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Part One


Methods of communication

Spoken words :- Conversations, meetings, conferences, interviews, training
sessions, speeches, PA system announcements, speeches telephone talk, public
speaking etc. business man must know to communicate effectively with the
spoken word as it is quicker and direct used to informs praise, criticize, please
inquire. Making oral communication effective
• Words to be clearly and properly pronounced ( Voice control and pronunciation to
be correct)
• Clarity and precision
• Brevity
• Proper tone
• Correct pitch
• Right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and the listener
• (adjust vocabulary, loud men, speed of fluency and accent to attract the listener

The first step in planning an oral presentation involves acknowledging two fundamental
differences between oral and written communication.
One essential goal of oral communication is to make personal contact with the audience,
and to help connect them to the content. Reading a written report aloud is not usually an
effective strategy for engaging with the audience. The needs/preferences of the audience
play an even larger role in oral presentations than in writing. The content of
presentations should be prepared with this goal in mind.
Second, oral presentations are fleeting (or time-sensitive). If readers get lost or stop
paying attention for a few minutes, they can always flip back a few pages. Listeners, on
the other hand, usually can’t interrupt the speaker and ask that s/he start again and go
back a few minutes. Once words are uttered, they vanish. Presenters can account for the
fleeting nature of oral presentations by making sure that the presentation is well
organized and by making structure explicit in the talk, so the audience can always knows
where they’ve been and where they’re going.
This section outlines principles and strategies for planning, designing visuals for,
practicing, and presenting your talk.

• Planning your Talk Strategies for preparing your oral presentation

• Practicing your Talk Strategies and methods for rehearsing your presentation.
• Performing your Talk Tips you can use while giving your presentation.
• Supporting your Talk with Visuals Tips for designing visuals and integrating
visuals into your presentation

• Sheds of meaning can be conveyed (using to be, pitch and intensity of voice)
• Saves time
• Immediate feedback can be obtained
• Pursues we and carry conviction
• Spares money and effort
• Less formal
• Makes the communication of confidential and secret information possible.


• The words should be clearly and properly pronounced.

• Poor voice control and poor pronunciation act as barriers to Communication
• Another requirement of effective oral communication is clarity and precision.
• Brevity is very essential, over communication should be guarded against.
• Tropes tone is an important requisite convey the same feeling as the words.
• Use the correct pitch the way the voice moves up or down.
• Use the right register ie. the right style and vocabulary to suit the situation and the


• Can be misunderstood or misinterpreted more easily.

• No permanent record of little value from the legal point of view
• Only a good speaker can communicate effectively.
• Unhelpful for lengthy communication
• Something vital may be missed out
• People can not retain oral messages for a long time ie it lacks permanence
• When messages are transmitted orally it is not possible to pinpoint the
2. Written communication

Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written
word. It is one of the two main types of communication, along with oral/spoken
communication. Written communication is very common in business situations, so it is
important for small business owners and managers to develop effective written
communication skills. Some of the various forms of written communication that are used
internally for business operations include memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions,
employee manuals, and electronic mail. Examples of written communication avenues
typically pursued with clients, vendors, and other members of the business community,
meanwhile, include electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams,
faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases.


• Written communication provides a permanent record

• Can be used as evidence
• Less likely to be misunderstood in case of doubt they can be read again
• Accurate and exact.
• Information can be disseminated widely with the help of printing and duplicating
• Language used in written communication is less subject to change
• Can be reviewed when required over a period of time


Good written communication must command attention and get results

• It must be legible
• It must be carefully planned
• It should be easily understood by the reader.
• Use the 7 C’s of communication Context. Content, Components, Cuts,
Composition. Contrast and Consistency
• Follow correct language usage proper grammar and correct punctuation
• Gather information, arrange logically and ensure proper mental focus
• Editing i.e. re- reading , spell and grammar check and rewriting is also necessary

Our day-to-day lives require communication. It is of the utmost importance that we
communicate clearly and precisely, otherwise serious problems may occur in every
situation. One minor mistake in word usage could cost someone his or her job or
friendship. The world is, practically, held together with good communication
Nowadays, technology plays an extremely important role in modern day society. Email,
for example, is now preferred over letters because of speed and efficiency.
Probably the place that matters most about good oral and written communication would
be in the workplace. Even the slightest mistake could establish catastrophe. It is in the
workplace that one should strive to be as specific as possible. For instance, if the manager
of a store asks his or her employee to create a presentation about that store (and leaves it
at that) that employee has no clue when the deadline is, etc. This commonly happens in
the workplace, and is the reason why employers look for strong communication skills in
potential employees: to avoid miscommunication. Written miscommunication is also
common in the workplace. A small memo may be left for someone and may not make
sense. How then would that recipient carry out what was depicted in the memo? It really
causes problems. So Communication necessitated for any situation is either written or
oral that should be effective.
Part Two

Traits of successful communicators

Below are some typical characteristics which good communicators

• Good communicators pay attention to everything the other person is
• Good communicators constantly think about the nature of their messages: they
always think about when, where, and how they will deliver their messages
• Good communicators always try to find the right combination of words, body
language, dress, and tone of voice before sending a message
• Good communicators try to avoid using the same words when sending their
message to different persons because no one person is identical. Good
communicators try to find out what is important for the other person
• Good communicators are always ready to be flexible or try to move on after
delivering their message by reaching a decision, solving a problem, negotiating a
compromise, etc
• Good communicators are fully aware of the reciprocal nature of communication
which is a process of giving and receiving a message. Good communication is a
like a dance which entails leading and following