIIOC, ee ,ellCt.llon of..' , (a v (>"'J)1lT>d "',(av(p (l" m are cl>ocn and '0 Ii
IIIe .Im of k
However, In a number of cases, thellp of III i.I determined 10 . naruraJ 'I' &y.
Till"' , f", & t llmlll ndcoverin. (S2, Sl,2 . t
) , the mul tipl h:il y oft bc poinu o and 001.0 eqll al l o
2, and that of a.ayother lIOintlJ I. POl" Je ramlflcdcoverinll (SI ,SI , Z c?.the muh lptid ly
of the poinl l Oand 011 Is eqllal lo -2, and thai o f ally atMr pain" i> _ I.
;;en:/# 12 . Calc:uJal e the multiptl<; lly of the sina:ullll branch poin' . o/ , Ite ramified
from ElIacUc J L
IDllOCl uction to TopolDn
W<: .... rwe tloefollow!DI iDlportaJll fOf'tllUi.lo
1l(.W) "''' . 1l(M) - E(U.,I - I)
rd all na !he IIll/.lt!plkitiQ of upl!ar braDCh poillli with th<: Eule.. of a 1patt
a,nd iU baM.
W<: wm Ulume the spacaM and M10 and IrtanaWabl<:, i. e to be doseli Stll' -
face. For any li D&Ular xl II! T, we chOUH a ndall bourllood VIp tY u It wac done
lbo'o<:. ColIli4cr 1I0W lbe.QlW!ruplc
(R, U U(l"),M' U
wbcrc ' raaaa _ 1be.1l1lDlc act T . It Is otMotll that lhil is CO'f'Criq (l'Ol
. araIf>td) 'lil'1lQKIpKe mel bUc may be -.ida-cd lriarcWabk. T1IIac lriIn.avWlao:Illlay be
cbosa sufflCimtly riDeand COlllflaIible 10lila! the MI iIrnc iaA&cs or a 'tUtu, &II od,p aDd
I. tri&q1e fram ee bue ""Uof " vertlccs, edps Illlli triaqIQ. mpea.vdy. ThcufOK, lilt.
tqIleI.i(y holdl:
ll tM' '\. U U(I") a "ll W"' U V rptl) ).
, ,
Le. lbe.ful l invencimaaep - ltpt:o! colUiau of 1ft polml.l" ' . ,;.... 1ben Ille full in
verse .."...,- ' ( Y(PW) of 1ft cllia Up/). SiJla: the il Utol' j ls mapped
01110 u '(PerJ)j locally bolDeomorphkall, willi dqroc k/ . s . I 1ft . Ih. let
p- ll) n auWo) CODIisu of prflCisdy 1* _I poUw for evel)' jJoim,. 4' ilVrptrl. TburlflfC,
for every IIQl>W pcMi ..-'. lUld po(a u:r
1;p - l (pW . we hue

,, - 1: (l kJ.I-lj ... m.
, . 1
We !tOWSlue the 4ixs u(r4) IyIna 0V'Cl' the disc VfpuJ to lbe qlal:C Ah U U(I"l.
Dalote the obtained If*ll: by Al. SilIoe, lie Euler dlaraaaistic of lllc di$c equals 1 and lUI
or lu bcModaty is O. _ ol;Jt.aia

1: (I .t,.' - I ) . (5)
,. ,
Ch. ..o Man' foldJ.and 8\>no.l l"
oa& by OMnew disca pI.KC'd owr t ill: lunainina JlQInl.p(l") Ii M . i.e. the proj!ions
of the silrplar points 11 .. T C Itt. we oblala:
x(.'1j - x (v,- Ut>""'" 111 - ( l k
' _ I). (6)
....t.tte/ ls the rl...oa of different Ilnases ptrl>of lbe anaular poirruJl. IttIIomber l.IIu
x ( \1'- L! UV and X(M'- l!V<PW )
an by cquillity (1) . Note now that
xW)- 1( (M'- l! V{p(JIll) + / , (1)
. 1rIce /If may be obtained rrom /If '- U V{p(.l"ll by gluingl dl$Q to the Th\ls. from
(2), (6) and (7), we roJld
x <.4") - " 1ffM -, U Yip ",)) + nl - E( I k , ' - I ) - nx (/lf) - E(Ik, ' - I ) .
BriDJinl to miIld cr:pn:Uion of Euler channerlstk In lmnJ or the I"rlVl o f a
closedNI '''", If it CUJ to derive from for (1) the 'UIIl ofthe mu1tiplicitio o f the dnpiu
pQUlts on a ... ," ms or the IfllU of M mrllbe &en'" or Iiit. For CUII'lple , ill c:aseM INId i't are
orimlablc Ud lI' INlIIIolS p ,IJ. respectively. _ Qve
E(I k, ' - I) - 2fP + 11 (1 .: p) - I).
E:atd# 13". eo.parethe \au., r_ ula with Ilw f... the DUmber or brand:l poinU: IIfa cer-
I .... "braJc. t\IrIaioD. _bKb. ..... nlabfi'bed at the end o f Set:. .. , 01. I.
I. An Example of a Function on a Torus. A JIIanifold is a topgloP:aJ
fJ'l'anaecl kIeally u a J;t1e1idean space. However- , coNidered lUit whole, it ma )'
be quit e complicat ed . The n ud )' of the properties of lhe manifold in the lar, e
promu ClOIUk1erable di ff'it ulties . How sho uld IlOpo4iffcomorphit:: , DOIl -
bomeolDorphlc and bomotopy non-eqwvakt'l t manifol4s be distitl JUisbecl1 An the
oomp1n P'"oj eaive 5paCC and . I phere of t be I1IIIe dimcnsiOD homeomo rphic? The
II)QC c:oane of tbe li$tGl cquintenca is cquivalatcc. Therd ore. ( tnt of
aD. the hOlllot opy 1)1lC; of. manifold sho uld be sNdiod. ADa eepl lonall y uJcful in
IU1Imn'llI ill ia vcstiptjq lhe bo motopy type of. manifold and $OIvla& JMlI y other
maaifol d lopology probtmu u the theory of critical poinU o f RnOOlh fUDct ioM on
marUfoids. We iIlustrale lhis method by simple example.
Inl,odl><;llo n 10 T OpOlol\Y

CollJJder a t wo-dimensioD&! tonu M C Rlto\lChing the pi ane X)' (Fill. 95). Con-
s.idtt a fun ction / o n Ihe IOrus wllcnc vetue It the po int of t he torus with coor-
dinates Y . lI:) equall ll:, tbe beight of the point owr th e plane .xy.
xvT:/.a 1-. Verify that the functi on / so defined ls a smooth fu nctio n on the torus.
I>er\o(e t he point of ccn tacr of the torus and plane by P. an d the po int s of th e
10rus Ihat lie over p on the pcrpcndkul8r to the pl ane by q ,' and $ in order of In- heiaht.
Whlle inVI:$!i&ating fun etion s on the manl fold . we wUl needtl'lc notions of t he
u beJ,lIe ret ('I' "c) .. ll'e X: cJ of a fun dion ' : X _ R and
<." '" c) - ll' (l X : .. cJ of the fun ct ion .". $Cts will be u $Cd essen-
tially In the 1U1ll1ysis of fWlet lons on the manifold In Sec. 12,
II is evident thlll the level llne if .. c) of the fuacticn/ ... lI: is the tmersecncn of
the to rus with the plan e lI: .. c. The set of po ints of the lOrus lyin g no t high er t ban
t IM: plane lI: '" c is the $C'I if " c); we denOte It by Ar. The set Ar is empt y wilen
c <: 0; when c ... O. Ar co nsists o r on e point an d is a zero-d imcnsional mlln.ifold;
when 0 -c c < j(q), MC ;, homeomorphic 10 a plane closed dlsc; when
j(q) <: c < I v ).this set is homcomo rphk to a cylinder; whenjCd < C < j (.r). the
set Mt is a torus wilh the cap cut (the cap being homeomorphic t o an opcn plane
disc) ; when c ;;l j (.r). ... M. All these cases ar e IUUSIf&l cd in Fig. 96 .
2, De$cribethe setsM! 'd1) an4Wv),
3 . Show that when 0 < c e j f,r) and e ." j (q ), jv), the set is a two-
dlmell sional manifold with bou ndary if .. c) ,
Intuitivel y. the sets drawn in Fill , 96 are Dot ho meomorphic; DOl arc they
homot opy C'QllivllIent . Th e homot op y type o r tbe set wUllllter Ir c passC$ Ihrollg,h
the values of th e fUllet lon j an he polnts p, q , r , s which we singled out. Let \U n lldy
these ctt....1:$ in m()<"e detaiJ,
0 . 4.1IoUllirolds an.dFi lwc 8<uwIIcs


. , ..._.. .'

. .....
'... ..

fil . 100

F'". 101
Introduc' loJn to Topoloty
Obviously, the set ft,fCwhen 0 " c < f(q) i'l homotopy iulvaknt to the lero
4lmeruional dlsc, t.e., a point (fis;. 97) : when c = ! (q), the set is homotopy
iUi"a1en l to the di sc with an arc handle glued (Fig . 98). Further, when
f(q) " c < fit) , t his homOlopy Iype is pr eserved ( Fig. 99). When c '" f Cr), the sel
U ll cylinder with the bouDciaries glued. t o one point llIId therefore is homot opy
iui"a1ent 10 8 cylinder with lUI arc hlUldle glued or disc wllh twe arc handles
(F18, 1(0). When f (r) < c < 1(,1), th e let is a torus with t he ClIp removro; it is
evident that its homotopy type iJ; th e lUIle lISin the pr evious case:(Fig. 101). Finall y.
when c ;;JI< '''1. th e set W is th e who le torus Obtained from the prevfous type by
gluing the removed cap which is homeomorphic to the plane disc.
Thus. with the use of the smooth function I. we have 'constructed' thi: torus
from disc3 of diffCfen t dimeniion! by consequently gluln g the discs Md transfel'l'ing
to homotopy llQuivalent figures .
It will be shown below that any $mooth manifo ld may be obtainc:d In this way.
2. Cell Comp lexes. Let usllI\a1yu the operations of gluing discs In the example
considered aDd describe wbat meant 'to"pue a disc' in areater detail .
Let X be a Hausdorff space. and let D
be a closed dlse with radius I and centre
at the origin of the coordinate system in the spa(:<: Rn , and - I its bounda ry . Let
6 ; S" - l - X be contlnuoUI mapping. The res ult of gluina th e disc i3" to X
(relatillflto th e mappln.81) II the factor spaeeX U .c: iY' = ()( U d)/ R of the dis
joint unio n of X and D" with respect t o the equivalence R WIder which u - g(u),
u s" - I.
A ell is t he t" or th e let int is'' in XU , iY' rela1ive t o the mapping:
X U D" - ()( U D")/ R. .
Thus, the disc is slued. to X along the boundwy with the help of tht glven con-
tinuous mappinj 6.
ln the Ql.SoC when n 0, disc Dis poin t IIDd iu boundary th e empt y lei; the
result of gluing jjO t o X i.s the di!jolJlt union of X and jjOco to.J.e. t he
with a poin t lying separately. Anoth er example: gluing the disc D" to the disc DO
PfodUcell the s,phere S".
The discs may be glued one after another. the original 'Pace being the ceU,0.
MoreovCl. we shaD t eep the rule io glue th e boundary of the dise & to a Imi te set
of of dimmulon not hiaher than (k - I). The sp&ee which can LIlus be
represented as the result or consequent gluing of discs (of different dimen.sions) i.s
ea1kd II etU compkx.
For example, LIle splle re S" is II ceOcomplex con1i.sting of two cell s e" and t
where uglued to t o a!ong t he boundary.
We now adduce a definition of II cell ecmplex which is independent of the
previous consi deratioN and does not involve Ime quenl cell gluing . It is cqu.iva1ent
to the one above.
DEFINITION I. A cell complex is a Hausdor ff space K which can be represented as
LIle W1ion U( U t'/ )of palrwi5e disjoint sets t1 called eens lUldsuch that
,, _ 0 l e i "
for each IImappin,g 11 : iY' - K of a closed ball to the I pace K is lilted . This
0 .4. Manif.,wnd FIbr e U" ndla.
is called clt_tui.stk mappht, . and tbe rutriction ri 10 int1Y' '" D" is
homeomorphism onto _I.Daddition, uiolM be f ulnUed:
(j) rM txnmdllry of t:Odt & (;()IIIQf"td i" rit e lOIioll ofQ jilllte
IIWmb/!,. of ails of Ius/r,. dinl#fISkms ;
rai)IItI! lopolou 0l'I K is 6tIdI Ihllt IM Kt A C K I1clMtd if_lid only U
1MI wU t,n w :st!imqe (liT t (It n ?) c Is dosttd '" d .
A a Deomplell b aid to be fm/te If It rotUisu of a rlllile numbel: of crib.
II ahould be DOCed (hlIt alPK'= ean be decomposed into cd1s in different -J'S-
The pUlcm or di vidu., a a:.D complex irlUt l;eUs is a.Iled Uwltu dCC'QmPOSllion .
4 . Show thai the Iwo-djmau iotW tonIS is U
$ . Sho"" thai; me so:u homotopy equivalltlU. to the I..ebcs&ue seu if .. c) in me
eumple of IlaD I, ao d drawn in rIP. 97101 0CIi the riPI,.Irl: cell oompleu:s. Com
pale lhriJ" odIular deccmpositioDS. MiDd the dtan". of t he hcmOtOpy type of theJe
Consider . cloKd of .. cdI c:omplu K . IfL is .. cd! c:omplCJt"" box all
c:cUsu e abo edls of the OOIZlpkx K -M1h the _ ch.arac:Ieris tic:map!'in&l. then L is
calkd of tlte complDr K.
6. LeI K be _ een ClOmp''"'" L its 5\lbc:omplex and X .. topolopeal sp ace. Let map-
pings F : X - X andf : L x 1 - X be slld!. lhN f l
.. 0 - FI
Show thll there
exlsu .. III _W in. P : K x 1 - X such thai. " , .. J - I and Fi x " 0 c F (the
Borsllk homolopy ulmsioll theorem).
Hinl ; I!J.tflMl the holl'lOlopy10 each lkllmeft$l onal <lIU. thm 10 ead> one4lmcnslolllJ . eft .
7. LaXbe a ccUcomplex.and L itll c;onlnl;Uble ' Ilbcompk:ll:. Show that t he , paces
X and KIL Ite homotopy equivalent.
S . Pro ve that any e:ell complex is a Dormal Hausdor ff , p:lo;e.
MInd that to the eumple CODSidc:nd In Itern I . the: homotopy t ype of the:RI M'
dl&n&edwb lle PuAns th rouah the valua f (P), f (q)./fr) The pomUlp . q ,
r , $ diffn ftOm the other points o f the: torus in the followina: if m .. nclabboumood
of Ill y of thdC pomtll. e...... of t M point p , a local system of t;OOnlinatCli t,,, QIlthe
IOn1S is chosen. thm both partial dcrivltivCll i f and If will vanilh iIII the: point p (0.-
.. ..
aI q,". s . fCllpec:l Iv.dy) . Such points ...e caDcd the cri tical points of the: functionf;
!he valua o f the futl<;rica aI poU.U "'e:CIIled the critic::al v:alIlCli of the func:-
9" . Uain. the. coordinata of the plane x , y as Ute local CCXH'du>alCli in
nri&bboumooob of the points p , q . r , s. atlo_ lhat a.I _ U _ 0 N aoy of thac.
... 'y
prialS. Expuld the fwlaloll at point. into I $Criet of pgweTa of x M d up to
Ihc terms orthe IC'OOnd order inclusive_ Mind thai the numbft- o f mmlUC$au-.dtcd
10 l h.. lerm, c f Ihe.lIeCOfId dqre.: is precisely lhe d ilnCftsoon o f the f:'dIwtltch should
lnt rod ""tiO<l to Topology
beglued to lor to make a \rans fer to when between the number s a and b , there is
a crit ical value oorrupondinj: to the cridcal point in qu wlon.
1. Critical Points . Lct M" bea manifol d of clas.\ C- , and
/: M" _ R a functio n of d ass C-.
A point p f! M" is called a crltk ol potnl oj fir, j unction j if the eq uality iJj
. .. - oj = 0 holds in tile local coord inatts Xl ' . . . , )(" . The number jlp) is
call ed a critiall Wllue oj flr,junction/. All the remaining pa ints o f th e mani fold M"
are call ed noncritlcol point s oj fh, f unction j . All numbers which are net critical
values of the function / are said t o be noncritical valws o/tlrl$/uflct fon.
b ,rrisI 1-. Compare the nOlions of critiea.l and noncril ical values of a functi on !
with th 05C of rcs u.lar and nonr egu.lar va lues of a smooth mappill$ (see Sec. 5).
A critica..l point is sai d 10 be isoltJlW if lhere is its l\e1s hbourhood such tha t hall
no ot her cri liea1 pa inl$. A critical point is $;lid to be flondegtnerafe if t he matti. of
th e sond partial deri vatives A = ( .'/ ) I is nOllslngular. Oth l:tWi se, a
a)(/OA'J p
critical point is &aid 10 be degtnertJf, .
Consider a quadratic form (Ax, x) , where X 6 R " . This is call ed the of
the function j at the pointp. Sin(;e the rnatrilt A is S)'I'Illmtrlc, the quadrat ic fonn
tAx, xl can be reclu-eedto th e canonical .--
(Ax, x) " 1 +
by a coriverUcnc dloic:e of lhe coordinates Y ,. . , 1'" , Ir " fl ; if lhe mlUrlll A is
non siJl&ular, eben h _ n.
The number ). is eallcd the fndrx ojrlr,ju/fcrion / tlt rhe point p , tlnd th , numbtr
(II - II) tlr, de,rw oj singukrrit)' oj til, Junction / tit fhe:point p .
x.uI.pU! . Let us detlne a function on R
by the j()(, 1') = xl - k
2. It is
o bvious th at the partial dm vat ivC$
./ Of
ax .. g2 - J1'l and a1' (.r,y) " - 6.-1'
vanis h sllnu ltaneously only at the painl (0, 0) which is thus an b olat ed critical point .
AD the aeeond parti al
equal >.erg 811he painl (D, 0) . Therefore, lhc maIm orl he second panial derivat iYe!
of the function! It Ihe point (0, 0) is zero, and th" Hessian of t he function/at the
pl)int (0 , 0) is I quadrallc fo rm identically equal to eerc. Therefore, the cri tical point
(0, 0) is degenerat e, Ole degree of singulari ty al t he point (0, 0) equals two and the
index off Is Urn.

2 , Show Ihe cor rectness (i.e., independence from the cbcree of a system of lQcal
roordinatcs) of the defmiuQns of a eritil:&! point , nondl:SCncnUc critical point , the
degree o f singularity and indCll: of. function III critical pol.nt .
3. lnves tiptc the crit ical points of the following funct ions o n R I and
(a) lex) = xl, (b) /Cx.}') - r and (el / ex, )' ) - ry': investigate the critical point s
of a fun ction on the lOTUS (sec It em I , Sec. 10).
2. The M o r se L e mma. A remarkable fact in the theory of erltkal points i5 the
poSlllbillty to represent a (llIIo:tion in neighbourhood of a noodegeneratc critical
point as a qu.adrlllie fonn and to desl:ribe the behaviou r Of l he fun<;lion by its indu.
THEOIU! M I (1rIE! MORSE I.EMMA) . u t I : M" - R ' , tuld p W i7 1I0ndegene'Gle
cfritk:tJ1 point 01 t hl! function j . T1ren in a ana;n nl!ighbourhood U oj tlte poIl1t p,
thl!Tf'fl]Cist$O (QCOI$y$tl!'" o/clK)I'dINlfUYI' . 0, ' " I ,
n, and l he/ oll owinll wl!nlily is WI/id In U ;
. . . . ( I)
IIIhere YI' . . . , J' " are the cQOl"d;nart!'> of thepcblt u, ond )' is thl! iIlduQ/ thl! func-
tion1 or tJH point p ,
PROOl'. If there exi'lts a system Of coord inates sueh that the function/is with respec t
to it of form ( I). then the matrix of panial derivatives ( ''I ) I Is diagon.u . The
ay/JYj p
numbcn on the dilosonaJ are ""1, and the nwnber o f nepti ve eia enval uQ ls , on t he
one hand, equal to the number }., in represmlation (I ) , and on t he olher hand, is the
inllo::x off at the poinl p by definit ion.
We now prov e that such a representation (1) for Ihe funct ion/ exists , Let x
, . . . ,
be a iocal eccrdtneie 'Y.stem such thai the polniP hu the coordinates (0 . . ,
0). Lemma I of 5. I may be "PPlied to th e functio n / fJI ) - /(P) in a certain
neighbourhood U of Ihe point P. whence we obl lt1nthe following equali ty (assum-
inS l hat/(p) .. 0)
fVeI. = L XA"IVet .
,- ,
' I
,0) =_{O, . . , , 0) ... 0,
slrn:e p is I critical point of f.
10 TOl'Olngy
Let IU apply Lemma I of Sec. I 10 me funet ioA$t , again. We obla.u'l
t l"'l"" 1: X/'UCxt , . .
j - I
! I.x
, . . - E xfCjrUCx I""
I. j _ ,
. - -
Denotio. h/j .. 'i f/l
+ hi ll . we obtain II" '" 11ft an d

!(;cj . . . x
) ... E x.,ful.x
, ,
'.J- I
I a
Since hU{O ,0) .. - --to .. . , 0) , the manU: (lil/(O, .. . , 0) i$ non-
2 ax/ax,
siJlgular . ThWl, withOUI lew of me mauix (h
in (1) can be regarded as
U the functions 11/1 weu COO5tant then , to prove the theorem, it would be sum-
tient to reduce the quatlndc form/Cx
, .. . ,x
) to the canoni cal. But, generaJ1)' ,
lhe rusonirq: should be slllhll)' modiftcd.
For the furt her theory , it wU1 be convenlent 10 assu me Mdditioml1l)' mat a- (0,
. . . , 0) o. 1b1s auumption don not lead to lou of sjone we
can aJw.y.i this b)' cha.naJq: the local coordinates (changing the chan ). In

faet, di e qlUldra.ticform E " 1/ (0, . . . , O);cfC, can be reduced, b)' a Linear eon-
/. J . I
singu1aJchanae of the coordin.t es, 10such Ihat the element " It of iu matrix is not
eeee. HaviIlg performed. this coordinate change in fonnula (2), we wino for/
(in the new coordinates xj, . . . lI..similar representation again
/ (;r; , ... '" E x;rj hJiCxi, . .. .
/.' -,
but now, however, "Ii (0, .. . ,0) '" O.
Thus, uswnina lhaI h
(0, ,0) 0, _ can write (In a cert ain
Dei&hbourhood of the poinl (0, . . , 0:
' %4) " E .... + 2 E ",tx,cl +
I, J . I ' " ,
Ch. 4. Manlrol'h ond fi b, e Bundle.

.. 51gnh
, .. . + E
1./ ,. I
h _ hJlhl ') x .
" Ih I 1')'
., smoothly:
Applylnll the inverse mapping tbeorem (w: $ce . I), we shaDsee Ihlll lhe tran sfor
mat lon .ll"z' , - (Yl' Jrl' .. . , Jr.) is II diffcomolllhism in II.
nrighbourb ood of the polm (0, .. . , 0).
Ncie , funher, that the lIlatrix
h _ h
l1h/ l)
1 < ;. 1 " n
II Ihll l '
isnooloiDglllar llt lhe point (0, .. , 0) IllIdsymmeuie (verifyl). Therefore , we can
appl y Ibe above reuoninJ, to t M function

j.J,. ,
and 50 00. III in the elnsJCIl Lagnmge 1I1l0rilhm for reducin.a. qulldrlll ic form to
the cano nical . FioaDy, we come to Iln expression of form <I) for the funct lon J .
"'", Pr ove Ihll.t any nondega!erat e en ticill point If isolat ed.
5 . Fmd representations ( I ) denned by the MafIC lanma for lhe hci3h1 functi on on
the tOfUS(see Sec. 10) II.t critical poinu.
6. Prove that the poInu of mllltimum and minimum of a smooth fun et.ion on a
manifold without boundary are critkal . ClI.lcuIate lhe Indices Il\ the points of
lIIIIXimum IllId minimulll if the points arc known to be nolldegenerale.
J. The Gradient Field. Let A..,{u. v) be the Rlemannillll metric on M". For
lIllY poinl Jr e we choose a vector J' " e T JO tha t the foUowinll condilion
may be fulftllcd : for an arbitrary vector I"e TjtI", the folloWing eqUAlity is valid
A., <Y."f.,> '" (<If).. V.,l. (J)
wbere (q{).. (l..) iI tlte valllCof the di fferential of the fun.tion! at the point .. on the

The (leldy" obtained IseaUed the , lfldknt [l eld orlhe funct ion! an d drooted by

1. Show that in the local coor dinates, the gradient fiel.d i!I of the for m
and f (r;) _ (.r\.. .. . ( a/l (r;) a./ ) .. ..
ax/ " X l
, . ,
when .r' (l;o) are the coeffteienu of a mat rix which is Inverse to the matri x (lrij(l;o of
the fonn A(u. ..).
8. Pro ve that for a fUndion of class CO' , the gradimt field is a smooth vec!.or Ileld,
9. Prove that grlSd/ (;A = 0 if and ooly If z'l is a critical point of the function! .
In this section , the boJllOlopy t ype of a mani fold will be dcso;ribcd by meaDSof
critical values of a smoot h function on the manit old. Such a <lcxript lon w Ll; fin l
JPven by Morse. We will show thai a eompact mani fold is homotopy eqWvalelllto a
ceU Some detailsoftbe proot (and in IInum""r ofeases, rat her subl:le) will
be omitt ed.
I. The Structure of the Lebesgue Sets of Smooth Functions. Let
M be a compact: ,, c--m.anifo ld,fll fun ct ion o f cia C- 00 M, wb Olle
aU aitical points are oomfqenerate. For aDy oumber a, the set if < a) is an open
subset in M , and mererere " subman lfold in M . Assume nowIhat a is a no,*ritical
YJlue off IIII d/-I (Q) "" 0 . Lei U$ show that the set Jtr :: if " Q) .is manifold
with the bolllldllJYif _ a) . Let u er I Cp). By the theorem on reet ifyina . mappi ng
(seo: 5e>(:. I). tbe l'w1ction/ can be reptellentcd in a cert ain neighbolUbood of the
point u in local coordinates as the projection 'I' of the space onlO the $lraight line
R I (Fill. 102). The InverK imagc of ee poinl If under this project ion is the
subspace - I , Le. the boul\ daf)' of the half-space R".. . At poinlS of t he half
. pace , the functJon f lUSIImes val ues whidl n e not grellter Ihan Q . Th is meU.. t hat
there cxials nelihbourhood of Ihe point u in Jtr which i$ homeomorphic to the
Therefore, M" .. if " a) Is an ,,-dimensional manIfold whose boundaf)' b the
(If - l}dimeIl$ioJUII mllnitotd if .. a) .
2. The Conditions for the Homotopy Equival ence of Lebesgue
Sets. Let e and b be noncritical values of a function!. and Ihe line.segment la, bj
contain no crilical valUCl . We will shil l the sets if .. c) throu&b the set if _ a)
alona the linco QrthOilonai to the level mani folds if .. c) , If " C " b (Fig. 103) .
Thus, we specify a deformation a " ( " e . of Ihe manifold M
ont o t he
o,. . Manlrolca and Fibte Bundles

-f l u "" 1--
- -

- -

IOZ Fi!. 103 Fill
manifo ld M" . Theref ore , M" is a strong deformation retract -of M". and hence M"
and M
are hOnlOlOPYequivalent .
A rlsorous proof of the existence of the should include the construe-
tlon of lines orthogonal 10 the level manifold5. They can be defmcd 011 lnte..-al
CUfVes of the vector fldd X(ll ), where the vector X(u ) e T,/J is detennlned from
the condition <X {u). " > .. 0 for all h e if _ c _ /(w), I.e. , from the eondi-
tion for the orthoSOru!ity of the vector X {u ) t o the space tangent to the level
manifold if '" c). The symbo l <: , > dmotc:s the Riemannian metric .... hich can be
al....ays introduced on the manifo ld (see Sec. 6). For a level $ubmani fokl 10 be reduced
to. k vel ... bmanifold at any moment ' . ....e define the vector field X (u) by the for-
," ula
xc.. ).. pCu) grad f{l.l).
where p.oJ is. smooth function on M ....hcue= values ere Clqualto 1/< vad/Cu),
arad/Cu on M b,M" and zero outside a cert ain neighbo ur hood of not
containing uitical points.
The definition 0 (. deformation of ont o M" may alsobe valid In the case of11
beioa a crit;ca] value off-
l. The Change of the Homotopy Type while Passing through
a Critical Value. 111\1$, the homotopy type of the od ItF is unal tered if the
numberc,whUelncreaslng (or decreasing). does not assume a critical value CO' Let us
see no.... .... hat is taking plou;c ....hen e dQe$ assUIlH: tbis value.
The proof of the following useful 5latcment is left to the reader .
1. Prove that. smooth functio n in a compact manifold who5e all
critical points arc nOndea:enCTllle possesses a finite number of cnt ital points and
mlical values.
Consider the c::ritical value "0' Assume that Ihere corresponds 10 il a uniqu e
rnllea1 point p ,ffp) - co. We choose a neighbourhood U of the point p and the
local coordinates 5pecif"1ed b11h e Morse lemma (see Sec. II ), Ihe function/is
represented in these coor dinates YI' . In tile form
flu) - C
- J1 - - yt .. I + . . .
We choo se e SUl:Il thl.lthe x t !"o - c. "0 + s l does not contai n other critical potms
Inlrod\lCf lon 10TopolOIy

and Ute poinl with the local COOfciiDatCS ()O, }'. ). I: yf" 2c. bc10nss
,. ,
to U.
We COftWUCt iI SInOOUI fulldioa Fin M it) t hat it ma y diU" from f oo1y. V.
the lets if " Co ... c) lind fF " Co - e) beina; bomotOP)' equi valml . nit bcinI
daDe. we COntJ)lln lhe KU if <; Co - e) lIIld fF " Co - c) . This happau to be
mtJrCc:onYell5en1 than lbc KU (f " Co - e) vut if " Co + e) dlrtcll1.
To comlNCt the fllDCt.ioa F UDOOth fWlCtion ,. 00 R I b rcquincI . SIIdl l.bIl
poue.ucs tbe fol1owiaa pI"Opn\ics:
,.(0) > 1.,It (ll') .. Owbmx > 2&:.
- 1 < ,. ' (11') " 0 whcll - 00 < )( < 00.
The fOrDl of th e anph of the fllntlion ,. Rlwfyina: th ese pro pc nics is shOWll In
Pia. 104. 2 . Oi:>,e all exotlIple Of a funCilon ,. possesllnl tbe indIcat ed propc nlll>,
l,e, 1,U $pCCify me mtooth fun<:tlon F by the form ulae
f(" )
Fl")" ( ' . )
f<")- ,. , .. .. , if wben "eU.
It c:uy to -=tha t the aitlcal poUtts of lhc funaiott F o:olncide whb the t:riticaI
point. of the funcionf(ahhouIhf(P) ,. F(P)).
To a c:ritic.a.l point p of tbc f\mc:tioa F. there corr aponds t be a ltic:al 'IOhJI;
Ffp) .. Co - ,.(0) < Co - c. SiDccthc waluc ofth. ruoctiolI F coinc:ida wiltl Iboic
of me I'uDc:ticmf ai Olbcrcrilical poitlu. tbdine-sqmocnt (co - e. c, ... c) CODWns
DO aitkal '\'&Iua of F. COnscqllClll!y. the set fF ... Co - e) is . WODl cScfonoatioll
retrKt of the set If' '' Co + c) . But fF " Co + .) - (f " Co + . ), Therdoce.
fF '" Co - c) is a.\lOIIS ddormation retract of the lit if " c. + e). Th ll$. th.-
lett are homotopy equi" aj CQt .
We will funher compare the homotopy Iypes of the seu if " Co - c) ILIll1
fF " 1' 1) - I ) (inslead of compario, lhe homotopy types of the $Cit if ... 1'1) - I )
and if " co+c. Denote the closure o f t he ser (F " Co - . ) , if " I'll - c) by H.
Consider Ihe cell';" consinins of mcse poi nts II e U whose coordinatcs }', .. .
AI!try thu :<Jooitions E yf < I,
E .11 - O. The ccUt?'lia insldeH;it ii
, .. .. I
a1ucd 10 !he RI if " Co - c) .Jona the SIC! oflhOM poiou II for whKh I: ,: - c.
0 _ ,
A ndahbourbood of a c:ritXal point ofindQ Ion . nwnfold (e...
the poi nt q from the oamplc of Sec . l a) is c1raWft in Fi,. 10j ; !he set
K ' - c ,. if ... c.- b sIladcd.1hc $I!l H is shtldcd t1l'i. the cdl b dctIotcd
by. thk:lr. !iDe.

E if <: c
Ch , 4. Mano tokh and Fibre Bundles ~ 7
~ us , pecify Ihe deformalion 1', of the sel (F " Co - , ) '"' 100 - U H 01'1 10
the sec M O- ~ U i" hy letti nl r, be the identity mappin, onlO M O- '. U1d be
dermed on H by the formula
Y 1 , Y ~ , f). + I ty" for
r,CY.. _.. , Y,,)- l "
YI" " , y)., $,1'). +I ' , s,Y"for c <1: if <E r. + e,
, ~ 1 , _ ~ .. 1

E .if - t
,. ,
wbcfes, .t + ( I - t) .0 <:t <: 1.
Thil deformation 1.1 ahown by . t rows in Fig. 106.
Eun:J.u J . Veri fy me COlT'eClness of the definition of Ihe deformatMm1', .
n Ull' , the sci if " Co - I I U tl' Is a !tron, deformation retrad of t he SCI
iF " Co - . ). and thcnfotC! of the set (f " Co + c) '"' Jt("o .... Th us, KG + is
of lbc _ bolDO(')pYtypc uthelCtMo - . u i". t.e., or the SCi M'0 - ", with the
cd! slued 1D a $pIlCial manner OaDdof dimtasion cq,uallO the inda of the cri t kaI
point COOTCIpCl1ul..ina 10 the val ue ell'
We c:onsldmed the cue wbm 10 a critical val uc o f a fl.ll1C1jonthere eorrnpondcd
u.o.iquccritkaI point . Co Al ilScf tlO.... the, talC.
Extrc:ue 4
Consiruct a smootb function in lwg-d1Jmnslonal manifold SI.ld. !bat
all itt erilk:al points ar e nondegenerat e and to one critical value there OOrrelpoM
several crllical points.
LeI to a cri lical value co' there correspond k > 1 mlleal polnu . All the coo-
suuctions dc:scrillcd . boyt "an be performed sinlullaneou, ly in II neighbourhood 01
each crltlc:al point. The set Mo + . bllS the homotopy type of the sri
K O- U U . . . U t.e., the set K O- with the cells t "l glued 10 it in I
special maJInel , the diD:lensloD),./ being equll! to Ihe Index of the jtb criti cal point
com:spondin&to co'
Let c" be ttH:1eastof the a it ical values ....hicb ere v eater t ban C(to and lei there bo:
no other aitIcaJ values in th e t -ncighoourhoods of cli and c' . LeI to the value c',
t her e corrcvond k ' aitical points with indi ces ),.i . _. . , The set
K O-' U I U , . , U ,t I, hornotopy equiva!mt to the $C: tM': for Co Ilii II e'.
The set b. in llUD, bomoto py equivalent t o the set M" U i t U , . . u It'",
Let us establbb the homotopy equiVlllence onile
!It<' U U . . . U ,I.) u u . . . U/,i' ,
To this end, wede form the set U u ... U onto the set
(M"o -'U /, t u .. . u . . .
usinJ the coartrud.ed tkfonnation of M" onto M O- U 1'1 U . .. U
Enn:i.9t 5\ in vestigat e how me cells .,. , are srued to the 5CI
M G- U ti U . .. U /,i.
We W1derllne ttlat alum, a eeU is performed, al ellChsta,ge. not In an arbltnuy,
but in strletJy dermi te manner (up 10 the homotopy elass of the mapping of tile
spbere, i.e . , t he boundary of the cell to the corresponlUng spUe). Th erefore, gluin&
cell is determined by an detntm of the homotopy J!OUp of th e corresponding
space; the dimen sion of this llfOIIP equall t he dJrnm slon of the cell le.. on e.
4. The Homotopy Type of a Mani fold. xee. weoutline tnt construe-
tion of a <:ell oornpkJi;homotopy equivaJen l to a manlfokl M j ust like It wasdone in
sec . 10 for the 10r \>l.
Let c
be Ihe least c:rltkai value of a functionj. It is o bvio us tb at for IJ < c
' the
set if Ilii 11") Is emply. Slnce c
is the ICIlSt critk:al value, all efi tlcal points correspond-
Ina to c
are t be poinu or mi nimum; their Indices equ al zero. The set if Ilii e ll COIl '
sistI or a finile number of points; it can be regarded IlS the one obtain ed by &luln!
several "",Us of dimeru.ion zero to tbe empty let .
Let C1be anotbtt critiea.l val ue ....hich !s next in maanltude . Wilen e
< C < c
the set if " c) is: obtained by 'i nflat ing' the points from if " Cl); It consists of .
fmite number of IetlI homeomorphie to the II-dimensional dJsc, and homotopy
equivalent to Ihe M if Ilii c
), The set if " CvII homotopy equ ivalent to the set
if Ilii c
with cells of differenl (genel'llUy spea king, o r lilly fro m 0 to II) dimensions
equa1to the indi ces of critical points correspondina 10 c2' glued t o It . Obviously,
the laller set I cell co mpleJ(.
HavinS taken a cri lleal val ue c}' which Is next In magni tude , .... e ob tain tbat
if Ilii eJl is homot opy equivalent 10 the result of con sequentl y glulnl lOII .. "I ) the
cell. corn:s pondJng 10 the a- itiea.l point s with the eridcal value "1' and then the "ells
Cll. 4. Manifold. and Fibre Bun.dl<$
c;(l rTe$pondin Cto the critical points wit h lhe critical val ue "]' Such a $p.acc be
made a ceUcomplex by adj uJtinJ Ihe boundary ma ppil)p of Ihe c:.clbbani Jl ued.
6. Prove t hat each ma ppinl of the 3phtfe S'" t o a ceUcompIe.>. K is
homoloplc to a ma ppi ll& orthe sphere to a 3IIbspaoe K'" o f lhe 3p&CCK,conriSiinJ o f
ceus of dimension leu than or cqual lo m.
In the general case, !he set MG - if a) wilen Q'" !nUfv- ) is homOlOllY

equivalent lOtbe space which il a cell complex obuUned (fom tbe u npl y sct by con-
3CquentJy glumJ cens tofnSpondin l to !he critical palm. with the critical valUCI" /.
in ord er o f incrcas ing c(, _ 00 < c
< a .
Note that If c
is the grew:csl critical value, 'then the critical points at which the
value of the func:tionfcquaia c
are the po ints o f l1laximum and heece their ind ices
eQual t he diJrn:nsWn of the manifold M .
We now formu1a.te the (mal $fa/momi.
THI!OR M L EtKh .smOD' h flme/loll f ill a CQntptlct manjfllid M having lllll)'
/IO/ldtgefttrll /e critkal points diflllu a homotopy f([lliWlfe/l ct oj lhe mQ/l jfotd M
with a <:trtain f llli l f <:tIl complu whose a ils _ In etJn't:SPOnde1fct. wi rh
critical points of the function f. fhe dimeruion f!f the <:tIl t.q1lQ1 10 the i ndo: of
1M.CO'rUpDndlng trlflcaJ point .
Wc now dweUon Ibc a lstcnc:.c of a smooth fun cl10n in a compact manifold hev-
inI onl y nondeaemrate critical points. Sud:I fun ction may be. c:onstnl ctcd. in thc
foUowlna way. Consider an embedding o f the man ifold M into Ihe Euclidean
R' of a sutfi clcntly \arac: dimension t. We de fine the function f by !he fonnula
lip) - (II - P. It - R) , where (,) is the Sl:lI!ar product. 1/ ruted vector in R' an d
Pf/ M C R
. Using the Sard theorem (see Sec. we can ShOw that thCf<' Clli:sua
vector 1I E R
such !h at Ihc functionf h iU onl y. nondcgcn cra te crilical points.
Th ill rault erntblCS us t.o ma ke !he fol lowing Important COIIehuion:
nmORBM 2. AII)' compacr,smooth 1J/lIlJjfold hlU the homOlopy type ASIl/lnftf cell
To the read er who staru studyiDaunooth man ifold theory. rlfUof lIP, Topology
f fQm the Dilfertnrial VNwpolflt by Miln or. Dl/fertntlrH Topo lolY. Fint Steps
[a l l by Wallace. Modem (ftomelry l U I by Dubrovill CIaI . . A Cou_ 01 Diflercnrioi
(;cometry and Topolov (") by MilIhcllCllko and Fommto. D(/jertnUa/ Topo lolIJl
1411by Hirsch, ElellWltary Di/!erentfllf Topology {OO) by MlllIct"CI and Jrttroduc-
lion to Mo_ 71It!Qf)' {67] by Postnlkov, as th ose mos t suitably upoundina the
theolY, can be recommended. To study manifold th eory and its applicallons fur-
ther, Ihe 'reader can also be recommmde<l the <:lu.sieal monograph Smoot"
Manjfolds and Their Applications to Homotopy 11It!Qf)' [66) by Pontryqin,
Yll rlllr h dif/mlttlables. Formu C'OlIfIll'I let, formes harmOiliques (69) by De Rham.
Mo_ 17wory 1"4) by Milnor . the fumhunental Ffm Couru of T()po/oty.
Gftpnctri", Chaplers POI by Rohlin and Fuchs and Stable Mappings alt d
Int rod U<:lion to Topok>n
S;" B,,/aririu (37\ by a nd Guillcm in. The basic co ncepts of smooth
lOpology at e introduced effICientlY in Oulline of Topo/ot:l 0/ Mrmjfot ch (21) by
OIcma""ky and. Malveyev. Wh ile studying 01. IV. /'TobklN itt (61] by
Novitoy et aI. , and Probkms in Di/luenlial and TopOtol)' (591 by
MishcJIcnko <:1 al, may pr ove useful.
Ar. Sees. I an d 2, the w <tbooks by Shiley Mathrmallcol Allllfysis. Fulle-
liOlISof !kvend Rftll Yariob!es [72] (Paris I and Ill , Spivak: Calt:uflU on MtlflifoldJ
(74] (as rar lISSec. I is concerned) and Srl\<;kcr and Lander Diffeflmlial & nns and
CatlUtrophes [l9] (See. I) may prove useful.
It will be usefulto lhe proofs of the theorems on embedding a manifold into
a Euclidean space an d on the set of nonregul ar values of a smooth mappina in the
books by Pontryaain [661(01. I , Sees . 2 an d 3) and Post nitov [67J.{0l . V. Set. 6).
Applicat ions of tbe notion of lanaent bundle t o mechanics may be seen tn TM
MQlhe/1lQtictJl Foundations of Quantum Mhania {50J (01. I) by MBcll:r:y and.
in CltlS$it:a1Mechania (III (Ol. lV) by Arnold.
As far as vector rtellis on .. manifold tie cc ucemed, the reader is refc:rred to the
book by Poatnikov (671 (01. IV. SK. 6) and. Topics in Djffn"f!nlil1/
(80J by ThOlJ)C. It Is U5Cful 10 set a<:quailn ed ...ith applications of this
Ihtor)' to dirrerential equat ions by Ordinary Equations (i OJ (Ot. 5) by
Th e Iheory of eoveriJl8S is expounded qu ite comprehensibly for die be,mner in
A /gtbra lc TopolalO'; An Introduction [52J by Ma!eY. Qui te comprehensive In
trtldu<:tiOtls 10 fibre bundle theot'y and the theory of coveri nS' mlly be fOWld. iD
Homotopy Theory [43J (01. III) by Hu S.-T. , Homotopy Theory [331 (0. I,
Sees. 5 an d. 7) by Fuchs er &1 and Fi{!;t Course of Topology [70( (Ot. 70) by
Rohlin aDd Fuchs. Ramified ooverilllS are described In detail In introduction to
Rlemall n Spos (751 by Sprinler and RfemanMClle Fl4eM1t 131] by Forster. Note
that a areat number of intert5t lnS and USt:f'uI prob lems o n the the.ny of covetinss
and ramified ooverin15 are COIItained in Modnn Topics a/ Topology of Manifolds
(Preparat ory cours e: elements of wpotoiY) [201 by Chernavsky and Matveyev.
To st udy the thllOl'Yof erit.leaJpalniSof fI1ncl. lon s in mani folds (sees . H)-.I2J. the
reader is recommended the a bove-meDtiQned books by Milnor [55J. Wall ace 181].
POMnikov (67] (01. VI. Sees. 1-4) . Golublu l<y and Gu.!Ucrnin [371. Hinch 1411. and
alsothe monognph Morse Tlteot')' [.541 (0. I) by Milnor. The <kvdopmmt of the
t hcory of crlt.Klal po ints of smooth functions Is the thcQry of sing ularit ies of SO\ooth
mapplnp. The books by BrOCkCT and LandCl [I I1J, Oolubiuky and Gu.illemln (37].
17ttorY by AmoJd (81. Ql /aslrop ht 11It ()f')' l2f/dlIs ApplicQli(HIS 1681by
Poston and Stewart ma y serve as an introdu<:tion to Ihls rapidly developlna branch
of modem mll.themat ic:l. The pres entday state of MlIu1an1y theory may be ac-
q uainted with by t he monograph Si"Iw/a' itir.sof Mappings [111by Ar-
nold et aI.
HomolO9Y Thaory
tn Ihis chapt er. t he homology groups will be dcfino:d fo r any
topcHosical space. The Idu of constnu:tina homology uoups is. as
was al ready menl.ionat . due to H. Polncarl!. The ulCful idea cf t he
red uction of tctpQloPcaI problems to aJ, ebrak: was ratlized, fo r the
fi rst time in tbe history of IOpo!oIY. by the consuuction DC
homology &fO\lp:!I and tbe fundamental pup. Homology themy
$lill r emaim topok)pcaUy baI><:: . Almost aUlopolosiw invariant,:.
I rom bomotopy c:roups lO spcc:iaJ uwarianu o r (ibn b u n d l ~ . arc
a:prascd, rmany. in termt ofinvarlants of homolOl)' groups. This
c:irewnst&P= Y due to a better cakulability of homolosY gr oups,
lhoulb 10 define homoloar crOI:lPf Is somewhat mere complia led
than for example, Imtnot opy groups.
Let 115i1hL'llrate t he idea of reaso ninKIha t has lead 10 t he notion of homology. In
"udylng two-dimen, ional manifolds, oft en distinguish lntuitivdy between no n-
homeomorphic mani folds. However , in 51udyins manifolds of higher dimensions.
seometrK: intuition proves less d fective. To dill inguish belween non-homeo-
morphk manifol ds of hiah dlmelUions , we may at tempt to appl y t he followina idea .
Let Mr, lid!], be two " -dimensional manifoltb. We will co nsider compact sub-
manifolds in Mr.M:. If any '1-dimenskmal submlUlifold (q < ,,) in Mr is the
boundary of. ('I + 1)-dimensionai submanifoJd in Mj, and t here iSli q.dimmsi on-
a1subltWlifold in M; whleh 15 l\Ollhe bo lUl dary of a submanifol d in M;. then the
mani folds in and are non-homeomorphic. Thus. any l -d imen-
sional submanifold (compact) of the sphere 52 is.a. boundary . whereu ().D tbc...tolllS
_ 5 I X S I. it is easy to indicat e circumferences which are nOI bo undarta of any submanifoki in T
(F'IK. 107).
If. however. there are submanlfolds both in Mr and M; which are Il'OI bo und-
aries, then we may t ry t o compare the ' quantity' of such manifolds in Mr and M!J. .
COnsider the set (Ygi of all q-dif!ICn:tional cycles, l.e., 'I -dimensional submani folds
(wilho ut bou ndary) ol lhe manlCoidM " . let W'I \ be a submanifolo of M " wIth a
bo undary cOnSislil18of connect ed mani folds vr V:' ' V! 6 (Yq l. We will say in
thi:l case that the cyo;]e Vi + ... + V<lis homologous 10 UfO. an eqUIVllJmcc
relation is introduced on the set Iv:i: IWO cycles 1I1C equivalent (homolosous) II
they are differeDt by a cycle which is homologO\.l5 10 lero; t he equivalence cresses of
q-dimensional cycles are call ed q-dirnelUionill hCm u/ov . TOUPS of milnifold
If ther e is an inleaer 'I suen t hat t here are more q-di me.nsional homology groups
crme manifold Mrt han q.4imensionoJ homol OS)'gro ups of Ihe manifold M!J , men means l hat Mrand M; arc DOn-homeomorphic .
The notion or the sum of two disjoint cycles has bee n int rod uced toe Ihe set
W:l. This does not mean , howew=r, that the sroup sl ruclure h;J.'l been intr oduced on
II. Therefore we cann ot assume. Cor Ihe present, Ihal homology aroups Corm a
lUOUP_ The visual definilion of homolosy gro ups giVCI above is, hoWCV'Cr , inCQnven.
rent for calculations . It is more efficient 10 cons ider t he cycles (mani Colds) made up
Fill. \07
Inlrodl,lCllon loTol101ou
1"::-- _ ..>
.1<"- - - - -"'
1",.. ltll
of rIaln elcmentat)' mani folds with bou ndari es. How thIs can be doone is$hOWD In
the followll'lJ c;rlllrlplc: .
Let n
be the sllt b ee of I tetrilhedron (F\J. 108); it Is obvious that n
homeomorphic to the sphere S1. We win consider the CkIimenslonal manifolds
which eonslst of the verti tu of the teu-Medran, l -dlmenslonal manifolds cons ll tinl
of Its edles and 2-dUnensionDI manifolds that consist of lis races a nd adm il a
boundary for l-ditlKll llionaiand 2-dimcnslonal manlfolds; it is nlturll1 to treat set
theor etic I dditlon of twc manifolds u the sum. To use thb Icr the Il1gebraitation of
tlte objects In qucstiorl , we((Insider the lP'OUP of formal linear combinatiotu 0'
the ven iccs wilh in1earalcoe fficien ts (the II'OUp chains). cd&" (tbe
IJ'OIIP of l -dimensional dtains) Ulei faces (the 1f000Pof Wlmensional chalDs).
Mcno'l'ft". for n"U)' edae, we r", an onier of 'leftK:es (0' J) andidentifY(- 1X- ' ,
. J) with (lsJ '); we the dittiOn verticc:s(ol l, /I i ) for
each fKlf aDd mUlti f)' ( _ I)(II ', ,.J. /lit ) with (pJ , gk). ,
Let us oow dertne the bowlcbzJ of lbe edae u tbe sum. r + 1-1)11 1, and
the bowJdal')' of the face (eI' , a
, .It) u tbO UlD of the cd, es that bouDdlhis fac;e
(wilh that circumna'fiption direaion ..... hich was r",a1 for the fKlf). Le. (.' .vl
... (I1J. a
) + (..t , ) ; we put Ole boundary oh vutGcqlll! 10 eero. The boundasy
opcr alOfSlhus derlllCd an: ar.eoded to the aroups of chains by linearil)'. A chain
.....hose botIDdaty equ als UTO wiD be call cd a cyck: thUS. a e)'de Is an lJa:ebraic
analosue of I closed manifold (wit hout bou ndary).
sraee we are interested in homoiosy Jr0ups. i.r ., in cllsses of equivalent cycles
....hlch differ from one Ilrlo\.hcr by a boundary, we will consider the easeu of
q. dimellsional cycles Wilh respect to the subgroup of t he bou ndaries of
{q + l)-dimensional chains (q O. I , 2). ThC$C easels form a group called
q-dimell$lonll homology group of the iurf;u:c n
. The homology groups of n
casy to calcullle: they ....e isomoTbic 10 Z. 0 U1d Z for O. 1 and 2.
rn pectlvd y. Sueh a COlUlnlet ;on may be pcrfortned for arealer dimClUiOflS by usin,
dceompositions into tetnlltdra U1d lhei<" (slmple:o;cs) . If we kllOwho.....
p vm space is divided into iimplues, tbcn 10'( CIll compute iu homolOl)' groups. In
praetl. howcve-. thc ckf"lIIil lon is r....ely used. 10 c:a!culat r hamo}()c a;roups . ThqI
employ 'l'arloUSlecbniqllCll to this m d (e::uet 1Cq\ICDDI:I. spe=al scquenca, etc .) .
Tk dir fl<t WIll 0 . or $IlNl>I G. '" tI . '.,l,' e 0 . isomorphk 10 O. wba"r w
bomorphism lsaiva'lby lAc nok, . r. - t. is alIcd tbc VOUPol fonn.ol Jmcar combiola bODS
or cIcnleIM r. rl'Olll l ecnala $oIl lrJ.... wilIl cocrrdcnu in K Abcl.Iu poup G.
Ch . S. Homolu..JI Theor,
We with .tmrad aIsdlraic objo:c:lS.
A Sl:q lKtK'C: (mHnile)
'1 . 1 ' . '. _1 ' 1 "
... - C1 -C
1_ 1
- ,,, - Co - O
(I )
of Ab.,llua p1)Ups C... alld their homomorphisms a... sall.s(ying the condl i lon
iI... _ ,i1" '" 0 f .....ny k .. I is called . ("lI Qi ,. complu. We ....UI denote i t by C . ; Ihe
voups C" are cal1edduJil1 6rouPS and t he homomol"phb:nu i1" . re <1Ilcd dff/en".
tlDu or
The HI Ker "", .. '" e C,, : <l lc .. OJ ror rru ,u"sroup in C" called 6rouP of
k-dfmcMonQ/ cycfts; its clement. are called k-dimetuiontJI The llel
.. I .. fc E Cit : c .. a
.' 1" I alsc fo rms a subgroup in C
called a of
k-dimensl onal bouruJoriu; i' s clements are call'fd k-dimcnslonQ/
A seq uence o f homomorphisms \Pt: C
- Ci such that t he diagram

_ c,:h-c;-:;---c;- c;,- 0
Is eommulative. l.e.. 'I'k _ ,at " a;"'1 ( OJ any J:.. is caUed homomorpJIism "' . of Q
clI4ln complex c. to. ehaUI C; .
Let us Inuoduee ODe of t he mos t Important not IOnsof a1Jebratc;topoloU , viz.
of homoioD Considorr a eha in comp!u C . Due: to tbe: re!at tonsh;p
a"a" .. , .. O. t he incl usion rel.u ion 1m a
.. , c Ker all' is ful filled. The fllCtor
. croup of the ,roup of cycles with respect to , he 110Up of boundaries
Ker il
/ 1m cl
, is called a k -1I0m0/oV6rouP of tit. complex C. and den oted by
H. (C . ). Cy(:ln CI' 1:
from one ccse e arc said. 10 be homologOus and del'lOted by
c, -
Let VI. : C. - C; be a homomor phism 'of chain complexes. 1t immedIately
foll ows f rom t he co mmutativity of diagram (2) thai
I"l( Korr at ) c Ker a,; and ",.(Im:a. t I) C rm a t r -
Therefore "' . induces a of hom%ugroups'
"' .l : H a(e.) - H t (C: ).
We conl inue the of dI &in oompleJles and thei r homoloaY ,roups.
UI C. and cl: be chain mmploes such Ihal !he goupt C: arc subgroups of th"
C.' and the differen tials a:of tlK complex Ce ue Oblalned b, r""..Klmg'.
10 Ct:. In this case , Ihe cornpkx Ce is called a SJJbcomp/ex of I Iu! compltx C . A
bomomorphi$m i . ; Ce - C. of dlalJ1 xnpia.os is defi ned . where 'I . c: - C. n
an <:mbeddin. monomorphism;,. is C':Illed a c:JIg/n complu
Introdu<;flon 10Topolo8Y
Consider a sequence of factor groups '" The homomorphisms at in.
euce the homomorphism, $1< ; C
- C
I '
Exerclst I e. Show tha t .he groups C
and homomorphiuns6
form a chain ccmp.e x
C V1d the epimorphiu11S t o fact o! s roups j l: C
- C/< form a homomorphism of
cMin complexes). ; C. - C. (an epimorphism 10 a quotient complex).
The sequence
f ... I f
.. . - A

- At A
- ..
of gcoups At and of their homomorphisms "'I: is wd to be uact if for every Ie. the
image of the homomorphism "'it .. I coincides with the kernel of the homo mar-
phism tl-
, i.e.,lm ,yt +l - Ker,"'t-
2 . Show that the !\equeTlU
o It It
0 - C. - C
- C
- 0
u exact foc every k.
The sequence o f chain compkll:cs and their homomorphilms
0 1. J.
O-C.-C. -C.-O, (J)
where i. i$ an embed-dillS. }. a facturization, is said to be. exeet.
According to the general defitut ion . the homology groups of a quotient complex
, i.e ., the gTOUp5 H",(C. ) , can be const r uct ed. The new II.rOlJps prove to be
related to the groups H",(C. ) lUll:! by a certain CJtact sequence.
Let UJ construct this sequence. The homomorphisms 'a lind i . induce the
: H ..(CZ> - H k (C . ), i .",:Hk(C
) - Ht(C.).
We obtain the short sequences
There happen to aist homomorphisms
6",: lft(C.) - H", _
combininll these sbcrt seqc eae es into the Ionll exact sequence'
Ch. J . Hom"'l.,.y ib>,y
To describe Ihe o( t he hom omorph isms we consider 5Cqllel1
(J). Let .. . H,J C. ), k > 0, i .e. , g.;s the coset 01, elemenl '" E Kcr l . rcsPQC-
liYe to lhc Rlbl!.rCup 1m I ,. In t U"1l,'" E C
u d can I'Cconsio:kfcd as the: 0 ( :;11
elvncnt dee. respective to t he wbaroup e:. II foUows from I.", ." 0 Ihat
iJ.d e _1and fhat iJ.d E Xer "/t. _ 1 cell. _ , from _ la. _ o.
nrc:isrr J . Show Ihe Ia
d f o( an c1eme nl d in Hfr _ I docs not
dePoCnd on Ih", d . oic", of the elemen ts '" and d ( rom tM corr rs poDding <>OSCU_
We auoc:iatcd ucll dm1cn1 .. (rom H. (C . ) willi lhe denlcnl "',tdf' ft om
H. _ I (C!) th ereb y specify;1t& a wltidl _ ....ul denote by
<l/t. : H1(C.)-
and caDa "omomQqJllisnr _
Show tIlal 6. is, iii faa, ' homomorphism.
The consuu<tio<l of a conneding ho momorphism may bo'l .. by pulling
i o : Ho(C.)- o.
U!MM" I . (4) is e(lICl.
The proof is r.>dlletd 10 , dircet .;hm of .el.uiolls
1m ". , I" Ker f. fr ' 1m; " Ker } , Im j . fr " Ker <lfr
Ind lell to Ihe reader .
Here, the al, ebrak: t echniqve devdopcd in 5:. 2;' appl ied 10 the conslr ucti on
of homology ,roups o( Jlcometric; objec1s.
I. Simplicial Complexes and Poly hedra. We finl live ncc:essary del ini.
lions .
DEFINITION I. A 61""dtud k-di_tWontlJsimpkz (lit , k ... 0 , is the conYCJI dcmJ rc
of k + I points in R
... I with COOrdin 'les (1,0,0, ". , O. 0), (0. 1, 0, _..
... ,0,0) , . .. (0, O ... 0, I). i.e . , the collcdion olpoinls wilh coordinales (to. .. , tol)

web Ihat ' 1 ... 0 (00- ch i and I: t, .. I.

, - .
DEFINITION 2. A SImplex qf d"" v uitMt k 00- a k -dIlrw'U;o-J _pk:x _ (,,0.
tt I, " " fl ) is the eon1'Clldoswe 01 k ... I porOIt (1 0. ... . fl of lhe Euclid ean $paoc
R-. k " Jr . Iy!na in Jlenua.l PI\S1IK>n (not 1)"in,: in 1M same m- plane of dimension

less lhan k ), t.e. Ihe c:oIlcctinn of poinl.S 0 1 tho: formJt !: I,tt ' , ..hen 'i " 0 (or
, -.

each /, !: ,/ . ..
lmroduetiQn 10 Topolon
The pctms 0' are ca Ued the vertices oj (.:lOt . .. . an d the numbers
I, the boryce"'ric coordinates o f the poi nt X E (a , .. . a ).
The not ion of face of il simplex is defin ed In a na lUra! way.
DEFtNITION J . The convex ctos ure o f a consiUing of s + 1 vertices of the
simp lex where 0 .. s .. tc; iseailed ajoct oj dimensions o r ans-dimenslonolloce
01 tile k-ditMflSio rral simplu r
We will call faces o f dimension s < k of the
simplex proper.
It is obviou s that an s-dlmeruional face of a simplu is ans-dlmenslcnal simp lex.
In particular , the reeesof a standar d simplex {and the stand ard simplex itr.eIO are
simplexes, It iseasy to verify tha t a k_dimensional sImple;( is a ffinely homeomorphi c
to a stand ard simpl ex of the same di mensio n; the inte rior (in lhe carrier k- plane) of
a simplex can be considered as a special CaM: of a k.dimensional cell
Thus , cell compleICs can be connr ucted fro m ' implexes of di ffe renl dime nsions.
Tr.e Iacr that a simplex bas faces enabJc.s us 10 connec t simplexes in a more ordered
ma nner than cells in t he genene cell complu .
DEfi NITION 4. Aset IT! l of simp lexes in R" tbat satisfies the followi ng ccncruons:
6 ) t oget her with each k_d lmensional stmpl rt. any of its faces is included In K;
(Ii) two simplexes ca n in tersect only in their common race. is called asimpfleia/ com-
p lex X.
A simpli<;ial complex is said to be finite if il coestsrs o f a fin ite number of
simplexe, .
Co nsider the set-lheoretic Wlion IXI C. R" of all simplexes from K. rnrroduce on
the IKI a top ology lhat is the strongest o f all those In which Ibeembedding map-
ping of each simplex int o IXI is ccmjnuous. In ot her words, tile SCI A C IXI is
closed if and only if A n T,k is closed in Tl
for an y rt' E K. If tile simplicial complex
X IS finite Illen tills lopology coincides with tllal induced by e e m'elric on R

DEfiNITION S. A space IXI an d. more generally. any topological space X

homeomorphi c to IXI is called
DEFINITION 6. Given a pol yhedron X. a simp licial complex K such that the space
IXI IS homeomcrphlc to X is called a triangulat IOn of the po lyhedron X .
Examples of polyhedra are the closed sur faet' l fro m 5_4, Ch. II. Their
tnan gulation is given by p&rtll ionln g a surface into topologICal tri angles. then edges
and veruces.
Consi der 11 Iinltc simplicial complex K. Fi x in the space IXI C R
a met ric fro m
_It is obvious that there exisl differem tri angulaTions o f the space IXI . Let K ' be
a uI angulation o f IXI. The greatest of the lenglhs o f t -dtmenaonat simp lexes in-
cluded in K ' is called of the triangul.:ltion K .
Prove that 11 polyhedr on is (a ) a norma l Hausdor ff space; (b) iI cell complex.
2 Pr ove that if X isa finite simplicial co mplell. Ihen t he space IXI ;s (3) 3 compact
spacc; (b) a Iimt e cell comple x.
3. P rove that a l impllcial complex K is finitc if and only if the pol yhedl on I XI il
r ompaC1 .
Belo ... . If it II no! I t;Ucd ot hcrwiH. we ...ill <:ons.iOc: ' finite simplt c:U.1complens
and eompact polyhedra. It II easy to _thai. eompact polyhcd,oa ' I a meuiuble
Lei X be a polyhedron. K a &l mpliciaJ eomplex and ., : IKI - X a homeomor.
phism. The homeomorphism ., , enera tes a dn:omposition (t riangulation) 01 the
spa X into the sr l$ r; /t = .,(r,k) le' K. whith are called curvlfin:r si mp/eta: the
imat es of the of the simplex .,k arc eanee t he w:,,/cts oj Ihe curvt/inM r
si mp /ex r;t.
4- . Show t hat the <: losed diS(: and sllhere S" - I arc polyhedra and spc<;' fy thei r
dec<;nnJlOsition into curvilinear simplucs.
5-, Show that (a) t he set I:r"J. Ihe eolln:' ion o f the Jlmplex ,JI and all ItI faces.
If, Jl11 .. ' and (b) thee sci /<),. ). t he rollcction o f pro per faCC$ of the simplcx ..
when llih""]1 coincidn wil h the')' itT" o f the sel . " in lhe carrier " .plane.
are simpli<:ial compk.1u.
2. Homology Groups of Simp licial Complexes and Polyhedra .
Now. we UIIXIlIte a lim plicial t:Ompla K 'Mlh some chain wmpla and m umc",-te
the vertices of each simpla ..f K b, ,he nwnbcTl O. 1.. . k in some order 0'0.
,,i, .... 0 ', . There are (k + I)! SIKh nUfnCl1uiol'l.S. Two nu merat ions arc Slid to be
equlWlltn/ if one of them can be obtained from t he other by transpoSinl the
numbeu an e,'et\ numb of ume s. The $et of all numCf"tllt lons thus dc<:omJlOscd
into lWO equi1lalence d usci denoted by "t and " /- . rcSpc<;ti1lely.
DEFINITION 7. A s.implex . 1< with one of the <:lasses"'" A- being indicatcG. l.e.,
one of the pairs (.1<.".). (. t , ,,- ). il called an oriented simplex. and the ecr-
n SJlOndin, <:lUI 115 tNltllltl l irm.
It is more cl>l11lenicntlo wrilt an orienled simplu (" I<. A/ ) in a diffe,ent w:toy.
viz by spetiCyin. some numer atOon gOo. cr " . .. . . 0
from the oriclu ation class and
de:> OtinJ it as follows:
OEF"INlTtOI'l 8. The C.Cl or &JOU ofthto aroup of Cormalllnc:lr combinatio ns (finite)
oClhe rorm L' I ' (..,I<. AI)' where " GG, A, '" A,'" or " , ",-, respecuve 10
subv oup of clementi of the form
t:-h,I<.,,/" ) +, (.f. A
- ) rn
andt hcir lioear mmb, n.tlOns ,s calkd t he ,roup oj k-diMttUJOlltll chtl,"s CI< (K: G)
oll he JimpOcial compk:x K wilh <, ocffll;ients In !he AkUan " oup G.
In Othu words . we identiC, the d ementi,. (",'. A,-). -,. . A: ) 1II lhe ,roup
of fomtal linear combinations of oriented s.irnplexn.
1'bc differenllal
"t :Ct(K; 0) - C
_ t (K ; O J
is derIDed by lhe equality
".. <1 '101" .111"1
. "I. n_ L t- 1)16' ,,1
- t , tIll t .... . " i' j
for eath silnpb. We Cllte:nd it to me w1'lo1e: I'"oup C. (I:; 0) by addllivity.
for k _ O. we put',, : Co(K ; G ) - O.
PkQPOSrT'I()N l. rOl".".t ;II I , nJUll/ity " .. _ I"" '" 0 hoha.
PJOOl . In fact . in the sum at _ Icl.l Cl . .... IIlt ll.tltocn Jimultaneously 1M
follO'llrinl adcknds
( _ 1)P ( - I). - I,. (II' . . a'..- ' . a
.. >, ., II'. - t, . ' t . ... . .. 1o- J
(-I)P( - I)., [a", ... ,II ''' -',a'... t . .... .. , . ..1 1.... . a l.1
which eliminale aoch ot her .
Thu, . the &roups C. (K; G )and farm a chai n complex denoted by
C. (K, G). E.. the &!'Oup of Z mt. y be tak en as G.
DEFINITION 9. The hQn\olollY grou ps o r a chain complall C. (K: 0 ) are ralled the
hom% l)' , roups complex K wlth coefrlci enu in the Abel ian troup
o and denoted by " 0(1(: 0).
DeFINITION 10. The homolQflYgroups o r a triangulation K ofa po lyhedron X witll
coefficic nts in an Abelian group 0 are ca lled t hc hom% l)' , roup$Hk(X: 0 )
poIyMdl'Olf X .
Thc COfTe<:tnc:u or this definition (i .c ., ind cpendcnce- from t hc choice of
tri a.o.ulat kln) is pro ved by a complic.ated t cdtniquc; we will ditlC\lSS these lopi" in
See. S.
l . Calculation of Homology Groups of Concrete Polyhedra.
Ut lIS calcu.Ialc the homoloo groups H
(, ; 0) of. poIybcc1roo ,". II is obvi ous
t!>.at for ' I. C a 5pacc of eee point . we haV1:
Ct (!,"I:O) ", Kcrcl. ", lmit. _ O when A: > O: C,,(l. Oj; G) -KCTao -O.
HtftI%, _ oblam the bomoIcJ&y yOUP5
Ho(. "; G ) _ 0 whCTI k > 0:. Ho(, O:G} _ O. (l)
Before. ealt:ulatKoJ H
(' : G) when /I > 0, _ 5Olc. I.encr;t.l problem.
COI15OdCT Wriplic:ial compa X tyrn&ill the l\ypc.l'l)laliC n '" c R '" I IUld1I point
" e R- I" n - . Wc will (lI11 the. CODKlio" o f $implaa of Umf.lcxcs
e X. lbe. simrCll g and of lhe form (01 . ' ,'). Le.. ti mplcn s (01. iI t, . .. .
g '! ) such that ' l _ (a l. . .. . , iI i ) m. c:crlai n simplCll in K, met'oMoKO'tIW COM
plu K wll h ,"f1u iI .
6- . Show IlIl t " X is a Ilimpbc ,a1 complu..
PROPOSITION 2.. LdoK be a cone wil h I. ...erto: II over a loirnpl.ia.l o:ompkx K. T1'Icn
Ht IpK , G ) - 0 ....hell k > 0; H o(oK ; G ) .. G (4)
PROOF. Cenllida an arbitl"llr)" G-dinwnsional cha in ' "4 + 'l "tI ' from
Co(PK; 0) .. Ker a
we have
EW,' a' - K,O).
Due to lhe equalit y
ECll 'Qi - It" ) - al a : .."" tI" ),

an arl:Iilrary l;)'C:1c I ' . + I: el ' from Ker a
is ho molo&OIU to the cydc:, "(1
.. f! + J;: "") ' 0 _hick UDO( homoloaous to zero III Ihe IfOUPC
(4K : 0 1when
" "" O. We obuoin tbc bomorplllsm H ofpK ; G l = G.
Consider no.... an armerat)' eyde in C
(lIX; OJ
t t - E ' i' [rt l.;. E hJl". ..
. ,
when: / e III. . i E 't_1, 8/. h, E G and [1',11.1. (g , or! - ,] dell ' c oriented simplexes.
E1/' 141 - E(rj ' lr!) - itt ... (r, ' Ia. rlm = E1/ "lo"J - I ).
" ,
Thcnfore the cyck is botnolOSlMls lo the l;ytlc
:t .. EJr; -Io,l - l) - E IIj'" 1l' ,,)o{Q.,/- ').
, ,
The eoc fflCieol of t ile sirnplQ trf - J I in lhe sum i
( [ hi lo. ,J - ' I) is h; (Ihere
belna only one w ch SImpl ex! ). Therefore L hj ' 10" , ,,} - I ] il a cyd e If 8l1d only if
II; " Oforeachj.
""\15. we h.a'e ellablished that in C . (aK: G ), when k > O. any C)"tle from
Ker ajo Is. homoi OSow 10 zero In C..(/IK: GJ . Th erefore. Iljo(fJK. 0) '" 0 when
1r > 0 _
Note (hIll the eOm(l1elt > l he $implex .. ",,0. u is a
I;()QC - 'l ...ilh the: YfflO: ,, 0 OVer me f;ompkx p" - Ilwhlc:hf;orrap0n4sl o
tlM:l impl ex T" - I _ "" . . . .. , Therefore. from equalities () and (">.owe obtain
!he hornok>u aroup.l of a ll " . dimensional simplex:
I D. <O<lIJcllOl'l IOT Cl poloJy
0 when e 0,
If Gwhent _O
for eacb " OJ O.
We ..owcakulate the homololD' aroups H"J.I ", , "11: G) of a polyhedron
whose: uianaulat lon 10',"1 of all pr opu f aca or tbe simpb . Consldct" tbe
C&$C whm " > l. t <; " , we have
Ct(Io" " ]; G) - Ct((T" j: G),
aod the differenllab of t he cham UIl pk:us C. J: G) and C. G) co(n..
dde. Ther ef,,", when k <; .. - I.
HIf( [h" ,; G) - "1f t!, "J: G) .
II is obvlow lha t ....hmk > .. - I

Ht ( [on" ,: G ) .. O. (7)
SUtccH,, _ ,((f" I;G) '" O, aDy cycle l " - I . C,,_ 1((T"l: G)is the boundllry
a"W' I," or the chain , ,(,"1 e C,,(ty"!: G), and in the complu
C. (f,"' : G) , we have 1(,., a" _ I .. 1m il" .. G. The dirfeffll li.a\sin tbe complc:l<"
C. ({tltl ; 0) and C. ({on", : G ) oolndde on the dlain Jroups c" _ G)
.. C" _ 1({oh" J; G ). Ther efo re, In C.{[il," J: 0), the /lIOUP Kcr il" _ r is uemer-
phie to the p'oup G, whereas 1m "" "" a,,(c,, ((a, " J; G) .. 0: therefore
H" _ l (ilr ") ; G ) - G. (8)
Thul . when ,. > I , tho: homolol'lYaroup. of t he boundary o f all n-d imeri" Ofl al
, implcx have been calculated:
k *0, ,. - I,
t _O,,._ 1.
....hen Ie > 0,
....hen Ie .. 0.

We !lOW dwcil on a 8DlDCtric intCTPl"eUt ion of the hOCll01oo' ITOIIPI of a
simpticial c:omp!vl: . A cycle from CIf(K; Z) II a SC1 of k-dUncmloRal simplUQ from
Keach ofwtlich is taken a ecrtaiD number oftlones; thll SC1 is dosed in thueIlK that
eadl (I' - l)-dimmsioaal "",pkJt is indudfll in tIM: bouncb.ry of ee k-dtmcnskln.
al cycle tbe same nulllb of l.i.lna with t wo oppo$ite orimwiolU. Two k-4j.
mcnsiolW C"J'dcs arc cqWvaknt (bomoJoosou.s) if t heir diffacncc is !he: boundary
of a (A: + 1)-4inten:Ii<mal dlain. Le.. bounds a CC"aln lei of f)( + l )-dimensioll.Ll
nmplcxcs; tbe .,aup HIf( IKI; Z) is the .,oup 01 equinJcnce classes af such
k.fiimelUioftal ey<:1cs. Roughty $pCiI tinl , KI ; Z ) c:onslsts of those dnwd eeuee-
tiom 0' k-climcmio oal "",pl U Q'wtueh cannot be: ' a1l1ed up' "';th collections 0'
l.t + Su.plaes. Thu s, mtuitively. the aro up HIf( IKI ; Z) COf'.
=pollds 10 the poup J encrated by (.t + ' opc1linp ' in the space
Cb 5 HomololYTheory
DEfiNITION II . A S'lbeompkx Q/" su" p l ic:ulf complex is J subset L (", hiell is a
simplldal compte.) of from K.
Let L be a subcomplvt of a simplicial complvtK. 11 '" obvious C. (L; G) is
a wbcomp\e"l: of the chain eornplvt C. (K: G ) . a q ll(ltier!t complQ if
C.CK.L;G) '" C. (K; Gy(C. (L :G).
lknol in& the homolol)' ll'ouPt: of t his dlai.. complex by Ht CK. L; 0 ), from the
C;U C!. sequence of chain c:ornpkxelI
' . J .
0 _ C . (L ; OJ - C.(K; OJ - C. ex ,L: 01 - 0,
oblain a long ellact sequence or homology grou p,
" . - H
... I(K, L : OJ - Ht(L : 0 ) - Ht(K; OJ
' .
- H,,(J(, L : O) - _ I(L: 0) - ..,.
II is a Iled U! ttaet 01 L ) , rhe VQ4lPll Ht (K, L ; 0 ) are call ed
re/(Jtiw ltomoIov tr0u/lIS or hom%Vlrotlpf pat, (X, L).
II wiU be uscrulto ' decode' the: dd'mltion of homoloc groups .
the chain it from C/ttJ( , L : 0) u a c:oset of lhe lEOuPq(K: 0 ) eeteuve 10
the IUb&roup '/tCt u, ; 0 ) - Ct CL , 0 ) , ill COSft 71t ' there t:lIisu a uni que
lhe chai n 'Yt f, om Ct CK; OJ,wlUch indudes only those aOelJ(cd with ROD.lCI'O cocffldenll of the c:omplQ K t hat are not orient ed
simpltxes of lhe subcomplu. L . It follows from the defi nition of a bound...,.
homorno rpltism ;na qlK)lienl eompla thallhe boundary hOfnOfnOl1lhism It : C
L ; 0) - Cit _ Iex, L ; 0 ) trU!sfornu the chain ilt mlOa chain it _ I which if the
Cl)Jel of t he &roup Cit _ , (K; 0 ) relati\IC to tlu: fubsroup 't _ I C
_ 1' : 0) '"
"" C
_ 1'; 0 ) with the representat iveat ItE C
_ 1(1(; 0). In the chain at 'Yt. we
discartl all addends g", lr:' - I] for which r... - I is a simplu from L. Ob"iously, lhe
oblalned cllain 'Yt _ I bcloll&J 10 t he: same ct)$(l i t _ I as Ihe chain at'ft .
It is clear tha t a <;hain complCJI C. (K, L: 0) is isomorphic 10 the chain complex
C. whose fonnal linear eombi!,alions of orienled l implexes (in l en$e
of Deflnilion 8) from K '\. L , Irld lhe: boundary l1 omomorphism associates the k dl'
memionaJ chain 'Yt wilh a chain of dlmen:siorl k - I Oblained by ca.lculalina on 1't
t he u lue of l he boundary homomcllphismat (in the chain comf la C. (J( ; 0 ) and
ddelinl all vt {ranMW addends, i.e. , those addends I ...I':' - I for which r:' - 1
belan&,to L , Siflce an iKlmorphlsm of chain c:omple. Q induces an .il;omorphil: m of
flgmoloIY I roups ,
Ht CC. ) .:: HttJ( , L : 0), k ... 0, I, 2, ....
TbIl5, _ arr i"ed at a more de:l' lrUlIon of homololJ
arou ps of a pair . Note that the chai Q5, qdcs and boUndaries of the complexC. are
u.1d to be relative (for (K. L) .
Now. we: make OUI the gcometri!: meaning of the homomorphi. sm
: Hkvr:. L : 0) - H
_ I (L: G).
Let li
13 Hk{K, L ; G) be a homolo8Y of Ihe relative cycle E t
, Consider
t k 3.'1a cha in in C. vr:; 0) an" calculate its in il . By the definiti on ora
relative cycle. aft er wlketing like terms, the cha in will include wilh nonzero onl y oriented simplexes flom L. There(I{e ilkz
can be co nside!'N as a
cha in In C. {l. ; 0). It Is qui te simply thai ilk!t is a cycle whose homology
class h
_ I e H
_ 1(L: 0 ) d0e5 not depend on the cholee of Ihe represent ative zk
of the clw li
. Accor ding to the general st ruct ure or the connecting hcmcmcr-
phi.$m (Sec . 2). bl li
.. h
_ I ' If we imagine a retauve cycle as a manifold wrth
bou ndary lying in L a nd made up of kdimensiona l orienled simpluf3, Ihen il
4 is
jus t chill bounda ry with the correspond ing orient alions of IJr -
EXAMN..e (5C:'C Fig. Ie). LeI a simplicial complex k coeslst of simplexes
0,,,1,,,2, ,,),
(U0, D
). (1) 1, ,, 1). (D1, Dl ), (D
, DO), (l>i, D
(';0. D" o j ), (Ol , ,,2, oJ ),
IUId let iii Jubl;omplex L consisl of Ihe .arne $impl u cs excepl
(pl. ,, 1), (p,o, 0 1, D') , (pl." 1. Q1).
Th us, lKI is a rect angle (with the 'interlor'), and IL LIts boundary. II ill obvious
that the chain 'Y:EC
1,)( , Z). 'Yl = (o0,,,I,o'l + [a l ,a
) is a relauve cycle of llle
pair vr:. L ).1n faet, its bo undalyil
= [aJ, 0 ) + 10 , 0 I] + [0 1,0
1 + [Ql, a' J
includes with ncneeeccoeFficients Only oriented simplexes from the subcomptex L .
The chain 'Y 1[a I, 0
) from C. tK: Z) b 5imullaneously a relative cycle (veriry!) and a
relative bou ndar)', because il can be ob tained fto m
il1[a0, ,, ', oJ I - [" I. "ll + [" 1, ,,0 ] + lon, o l l
by di$<:alding the addends (0) ,0 1and lu
. " I) which are onelll.d 5implex From
the SIIbcompk x L. II is usy 10 see that the rcla ti"': 1:yck"' 1det crmiMs the
of tM lfouP H1(K. L ; Z ) '"" Z. The ecmnecti nll homornorp/'lisn:l 6
; H:(X. L : Z) -
- H I (L ; Z) usociales th is w:ncrator Wlth element (aboJcne rat; n,) of the ,roup
(L : Z ) ...hid! c:onsililS of oneeyelc ell"'l -

' Write tIN: euet loeQu.tnce of the pai r (K. L ) for the example consid ered
9" . Ln L
and L
besubcomplelles or . simplicial complu K. th lt . n L }
and L . U L : ar e also i1IbcompkltllS ol the complex K , and sho'twlhal the sequenot
0 - C. (L. n L
; 0 ) - C. (1.1; 0 ) 0 C . (L
0 ) - C. (L I U L
; 0) - 0,
where/t ( E \1: 61" (1,"1, - E . dll l).
, . ,
is eXIlC!. Hen ce, derive tile eIllt ! seque nce
. . - Hit . ,tL ,U L:;O) - H..(L I n L
: O>- H. (l., ; 0)
$ HIr;{Ll; 0) - Ht (L . U L : ; 0 ) - H .. _ 1(1., n L : ; 0) - (I I)
called the MtJYD' V",t'lons U/Kf .wqwtllce.
Euet sequence (1I}c.bles us 10 Q\cuJate lbt homololY IJOUPS of compile' led
simpliaal eoll1plex es.
10" . Usm, (S). (9). (10) Ind ( I I ), cakuWe !he homolol)' If(ll,lPS of the eomplQ
consiIli llll o f $implaes o f dimCft$ions 0 and I , md d ra wn 1.11 F... 110.
11- . Show Ih at for an or\c1IlIble M
or &ctlUli p . we: ha ve:Ihe: isomorphISm
: Z ) ... Z.
Him: Show1hal. any qc:Ie II IDI,1Iljple or a <)Ck ..t.dI .. cqual lOlhc I""' of lIIl
CIlrVi5lteIr 2-mp1cl:5 or I lfiansulaDonof -.ttio;b &Ill tUm wiIIt a COCQpa!ible orimwlon.
lZo. Show that for an orie nted l ur face M
of &enu, P. we: have:
Jl1{ltfp ; Z) ;, Z e ... @ Z.
f"q . 110
l ....rQddCIioll ' 0

k = O.
It _ I .
k> I
Hit,, : uw. putitioD 01y o.
It- O. 1. 2.
It > 2.
,... Sh_ <Iu' f oo"......a{,; N. of.. . O.
H" tN,, :Zj - Z @ ... It_I ,
0, It > !.
U . Showthat
" >-0. '.
H"rtI,,; Z ; ) _ @ ... <$) Z . It .. I ,
0', k >2.
4. Barycentric Subdi visions. Simplicial Mappings. Lrt
.. rD a t ) be a kd.immsional simplex. A point with coordin.lles
liCk + 1) 1I(.t + I) Isc:rJI ed!he Denot e lhis poi m
b)' bo, I. .. t ; mMe JellQ"a!ty , cle1lofe b)' . poiIll whose batyI;entrie C'O<)j'.
dlnale.5 'iare dt;rlllCd as follows
P: l' i .. lo... .i;
, .
, 0 otherwise.
For .J 1possib le K1S,, 'o, ... . of p + I ven ices (0 " p " It). lbe: b'.. * .. f"
COlTClpo ndlna 10 them tile bar)uDtre ol lbep-4immsional llOl:$ (lr l&.. .. . a'.ol 01
ell s. HomolocyTheor y
Ihe simplex 1" (remember tnar faces lie lhe vertice:! 0'. and the
A:-dlmenslonal facc the stmplex r
ilsel f). Con sider au pos sible s;mplex. es oftlle form
(b'O"" .'.. - 1.
.., bioI, . .1.. ' .... 0 " P " k .
The COUe<:l i(Hl of all such simplexes and their faces forms a simplicial complex ca lled
a baryctnlrle subdivision of 'he simplex 1
(Fia. I II).
Let K be a simplicial eomplu. Barycent ric subd lvisions of all its simplexes form
II simplicial compleX K ' call ed a boryt:entrlcsubdivision oflh4 romp/a K. We will
also consider simplicial complexesX(1) _ (1(,')' . " ', X v) _ (J<. v - I)
The ope rat ion of Jubdlvidina lhe ccmplex K ba ryccllt rieal/y deimes a chain
9 . ;C. (K; G) -
The ho momorphism 8
is defi ned on lhcvcrt ices Ii by Ihe formul a
_ gool, ( 12)
and on simplexes of greater dimensi on. II can be defined inductively by the for mal

8... (g ralO. . .. . oi'll _ Ib'O" , '.., e, _l itp"lg'Ia'O, ... . Il'.. m ( 13)
which means that if the equ alily
9... _ l "...(g [0
, .. . . Ill..]) .. r r. rcio, .. , c/r - 'I

is held, 'hen we have

.. , 0 '.. 1) - Eg. [blo- " ..,qo, m,cIt - rj,

and 9... can be extenlled 10 the whole group Cp(J(; 0) by lineari ty. II is easy to see
that 9 . Is a chain homomorphism.
Imroduelion to Tol'>OloiY
Together wilh 6 . c. (1( ; 0) - C. (K' ; OJ. lhe followin, homomorphisms ale
naluraUy defined-
el;:) : C .<K:O)- C.(KV);O).
Let. K and L be simplicial ec mplexes. A mappi ng! : IKI - I L L is SlIid 10 be
s/mpflClll lf the Image of each simplex .
from K is a certatn simplex from L . and
the mappinll!l,. is linear in baryccnlric coordinales:
/(/,p'G+ n. + ,t " I.) = 'O/ CO/G) + ... + ft / (P/ l).
The notions of barycentric subdi vision and simplicial mappinll have meaning
also in considering polyhedra made up orcurvilinear simplexes because bary<:enl ric
coordinates may be tran sferred 10 curvilinear simplexe1 by means of a triangulalion
Lel f : ' 1(1 - IL L be a simplicial mapping. We define the homomorphi sms
Jp,Cp(K; 0) - Cp(L: OJ as follows; for each simplex (0.... . ... " I.. ) e K . we pul
, . tlO'O' .. ../,,1, ) ifV"lo, .. . ./,,', ) is a simplex
/ of dimension p
lp(g [o'o, ... . " , J) - _ _
o if V,,'o, . .. / " "l Ls asimple.:
of dimen$ioa leu lhan p
and exlendl
10Cp(K; OJ by linearily.
16. Show Ihal the collection of homortlOfPbisms (!PI is 1I chain complex homomor .
J. :C. CK: O I - C.(L;O)
and therefore induce1 hOll\Omorphi1ms
f op : H,(K; 0 ) - Hpu.; cr,
"0.Show tha I simplicial mappings are morphisnu of the calegory whose objo:cts
are simplicial complexC$. and me correspondence
K- Hp(K; G ).
P K - L _ ! .,p : 111'(1(; OJ - Hp(L ; Gl
is a covariant functor from the above ca!l.'llOry 10 the calegory of Abelian group$.
ISO. Show that the lWOCiating an Abelian gr OUD G wilh Ihe holO(,llosY
group H.(K: G) ofa simplicial complexK with in G is a covarian t fune-
lOr f,om lhe catesory of AbeliaDgroLlps 10 lbe same catcaor)!.
I. Singular Homology Groups. In this secuco , another fUlKtor from 1M
calcgo ry of homotopy Iypes of space 10 the c:a1C&<lr}' or Abdian &.rouJK. i.e., Ihe
e n S. HomololYTbeory
homology functo r, "'ill be cons tructed . To involve algebaic cons mictlons of 5. 2
for the purpose of m:dyinll the topol ogical space, it is l'Icssary to work out
methods of constructing cbaln ComplCl<es from a given space X. ln algebr aic
topology, the'e: are: a number of such tcchni qun ", hi<;h assume: the fulfil ment of
some or other for thc spaceX : "'e give hell: one of thc most general.
A continuous rnapplna!"t : ot - X of the standa rd simplex 0-" to a topol ogical
space X is called a sin,ular k -di mensfofIQl silhplex of the topo-Joskal space X.
let G be a ring with idenl ity . , e.g. thc rinaZ of integer s, A formal linear eom -
blnation r , ,1; of singular "_dimensi onal :iimplucs of the spaceK with the ccer-
rlCicnts I i l'rom G, only a fini te number of Which dilfer from aero, Is called a
k-dimensional singular chain of the: space X. The: SCI of all k-d.imc:nsional singul ar
dillins of X with cocfficienu in G is denoted by q(X: 0 ). lt i$ an Abelian group
under the opo:ration of addItion of chain s as linear combinations. !fG = Z t hen the
group Zj is free Abelian and Its 'general ors arc all possible singular
k_dimensional simplexes .
We defi ne the di fferential
C:(X; G) - C1 - 1(X; G).
To tbls end, consider the standard (k - 1)- and k-dimensional simpkl'les 0-" -
and ok. Let us 8.5SOciale a point
... . 1, _ 1' (/ " " '-,, _ t )e o
- I
with the point
(' O' '' ' ' I _I, O, fp'' -' ' t _ t ) e o*.
Th is correspondence dermcs a mappi ng AT- 1 : ol - I _ 0* from ok - I onto t he
i-th lie - I)-dimensio nal face of the simple.>; ok . If f * 15 a k-dimensional singula r
simplex then the supcrposition/Ie Af - I b evidently a (k - I)-dime nsional singular
simplex. For any simplexF' , k "' 1, we put

E(-lY'V-"Af - 1) ,
and define the homomorphism a; On the whole group q (X. G) by lineari ty;
t r k 0 t hen it is nat ural toput '" 0 and, in accor dance with t he previous,
to cxtenq by the zero value 10 G) .
ThI s he been done <)II'Y WIth the .. mplir",alKm of llOUllolI in mind. AJllhe construc-
tion. of thiSc!laptcrcan be perrormed fIX an arbitrary Abelianroetrlcient . roup G, jUll li k"
m the prcviow =,100> .
In<rod__to Topoion
( I)
1- . Verify IM t i11a'., I = O.
HIlI' : II RlmaS wri"'lhil cqdll)' oa iUI ...Oil....,. olmpla: f ' ' .
WI: see. the of &rOUPS C: (X: 0) and homomorphiims a: forms a
cUln co mplQ which we denote by G) . II is f;<l\1cd asilt'lIkir cham complu
of the X .
Let ,, : X - Y be a cont tnucusmappi ns. For any k_dimcnsl onal d mplex
l it : (lit - X or t he space X, the sa perposiucn 'Pi t is ;J, k-dimenslonal . inaulaT
,l mplu of t he Y. It Is obv", u" lhat " t he homomorphism....
: q (X;
0 ) - q ( Y; G ).
2- . Prove lhat tJlc .y).temof bomomorptus.m"1t forms a chain COfIlpkx
v, : 0 ) - OJ.
r.e. . (00- k .. I, lhe equalities hold: a:.... .. "/1 _I';. ",m e af . 1; al e the
di ffere ntials o f the romplod c:.(X; 01. 0).
DEFINITION I . The homoroay 8rO\l PS of the compleJI c:.(X: 0 ) are called the
singular homol oV' , roUp$ o f t he space X wit h coerlicicnl.1in G: a k-ho mol ollY
aroup i. dcnoled by H;cX; 0 ), Md Ille coneeuce of [H; (X: 0 )1., ;0 0 by
H-:(.X: 0).
EXAMPLE. CalcuI<Llc the bornololY I:fou p$ o f tllc poInt _ Ieb obvious thM C:<. ;
G) '" G beQux tht:re is only ODe si npJar limpluj* : " l _ for any k. Tbt: value
of 1M differutial on iI Wllt:II t "" I ill c:aku\l;led by the: fonnula
. [0 wht:o k is odd,
l - I .
I D I J wbm k II t:Vt:Il.
Rt:mt:mbe1" that a; .. 0 wl\t:n k _ O. He nce, we obtain lhal i f k ISodd . IlIcn
Jma: .. , .. q C . G) .. Keta; .. G:
If , howc.-cr , k is eve n an d nol equal to UTO, IlIeD
... I '" Kn oll - O.
Fi n.aIly, 1m af .. o. !CD a&_ 0 : lJIercfOfe.
Hj <. ; G) _ O: Hf <. ; G) =- o. 1>0.
S1ucc tht: conunuolUIlLIPpinl II': X - Y Ind uces the homomorphism ., . ;
0) - G ) o f sillJu lar ehaln complucs o f t llc spaces X and Y. il ind uoc:s thc
ll omrmtOTphfs"l1 of si flgu/ru hOf'loloV' ,roup$
3 . Show Iltal lf., : X - Y, y - z eee condnuoul IMppinas,ll!t:D(WI -
- "Pot" ' Show Illat to the idc Ql ity mappln, of X , tht:t"t: oonnponds tht:
Ch. $. Horno!osyTheo,y
tlOIPOIO&y group jdemUy mapping. i.e., (lX).k '" I H: ......
). Hence, d enve thar t he
homology groups of homeomorphic spun eotncide (the homology gfOUp
topoloKical invartance theorem).
Show that a constant mapping X - Y, Le., a mapping sending Xto a point
)'0 E Y mduees rhe lrivial (zero) ho momorphism In homology group s of higher
dimens ions. k > O.
2. Propert ies of Singular Homology Groups. In nem I, oneoova,;ant-
funclor. or more pr ecisely. lhe collectIon of functors .. (H; <* ; G)l.t .. 0 from
the ClI.1q:OI')' of topologiea! spaces to the category of Abelian group, was co n-
uructed. Let us Sludy t he most important pro perties of functor.
THEOREM l. Lei mappings 'P; '" : X - Y be homol opk . Then the fJlduCf'd
homo/vV' group homomVTphismJ coincide.
First. we pro ve the following statement.
L. EMMA I . U / 8 1x a conwx sel Q/ a Euclidean spa; Ihen
Q ) "" ; 0). (2)
PROOf". Let fi : Uk _ B be a singular simplex. We define the singular simplex
Dt fk : .. .. I - B by the equality
Dtfk (lO' ... , 11; .. . )
' 0... + ( 1 - t
)1I;(__'_'- ,... . when ' 0 I.
_ I - to 1 - ' 0 0 )
... whenlo '" 1,
where w is a poilll from 8 , end 'Iare the 'oarycent rlc coordinates of a point from
o k" I .
by lineMit y to 1M whole group q (B; G), we obt ain the
DJ;: '1<8; 0) - et: .. 1(8; 0 ).
1\ follows from eqaaluy (3) lhat the lIomomorphisnu D
and differenuals ill are
related as follows:
ill .. ID
... I q (x; GI - D
_ lil; when 1( ;> o.
-f'J - h
where the singular simplu h
maps 0
tr ue the poin l w from B. ae e Ker a;, k > O. Then due to (4) , we have a: + lDi z
"" Zt' whence Zi
e l m il: .. .'Thus. HZ(J1 ;G) '" Owllenk ;> O. Similarly. the o-dirneMionalcyc1ef'J
is homologous 10 Ihe cycle h
therefor e. 0 ) _ O.
The meth od used in t he proo f or Lemma I ;s qu ite useful We no.... l ive lhe
followill$ definition.
Let C. be chain lo' of . : C. - C; homomorphiJ;mJ. A sY3tem
of homo rnorph iJ;ms ID", 1
Introduction 10T<:>poiOllY
such that Ihe relation
ai . lok + 0 k _ ,at = "t- <Pt ' 0 _1 "::;'0 (')
holds Is call ed a r:hoin homOlOPY connectin g <p. an d ,;, .
The homomorphisms of Ihis relati on ere shown in the fol1o,,"'inS diagram
The <p. and " . arc said 10 be chain.homotopic. If [D
1is a chai n
homotopy r:onnccti ng 11'. and oJ,. ' then rot '<,t E Ker ilk' we have
(>!-k - lI' t)'<t '" ili .. IDt '<tE Im ili .. I '
Hence. the ho mology group homomo rphisms ind uced by the chain homomor-
phisms l". and';'. coincide.
Exercise S". Let the win homomorphisms l" 01:. ; C. - 'a nd systems of
homomorphisllU lDU. ID: ), D:: C
- Ci .. l' J .. I, 2 be such lhal il;' .. IDt
+ D1_l il
.. -Jolt - l"t. Show tha t the homolo,y group nomomorp n.sffil
by lhe ho momorphisms lI'. lIrtd 01- . coi ncide.
We show tha t homotopic mappings of topoJoSio;al spaces ind uce chain-
homotopic homomorphismJ o f sins ular cha in comp!el<cs . Let Ul appl y the follow
ing eonnrucnon. LttXbe a topological space. X x I a cyli nder over it ; it is nat ural
10 can mappings (JX : X _ X x 1 defined by the formulae
(X, 0). nXtx) = o. I)
the lower and upper bases of the cylinder. It is evident that a X and fJX ate
LEMMA 2. FortJllysptlCt X, rhtfHxlSfso chQin homotopy lDfl connecti ng .. : and
tJ'; ,i.f!.,
fJ{ - of - ot: lil: + ID{ . (6)
PROOF. We COmll"\lcl a chain homotopy IDf: C:(X; 0 ) _ q .. I (X x I: 0 )1by
Ind uct;lIn on k.
For k '"' 0, we put Dfto - .to )( 1/, where the sin,ular simplell.f! x It is de-
(med by the fonnula
1)( ]/(0' ( I) = (f0(l), ( I)'
and extend DfI I) 10 C't<X; 0) by .linearity.
Assume, for k > 0, t hat lite homomorphisnu D; ha ve already been defi ned
when '" -c k for an y X, and that they are functorial .
Cons.ider the chai n
<' tEG("!)( 1: 0), c
- fJ((l "tl - (l"t (l ...) - Dt _ lato... >.
where I... i , u a singu lar $lmplu. By Iho: inductil,)n hypol hesls,
(jjt- 1 - 0.1_ l - atDt _I )il l (l .. l - Dt _: iJ: _ l il ; (I .,.> '" 0;
er erercre, c"e Ker a; c C;<"Jr x I; OJ. But "" x 1 is a convell subset of lite Eucli-
dea n space; by Lemma I , Hl {,.k x I : O J - O. Therefore , ,, e1m at \. Le" lhere
exau a .. l e e ; .. , (0''' X I ; GI sueI'! that at .. IU" .. I .. " Jr'
PUI D" ( 1,.. ) - U.t. + I "
Now, <II: _ X be a singular simpleX" of the space X . We define the
Ofr by Ille equality
Df /I< .. if' x If>" .. ,Dt l.,t " Vir X ]/ )" .. I.... " .. I '
where V x IfXK, f l ... I) ,x e (1k, I e I. Sll1eef"and at are commuting and
of _I func to rial, ....e obtai n
at. ,of r .. (fir x 1,1.1Pt - 'I>'( - u(_I,m(l .,t )
"" - a{1* - Df_ la:,r,
Extendins Df by linearity to C;lX: 0 1, ,",' co obtain the required homomorph ism
We stress t he point thai 1M construction o f rDf l is funclor ial, i. e. , ror ;IInr w n-
linua u, mapping ", : X - Y, fa Uowing d iagr am is commutativc
C:" IX.I;ClJ
.J. . ,
c:Il':GJ C: ..
THE PIIOOFOFTHEOIIEJ,l I. Let F : X x 1 - Yb<: . homotopy co nnco;ling "" and ", .
We define: the chain homot opy
: C: (X: OJ - C: .. I (Y; GJ)
connect ing 'P. and "' . is the family of superpos itions [D
- Ft . , Df ) of
lIomomorplli5ms of tile sequence
nf ' t . ,
q (X; G ) -C: .. I (X x / ; G) - C: .. I ( Y: G) .
statement of the theorem fo llows from tile (act that cllain-homot opM;:
homomorph isms of chai n induce the sarne ho momorp hisms Of
hom oJosy groUJl$.
COROLtARY. A. homotopy ftl uivaltnu indllC'U a homology ,roup isomorphism.
Thus, homotopy equivalent speces (in pa nicular , ho meomorphic) p<l$scss the
same (iilOmorphic) homolOi!Ygroups.
Introduction to TDJlOlo, y
6- . Show that if X is a cOlll rac tibk men Hg(X; G) "" G. HI(X: 0 ) 0 for
k > O.
7 . Show tha t for the homology groups of a d iajoinl union X V Y, tht Isome r-
phlsm Is held
H: <X U Y: 0) '" H:<X: G, $ H;(Y; O}.
Show that H&(SO: G) '" G @ G. H!(SO; 0) .. 0 when k > O.
' - . Show lhat if X and Y lITe pal h-e:on nectcd bee Sec . 10, ClI . 11), Ihen
0 ) '" G '" HMY; OJ . and anyeont inuo\U mapping,: X - Yinduces the isomor -
phi sm
10 .0 : 0 ) '" 0).
Lei X
be a subspace of X, r : Xl) - X an embl.di ng mappi na. Putt ;na
C: (X. X
0) '" C: CX; G)/ CZ(X,,; 0),
we have, due to ScI;. 2, an exact sequence: of chain ccmptexes
I. J.
o - OJ - C:(X; OJ - C: (X, X
OJ - O.
The homol01Y JrOUP$ of t hc eomple:r X
; 0 ) are called !.he si"811Ia,.
homology , roup' of fhe Pfli,. lX, X
and denoted by
; 0) .. lH; (X, X
Oll.... e-
It follows immediatl:!y from Lemma of Sec. 2 that the homoJoiY sequence
4 f , . , I ,
.. . - " /r + I CX, X
; O} - H/r(Xo; 0) - "k(X; 0)
J .t >
- " ; <X, Xo; O ) - , n - 0 (7)
is exact. EQd. homolollY sequences an:: the main tool In homolollY t heol)' .
Let ua Innoduce the followina IJiOTevivid dac:ription o f Ihe homology gr<lUps
of it pair wlUdl follows from the itbo:Ve definitions. Let in t he chain "f " ExJl' ,

aU simiJaT temu be eollo:c:led, t.e., let all sinaular simpluesJl be pairwise diffe rent ,
and .allf/le coefficients" olher than zero; we caDthe allbset erme spaeeX, equal to
the union of all mappinaafi
Involved in .., "'ith nonuro coefficients. the
support 'of the cluJin..,. Aocordills 10 the de finition of it quotient compkx (see
Seo;, 2), !he d ement IIr of !he kemd Ker l/r of the boundary homoll1Qrphivn
It ' c;(X, XCI; 0 1- q _ I (X, XCI; G} is a coset consisting of all ehains qtx, X
0) su<:h t hat (i) tWQd iffer ent represematlves of t he dement firdiffer only by lUI ad-
dend from itc;<X
;0) C q(X; G l
i .e. , by it dlain wilh support in the
(f" beina a coset); (d) t he s.upport of the boundar)' il".t" of My representat ive zir
of the dement I" is Conlained ill XCI (f" Is a cycle 'modulo X';I. Similar ly, t he ere-
ment 6. oflhe irmlse of the homomorphismill + I is it coset consininll of aDchain.
blr.ln q(X; G)weh that (i) t wo repreSentati ves dlffC!l' by a chain with suppo rt in X
(II) each repres.ental:lve b
of t he coset 6
can be writt en in the form it; + ,"fir . I
Ch. , . HomololY Theory
flc. nz
+ "':' when: "rot + l Uacatain dlain from q{x: 0), and -r:u any cham with sup-
port in X
' n.\LI: , elemc:ntsof hcunolojJ.Y are relative the subs.pac:e
' )cycles t", up to the relative ('modulo X
' ) boundaries 6",. An exam-
ple of a t wo-dimcnsioul relative cycle given in rlS, 112.
The connecting homomorphism 6
associates the clement "t from the homolo8Y
group of the pair Ht l){ , Xo: 0) with the denvnc h: _ I from the homology group
Hot _ I{XO: 0) of tbe SUNpace X
accord in, \0 the follow!n, rule derived from the
definition of a connecting homomorph ism for chain eom-plexcs (see the end of
Sec. 2). Let a relative cycle t. e qCX, X
0) be the rqmscnllUlve of the clement
lite , and the cycle zt e qlX. 0) the representative of the element tt trealed as a
coset. Consi der the chain from q _I(X; 0), II isclear IlulI (i) the support of
t he chain a
4 is in X
and therefore the chain at to: can be regarded u a
chain from C
_ I txo' 0): (ii) since at _ l at l
'" 0, me chitin atzt is a cycle In
C. (Xo' G) . Generally speaking, the cyde aktt is not II boundary in C. (X'o' 0),
bc:eausct t may not bc10na 10 ,tCt{Xo; G) "" Ct(X
: G) .i,e. the support of the
chain to: may not lie in X
' TIle homology cUw hf _ I of the cycle atto: in
_ I(XO;0 ) is, precisely, the image aii
of the homology etes lit. It u obvi ous
thM an arbiuary choice of the representatives tt and tt ml:rcly leads t o ee di f-
ference at"t - v
being a boundary In 0), and not only in C. (X: OJ, for
two different chains lit and determi nJns the same class lit . Thi:Tefore the defini -
tion of the homology class h
_ I is valid.
9". Let .. be a point from X. Show thai H;",,: 0) co H;lX .. ; 0) for k > 1.
10 , Let tbe cmbeddlnSi: X
- X be IIhomolopy equlvllcnce. Show thl t H; CX,
Xo;OI c> Ofor each k .
Inlroouctioo {\I Topplosy
NoIc thai , enerall y ,pa.kln, , ......sen.ion tha t tl><: Maya--VlelorU SUlucn: Is c....a (_
Sec. J) if lnoorr m for dnauJar homolOllY aroups. (Why? Try 10 give I COWlleJWllYlplc.)
Howcva', it K , aDd K
are IUb<:otnpla es <)f a , implicial l;OInP!e>: K ,hc n rOT . ingul...
hon><llop trOUp' o f the Ipllces IK
1 and l Kl l , \"" Ma.ytr.Vidor lJ $C:CjlA'llC" is uaCl.
We now dwell on me baryanl ric subd ivision of slnaular simplexes. COIl'ii4cr Ihe
baryOClltriC subdivision Qf . standard simplex" ... . Denote by < c/ o, e
' ..... C/f > the
composltiol'l of . linear (in baryunuje coordillillles) rnappm,; of. S1andall1simplex
" II onto 1he rimplex (c/o, e
" , c
. ) fro m the baryceulric subdivil;lon of <T*. which
sends thej-th wnex of the stand.&rdsimpWc to the j-Ill vert ex ell fr om the set /c/ o,
c\ ...c'-I, and tbe cmbcddios malJPina of the simplex (clo, ell , .. . . c to) into t he
simplell .. l .
NOle thaI the idml ll.y I.,. of the simplex ok can be rcgiUded as an
dement of Ih" group q (O' OJ ""hOK boundar)' i$ of the form iltl"",

- E(-IY"'1-
(SCC lt em l) .
Now. lei X be an arb itrary topolop;aJ space .
We dcnac 1M nomomorphisms
0t: C:(.\"; OJ - q (X: 0), k - 0, I, . .. ,
iDd\lttive!y by havina; IlUI
00 " ( Ba)
AMume thaI th e homontorpbUms 0t :- I baYC alr eady been derma! for an
lopo1op:al $pace X and. thaI for the$inguwsimplell: 1.. Qf the $J)lLC%"
11Mc:hin 0,t _ I (illok) CUIbeR!prr:sented in the fQrm
_ I(a;....,) '" EI j" <cJ.cJ.....c}- I>, (8b)
where c1 is a YU\cI Qf the !>&l)rCen!nc:isubd!v ision of the (k - Iklimmliooal faces
oftbe ampla .. t . II is obvious t>wIhi is f'II lfIDcd ....hen k - I .. O.
0t(I..) a L'r <60.
. . .
.c! .c}. .u.c!- 1>. (11<:)
....ben: 60. I. .... t is the batyecmrt of the simplex .. t. and 61and ct are the wnc: as III
(lib). J
Let us define the homomorphism 0t on the singular si!nplellr; .. .t _ X for an
arlritrary x.
Letr.: ; c:(..t; G) - c:.(X; G) be I c:ba1ll complex homomorphism induced by
the mappinsr : ..t _ X. Put
o..U"") - f l Ot (l ok) (8dJ
Eldendini D.t to C;CX: G) by !iDearity
' d/) - r ( lie)
, ,
we complete the dcfinilion of0,t . II is dear that the chain 0.t(a: ... 1 I... ' ,) admiu a
represen rllllon similar 10 (Sb). The lnductlve construction <If Okis thus complete.
Thus. Ihe chain 0kU
is l iven rise as the sum ofl he restriclions of Ihe mappinl
f J: 10 tile k_dimtrulional simplexes of the bary,.mlric subdivision of Ihe slmpleKa.t.
The homolJKlrplili ms {lk are fuftCtoti ai and commul e with the diUerent ials
aJ:n., .. o.a
(vetify l). The wUe<;tion of the homomorphisms Ok forms Ihe
homomorphism Il. : ~ c x : 0) - ~ ( X : G) Qf the compla. ~ ( X : 0 ) into itself.
11. Show l hat the homomorphlsmsll . and loop . 0) are chAin-homotopic.
12. Let A and B be: closed,disjoint subspaces ot a normal Hausdor ff space X.
Show thaI fOT any cycle:o:,t (i Cl(X:01. there ""istl a cyck (O,t )':O:1: bcmologous t o il
such t hat for any singular simplex! of !he cycle (0)':0:1:' ils image does not In-
tersect bolh A and B simultan eously.
3. Homology and Homotopy Groups. (t is natural to allempt 10
estabUsh a matioo between the sinlular homology ITOUPS and homotopy ITOUPS of
a sJlce. This problem turns oul to be: quite complicated; only partial result s have
been Obtained. Thus. a l-<limeroslonal bomoloay gt'oup of a path-connected space is
completely determined by its fundamtntal poup.
THEOREM 2". L et X be Q pol/l-COrlllf!Cfed $poce wilh a ~ point .I'D' T1t en
n ; cx. Z ) "" .... 1(X.xo)/ (..-I(X'XO)...... (X,x
)l . (9)
wil e" ["-I (X' xo). "-j(X, .I'o)! is tile IXHrl",uIQfl f ojI/l e group 11", (X .1' 0) '
We outline w proof of fonnula (9) while dweU!n. on 8COlll etriCkleas only, Pirst
of aU. note t hai any loop of the $pao;:e X lori&inaliog at the point xc} Is a singular
cycle (the sinaular slmpleJl 10, IJ - (0. 1)/0 - I = S I .:. X is a cy<;le). Hel1'CC, the
homomorphism of the sroup ..- [(X. x O) into .llt (X; Z) which we will denote by eis
given rise.
Second, ' caD be shown to be: an epimorphism. ln fal;(, each cycle in Hf(X; Z)
determ.ines (not uniquely) SC'Vualloops m the s-pac:e X. pouibly. startin. at different
pomls. These vari ous loops can be Irans formed inlo one loop by joining Iheir
origi ns to the: potnlX
by means of a path Ih at can be cin;umnavigaled in t he for -
ward and reverse dirmionl (Fl . II ) . The complex loop oblaioed at Iht llOinl.l'ois
transfonned by the homomorphism'Into Ihe original singular cycle. (More precise-
ly. the class of this loop Is tr l\llsformed into the class of the ori8inal cycle.)
Third, !ht commutant or the lI"0up 'lfl ex, "'0) lies in the kernel oU. In fact, the
\ooJl a,p' a -
' 8-
under the ecnen o f l h t homomorphism e ill lnuuformed,
roughly speakina. into Ihe cycle a + P + a- I + /r I: the singular cycle &roup is
commutat ive, and the ey<;les <II + - I and {J + /3- 1 are Ilomologous to UfO.
Tberercre, the loop a'fJ 'Q - r . p - I is transformed into a cyde whieh is ho mologous
to <t ero.
R.c:membcr tll.l ltle C\:l l m' Ulfan l [T, .. J of a aroup l. ...ubt:rOllP &eller. ted by CO"'-
mutalOn of the fonn ' l . 11 . ' i' l . I i'. wh....e A:
' l " r . The COlI\II\ulalIl of . group i. its
normal . "ba<aup.
Fla. III
II can be shown that the eommut BnC makes up the whole kernel of the
homomorphism 8 (actually, the 'inveuc' homomorphism of the group Hf inlo
" 1/ ("1 ' 'I'l l Is COO5\rucled whUe pr oving the surjectl Yity).
JcerriJt 13- . geeore the proof or Th eorem 1 by the, plan Jliven.
We Jive t he following statement without proof.
THEOREM ) (HUREWlCZ). lA, X be IIi'QIIt -et){tn:/1!d lopololictli spQ SIIC"lI 'heir
... 0 wItaI Ie < q tUld If (Xl "" 0 (q > 1). 1MII H;<X; Z) = 0 ...11"..
0 < t. < H:tx: z) _ ...,OO. IJwfolJowin, di#,trPrI Miff' commll f ll ti,.
..,(1(1 --.!!.....- -..00
" .

In the two prnlous sectiON .. we ronsidered Iwo homot OlY theo ries. viJ: .
simpllcil1 and ilngular. Besides. there exist some more homology theo ries in
algebraic topology. Hist orkaUy. sl.lTl plidal homology theory was introduced earli er .
Different approaches as resar<h.t hc censtruct lcn of homoloty theory for lerlcul
lopolo&lal l j)Ka ( Alcxandrov.cech homolou eheory, sinplar homoloty lheory.
C'lc. ) were 4e:Ydoped later . Th e pr oblem eonm1lla Ihe COIldidolU for Ihe
eqlli.,ll1etIa of two different l heor\Q appeared to be quile oorn plieated.
Quile Il5eful ;,alh" ro llnlm it Ihe axicmlalil:" approaeh 10 hotllOlogy theory,
wbic:h implies lbe buic: pr operties of t he eonespoadcnoc between lopololleal
and a\a'eb'ak not>om a"m uionWically. and a1I lM remainin. eonuplS &Ie
dedu<:zd f,om the uiams chOSCn, Sud! II 5)"Jtmt of u ioms was okYe\opecl by
S!;fttlrod and EiimbuJ. lind here ..-e fOfUl,Wate their axiomo.
HOIrIoioo IMoq H . with. connec:tiq bomlJfllOf'Phism' . is c:oIlectioe of funclOl'1l lH'.). k _ 0, 1. 2, ... . from the aleaor)' of pain of lopoioPc'al
ClI. S. Homol os;yTh eory
spao;es A). A c x , into the I;lltqlOry o f Abelian ....01,1!, an d t he COUeClIon 0 1
f uoct oriaJ homomorphisnu k. .. 1, 2, .. ..
6. lX, A) ; H. <X, A ) - H. _ I VI . 0 ).
Moreover, Ih" fo llo wing axioms should be fullil lul:
( I ) HOMOTOP Y AXIOM. Le, muppln , s/. s : X - Y b e homotop ic . ond F . X x
x 1 - Yo homotopy conntcting them. Let A C Xond 8 C Y,ond F(A x I ) C B.
H. (/) '" H. (g ):H.(X, A ) - H.(Y,B)
/or orbitrory X . Y, A , B. / . , .
(2) l! XACTNESSAXIOM Forony paiT lA, 0) - <X, 0 ).
j: (X, 0 ) - (X. A I , t hcre is un exoct sequence
6... , lX. ...) ".11) " .(1)
::":="-' H. tA, 0 ) - H.(X. 0 ) _ H.(X.A)
6.t tx",Al
-H. _t lA,0) - ... - H o(X, A) - O. (I )
( 3) EXCISION AXIOM. Let (X, A) On arbitrary PQir . U ope n in X rind U
C In l A. Then the emlHddin, o/ /XI ll"$j : (X" U. A " U) - (X,A) the
(4) DIMENSION o'](I OM. For 0 spo .. eoruis,in, 0/ one point , H. (_ . 0) = 0
wll en k> O.
Exerc ise I " . Velify the fulrJlmenl of t he axi om, of homol ogy theory for sin llUla r
hornoi osy thCQry.
Th" axioms of h omology lheory ere comple te .in th" fo llowing: sense .
T1-IEUNIQUENESS THEOREM. LAllI. O1Id 1f .. H tMlO homolo8J' IlIeo/ia. {f thcre
a u's "n UontQrphum "'0 ; H
e , 0 ) ... R
0). then these theorksore nDtIl/'dlly
isomo'11hic 0 11 th c <:dregor)' ofpqin 0/ compDt:1 i.e.,
(i )/or 0 /1)' pair of compgct poIyhN,o (X, A) such tMt 0 U;Qnglll(l1wn 0/ A i$ll
SIIbRt 0/ trilln,ulill(on Q/X , olfd/ or t!flCh ;;0 0, 0 Illlirue/llmily oj isomorphi$m$
N..(X. A) . H/C(X, A ) '" "H.t(X, A). k > 0 I.f d<Jincd wllh "'0(.' 0 ) = "' 0_
(ii) / or (111)' mDppingf : (X, A ) - ( Y.
k .. 0, n lQlfollS HtU) .. HI:(f) ;mp{y in, i he commillativity of diDgrams
ore valid;
Introduet>on 10 Topolocy
( iii) llor diqroftU
" .,I-".AI
, R - 1/

wtdn 1M lsontorpiI imr of aI RflWI/CC of1_ (I) rm-comm/l fl1l;w.
SiKe il is beyond lIIe df:oooontary ceurse, we do 001 pve tt.c proof of tbe ufti
qurness tMorftll brtr.
In particu lar, siDauLa' .J the eat qory of paiu o f
com,.a: polyhedra. l'hllS, for . COIIlpad poIyhrdfOfl IK I, the i$omorpbism is valid ;
We winute Ihls (the proof Is nol sl ven heh ' ' " Sea. 6 lIl d' while trans felTinl
from one hornalon theory to tnother .
NOie that the indcpmdcnce of li mpUcial homolocY of Cllm))2CI poiyhedron
f rotll the dIoIa: of IrilUll\ll.tlon can be Qlablishrd both within the KlOPf of
simplicial tbcory iUclf and with 1M Woe of sinlUW homo""y wO!')' . Tbc l.lIcr
_hod c:onmll in w nSU\KtinJ an iIolllOrphism bet ween the bomoloaY aroups of
anatbltt a.y Irimg\llatlOll of . potyhedUJIIand lhe. NllI utar honooloaY o f this
pol yhcdro-.. Th e paniclllan of til ls reasoniq ar c complicated mou.&!t, and _ do
IKlt Jive tbcm bcrc.
2". By _ of Ihc lUIiqumas thcorml , establish tbe validi ty o f the: eu<;I
Ma)'ft-VlCloN scqvm for sinJular bolDOkJu thftIfY
... - H:(l X,' n IK
1;O) - H; (lKI I ; 0)@ HH I K
- H: <IK1I U IK
1; 0) - H : _ I UX)I n IXtl ; Gl
.. . - U I X
1; G) - O. (4)
WhereX l' XI are w bocl!nplexc:l of . nnlte sinl plicial complex K.
NOIe in l.'OnClulion that there exist homoloar Ihro riCl .l'liisfyingaxkmu {1)-(3)
bUl lIOl.. the dlme ml on ealom. Such homology thcones arc caUed 1!J/ 1fUQf'-
dltNtry, and il is their Invati;a:, u9n tbat makes UP. lugel y. the buic toples of
modernaJacbraic topolot; y.
AJon& with hoMOlop lTou ps. 1M cohomok>lY aroup$ used in
al&cbrak topolot;y. The main di ffcreucc of tobomolotY theory ft om bomolo,y
tbeo ry COfIlIim in the: rKi that comolol)l Ihrory is ' he col ltion H" of COlt-
tt Pariant fVllttOn H' &lid rhcrrfcm most arTOWS in cohonooIol)' theory dtatllt
their c1ireaiorls as compared trith holN)!ou tht'Of)' .
Tbt fundammtal obJtct ln collolnoloc' Ibtory b. cocbain compb. C", r.e
the seq_
of Abel ian VOUfJS c- (roc:lgln &n)Up6) and their homomorphisms d ie(differentials
or cobounduJ bommn orphWns) well thal die ~ Id
.. O. The toehaiD comp1Q
cohornoloc I1QRPiS an: thefae:tOf croups
H Ir(C ) '" ICndt/ lmd
- ' ,
Coo:baill COI'I'lplua are ofim obuiacd from dlaiD complo: a by the foUo'll'ilil
InCthod. Let C. be . chain etlInplo: , G an Abdj,an II'OUp. Let c- .. HOOl (Ca. 0)
be the Jet of all bomomOlllIlisms of Ote IJO\IP C.. inlO me IICllP G. For ". l!
If HOlD (C OJ. we derlM lIlc c ~ m d t <fkE Hom (e
.. " OJ by the C'quaJity
/d,. th. .. I - 'Yt (at .. !"rlc . I)
on an . rbitrat)' element "t I e C .. I ' Thus, by the boundary homomorphurm it..
of the chain compleJi: C we define the coboundary homomorphi.mlll d * of Ihc
cQCIWn COIJ\plex C. It is obvious thai
+'dle " thk .. 1 .. (d*"t )(il... 11k .. 1)
.. ~ t ( a t .. la
.. l 'Yt + 1) " " .t(Ol " o.
50 I hal C is II adtaUl compb. indeed.
App!)'inI this IZIcthod to C. '"' C. (K; Z}, i.e., lilt cbaln compla: of the
simplicialwmplex K 'With iDteanJ ooerrlCie:alS.we obt ain. codWa oompicJ: C (K;
0), whtu Ct(K; OJ .. Hom (Ct (K; Z ), OJ. Thecobomolop IfOIIPSH Ir(C' (1(:
OJ) an: taDcdtbe siIIIpIicial c:obomoklu" UOI/lK of the Nmplicial compb: J( (or lhc
polytw:dl'OR IXI ) with axfficialts in G. SiIniljJly, by eonsldmn, tltc sinplar ciWrl
COlIIpla C' .,(X; Z ) as C. , we otK.m the ~ eotlornolol)' IJ'OIIPS of the
topoloJical space X 1I'itbeocrrltienU in O. H01O'cYCf . hue certaiDdilrllCllhics shou!d
be overcome. viL. thea related (0 Ihe f.lll:! that the tel of smpOlT dim. &muP
ImcratOfS Is iDrmite.
A l)'1Iml of axioms u hts and tlIe utiiqu_ tlIeorcm is " a1id. also for
cohomoIoO theDrY. These ale sitniLu to the uioms and theorem for hondoJy
theory . An imponant advantqe of eotIcxnoJoIYtheories over homolosy thear!" is
that (he eohomolOi)' group. or l cometric:obj11 produce a rina with & mullipli(:ll.
tion ",hich I gener ally $pelIkin DontriYial. In I nWl\ber of Ploblcms. both
homot olY and eohomo lolY groups lml used.
I. The Homology Groups of Spheres. We now cak\llate the s.i.o&u1u
bomoIoJ)' VOUPio f the spheres S . The kncroo"Jcdgc of IheK JfOUPS enables us to In
uocIlNlC the nolioas of the clcvec of. lUppiDa, dwaetcriMic &lid the inda of.
sinaular poIat of veaOl fldd .
lA1 X be . ceI1 rozapln. Y. rmilCsubc:omplca. We sbo w Ih..
H; (X, Y;O) . H; (XI Y; OJ (I )
lauu,hOllloon10 Topolocy
...htD" > O. and ..hUt X I Y .. a faa M JPl'C't of X rd;u;yt to Y .
Not e, firsl. t hat the cdl comploi X I Y is homol opy eq llivalen t to the complex
X U ,CY. whtre CY il the I nc ' over Y wit h the vC1tCJl and I : Y - X il the
embeddlnl . In raet, Ihe com plex X IYwlncklel; wilh the c:omplcx (X U ,C Y )/ C Y.
Since C Y Is a contractible Jubc:omplex of t he complex X U i CY, the com plCll.cs
(X U jC Y)lCY an d X U iC Y an homotopy cqlli'nlmt (S ~ . 7, see. 10.
01. IV). ThaefOl' c
H ; (X I Y ; 0) ... H;()( U ,C Y; 0 ).
and. ...hen " > 0,
(ICe EJI. 9, sec. ).
The ((lI1C CY Is homotopy equivalenl tl) the point E C Y, hence
H:c.x u ,C Y ; 0) .. H;VC U iCY; 0 ).
Cooukkr !he CI1IbcciciinI mappinl of PM
I : (X. y) - (X U ,C Y . C Y);
it ind llces the hcmQn\Orphism
I . : H ~ ( X , Y; 0) - H ~ ( X U ,CY, C Y; 0 ).
Ul IO show th ai J. is ... Isocnotphf:sm.. We break tbe cone C Y intO two pam
C l yanc1 Cl y , as shown ill r". 114. Ieb o bvio llS ttl &:!
H ~ ( X U j C l y , Cl y; 0 ) ... H ~ ( X , Y; 0).
Rememberttull ra 10ll01opca! lper:c Y. lhe "" ne CY .. d..fined.. Ih.. rDa ", l pee..
( Y" I)/IY )( 0) .
Ea ch cycle IS C; (X U iCY, CY; 0 ) can be rep1accd toy a cycle
homologous 10 it and such t hat the image of each sinplar simplex from (Ut)'tt in-
tersectingX will 1'101 inte rsect C I Y, and, conversely, each singular simplex intersect-
ing C' Y wiu nO( intersect X (see Ex. 12, 5. 4). Discarding in the chain nV)Zk all
simplexC5 intersecting C
Y, we will obta in a cycle:i 6 Ct(X U ICY, CY: 0) which
is homologous to the original . On th e ot her h:llld, zk can be cons idered u a cycle in
the greup of chains C1tx U ,.ely, C
Y: 0 ):' theref ore, It i$ an epimorphism.
II can be shown similarly that /
is a monomorphism.
Co nside r an appl icat ion of formula (I) to the cakulat icmof homology gr oups or
the sphere Sn. We shall need the hom ology groups or the disc D
Since ]jn Is con-
tra ctible to a point, the homol ogy gtoups of the disc are Isomorph ic to t he
homology groups of the point , viz.,
H;(J:J ": G) '"
whenk _O
whenk >O
(sec Ex, 6, Sec. 4). We begin cateulating with small dimensloM n. Since SO the
disjoint union or two points ,
0 ) := 0 (!) 0, H:<SO: 0 ) - 0 when k > O.
Furthermore, due to the path-connectedness of sn . when n > 0, we have
Note now tha.t the sphere Sh is homeomorphic 10 the faclor space D
/Sn -
Therdote. due to (1). we have
H;(1jn ,sn-I:
"" H; (Sh:O) when k > O.
Let us make use of t his TeSult.
Cons ider an CJl act homology sequence of ]j I, S, while repJacillg, when k > 0,
the homology groups of th e pai r by the homology groups of the circumference s -.
... _ H;<S; 0) - H;(O';0) - HHS
: 0) - H; _ 1(5;0)
- ... - lI fl$J; 0 ) - H f(iJ t ;IJ)- H l'<s l: 0) - H6 ($0: 0 )
O. (2)
HavinS noticed thatH;W t ; 0) .. Owbenk > 1 _ ,(Sa ; OJ = o when
k > 1, we obt ain from (2) a short exact sequence
O- H; <SI; O) - O, r.
hence H:(SI ; G ) ... 0 when k > I. Besides, the homomorphism (S; 0)
- I ; 0 ) is epimorphic (verify th at by definition!). Tb erercre, our exact se-
Quence (2) Ie.dt to II short exact sequcnce
I P'l ... "'"1
O- H1(S :O)-O(1)G _O_O,
and hence wc ob tain the isomorphism HitSI : OJ '" O.
lauodaroooo ' 0 Topoioo
No....we .pply mdp cU<m. Auume 11\;1.' when I < q " " - 1 the isomoi phisms
lI,ave bot" cstAbiished tOf the sq,
H' ($' : G) . [Gwtlm Ie - o.q,
t 0 when lr "O, q.
CortDdcr me hoorl olol)' sequenceof the pair a>";S'" - I) while as
earlier bOlllol OC)' lfOIlPSof the pMr by tM homolol)' lfOUPSof the IPhcuS'" :
... - H;0 "' : O)- H;(5"';O) - H; _ 1(5'" - ': G)
-HI _ I ll) "' ; O) - .. . (3)
Whmk > I, _ b.'W:H;tb "; 0 1- o. Hi _ , (h";O) -
under COIUickntIon of eua. KqUCDC:e (3) La of the r_
0 - H; (5"' : 0 ) - Hi _ 1($ '" - I; G ) - 0.
hen ce the iUlnlOrpbism rOUoW$: H;(S"': 0) ... H; _ I(S'" - I; 0 ). Ie > I. Th us,
whC1l " .. 2, Weoblltln
H; ($"' : G) - 0, ... . n:, - I(S"'; O) - 0,
... _ ,(5'" - 1;0) ... G....
To calaiIatc H; ts" ; 0 ). 'llt' e put Ie _ I in (:
m - H: (b " ; O)- Hf ($"' ; O) - H:(S" - 1; 0 ) - H:W"': 0 ) - ...
Since S'" - J,lJ" path-ec nnected , we h.VCIf:(S'" - I; 0) ... H:(D ": 0) .. 0
(see EJ.. 8. Sec. 4) . Hmoc, Ka 1.
_ 0, and of the U Kl o.esso r ()). we 0b-
tain u hon exact llIlQ_eeO - H t (S" : 0) - O. i .e., Ht (S" ; G) .. O.
'JlJc inctIxUcHi h)'llCChc* is thus mcno:lcd 10q .. " _'J'ha"dore , _ uIlimaldy.
" / ($" ; 0 ) -0, j_ O .. .... 1; (4)
H: 4S" ; O ) _O. ,, ;;'1 : H: (5: O ) _ O $ O:
HJ ($ O: 0 ) - O. i .... I.
'Tb1U. the homolol)' II'OUp5 or S" havebemcompu lcd .
While the homolou &roUP' of we dld not I;lSC the
.tIcor atl of homo1ocY lheory (II' Sec. S). We could used it as roll ows : since:
the spbCff S " It homeotl\OrJl hi( 10 the bouDd.". off" ... , of the simplu , . ... " we:
:In c the Isoll101"Phislll
H1(11m"" + ' 11: 0 ) .. H: (S" : O). (S)
whmce. due 10 the r_ Ju (see (9). Sec . 3) colKCmirl, H. .. I ): 0). we obl ai..
the _ rcsuh as Po (4).
Not e Ihml In See. 4, Oi. UI. Ihe Brouwer find_po int theol"C171 and ' he tbeoeen
on the impos.slbllilYof fOnNn, a ret rkUo;>n o r Ihc .. dilC(KIlOthe 1)ounduy sphere
....cur bIIscd on t he fun ctori al propert y o r homotopy , roups and on Ihe re-Iull .... hlch
has DOl been proved: ... ($ " ) Z. Now. on the baliI of the cst ..bIidtcd '-not.
pbis.m H:<s"; Z) '" Z and homoklJY functor, the 1_above-mentioned Importaln
theor_ Ill-a)' be comilkra1 &$ JlfoYcd In f ll(l . theu proof OCIly in YOl..ed
the aDona or a fv.netor to lhlt calqoryof Abeli an 1l'0Il p' and abo th e kroowkdll' of
the ..-oup of the spa S .
urciW I". PedUlX from "Tlleorcm 1. (!\a t ..,.($") ., O. k < II; . " IS") '" Z.
Let u.t diKus5 the topolOJical lnYarianoe of the: nlon of the dimmsio. of ..
EudiOeaa sptlCC. It is tllown from alsebnI 11m IWO Eudidun SJl*;eS of 0',,: Arne
dimctIJioo are isomofp/l.K. and hence homcomollJble. It II known also tha i the
and 11." are not isomorphic: when m ". If . A q ll n tio!l arisn they
are ho meomorphic. The foUowlol lh col'l:TTl Pl'ovidcs a nctal i...e answer to t his q ues
tlon and l IlIes tmro:by tbat the dimeR$ion of. Euclidean space il a t opoLolPcal in
variant .
THEOREM I. q M '" II Ihell , he spIIC'Q Rift ,utd R
(I'" " 01 homtoml>TPhlc.
CoNiderone-pointcompacti(lCaliOllSA- '" 11." U E'" and /I" '" R" U t"
of the JPKft 11. - and If ( lee Sec. 14, 01. 11). The bases ot nei &hbouriloods of th e
points EM, f "are the do5ed balb with centres at t he oriI:ln of eoof
dlll . lelI on \be R UKl R". rc:spectiYdy. II iseuy(0 see thai a COI'<)-
PKlifIQtIotl oCa Elld kkan 1pKII: ;' hoIncolXlDl')lhi(: to a sphue of the"_dlmcn-
thai there cWu a R'" _ R", It can be atcnde::l lo
!bit 1ft3ppir!, f : - I by bavia& pU.1I n "' ) - f ", 11III elU)' tO see that: the lMPP-
_. I e abo a We. obWn bcnC'It dIal lhe spbaa S'" and S UIt
abo homeomorpbie.. lbItn due to the topok:lsical iDnrianor oC' the
H; (S"' , Z} ""H (S" ; ZI ((I{ cadi t-.
We & this is. not 80wbcn '" .. II, lltCFltfor e, the asswnpdon
concc:rniqthe p:isu:ncc OI IM bomcomorpbism. : R'" _ R when '" '" IIi$inoor
2,The Degree of a Mapping, Wit now pass ever 10 the Ru.dyol homomor of bomoloIY l'ouc:K iDduco:d by mapplnaJ of lI.dimcmional spherC5. II
foUoWJ fn:m!hlt path-<Ollneetcdne:u of lhe sphltflt thJl if _ ; - ill a mapp ing
froll:l one of lbe Spfta'it to anot het, then Ihe homomorphilm
.,.. , : 0) - ails an Isoroorpbism. TIl It homomorphism
_.. : 0 ) - G)
is spcak1q. an isomoq)hiAn, Irthc:trOUP of intqcr'l Z is Weft asthlt
U_p of G and thit iIo<norpbi$ml H; ($; ; Z) _ Z.I "" 1.2 an flAed
thallbit " m be COQSidcnd as tbc. CfII1olporpbiml .,. . .. ; Z - Z
of \be arou.p Z. Stx:b a bomomorpbillrl iI doctam1Dcd uniq uely by the v.alue of .,.."
OIl thIt 1.2. bocaUllt ... .. (ott} - ",.,. (1),
DEF1NmON I , The .,.. .. (1) is Q1lcd tht: " tw 0/ /I lO' and
cknoUd by dq'1' .
I n..od_i.... IOTopolosy
NOIe lh.u del. can , , e- nerally qlC8 kin,. assume any inteVai values. The fil n of
des . depends on the choice or th ..,neratina ckmoenlt in Ih.. groups Z}.
H:lSr;Z}. i .e. on the method or seu ioa isolnorpblPns of the$e gr OUp5 ....tlh the
JI"OIlp Z. Ir T is a dc:lIOa'lt or the uoup //:(s ;Z ) lhen (-T) Is also its
smcrat-ittl ckmal1; _ Z ean bIClCStablisbood in t wo
_)'lI. tr .. Isa mappinaof S intOiudr then dq., dab not dcpmd on the choiccof
a ,mcfttq d emmt.
Note 1"-< it rDl\ottts rromT1KcIem J . see. " . Ib. lhe definlrlon1or IM dqr... ot a "'Ill-
pin.... : - s a (i.e., dq ,,)wblch arepftll inlmmot hornolOSlYarOUPl(foeS:. -t, a..llf)
aDt1 homolOty IJVUPI are identil;al.
II b obvious that i f '1>, i- : S - S arc homOIOpic mappln,esthm dq ... _ deg 010.
Th e ccnverse i f also ltUlC (the Hopf theorem) but the proof is I'IOt gi ven here .
2". Pr ove thlt for 'P . 010 : Sn - S. the Cormu la dCI (rl ) _ dea 'P' dCI -r is v. lid.
J ". Sho w l hat t he degree or l he constant mappin, or thc sphere S Imc ltsel r equals
= .
". Let arnappinJ . : R" 1 _ R
+ IblCsudi that+",) . Owhm r " 'x, "R ,
and IIUIppfnasto,,: S _ 5" be ddioed by the cqu.ali ties
.... (I) - . ' .. p" R.
Prove that desi , - dea ... .
Hhtl : Coruuuct altomotopyClJN>lCtlq the f, aDd ".
The ColIowint. t wo exemsa arc ea&)' to do on the bul.s or l he lsomorphi$m or
$inaulat ud mnpliciaJ bomolol)' an;lup5.
5". LetA : R" + 1 _ R" + I be a nonsiDgLlilt Uncar opICftt or. We define thIC map.
pio, A : Sn _ S by the Connula .
e e s- .
Prove that ra r the operator A _ - I: R
+ I - R" + I . the equality dell A _
- ( - I )" 1holds .
6". Prove l hat for an ubitTal'Y, nOIJ5in,gu)ar U.near opcr1llar A : R n ... I _ R " ... I.
th.. equUlly = sl.&n IA I Is valid.
HIlI" dUll '" the dass ot Iincar 1IpfttlOfS , A II bcxruxopic: 10 an operat;Ot
A ' wboK matri:II: Is dlqoaaI aDd wtIoW diqom.I '"'"-nu CQual "" I. and contt.nla
oiDrplicial partiliorr or the spbac owbIdt II iaar:iaru; willi rcapccr. to IIwuanslonaallOa A
a ma.ppirla. : U _ R IO" '. wlH:re U is a usion ill R IO I . WlIiIc: In_
YICSliptinJ t he soIotions of t he oquation
_ o.
il IScUSlomary to cal l m.pp;ng 4> vedaI' On U (a pO;nt;ll; is usoeiated
with the vecto r 4> (K)), and the sotcuons of equat ion (6) singuIQr points af the venQr
4> .
In praciiee , the mappinll 4> is not al ways continuous. If ;t has isolated po ints of
disco ntinuity (or points of of Yallle), then these poi nu ar c al so ca.11cd
singular Most subsequenl statements.are also valid for such vector
LCI x In: lUI isolated sintil ular point of a vector field It, i.e. 4> (K0) = 0, and let
be DO ot her sol utions of equation (6) in a neighbourhood of the poi ntxO. Th en
for a sufficiently small R , when 0 < I' < R , the degree of the mappina 4>, ; s" _
given by the eCl, ualily
Is derUlcd, and docs n ot depend. on Ihe choice of I' (compare wilh E>tercise 3) .
DEFINITIl?N 2. The deg. {or of the maptngs f, (for wfflc\ent ly small r) is
called the mdo: of the 'Soialedsmgular point x of the vecto r fIoel d .; we wi ll denot e
it by ind (K0, It).
Lei a field 4> have no singular points on t he bound:uy S: (;r) of the ball
D: .. I (;r0) with radius r and centr e at the poin l xO(it is not now t hai
a singulu point and I' sma ll). lt ts evident that in this case also, formula (1) de fines
the mapping 011, : 5" - S" .
DEFlNm ON 3. Th o degree deg f, of a mapping of , is eo.llcd the chtlrlu ist ir:of the
vector 4> on th e bouodary of the ba.11 D: +- I (K0). Wr: will denole th e
characteristic by x(., 5:",.
Along with tIM: tcnn 'characlr:risticof a vector field' , the term ' rotauon or e vee-
tor field' often used. which Is similv 10 the 2-dimensional cue, where r.,..
y>: 5 1 _ st. lite degree deaf' is lbe ilIgebraic number of rotations of the veaor f' trl
when X ranges over t he circu mfcrenoc 5 1(in 'the positive direction).
THEOIlEM 1. U t 4> no slngU/Qr points I" a c/OMf1 boll D/ + I(;r O), then
:d . , 5: (;t.. O.
Plt ooP. The mapping of, is homotopic to the cons lant mOlpping 11>" of into th e
polDI e the degree or 11>0 beina: zero . The corresponding IIomotopy is
I lI>x-.
liven. e.a: .. by the fonnula
lI> (t rx + xo )
4> (1 x)- oc ec I , x eS"
, - IfI(tr,tr + ;11; )1
COROLLARY. If ]((II> . S; '$' 0 Ih"n th" f"' /d 4> hIlStit I""st on" si1fl,u/sJr/XIlnl in
tM lNllI .. l(;t0).
Inttoclucllon 10 Topoloty
No te that the charlKtaUtk x (to, S;'(cD is dermed even if the field. is gi ven
only OJ! U.C boundary S:(%O) of the ball D: l (r 0)",
The foUowinJ theorem II a direct corollary to Theorem 2.
THEOREM J. ILl Q siwn on the sphne 5:(r) (1M Ailwe li D
points. If x{+, 5:" .. 0 alnnot iN ext ended to Ihe txlll"D,." + "," 0)
without poinls.
The COf\VtT5eto Theorem:) is also valid; it follows from the abovt-melltloned
Hopf Ihooren>.
The d l.raacrlstic of \I VC(:IOf flCl d can be defined on Ihe boundary of any
resto n l) c + I whicll isI compact polyhedron provid!lhat . (x) 0 on all:.
The roUowlq theorem which we give wilhl,)ll! proof relata the global
characteristic x (. , an) ora vector"field4owith the Jocal characteristics, viz., indices
ind <.r. to) of the qular poinu of the fldd .
THEOREM . !AI have 110 sin,,,ffl' points QII an.OM /uJw: afinltc nwmbu
m of.ri"",/Qr points }fI, . .. . ;r;'" In 0; /1lnt

x(+,ao) - E ind(
,. ,
(' )
E:rrislt 7- . Let XO sin, u1ar point of IIsmooth vector rJeld40 on U l: R" + I,
and let the Jaoobi an maw ( :: ) of t he mapping at lhe poi nt ...
be non-
lingular (such poiDts arc said to Ilondta_ate U), Prove 1h.a1 .r \$ an
poi ot Of lhe field .. I nd t hat
_ lia:n det ( :
HIlII : Coostruel . llomoIop)' <:e>nneo:tin& the .....ppInp
Note that hac ind ) wUtQdcs with the ' sign' of the point.r, E.0I or tbc in-
venc ltna ac of a rCl\lIar value (fCC Sec. 6, 01. IV), Therefo, fOfa SIOOQth field.,
provided thaI the poi nts.r
, ... , x'" an: nondegenerue, formuia (8) coin-
cides with the defini tion of the oriented degl'Cle of I mapping . ; .-l(N) - N.
where N is I ellJllllCded component of the open set R If ... I " an and COIIWnli the
poinl O. the manifolds . - I (JII) and N arc Ofieliled aimilarty by choosing
an ori entation iDR
+ I . The indkateclconstruction ean serve asanothcr TlKthod of
determining the characterislic x(., an) in cue a r1Cld. is OD fl when Of
Tbr fld6 _ it DQl. , evldelltly,. W>CIor field on tl><IILLIl.lfoKl III
Ihc ocD.IIC of Sec. 8, 01. IV,
.. These are rqu.lar poinu ofthc <- 50;;, 1. 01, I V) .
ClI. S. H"""otogyTheory
necessary) the point 0 is replaced by a sufficient ly near reaular value of the mapping

, . Let a mapping 4' : C - C be defined by lhe formula 0) (z) .. z", where

n > 0 isan integer. Co nsiderin g as It mappinll4' ; R 2- R 2, ca lculate lhe index of
the zero Sinllula r poi nt of the field 4' . Do the s.arm: for the map pinll '+'(t) .. (i'f .
Consider It vector Iield X (,t') on a mani fold ""''' . Let X
e M" be an belated
sinll\llar po in! of the field X(:( ) . Le. , X(x l .. O. and lei there a ist a
nejghbcurbood U(x) C M" of the poi nt in which X "'l :;c 0 when X x O. In
local coordinates. the field X ", ) Is of the form
(x\ . .... X. ;XI(xI .... . + ... + X .(:( t . .. . . K.. ) - '- ) .
'\ IlK
TIleind ex ind (x0, X l of a singular po intx" ofa vector fieId X(x) on a man ifold can
be dermro as the lnda of a sing;l1ar pol.nt "'f,.... (here . Kj" ar e the eoordina tes
of the point KO) o f the vector field
- !Xl (xl' " . K,,), ... X..(x\ . . . x. )!
;n the spliceR ".
9" . Pr ove tha t the indell" ind (x l>. X l nOI depend on the choice: Ilf local coor-
10" . Lr:t/bc a smooth furtctilln on a manifold. x"I ncndegener ate o-ilicaLpoint o r
index),. of the function f (see See. I I . Ch . LV). Prove that ind ", 0, , rad / (x ) ) ..
'" {- I r.
We now pass Over til the st udy of homology grou ps of spaces hIving the
hilmoillPYIype of I cell complex. This cllUSof .pllCC5 is inter u ting' fim , it
Is quite large (seesee. \2, 01. tV) . and second , bce.ause lhe cell comp.lex hllmology
s roups can be: calculated by quit e a simple an d d egam method .
Let X be a finite cell c:omplcx. We construe! a chain complcll C. (X; G ) in the
foll ilwini way. Let uS lak. the Abelian IIroup of fannal linear CI,Imbinatlons
L ' I ' 'ff. where I J E G lire ar blt rary elements. and ",k k.d imefiSi(l nal cells of the
complex X. the group G); the summat illn is over all k_dimensioAlll cells.
"Therefore . the group Cl (X ; Gl i slscmcrphlc t o the dtrect wm o r es many replicas
o r the group G as there are cells Ilf dimen.l lln Ie in thettUuIar decomposition of X.
We will assume , mo reover, thai each replka o f a corresponds to one o f the
k_dimensional cells.
Let us define the differ enti al ii
: Ck(X: en- C
_ I (X: 0 ). Lei ,.k be a
k.dimenslonal ceu of X ; i15 bQund&ry i.l contained in the unilln o r cellsof dimeD-
siens nOI higher than (k _ I) (k - l)-dimt nsiollOll sktlt ton QI X denlll cd by
Xk - I). It foll ows fro m the definlUr.>n of a ccll complex, tha t the: cell,.k is given by
zso InrroduClIon l<ITopol08Y
the gluin, mapping f : Sir - I - x - '. Consider the oomposhlon Sk - ,
_ X l<- I _ x* - I I XI( - 1, where thelast errowdenotes a mapp ing to the we<lge of
iphe.-cs. The space Xl( - ' I X
- l is a cell complex; il consists o f one cell o f cimen-
sion zero. vu. , the point _ Into whiCh lhe sp ace Xl( - 1 was transformed under the
factorization. and of as lJ\llIIY celt" o f d imens ion k - I gl ued along the bo undaries
to lhe poi nt as lhe re WeT<' in t he skd d on X
- I . i.e. , in K. Sud! a space ;.1 called
the wedge of (k - $pherts. We pick IIceu -r:I in Xl - I. In t he
wedgl: of sphera X - It X I( - z. there to it a anain sphere Sf - I.
Con5.idel' t he composition o f mappings
se - I!.X" - I _ X
- 'IX
_ Sf -',
where the lasl arrow means a mapping with rC5r.:t to the subspace of the space
- ' IX
- 1 consisting of all spheres except Sj - '. The of Ihis ccmposi-
tion mapping i:l caUed t he t:Ofifficknl of Ihe uffs and , . - I and
denoted by [r , ..: - II: the incidence coefficient show, how many times tie bo und-
ary of the cell .." 1$ 't wisted' onto the ccll"l - , in gluing the cdl .." 10 t he skeleron
X - I. Deltote the set of cells of dimensIon k _ I in the compkJ<X by ll"" - 1
for any cell ... , we defi ne the differenl lal 5 k by formula
.1".(..11') ., r I""' ''l - IJ' ''l - 1
je O" - I
and 5" to Ct(X; 0) by Unearily ", It can be $hown t hat " _ r " = O.
Thus, a chain corcetex C. (X: G) has been constr ucted. Its homology groups
turn out to coincide with the sinsu lar homology groups of the complex X. The
proof of this (act involves only the exact sequence technique. Since it is too lonl' we
do not give il here.
The advantage of the method of comput ing homology gro ups with the help of
the complex C. (X"; G) is Obvious; the sroups C,,(X; Z) have a finite number of
seneraton in con trasl with t h. e groups q(X; Z ). Therefore, the subaroups of
k.dimensional <:yete, and boundaries also have:a finite number of as well
as their factor llfOuPHI(X; Z) . It follows from group t heory Ihat
HI<X: Z) <=. $ . .. @ Z )@ Z... (i) ... @
'" '.
where Zotis a fwite cydic group o f order pt. with Pf being di visible by p1+ I ' The
number P" Is called a k-dimensional &111 number, and th e numbers Pile
kdimenslonaltors;on 01 th e S/XlCf! X.
In spite of a somewhat complex char acter of its substantsnlon, the described
method is quile convenient from t he practical polm of view. It enableJ us to com'
pule h. omolos y sroups of a good deal of concrete spaces sImply.
Exercise 1 . the $phcrc S" as a cell ccmptex S" U e O. n 1,
compute t he homoloSYgroups of S". Show that P,,; _ 0, k '" 0, n ; Po _ tJ" .. I and
thai each p/' '" o.
JUltllkc In Sec. 4, wClUSumc hcl"c thaI G is. rinl w;lh Idcnlily.
The homolollYgroups of l he ecmplcx projective spac e CP" will be calculated In
tile followil'lll; way. At first, we define a smooth Iuncuon j" on lile mani fold
whose: all critical poi nts arc nondegenerate, and then estab lish willi its help the
struc ture af me eeucomplex which is homotopy eq ui valent 10 CP" while calculati ng
lIS homology groups.
We will cons ider CP" as the orbit space of the group 51 act ing on S211 I, We
de fine the function '1': e" +- I - R 1 by putt ioB""(;:0- ". - Ec
c} arc rut numbe u wilh [' ) < Cj .. 1,"'Let (to . ... . z,,) e s ... r C e"'" I. l.e.,
E It) [1 '"' I . It is ell$)' to sec Ihal for any eomptex number XsuCh that 1),. 1 = I ,
i 0
tile juaUty "'(;:0 - . :1:,,) :; ",().zo.. .. , N:,,) holds. Thus. 'I' defin es a funetlon on
CP" . Denou: il byf : CP" _ R
We no.... const ruct on CP" the following loca l coordi nat e s)'$tcm. Let be th e
set of equivalence classes of poin ts (:/1, ... , z"l e s + I such that 1./ '* O. Put
h:-I = xfr + iYjt The functions
. .... z,,). Yjl:(Z/l, " . :;, ) . " = o. ....J - l , j + 1. ... , n ,
define a diffeomorphism or the set onto the unit ball in R z" .
Exerc(u 2 _VerifY that the sets V/ and mappings given by the funct ions
.. 0. .... 1 - I . J + I, ... .n, j .. 0, I, . .. . rI.
form an at las on the smooth manifold c p n,
SillCt'; lzk1
.. xJ + Y;18nd It.} 1
- I - E"'11 + yAl, t he fune tlon! can be
represented in local coordinates in V
in the form
!(.... xjI"Yjln ...) '" Cj t I: (cl: - Cj)(x"lt + yJ ) .

Th e on ly critical point of the function! In V
is the point xjl: '" Yj t '" O. Ie. '"'
.. O. I, ... , j - I. ) + I, .. . , II. Th is critica l point is nondegenenue, and its index
equals t wice the number o r nesative dlrrero:ncesel: - 'i' l.e., t wice the nu mber or
those numbers c.. which a re tess t han c/ . 'ruererore, t he index of a crit ical poin t in V
equals zero, that or a cr itiC1lI point in V
equ als two , etc . In smeral , the indeK or a
critical point in 0 b 2),
ThtU, the runet ion! has " critica l poi nt s whose indices equal V, 0 fIi: j fIi: n
Therefore, t he space CP" has the homotop y type of the cell compleliX consistillil of
cells oreven dimensions 2J, 0 0:;; ) " n, on e of ellc:hdimension (see Sec. 12. Ch. IV).
For such a complex K. we have
when k .. 2j ... 1n ,
Inlroducno.. U,I
(I )
Since on e of the l!l"OUPS<; <K:OJ. C
_ l (1:; OJis triv ial, in Ihe eomple;o: C. (K; G )
eonsistingof the grOI,lps;Ct(K; OJ, thedifferemial can only be trivial. Weobtain the
HW ( ; G) '" Ct(K; G).
Taking into I.C(lI)Unl the fact that the homolosy groups of spaces which are
homotopy equivalent coincide, we have the fLOal result:
1I1(Cp n; G) _ r
to ot herwise.
EnrrlU 3. Silo,", thaI if Un is a cOlnpac:t. mwoth manifold o f dimcTUiQn n. t hen
H:W- ; G) = OWhCllk > n.
Quite imponant in applications is the question when a continuous mlPping
j: X - X ora topological space K intD ilselfh lLS a filledPOint,l .cwhen a point x
X!Iucl\ '" x exim. SUrfltienl o;onditions for the u i$.tena: o f flllcd poinlS
can be given in terms of homology grou p$ and t heir homomorphi slN. The prt$eJl1
U<:tion u devoted to these que:stiom . ThroughoLit below, we wiD consider
topo1ogicallPUes which are compe,tt polyhedra .
I. The Lefschetz Number of a Simplicial Mapping. Hentdorward ,
we wWwume ee coeffICient group G to be II field . Consider IIsimplielaJ mapping
J: IKI - tK I, wher e in aeeor dan with the of See. 3. K is a finite
simplicial o;omplex. The indllCtd homomorphism
f .
: Hp(J(: G) - Hp(K: G)
Is an endomorphism o r the vector spa.a: Hpff<; G). Th e choice of II basil in H
G ) enablc:l us 10 associate Ihe endomorphism with a ma!ri Jl whose spu r Sp . p)
doesnot depend on the choice of a besis.
compact pol yhedr on IKI Into itself is the quantity
= E ( -!Y' Sp(f. p) '
DIJt to Ihe li" iltn<:$l of the f\mplicial compltlt K, sum (I) is lite sum of:!. finite
number o f adde nds (th e finiteness of K is also required for Hp{K; GJ to be nnile
dimauional vector spaces and for t he definil ions of the spurs Sp V.
) 10 be
Denote the spur of the end omorpbi!!m mauix
I,: C,ff<; G) - Cp(K: G)
of Ihe vector space Cp(J(: 0 ) by Sp Up ).
Ch . i . Homol oty Theory
THEOREM I. FOI'II #mplkitJt tmlpp/Jtl/, thr / fffmU/1l II Wllid
fy =- 1: (- IYSp<!,).
Theorem I Slllln thai Ihr A1tcmatln&sum of che spurs of a dlain c:ompla crt -
do mDll>hUmequals Uteahcrnat ifll su.mof Ihe spuno f the ind uced homoJou croup
To proveTheorCl\1 I. lhe foUowin& IWO lemmata are neo:-.-, which are IlD easy
auciK from linear _Iaetln.
LEMMA I lAt A : E - E M an rrtdomarpld$tft 0/ 11 I't'ttor $pIIcr E. 0 wt;l fl'
$Ilb1pr 0/ tlw SptlCtt lind AEg CEo. 17w1l A dif_ t/lr rmiomorphism
U1Mtrd... 2. Lrr <1 ; E - F br lUI isomor'P/litm 0/ I'/Of 11MA ; E _ E ,
D : F - F suchlil pt fht dial,,,,,,
1$commululi vt, I.t ., BlI '" o1A; thtn
Sp (A) . Sp (8 ).
(' J
THIII'II001' 01' TJlEOlUlM I- Siw:.eJ. : C. (.1:; G) - C. (K; G) is & chain <:ornpll:'X
hOmomDfllhlsm, Jp(Xer a, >C xee a, and J,(Ima,+ .) C 1ma, .. I'
Let us introduce the follo';n& dtsilllations :
Ker a, . Z, . Ima..... . =B, . C, CK; G)IKt1'3, ... r,. Z, IB, . H"
B)' Letftma I . we "ave
Sp<!... ) . Sp <!... l) + Splf,..l
.>... s p <!, I.,) + SpiIH,)'" Sptf,lr, ) (' )
Bul the clitrermlial a, mchl(:a a c:&llOnlQ! uomorphism 1, : T, - B, _ I' and
1OO1"I,:(lTel'. tbc dlagam
11Ilr o' ll m ion t il TlIpOlOIY
Bea.use Co(K: G) xer itO'
SpJh ) =SpJIO) O. (1)
, .

It is dev that by der...ition the homomorphism / : H, - H, coincides with the

: Hp( K : G ) - H, (K : G ) . Th us, rrom eqwilia (5). (6), (7) , we

Sp (/, ) Sp (/, I., J Sp (/0') ... Sp (/, _ II., _ ,)';
E (- I)' Sp(/, ) -
IhU5 ,
E (-I)"ISp (/1'1. ,)

E (-I)"Sp(/.,):

I: (- I)' Sp(/, ) . E (- I)P SP (fo, )

' 00 '00
COROU .ARY. "l OW!' o/c: mmU:luistic
;:00"" QM , in /Hlrllc:u/If', oW!, Q, R 0' C, Is Qn
tn fat t, hlvinl considered in 0). basis consis tina or orient ed simpleKcs,
we obtain . hat Sp tip) is an int eger , and thercrore, 4UCt o (4), A, is an int eger
The rate or the number A, is disclosed by (he roUowinltheorem.
THEOReM 1. u t/ : IKI - IKI If 'md Al .. O. Then therr
uiJa If f utd poi" t a/the mtlpplnl / . 1.1., If poInt;rr e K such "" x.
h OOF Due to (2), il rollows from tbeOOlldil lon 11, * Otbat I: ( - l ySp If,) '" 0,

tben:fou chere Q: p 5UCh tha i Sp <!,) '" O. With respect 10 a basis oonsiSiinJ or
oricDlal simplucs, the matri:Jl o rthe C9lUisb o r dr:n>enu t'qual to
O. + I ancI - I . SuI Sp lip ) ;It 0, thCf'l! is f: /( w eb lbat 1, lrf ) '" *
T'hfteror e / l ,., IS.. homcotrlOf1)hism or 0010 itselr wttich is Iinc;o, in baryarw: ric
coordinalCl , the buyccntJe '" is a ru.(d point or tM mappull / . WI tiisnw .., .mportanl. o;ompkmcnl (0 Th_em 2 lAf.f : IK\")1 - IKl be
a simpllc:ia) tllqlpinJ: it is ttrlainly a continuous mappinl J: IKt - IKI , but not
II'CSUIi ly simplicial . We introduce the rolloWMlI supcrpQ1ition 1)
o r chain IlomolDOf'llbisms
r; or
C. l.Kv ' : O) _ C.(K; O) - C. tKvt ; O).
Tllc chain homomorphism at
] . indtlCCli tl'>c I>omuLosYaroup homomorphism
By ddinit ion, we put
11./ _ E 1- I)"Sp!9!)!. l. ,J.

E ( _ I)" Splel;l / ,l _ I: ( - I)" Sp [9 !' / . ). , 1

, . e , _e
and that If AI " 0, tben t here exist simplucs '" E J(ltl and...
E K. SIIch W I T' C ,.1'
and!b'> - ,II ' .
Now , we considcr an C1U1p1ewhen! _ I.. : IXI - tXI is lhe idenUly milppull
of the pol ybcd t Oll IKI . DcnOk thc: diIMnsion of the veeee Sf)lI<'e H, ( I KI ; G) by
fJ', and the numbcrofp-dimcnsional simplu csln the simpuc. ,.:ornpluXbyd, . It
is ob vioUS' Ihat
Sp 1(I.. l). p ::: 8", Sp (I T.. ),, ) - Sp ( IC. (Ki e)l = d
formula (!) becomes iU follows
E 1- IY'fJ

( I I)
For mula ( I I) cstab llsha a rclation bctwC('fl the Bl:OmeLJ;C and homol oaicaJ
characteristics of a polyhedron.
DEF1NlT\ON 2. The Eulv dtofVC(trwit: of a c:ompaet POlyhedron IKr is the qu.anut y
II is elcM lhal ;!d tXI) _ 11. , 1"1'
_ I -+ l-I)" nvalld.
2. The Lefschetz Nwnbet of a Continuous Mapping. In the:
Pl'nolow; 1USOCIHlI, -. COIIWcnd only simpl i.cial meppi!llS. Bill the constfllCl ion
of:ll Lcfscbcu numbcl"al>CI the $W.cmt'n1 of Theorem 2 can be &cncraJncd also for
arbOuvy cont inu ous mappings. In doin, IO, we wil UKthe lUIiqUCllC!oS thcol ml of
homokll)' Iheor Y' (sec Sec. $) and the method of aPPr(drrtalOon of a ('oru inuous
mapp\nJ; of a polyhcdtOll by. simplicial mappinl .
If c; "' fIeld of d.erx u,""" a n) Ibca $' colftCi6a wilh the p-chrnmOlOft.ol Bc<ti
I. of tlM: IXI in the RmC of the dcfmltion In Sec. 1.
ln t,odue:tion 10 Topol oGY
compad polyllMTon QndI ; x - X Qcontinuous mappmg. lOT Qny > 0,
tlltl't arr Q triangulati on I< 01 tht polyhedron X. irs T-/II lxu)'cenlric sulxiivi$ion K (r)
Qnd QsimpllclQI mapping I. ; IK(') I - II<I wcll thQt lOT Uri)' point :r E X, lilt in -
f!quQlily p(f(x)./.V<)) -c e holds.
PROOf We Oil the X a triang ulation K such Ihat the fill.neu of
the t riangulation I< is Jess than <1: . w. will C81l the interior of the uni on of all
simplexes, whose vertices are Q E K, the star Sr a with the vertex Q. It is obvi ou s that
the stars of all vemces of K fonn a covering of X ; the inver se images
V- I(St QP)J..,. eXalso form a covertoa.
Since X Is compact , by the Lebesgu e number lemma (see Theorem 13, Sec. U ,
Ch, II), there exists a number .. > Osuch t hat any sel of diamel er'\' <
in one afthe :itls/- IISt QP), We select r such t hai the finencss of K(l- l is less than
12. Then the ,napping / transfarlTl5 any S1ar St . b
e K (r) into a certain star
St QP, rY' e K. We defi ne a simplicial mapping /. : IKIT) 1 _ IKJ by the equalities") .. a
, (l3)
EJctrslCt ) 0. Verify that formula (13) does define a simplicial mappinll ,
Now, we calculate p{f(x), J.(x for x G X. If x is It vertex of K vl then f(St x )
r: St a
, a
to K , and . in panieul.., ./(x ) e St e e, theref.,re
- p(f(x ), 1.(.>:) < e, q
If, however , x e Int (bo , ... , b
), when: (bO, .", b
) e KVI, Thenx e n SI b
. We.
havo:l (K) e n St Ql, hence/ (.>: ) lies in the simplex determined by [he veruces
tJ / , (11)
) , Sincc/
is II simplicial mapp ing.J."') gets into the same SImplex fromX.
Thus, III thili case e.
,",0. Show that the mappingf
is homotopic to the mapping /'
So , Show that for II compact pol yhedron X, there exists a positIve number 0
o (X1 such that from the inequalit y o(f(.>: ), g(x) < Cf satisfieti for each.\: 1!iX C/,
II : X - X bei ng cont inuous mapp ings), it follows Ih;lI the milppings j ilnd 8 are
homotopic .
Due to the uniqueness theorem of homology rheory, t he isomorphism H . (I<;
G) '" GJ ho lds for the compact polyhedr on X '" IKI, and the refore
$ H;(}(: G) < 00 . Ccnsequernly, the followill&de finiti on may be given .

DEFINtTION J. The L(fschtll numbtrolDcont inuous mDppinrJ: X _ X or a com-

polyhedron X into itself is
AI - I: (-1)1' Sp

Ch. S. HomoioilYThwr)'
0) - H;CX;G), ( 14)
Due- to the uniqueness t heorem of homology the ory, for a simphcla l ma pping
/ :IX(' ) I -IK1.r ;<Ol,theequality
E (-I)PSP<r..
) =
E (- !Y'Sp(8'J . l.
holds. Thus. Defini tions I and 3 ale consistent.
It Is obvious tha t for homot opic cont inuous mappings/. e : X - X, I'>C have-
tli = A . Therefore the Lefschetz num ber of the mapping/ : X - X equals that of
its simplicial IKV} I - IKI. where K is a tnangulalion of X The
Lefschetznumber of cont inuous ma pping could be defined as that of it s simplicial
ap proximation withou t t he UK of smgular ho mology t heory.
The Icllowmg theorem is qu ite use ful for various applicat ions . In il$ proof. we
shall use the unrqueness theorem of homology theory.
THEOREM 4 (l EFSCHETZ). Uit / : X - X be a continuous mupping 0/ a compact
polyhedron X = IL I into and 11'1 *" O. Thf!1l there exists Q f IXf!d poi nf 0/ the
mapping! . i.e. Q poinr x e X such fhat ! Vc ) = x.
PROOf . Assume tha t J bas no flXed poi nt s. Then there Is (3 > 0 suc n t hat p(/(;:),
x ) ;lo (J for each x e X. Ut.., '= min (P, "'(X (see Ex. S).
COnsider a triangulatlon X of fineness or/ 3 and a slmplicial 1'l3.afproxlma llon
f .,1l of the map ping/. For arbitrary points x,y of any simplex r ' e K V , we have the
inequaJ ilies
p(/., I]Vc).)' );;' p(/(x), x ) - PVc. y} - p(/, IJ(;:),fVc) ;lJ ..,13.
This mean s that the relat ion , <1 C /,Il(") U impossible. On t he other hand , due to
"'hll .. "'I '* O. there u or
e X v } for which such a relation lS valid (see Exercises I
and S).
The obt ained contra diction completes the proof of the theorem. II
6 . Extend Definiti on 2 and Theorem 4 to a compa ct polyhedron X hornecmcrphtc
to IL L
Verify that A, = I with the condiucns of the Brouwer theorem (see
Sec. 4, Ch. III ).
3. The Euler Characteristic of a Manifold and Singular Points
of a Vector Field. We now dwell on the application of the obtai ned rescns to
mani fold theor y.
THEOREM S. Lei M il tx both a smooth,compacf mallt/old QndQ polyhtdrofl . , Let
'* O. Then / or ony vectorjudd X on Mil, there UlSU a po/lit x (l e M ilsuch
thai - O.
In ether words, there is no vector field without zet oes on a manifold Wllh a
nOl\J:ero Euler charectens tic.
Note that all smoot h,camp..,t manlFokb arc polyhedra.
hu , odw OOf\ to TopoloU
paOOf' . IU it was mcNKlned in Sec. I . Ch. IV. for fteld X . t her e atsu.
OlIC'-puamelCl" family or diffcomorphi" ns Utx. 1) sudllhat UfJc . 0) . .... aed !he
field x is lu inrlflitesimal Mor eovn. the orbit U U(lr. l) of Ihepoin t Xu.
cal led egraI eurve of lhe field X at the polnl x, It is n s} to,..., that Ih... famil y
of difleomorphlsnu U(K. n, 0 " f " t l). carries out th... homotopy between the dif-
. ,
feomorphismll VI) = I..,. an d V,, ' M" - M" . where V"fJc) '" Uf;( . t l '
TMrdote, Al :: AU ' but A, x VW" ): t hll$. for any II). we obtain Au -
" '0 ",. ..
.. x W") O. Tbcrdore, the di ffeomorphism U" pQSM:S!CI I rued. point (for CadI
t l) (see Theorem 4).
A$SUme now that the: field X vanishes nowhere on M". Th ee, since M" is Im-
pact. for a certain fJ :> o. a sufrJci enll y small o :> 0, anyXCi M", Ind;n the Rieman-
nian metric. the ineq uali ly (3 ., Q holdS. Hence, 1liiY poi nt
X e M" is unfailingly shifted by the diffeomorphism V, lIonl the intq;ral curve orthe
polnlX for Isufficiutl) y YNJI t :> 0; t his can be ehtckcd by eonsidc:rifl8 Ihe inleya!
cu....., in th... chan at the point x, The 'last statement is colilr Ary10 t he eJd5l"'noe of a
fIXed point for t he diffeorJLOJ))hism V, .
COROl.l.AIlY. (f illS '"'" tll t lf thue IsIf01 rI mqk WJc:t <HF....1d w" II_t Oil 'lit

LEMMA , . 'Ill ,.... exisfs rI s mootll lItor Oil rI oompm:! smoolll n/(mi!old 'lIfd
,Ile sum oj th illdices 01 S/1I1uJar poInts of Ihu/itld equrlls l ilt Eul er chQ' rlcu, isl le
of til ... mrlllllotd.
PI.OOF. l.c:f M" be a eompitl:t,smoot h manif/Xd,j: M" _ R I a Morse f UrM; tion (a
smooth function whose IJI m licitl poi nts are nondetenaate). 11Ie spaCl' M" bas Ihe
bomotopy IflX' of . ceUcomplex K. tbe number of cells of di mellSion ), or whil;h
equalsthe:nwnber mo. ) ofmtial poinUixl of indea), or lhe func:tionf ( see . I I .
Ot. IV) . 7be Euler charKtm Micx (K) of the SplICe K c;quals
E - E
, -0
(compMc: wilh D<:finitlon 2 and Theorem I or lhe present seclion). Thus,
xW " ) ''' If (K) E ( - I Ymo. ) .
, -,
On the other han d, due 10 Exercise 10. 5. 6. th... it>da of the poi nt Xj' of
t he gradJ,e1ll field equals Ther...fore:, E m(), ) is the sum of the in-
,. ,
dices of singular poinls of Ih., gra dient rield of the fUlIClion f .
L e."'IMA 4. TIl" $llm of 0." illdic:t30/ ./1I8U/rI' po/lI ts 01 " ,,"tor flt:ld w"h u okl/td
Cb. 5. H<>mQk>8)' Theory
singular points on 0 compoct,smooth manifold does no/ defHnd on Ihe choice ojthe
vu:/or field.
We give th e pr oo f of chis lemma io a nuts hell. let be a co nnetted mani fold
embedded in R"' , m > n + 1. We select a sufficient ly sma ll 'tubular '
neigh bourh ood of the ma nifold in R"', -l.e.. a neighbourhood. whk:h is
the total space of a locally trivial fib re space with the base space and a fibre
homeo morp hic t o the disc D'" - " . the pr.ojectl on r of this fibre bundle
is a smoot h reuaetlon, and the manif old is a $trong def ormation retract of t he
space intuitively, the t ubular neighbourhood of the manifold M" can be
Imagined 10 consist of di5C$ D ;' - "') over each pol nt ;r EO Ihal lie in (m - n )-
dime llsional planes orthogonal to rhe tangcm planes of the mani fold M". Thc
set is a compacl polyhedron. It is not comp licated t o s how that
H:" _ 1(au eM");z ) ... Z. The gener ator of this grou p is a cycle U( A1") .
Therefore any mapping V' ; aUf)<f") - s " - I det ermlne$ an elemen l
deg V' E Z. Consider a cenain field + : U (Itf" ) - R
which does not vllJIis h on
We associ al e Ihe llCld 4' with rhe nonned mapping
4\ :aUIM") - S'" - I, 4\;r ... 4';r/ I4';rI .
The degree deg Ihe mapping of equals the sum of the illdices of sins ular paints
of th e fi clr;l e. Now, let v be a vector rlCld on th e manifold We define the field
w: U(JvI" ) - R'" by th e formula wtK) :::> v('X) + x - r(x) . The sum of the indices
of singular poinls of t he field w coincides with the sum of t he indices of singular
points of the t angwt flCld v (by mean s of t he Sard the orem, the general case may be
reduced to tne study of smooth fi elds with nondelilenente singular points, and the
applicat ion of the result of Exercis e 7, Sec. 6). Th e field w on Is
homo topic , wit hout singular poi nts, 10 the vector field t tK) "" x - rtK) . Hence, for
the normed mappings 1Oi, t , wc oblain deg '" deg t an d the refore deg docs not
de pend on the flCld v.
Lemmat a 3 an d 4 lead to the followin&theorem.
THEOREM 6. TIle sum of rhe indices of singwlQr points of Q vector field ....Ith
iw/atu/ singular po/nls on a compect, smooth numlfold equals the Euler
characteristic of Ih e moni/Q/d.
Exer cise 8". be 3 compact. smooth manifold, and fjP(MIf)
G) '" O. Show th "l any Morse Function on Ihe m" ni fQld M" has nor less than
crilkal points of indelC p (Morsc inequalilies).
In the last decade, th ere a ppeared $CVer al monographs providing " s)'Stemalic
approach t o homol ogy theor y and ;15 applications. We indicate, fit st of all ,
Algebraic Topo log,y 1731by Spanier Lec tures On Algebraic Topology (271by Cold,
Homology and Cohomology . Theory [53) by Massey as th ose most corresponding
to thc demands of l ooay. Recommendin g lh em fOT11 pro found and syst ematic study
of 'fie emplw.lze. however, tllat inlrinsically lhey aK ra lheT au
IlI:XIbooks eofIemu:&t cd on spedal COUfK:l.
SK. t. White siudyina tll or Oll&hly sqlat'ate 10pic:s 10Ul:1Kdupoa in the prnenl
dlap:a-, II ....m be undoubled1y inlaesl.in8for the reader to ,..,.. hlsatlesnion to the
folknrin. Hleral ar e: the noIion of loornokIsY waslntrod uc:qS &IlI1 elaborat ed 10 lhe
dassialANllysis sitOs and tbe live COIIlplc:llWIlLS 10 it by PoiDcari: (see the mlh
YoWme o f Otvyns PoittaIrt 163J).
sec. 2. To lI udy dWn oompkxes anc1 lhcir bomo'olY &fOllPS, 1M ruda is ad
visedto I 01. 11 of Homolou [$1) by
Sec. 1. SlmplOal homoJocy lhcory is wmpaclly and Iho routJtl y upounded in
Oulfine o/CombinaforiGl TopoJOD (6S1 by PonlTYqin . Qui le u seful is also the ac-
quainlanc:c "",itb Introdwc:r/o'l 10 Homological J)im,nslo'l T1wory alld Com'
binalorlal TopoJav 121 (Ois. 111) by Aluandro" and Homology Throry 1401
lOu. (-III) by Hilron and Wylie.
Sec. 4. A brief and Ilcomelry-<lrlm ted present ailcn of d llautar homology theo ry
i' p yen In Homolopy TMory [11] (01. 11)by FIIchs CIaI. The dClllftlU o f sinauJ u
thoory au p Yen IX)fDpacl ly and with suflician rigcur In tk ' opolo. le :i
Wlri,,6J di/ertNobik 179J (01. II) by Tekman. The presenlaLion of Jiqular theory
is tlloroup in eM aboe-merll iofled book (401(Ol. VlII) . Co ns>dtn.ble '\tentian ls
p"ell lbere 10 th e"kdmlell detai ls of the theof}' . In the PlllOf of the th rort'f7l on
bomciirnofpbisms inducec1 by homotopy ma ppiqs. we (o Uo'" MacLanc I'll
(CII. II . Sec. I) and MU5C)' I'll. since this method enahks 1# not to introduce: CCI-
um WIICCPlS' aICI"alI, wed in II:XINsiC" CO\1IICS. The Iudti" eaII Sludy the rdation
bclwoen bomolos7 IIftd bomot09Y JrOUpi in the booh by
TclCIIIaII 1791 (01 . IV, Sea. J, 7), Hihom and Wylie (Sec . 1.1) and Fudu C1: aI.
m! (Sec. U). and also in Homotopy (4l1(01. II, Sec. Ii and 01. V. Sec . 4)
by Hu S.-T.
Sec. S. The uioma lk . PPtoadl 10 bomoJoay theor)' is .;"en in FollJttkJtiOM
01 Topolov flOI by Eilcnbcrt and Steenrod . A diteet proof of tbe
cqul\'akncc o f siJDplicW atld Jinaular thcc:lries on rhe QtqOT')' o f polyl\edu is &Iym .
c . in the book by Hilton an d Wylie J40J (Sec . 1.6). The rca ckr ma y nn d
AJeM.fldroY-Cech hornoJoay t heory in lhe book by Teleman [79J (Ch . n , See. 18)
and, In arca.tcr delu. In the booh by A1cxandl OY 1'21. Ill.
See: . 6. The homo;llosy 8' o up, of spher es ar e c.scul"ed in all the courses o f
h(lmoloD theory. We fo llowed the book by Fuehs et al. [111(Secs . 12- 13). In the
lIbQ"e mentJonni Comblnatonill Topof()IY [ I] (Or. XVI) by Alcundroy. the
llleofla of 1M: degree of .. mappill! . eriSlk (If , vector flCld and inda o f a
sinJUIar poinl are giyCl> c;ltmslyely an d on t he bw o f simplicial homoiolY lheo ry.
Sec . 7. As Icprds ceUhocnolo.y tllcory. we fammcnc1 lhe lect lll Cill by BollyaIl'
sky on IJtI.* C<Hrapts of A I" brolc Topolov (I jl ili which . thorough dabontion
o f ccUtheory is PYCilll , and . Iso the books by Fuchs eI aI. Ill] (Sec . 12) and Tdcman
1791 (ClI . VI) .
Sec. I . The notiolSs of the Eukr chanaeristic: and Lcfxbc\z numbcT ar c
systcmMicaDy c;lPOUlldcd In 1M: book by PontrJqin 1M) (Sea. 6 and (6) and aJso
iIlIlhc boob by AJcxa.ndJOY {II (01. XVII) and HIlt on an d Wylie 1-40) (See . , .1).
Th e proof o f Ihe U1corcm oa 1I 1ria lllutatioll of smoot h mani fok1s CllIlbe found In
CII. S. HomolOf,.
Gfi1lntlrk '''' /tlm/ion Theory by Whitney (0 . IV) 1821 aed In Dtj.
/ttf! nl ;(li Topoloty 1601 Muneres. The rca<kr rna) rin4 th e IhC'Olj' rCSlordina the
sum of tM indices o r a vecier singu lar poi nt'! 011 a manifold m M Of"$#: T1INry
(Sco:. 6) find Topolof. vf 'om /ht Difft'tf/r;al V;n poi nt 15S!ISco:. 6) b)' Miln()(
Topia rdated to singula r polnls 01 vIor fields 011 a m1Jlirold art o,e:ry imponanl
for die Iheor)' or differenlial tqutKIIlS oct a manIfold. An imroduet ion to t his
lhecxy is ci vcn, C.I . , in Ordill ory EqIl OIWtu (10110\. V) by A,nold .
As book or p)bkm, in homolon theory. the ",'()rk b)' No,i ko.. et aI.
ProbIrrru", 161] rn.i J" be lakm.
'1be centnl plIn of tho: pktl,lre iUwUllles the . tandvd cmbcddinS ehaia of
a>"taIlme StOUPIor t he th ree-dimensional Eu<:lid<:al1 spac:e: thei r.tanebnI JI'OUpt: ,
aubedded into eadl othc:r are deplded as the fundarnc:t:llal dmD.airu (pialonX: bodies:
a attic" tclntted l'Oll, do6e<:abedron). The plaloaic bodies an: dqli<:ud <:1assIc:.I-
Iy, l.e.,thelr <:anonieaI form b pven; tht'Y are R1ppontd by sur-
f _ Oeavu),amana -...1ridIwc: di-.:crn the projc<:l lve p1llne (c:roas-ca p) , and .spheres
.,..j lh bandl<:a. The fanlaJli e 5hapes u d lDterlacinp (as <:omparecl ",;Ih the c:anonlul
objerta) qrnbollu the !OpOIosJe,aI equivaknc<: "
AI the lop, bn.n<:b poi nta of Riemann of vllriOUI mullipli<:itin ar c
depicted : on t he riabl, tbcse of the JUemann surfaces of the functions "" '"' and
10' .. ..f;; on t he left briow, tMI or Ihe same function .. e >Ii. an d over u. a
manIrold wil h bo undary TW izl.n& borwsm mod l .
The fi,urc <KaIpyin, tnOIt of t he picture iIIustratcs Ihe eonsuue:tion of a
topolopeaJ qJace widely UIoed in lopoiolY, i.e. a :z..adie solenoid poISCSsina many
illl erestl na elUTtnlal propenies. The follo wing figures ' I'll depicted there: the firsl
soli d lorus is ihadtd, the wo:ond is whit e, the lhU"d is d1aded in dotted lines and lhe
fOw1h is al1adtd doubly. To otM"ainthe 2-adie soImoid, it if; -rr10 lake an in-
seqceeee of netted solid tori. eIdl ofwhieh meomPQSaprevioul: t wiee 11on,
iu pu'll1ld, and 10 form t heir inta'lClClioo.
IMide the opo::niaa,. tONl&lld. sphere with two baDdIes are Ibo...."". TIl.<: anlst's
skiDand hUprofound kDowkdae of I;eomctry made it pou ibl e to repr amt eomplcx
inlerlacina of !he four nested $Cilid tort llCCuraldy.
The c:a.nonial1 cmbcdd:ina or . swfaoe ofgmlll S into Euc:il-
d ID space if; 00 the ri P t . A homeomorphic: embedd1q of the same
sur raa: is shown on tM left . The IWO Objccil lin: homeomorplUc:, homotopic: and
eVM isot opi e. anUt II a It'lluhemat ieian and be:hu ehosen these t..,o, vef)' much
di fferent In the ir appearance, from III infi oite $C'I of homeomorphic: imaacs.
a.ninfi ni te t otal ,pea: or. <:overing over a t..,o-dlme nsional sur face, vre., a
sphere wilh two baDdies, is depi cted.. The artist impaned t he fls ure the shape of a
python and fllIde the ba.sespaee of the covainS loo k very inlriea,le. Packlna
Into the t hrco-dimeDsioo"a1Eud1detul spa and . f1Iure homeomorphic 10 lbe 10l'\lS
are dcplel ed ouwdc t he omllal object. The mathcmatiw objccu are placed 50 as 10
aeIlle a rllfltastic:
/Ii. tqll1ar" In>nIcnion or Ibe projOClive pIaDc RPl in Rl is rcpraentcd in t.hceen-
Ire on the black backaround. Tbe lar'Je$1 firure is t he KIeiD bollle (studied in
lopo&op as surface) (:\/,t in t wo (MObIIll strips) a10na a aenerlt or
by ;l plane depicted farther nght a10na with the line of inter$Utlon; the lower part IS
planslng downwards; t he upper part is being deformed (by lifting the curve of in-
lcu cclion and buildi ng Ihe surface up) intO a surt ace .....ith boundar y S': a disc is
being glued to t he last , whiChyields the RP1. The indicated immersion pro-
CCS1i can be also used for t urning S! ' Inside o.ut' mt o R
011the oul&ldrts of tile pictu re, a triangulation of a part or th e XJeln bottle SUT-
face;s represented .
A det ailed explanation of this plctur e may serve as 11 mat erial for as mu ch as a
lect ure In visual lo polOl r .
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