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# MOHRS CIRCLE

The Mohr Circle is a tremendously useful way to plot stress and strain.
Unfortunately, to derive it, we have to plow through a bit of trigonometry first. In the
example that follows, we'll assume:
Compression is positive, tension is negative.
The system is not rotating or moving (it might be, but we imagine
ourselves moving along with it. We're only interested in the forces that are
acting to deform the rock on a local scale).
The stresses can be defined in terms of two perpendicular longitudinal
stresses. We call this a principal axis system. For any stress system, we can
always find a principal axis coordinate system.
STATE OF A STRESS
The totallty of all the stress vectors acting on every possible plane
passing through the point is defined to be state of stress at a point.
State of stress at a point is important for the designer in
determining the critical planes and the respective critical
stresses.
STRESS ELEMENT
Convenient way to visualize or represent the state of stress at a point
or stresses acting o n three mutually perpendicular planes say x- plane , y-
plane and z-plane.
PLANE STRESS-PLANE STRAIN
PRINCIPAL STRESSES
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM NORMAL STRESSES ARE CALLED
PRINCIPAL STRESS

PLANES ON WHICH THESE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM
NORMAL STRESSES ACT ARE CALLED PRINCIPAL PLANES
DIRECTION OF PRINCIPAL PLANES IS OBTAINED BY

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM SHEAR STRESS:
PURPOSE OF MOHRS CIRCLE
VISUAL TOOL USED TO DETERMINE THE STRESSES THAT
EXIST AT A GIVEN POINT IN RELATION TO THE ANGLE OF
ORIENTATION OF THE STRESS ELEMENT.

SAMPLE PROBLEM
o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3
ksi
Some Part
A particular point
on the part
x
y
x & y orientation
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

x-axis
y-axis
o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3 ksi
(6 ksi, 3 ksi)
6
3
(-2 ksi, -3 ksi)
2
3
Center of
Mohrs Circle
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

o
1
o
avg
= 2 ksi

x-face
y-face
(6 ksi, 3ksi)
(-2 ksi, -3ksi)
o
2
(o
avg
, t
max
)

o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3 ksi
(o
avg
, t
min
)
ksi
y x
avg
2
2
=
o + o
= o
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

o
1
x-face
y-face
(6 ksi, 3ksi)
o
2
o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3 ksi
4 ksi
o
1
= o
avg
+ R = 7 ksi
o
2
= o
avg
R = 3 ksi
(o
avg
, t
max
)
(2 ksi, 5 ksi)
(o
avg
, t
min
)
(2 ksi, -5 ksi)
3 ksi
max
R
ksi
) ksi ( ) ksi ( R
t =
=
+ =
5
4 3
2 2
R
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

o
1
x-face
y-face
(6 ksi, 3ksi)
o
2
o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3 ksi
2u
4 ksi
(o
avg
, t
max
)
(2 ksi, 5 ksi)
(o
avg
, t
min
)
(2 ksi, -5 ksi)
3 ksi
= u
= u
|
|
.
|

\
|
= u

435 18
869 36 2
4
3
2
1
.
.
ksi
ksi
Tan
PRINCIPLE
STRESS
t
(CW)
o

o
1
x-face
(6 ksi, 3ksi)
o
2
o
1
= 7 ksi
o
2
= -3 ksi
2u
4 ksi
(o
avg
, t
max
)
(2 ksi, 5 ksi)
(o
avg
, t
min
)
(2 ksi, -5 ksi)
3 ksi
u = 18.435
Principle Stress
Element
Rotation on element is
half of the rotation from
the circle in same
direction from x-axis
SHEAR
STRESS
t
(CW)
o

o
1
x-face
y-face
(6 ksi, 3ksi)
o
2
o
avg
= 2 ksi
o
avg
= 2 ksi
t
max
= 5 ksi
2u
4 ksi
(o
avg
, t
max
)
(2 ksi, 5 ksi)
(o
avg
, t
min
)
(2 ksi, -5 ksi)
3 ksi
= |
= |
= |
u = |
565 26
130 53 2
869 36 90 2
2 90 2
.
.
.
2|
Maximum Shear
Stress Element
| = 26.565
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
ELEMENTS
o
avg
= 2 ksi
o
avg
= 2 ksi
t
max
= 5 ksi
| = 26.565
o
1
= 7 ksi
o
2
= -3 ksi
o
x
= 6 ksi
o
y
= -2 ksi
t
xy
= 3 ksi
u = 18.435
u + | = 18.435 + 26.565 = 45
WHATS THE STRESS AT ANGLE
OF 15 CCW FROM THE X-AXIS?
o = ? ksi
o = ? ksi
t = ? ksi
Some Part
A particular point
on the part
x
y
U & V new axes @ 15 from x-axis
15
U
x
V
ROTATION ON
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

o
1
o
avg
= 2 ksi

x-face
y-face
o
2
(o
avg
, t
max
)

(o
avg
, t
min
)
30
15 on part and
element is 30 on
Mohrs Circle
(o
U
, t
U
)

(o
V
, t
V
)

o
U
= o
avg
+ R*cos(66.869)
o
U
= 3.96 ksi

o
V
= o
avg
R*cos(66.869)
o
V
= 0.036 ksi
t
UV
= R*sin(66.869)
t
UV
= 4.60 ksi
ROTATION ON
MOHRS
CIRCLE
t
(CW)
o

o
1
o
avg
= 2 ksi

x-face
y-face
o
2
(o
avg
, t
max
)

(o
avg
, t
min
)
66.869
R
(o
U
, t
U
)

(o
V
, t
V
)

WHATS THE STRESS AT ANGLE
OF 15 CCW FROM THE X-AXIS?
o
U
= 3.96 ksi
o
V
= .036 ksi
t = 4.60 ksi
Some Part
A particular point
on the part
x
y
15
U
x
V
PURE UNIAXIAL TENSION
o
y
= 0

o
x
= P/A

Ductile Materials Tend to Fail
in SHEAR
o
1
= o
x
2
x
max
o
= t
o
2
= 0

PURE UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION
o
y
= 0

o
x
= P/A

2
x
max
o
= t
o
1
= 0

o
2
= o
x