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# CHAPTER III METHOD ANALYSIS 3.

1 Research Method Prior to writting and completing the analysis, the writer applied library research. Bungin (2008:75) says that: penelitian merupakan suatu kegiatan (ilmiah) yang ditempuh melalui serangkaian proses yang panjang. (Research is a scientific activity through a series of long process). Bungin (2005:46) explains library research is penelitian yang dilakukan di perpustakaan mengambil teknik perpustakaan sdebagai tempat penelitian dengan objek penelitiannya adalah bahan-bahan kepustakaan. (Research is conducted in the library and the object of research is all of the documet, book etc. Which found in the library).

3.2 Data and Data Source Data in the analysis are sentences contained lexical cohesion found in the short story A Good Man Its Hard to Find. Not all data are to be analyzed so we need samples. The samples are taken purposively. It is done by selecting the data taken based on the purpose of the study (Hadi 2004:127).

3.3 Data Analysis Method I apply content analysis method in analyzing the data. Holisti (2005:14) says that analisis isi adalah menemukan karakteristik pesan, dan dilakukan secara objektif dan sistematis. (Content analysis is to find the characteristics of the message, and conducted objective and sistematically.

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There are three steps that are used in analyzing the data. (1) Firstly, I read all the material carefully. (2) Secondly, I identify the cohesion used in the short story. (3) Thirdly, I will classify into kind of lexical cohesion devices by using Hallidays and Hassan theory. In order to get the lexical item that accur mostly in the text, the following formula will be used (Nawawi 1991:127).

X ----- x 100% = N Y

Y = Total number of all data N = Percentage of lexical cohesion X = Number of each of lexical cohesion

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1. Repetition Example: Rebecca is in the race on Saturday. Everyone believes that she will with the race.

In the sentences above the lexical cohesion used in race. This lexical cohesion is classified into repetition. 2. Synonymy Example: They are taken to the clinic - they are taken to the hospital.

From the sentences above the lexical cohesion used are clinic and hospital. This lexical cohesion is classified into synonymy.

3. Antonymy Example: She wouldnt stay at home when wet season, but she would stay dry season.

From the sentence above the lexical cohesion used are wet and dry season. This lexical cohesion is classified into antonymy.

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4. Hyponymy Example: Shell win a trophy. The prize wont mean much to her.

From the sentence above lexical cohesion used are trophy and prize. This lexical cohesion is classified into hyponymy. 5. Meronymy

Example: The grandmother offered to hold book of law in this case. Because they have family in law relationship.

From the sentence above the lexical cohesion used are law and family in law. This lexical cohesion is classified into meronymy.

## CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF DATA

After t he writer discussed about the concept and definition of cohesion in the context of discourse analysis, then she analysis the data found in the short story entitled A Good Man Its Hard to Find. written by Flannery OConnors. This analysis will answer two problems of analysis. There are the kinds of lexical cohesion and the dominant lexical cohesion used in this short story. Three steps are used in analyzing the data. Firstly, I read all the material carefully. Secondly, I identify the cohesion used in the short story. Thirdly, I will classify into kind of lexical cohesion devices by using Hallidays and Hassan theory. And in order to get the percentage of lexical item that accur mostly in the text, the following formula will be used (Nawawi 1991:127) that is percentage of lexical cohesion, produced by number of each of lexical cohesion per total number of all data, then substituted to one hundred percents.

4.1 The General Structure of The Short Story This short story entitled A God Man Its Hard to Find (AGMHF) by OConnors is formed by 6.361 words, 836 sentences, and 141 paragraphs. As a short story this arts work can be categorized into short story, with the relative length in its form. The words in AGMHF can be classified into: (a) based on reference, (b) based on substitution, (c) based on ellipsis, (d) based on conjunction, and (e) based on lexical cohesion.

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Based on reference it can be divided into (a) personal reference. In this short story, the example of personal references are: her, she, you, his, I, your, you, anyone, they, one, us, them, they, him, and so on. In (b) demonstrative references are: that, the, there, then, and this. Then in (c) comparative references are: often, middle of the back, on either side, seeing in her death, and so on. Based on substitution, we can classify the devices cohesion in (a) nominal substitutions they are one, a, million, three, 55890, fifty-five, and so on. The (b) verbal substitutions they are do, was, were, and so on. Based on ellipsis, the examples are designed in it and his face was a yellow as the shirt. One was a fat boy in black trousers and a red sweat shirt wih a silver stallon In clausal ellipsis for example is: When the children finished all the comic books they had brought, they opened lunch and ate it. Based on conjunctions: (a) additive conjuction is and, (b) adversative conjunction are childrens mother, my children, her son, and so on. (c) causal conjuction are: so, fo the cat to be left alone, and (d) temporal conjunction are: for three days, twenty minutes ago.

4.2 Cohesion

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In this analysis the cohesion is classified into five categories as Halliday and Hasan (1984) described: repetition, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, and

moronymy.

4.2.1 Repetition The examples of the repetition are: 4.1 Bailey was the son she lived with, her only boy. 4.2 She sat in the middle of the back seat with John Wesey and June Star on either side of her. 4.3 Teennesse has the mountains and Georgia has the hills. 4.4 The grandmother offered to hold the baby and the childrens mother passed him over the front seat to her. 4.5 When the children finished all the comic books they had brought, they opened the lunch and ate it. 4.6 John Wesley took one the shape of a cow and an June Star guessed a cow and John Wesley said an automobile, and June Star said he didnt play fair, and they began to slap each other over the grandmother. 4.7 When she told a story, she rolled her eyes and waved he head and was very dramatic. 4.8 John Wesleys funny bone and he giggled and giggled but June Star didnt think it was any good. 4.9 The tower was part stucco and part wood filling station and dance hall set in a clearing outside of Timothy.

In the sentences above (in 4.1), words son and boy are synonymous. Son means the son grandmother, his name is Bailey. He is only one boy of grandmother. The word son and boy refers to Bailey. Then, in sentence (4.2) She sat in the middle of the back seat with John Wesey and June Star on either side of her. The word she and

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her refers to the same person, a woman. This is the repetition aspect of cohesion. After that, in the sentence 4.3 Teennesse has the mountains and Georgia has the hills. This sentence repeats on the word has. In this sentence there are two area in United State of America which is compared by writer especially its natural environment. Teennesse has mountain and Georgia has the hill. Two areas have a specific environment view. In sentence (4.4) The grandmother offered to hold the baby and the childrens mother passed him over the front seat to her. The words grandmother repeated by word her. The grandmother is one same person with word her in this sentence. The works of grandmother was offered to hold the baby. In another activity, the childrens mother passed him over the front seat to her. In sentence (4.5), When the children finished all the comic books they had brought, they opened the lunch and ate it. The word which is repeated they. This word refers to children. They were finished their activities in all the comic books and then brought. After that they have lunch. In sentence (4.6) John Wesley took one the shape of a cow and an June Star guessed a cow and John Wesley said an automobile, and June Star said he didnt play fair, and they began to slap each other over the grandmother. This sentence repeats two words which labeled person John Wesley and June Star, then united them as they. Then, in sentence (4.7) When she told a story, she rolled her eyes and waved he head and was very dramatic. One word she is repeated. She told a story and then she rolled her eyes and waved he head and was very dramatic. In sentence (4.8) John Wesleys funny bone and he giggled and giggled but June Star didnt think it was any good. One word giggled repeated in the near place.

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Furthermore sentence (4.9) The tower was part stucco and part wood filling station and dance hall set in a clearing outside of Timothy. The word part is repeated two time. This sentence explains that the tower was part stucco and part wood filling station and dance hall set in clearing outside of Timothy.

4.2.2 Synonymy From this short story AGMHAF the examples of synonymy are: 4.10 4.11 Bailey was the son she lived with, her only boy. She sat in the middle of the back seat with John Wesley and June Star on either side of her. ... they opened the lunch and ate it. The grand mother ate a peanut butter sandwich. June Star said play something she could tap to so the childrens mother put another dime and played a fast number and June Star stapped out onto the dance floor and did her tap routine. This place had better turn up in a minute Im going to turn around. He feet jumped up The instant the valise moved. I said long ago, you get you a signature and sign everything you do and keep a copy of it.

4.12

4.13

## 4.14 4.15 4.16

From the sentence above (4.10) Bailey was the son she lived with, her only boy. The meaning words son and boy refers to the same person and synonymy. Furthermore in sentence (4.11) She sat in the middle of the back seat with John Wesley and June Star on either side of her. The word back seat and either side have a synonymous meaning. In sentence (4.12) They opened the lunch and ate it. The grand mother ate a peanut butter sandwich. The word meaning lunch and ate are similar.

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Furthermore in the sentence (4.13) June Star said play something she could tap to so the childrens mother put another dime and played a fast number and June Star stapped out onto the dance floor and did her tap routine. The words stapped and tap are similar meaning. Then in sentence (4.14) This place had better turn up in a minute Im going to turn around. In two words turn up and turn around have similar meaning. Beside this, in sentence (4.15) He feet jumped up The instant the valise moved. The word jumped up and moved have the similar meaning. In the sentence (4.16) I said long ago, you get you a signature and sign everything you do and keep a copy of it. There are two words signature and sign have the similarity in meaning.

4.2.3 Antonymy From this short story AGMHAF the examples of antonymy are: 4.17 4.18 4.19 The grandmothers brown eyes but were very bright. I just know you are a good man, but you are not a bit common. She opened and closed he mouth several times before anything came out.

In these examples, every word underlined have an antonym meaning. For example in sentence (4.18) The grandmothers brown eyes but were very bright. In this sentence between word brown and bright have antonym meaning. Brown expressed the dark and bright expressed the light or near white one. In sentence (4.19) I just know you are a good man, but you are not a bit common. Between words goodman and bit common have antonym meaning. Furthermore in sentence (4.20) She opened and

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closed he mouth several times before anything came out. The two words opened and closed have the antonym meaning. These meaning refers to mouth man activities in the near time.

4.2.4 Hyponymy From this short story AGMHAF the example of hyponymy is: 4.21. His hair was just beginning to grey and he wore silver rimmed spectacles that gave him a scholarly look. In that sentence, both grey and silver have the same hyponymy, that is colour.

4.2.5 Meronymy 4.22 The grandmother offered to hold book of law in this case. Because they have family in law relationship.

In the sentence (4.22) above the word law and family in law have the meronymy meaning.

4.3 Dominant Lexical Cohesion After writer read the AGMHAF short story, I find some words which dominant in lexical cohesion context. For examples in sampling, words: (1) Her 245 times, (2) He 213 times, (3) She 114 times,

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(4) That 69 times, (5) Go 57 times, (6) Grandmother 51 times, (7) Children 31 times. (8) Bailey 30 times. As in the examples above, the dominant lexical found in the name and

persons. Then in the verb. This is as impact of the short story EGMHAF dominated by human activities in the one place in United States of America. By using the formula: X ----- x 100% = N Y

Y = Total number of all data N = Percentage of lexical cohesion X = Number of each of lexical cohesion Every sample words can be identified in the context of dominant lexical cohesion follows.

(1) Word her: 245/6.361 x 100 % = 3,8516 (2) Word he: 213/6.361 x 100 % = 3,3485 (3) Word she 114/6.361 x 100 % = 1,7922 (4) Word that 69/6.361 x 100 % = 1,0847 (5) Word go 57/6.361 x 100 % = 0,8961 (6) Word grandmother 51/6.361 x 100 % = 0,8018

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(7) Word children 31/6.361 x 100 % = 0,4873 (8) Word Bailey 30/6.361 x 100 % = 0,4716

## CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1

Conclusion Having analyzed the cohesion in the Flannery OConnors short story writing,

which entitled A Good Man Its Hard to Find, the writer no comes to the conclusions dealing with the topic. In this conclusion writer answer the two main problems of analysis: kinds and dominant lexical cohesion. The kinds of lexical cohesion found in the short story A Good Man Its Hard to Find, can be classified into: repetition, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, meronymy. This lexical cohesion have a specific form, as expressed of OConnor idea as a writer this short story. It cohesion expressed the West cultural. The dominant lexical in this short story is repetition in word person and verb and synonymy in person, tool, and verb. This is a style of this short story. The lexical cohesion dominated by words which explain human name and persons. This is impact of the main role of scene this short story, which explore the human activities and idea, especially in its members. Besides that,

5.2

Suggestions Language holds an important role in human life, and will be developed

accordingly with the development of knowledge, thats why the readers should study language more deeply. It expressed the culture which it life, development, and polarize. Language the main element of culture. The main function of language is

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communication one. Analyzing the language automatically studying human communication. Studying discourse analysis, especially cohesion, will help us understand the texts easier. The writer realizes the limit of her knowledge and ability in analyzing this topic. Therefore she suggests that those interested in studying cohesion analyzed, the function and usage of cohesion. The writer hopes that this thesis might be considered as one of useful references in doing an analysis dealing with the topic.