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CELL ORGANISATION IN

PLANTS
Cell organisation in plants

Tissues
- two main types:
1. Meristematic tissues
2. Permanent tissues
PLANT TISSUES.doc
1. Meristematic tissues
Consist of small cells – thin
walls, large nuclei, dense
cytoplasm and no vacuoles
Comprise young & active
dividing cells and not
undergone differentiation
Epical meristems – tip of
root and buds of shoots
which undergo miotic cell
division (increase number of
cell)
Lateral meristems/cambia –
peripheral areas of stems
and root which responsible for
secondary growth (add girth)
2. Permanent tissues
consist of more mature cells which have
undergoing differentiation or undergone
differentiation
3 main types:
a) Epidermal tissues
b) Ground tissues
c) Vascular tissues
a) Epidermal tissues
Characteristics:
- forms epidermis
- parts that exposed to air are covered
with cuticle
- flat & have large vacuoles
Functions:
- the cuticle prevent the loss of Root hair
excessive water, give protection &
prevent invasion
- root hair in roots increase the surface
area for absorption of water & minerals
- guard cells surround the stomata
control the opening and closing the
Guard cells and
stomata
stomata
b. Ground tissues
Form the bulk of a plant
Consist of
iii) Parenchyma tissues
- thin-walled cell, loosely
arrange, have large vacuole
- store starch & sugar
- turgid and give support & shape to
herbaceous plants
ii) Collenchyma tissues
- unevenly thickened cell wall
(thickened by cellulose & pectin),
strong & flexible
- support non-woody plants
(herbaceous plant), young stems &
petioles
iii) Sclerenchyma tissues
- much more rigid, have uniformly
thickened cell walls by lignin & may be
dead
- support & strengthens the plant body
- provides protection
c. Vascular tissues
Involve in the transport of substances between the
root & the shoots
2 types:

i) Xylem
- consist of xylem vessel extending
from the roots to the leaves
- cell wall thickened with lignin
- transport water & minerals from the root to the
leaves
ii) Phloem
- consists mainly of sieve tubes
which obtain nutrient from the adjacent
companion cell
- Transport organic nutrient from the leaves
to all parts of the plants
Exercise
 What are the main types of plant tissues?

 Give the location of these tissues:


a) meristematic tissues
b) epidermal tissues

7. Give the function of these tissues


a) parenchyma tissues
b) xylem
Answers
1. Meristematic tissues
2. Permanent tissues
a) Meristematic tissues – tips of the
root/buds of shoot/peripheral area of stem
b) Epidermal tissues – outermost layers that
covers the leaves, stems & roots of young
plant, the flowers, fruits & seed
a) Parenchyma tissues - store starch & sugar/
give support to herbaceous plants
b) Xylem -conducts water & minerals from the root
to the leaves
ORGANS
Examples: leaf, stem, root &
flower
Leaf – made up of ground
tissues,
epidermal tissues and
vascular tissues.
SYSTEMS

Not as specialised as in animal


Have fewer organs
2 main systems:

 Root system
 Shoot system
 Root system
– main organs are the roots
– absorptive system
– highly branched to absorb water &
minerals from the soil & transport
them to the main vascular system
(xylem)
– anchor the plant to the ground
2. Shoot system
- main organs are the stems, leaves, buds,
flowers & fruits
- stems and branches act as support
system, holding the leaves in a position
that facilitate maximum absorption of
sunlight & position flower for pollination
- leaves are main photosynthesis system,
the product transported via phloem to
other parts of plants
- flowers are the reproductive system of
the
plant which produce fruits and seeds
EXERCISE
 Complete the table below:
Organs Function
a. Leaves

b. Stems and
branches
c. Flowers

d. Roots
Answers
Organs Function
a. Leaves The site of
photosynthesis
b. Stems and act as support
branches system
c. Flowers • involved in pollination

d. Roots absorptive system


anchor the plant to
the
ground
Things we have learn
PLANT CELL ORGANISATION.doc