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List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of Acacia species that are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids, or are suspected of containing such alkaloids due to being psychoactive. The presence and constitution of alkaloids in nature can be highly variable, due to environmental and genetic factors.

Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive Alkaloids

Acacia acinacea

0.04-0.82% alkaloids in leaves and stems, 0.08% in ripe pods, mostly phenethylamine[1] DMT in bark (up to 1.6%) and leaves (0.6-0.8%), young leaves mainly containing tryptamine[2]; 0.72% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly tryptamine[3]

Acacia acuminata ssp. acuminata

DMT in bark (0.2-1.2%), 0.1% alkaloids from leaves Acacia acuminata ssp. burkittii (mostly NMT)[2]; 1.5% alkaloids from leaves and stems, (syn. A. burkittii) mostly tryptamine[3] -methyl-phenethylamine (N-methyl-phenethylamine), 2.4% in leaves[4]; 3.2% alkaloids in aerial parts (stems, leaves, flowers) - about 70% was -methyl-phenethylamine, with smaller amounts of phenethylamine[3] Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Besides this, there are independent claims of DMT in leaves and bark based on human bioassay[2], and traces of 5-MeO-DMT, DMT and NMT were tentatively identified by TLC in twigs[7]. Root bark contains alkaloids that were not identified[8]

Acacia adunca

Acacia albida

Dimethyltryptamine active levels in leaf[9]

Acacia alpina

Ash used in Pituri.[10] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11] Not known if psychoactive per se.

Acacia aneura

0.028% -methyl-phenethylamine in leaves[12], DMT (0.00012-0.00102%) and N-methyltyramine (0.000110.005%) in leaves[13]; DMT and 5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified by TLC from roots in one test, not detected in follow up; 5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified by TLC in seeds[7] Acacia angustissima

Has been claimed to contain tryptamine alkaloids[14] and significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds[15], but this needs confirmation and supporting information Acacia aroma

5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified in stem bark[7]

Acacia auriculiformis

0.02% alkaloids in spring (80% tetrahydroharman, 20% tryptamine), 0.028% autumn (tryptamine) and none in summer, with leaves of Californian plants[16]; traces of DMT and unidentified indoles tentatively detected in seeds[7]

Acacia baileyana Claimed to be psychoactive[17], but supporting information is needed. Ash used in pituri[10]

Acacia beauverdiana

Hordenine, tyramine and N-methyltyramine in leaves[18]; 0.28-0.66% N-methylphenethylamine in leaves. Causes stock intoxications in Texas[19][12]. Claims of amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and many other alkaloids[20] are suspect[21]

Acacia berlandieri

Acacia buxifolia

0.65% alkaloids from leaves and stems, 0.58% from pods and 0.09% from seeds, mostly phenethylamine[1] Tryptamine and DMT N-oxide from bark[22] 0.02-0.06% alkaloids from stems and leaves, consisting of tryptamine and phenethylamine[3]; one screening found no alkaloids[23]

Acacia caesia

Acacia cardiophylla

Claims of DMT in the plant[24] have been referenced to works that do not support the claim. Needs research.

Acacia catechu (syn. A. polyacantha, A. suma)

Claims of tryptamines in this species are unreferenced. Leaves of this (and/or other plants) and tobacco, are occasionally smoked with Anadenanthera seeds for psychoactive effects[25] Acacia caven

Claims of DMT and other tryptamines in leaf and bark are unreferenced. Needs research.

Acacia chundra (syn. A. catechu var. sundra) Claimed to contain up to 1.8% DMT in bark, 0.2-0.6% in leaf[26], but others have found no alkaloids, or nearly none in this species[2]

Acacia colei

Acacia complanata

0.3% N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, traces of tetrahydroharman in leaf and stem[27]; independent claims of DMT from bark[28] need confirmation

2.1% Nicotine (w/w), 1.2% calycotomine (d/w) from leaves[29][30]

Acacia concinna

0.074% alkaloids from stems (20% DMT, 80% NMT)[31]; NMT and an unidentified tryptamine alkaloid from trunk bark[32]; 2.85% alkaloids from root bark (45% DMT, 55% NMT)[33]; 0.005% DMT, 0.009% DMT N-oxide, 0.006% NMT and 0.007% N-chloromethyl-DMT (might be artefact of extraction) from unspecified parts[34]

Acacia confusa

0.02% alkaloids from leaves, including -methylphenethylamine (tentatively identified)[12]

Acacia constricta Acacia coriacea Ash used in Pituri.[10][35] Not known if psychoactive.

May be psychoactive, as the root is used as an aphrodisiac, and may have been added to the Central American balch beverage[25]. Claims of tryptamines in this species[36] might be speculation. Research needed. Acacia cornigera

0.02-0.07% alkaloids in leaves and stems, including tryptamine (tentatively identified) and a phenethylamine. 0.04% alkaloids in seeds and unripe seed pods[37][1][3]; tentative observation of 5-MeO-DMT in leaves, stems and flowers[7] Acacia cultriformis Has been included on a list of psychoactive plants[17], but requires supporting information Has been included on a list of psychoactive plants[17], but requires supporting information

Acacia cuthbertsonii

Acacia delibrata

Psychoactive,[17] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[38]

Acacia falcata

Acacia farnesiana

Tentative identification of 5-MeO-DMT and an unidentified -carboline from immature seed pods[7]; tryptamine in stem bark[22]. A claim of -methyl-phenethylamine from flowers is not supported by the reference given[39]. Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11] Alkaloids are present in the bark[40] and leaves.[41] Others found no alkaloids[23]. Claims of amphetamines and mescaline in the tree[36] appear to be groundless

Acacia filiciana

Has been added to pulque[25], but its psychoactivity is unknown Up to 0.18% alkaloids from tops, mostly tryptamine with some phenethylamine; 0.15-1.18% alkaloids from flowers, equal amounts tryptamine and phenethylamine[37][42]; traces

Acacia floribunda

of unidentified alkaloid from bark[1]. Recently found to actually contain mostly DMT (up to 0.1% from leaves, 0.30.5% from bark), with bark also containing NMT, and small amounts of tryptamine, harman and norharman[2]

0.016% alkaloids from leaves, including (tentatively identified) N-methyl--phenethylamine and tyramine[12]

Acacia greggii

Acacia harpophylla

0.1-0.6% alkaloids in leaves, consisting of phenethylamine and hordenine at a ratio of 2:3; 0.3% alkaloids in bark[4][23] Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[4]

Acacia holoserica

Has been claimed to be psychoactive, but this is not supported by the reference given[35]

Acacia horrida

Claimed to be psychoactive[43], but this requires supporting information

Acacia implexa

Acacia jurema

Putative species claimed to contain DMT and NMT, without a reference; possibly assumed due to supposed use in jurema wine

Probably psychoactive; roots used in Zimbabwe as an aphrodisiac and to treat dizziness, convulsions and body pains[44] Acacia karroo Acacia kempeana Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[35] 1.3-1.88% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly (92%) phenethylamine[3]; 0.9% -methyl-phenethylamine from leaves[4] Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Needs research

Acacia kettlewelliae

Acacia laeta

Acacia leucophloea Acacia lingulata

Tryptamine in root bark[22] Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[35]

0.2-1% alkaloids from tops, 0.14-0.29% from flowers; consisted mostly of tryptamine-like alkaloids (tryptamine itself found in some flowers), with small amount of phenethylamine[37][1][42]. Some strains have been found to contain up to 0.2% DMT in unspecified parts[2][45]. Leaves, bark, pods, seeds and flowers all contained varying levels of histamine amides[46] Acacia longifolia

Acacia sophorae

Contains alkaloids in leaves, stems and unripe seed pods[37][23] but they have been poorly investigated. A claim of tryptamine in leaveand bark[15] requires a proper reference. Several reports of DMT content unconfirmed[2][47] Claimed to contain tryptamine[15], but without a reference. Needs research

Acacia macradenia

Acacia maidenii

0.13-0.71% alkaloids from bark, consisting of NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio[23][48]; both also present in leaves. Some varieties of the species are not good alkaloid sources[2]. Tentative identification of 5-MeO-DMT in wood and twigs, NMT in root[7]

Rumoured to contain DMT or similar psychoactive alkaloids[2]

Acacia mangium

Some plants may contain DMT in the bark and leaf, but may have been misidentified as most do not[2]. Traces of alkaloids detected in bark, leaf and seed; sometimes no alkaloids[23][1] Acacia melanoxylon

Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Needs research

Acacia mellifera Acacia mucronata sbsp. longifolia

DMT, NMT, tryptamine, other alkaloids [49]

Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Later analysis tentatively found 5-MeO-DMT in stems, leaves and roots; DMT, NMT and 5-MeO-DMT were tentatively observed in seeds, but follow-up tests were negative[7][50]. Bark contains unidentified alkaloids[51] Acacia nilotica

Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens

Claims of this plant being psychoactive and containing DMT in the leaf are unreferenced and need verification

Acacia obtusifolia

0.15-1.4% alkaloids from bark, 0.07% from fresh tips[2][23][52], 0.15-0.3% from dried leaves. A small population seems to contain mainly DMT in bark, with most also containing other alkaloids including NMT, tryptamine, harman and norharman; leaves may contain more NMT than DMT. Some assays showed tentative presence of 5-MeODMT and/or bufotenine but these are unconfirmed and other assays did not detect them[2][53][54] 0.016% DMT in leaf[6]; a claim of NMT in this species is unreferenced Claimed to be psychoactive[17], but supporting information is needed. Bark and leaves have been used to poison fish[55]

Acacia oerfota (syn. A. nubica)

Acacia penninervis

0.3% DMT in leaf[56]; a claim of NMT[9] could not be found in the reference given and needs verification. Species is rare and threatened

Acacia phlebophylla

0.11-0.29% alkaloids in leaves and stems, 0.11% from seeds and pods, mostly tryptamine and sometimes with phenethylamine also present[37][1][3]; a later analysis found 0.06% tryptamine from leaves (w/w)[57] Acacia podalyriaefolia Acacia polyacantha ssp. campylacantha (syn. A. campylacantha) 0.004%% DMT in leaf[6]; claims of NMT and other tryptamines in leaf and bark[58] are not supported by the reference given

Acacia pravissima

Up to 0.44% alkaloids from leaves and stems, mostly phenethylamine[37]

0.17-0.65% alkaloids from stems and leaves, 1.8% from flowering tops, consisting of phenethylamine and -methylphenethylamine[37][1][3][59] Acacia prominens (syn. A. praetervisa) Acacia pruinocarpa Ash used in Pituri.[10][35] Not known if psychoactive. 0.02-0.09% alkaloids from stems and leaves[37], 0.04% from tops, mostly tryptamine with some phenethylamine[42]

Acacia pruinosa

Less than 0.01% total alkaloids in leaf[37], sometimes none[23]. Recent findings of 0.4% DMT in single tree[60]

Acacia pycnantha

0.01% Nicotine was reported from leaves, but identity of the plant was not certain[61]; claims of DMT and NMT in the plant[62] require verification or a proper reference

Acacia retinodes

0.025% alkaloids from leaves, including N-methylphenethylamine and N-methyl-tyramine (both tentatively identified)[12]. Claims of DMT, NMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and many other alkaloids[63] are suspect[21] Acacia rigidula

0.036% alkaloids from leaves, including -methylphenethylamine, tyramine and N-methyl-tyramine[12]

Acacia roemeriana

Ash used in Pituri.[10][35] Not known if psychoactive.

Acacia salicina

A claim of -methyl-phenethylamine, phenethylamine, amphetamines and mescaline in this species[36] lacks a reference and is highly dubious

Acacia schaffneri Acacia schottii -methyl-phenethylamine in leaves, tentatively identified[12]

0.003% DMT in leaf[6]; claim of DMT in bark[15] requires verification

Acacia senegal

Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.[11]

Acacia seyal

Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. However it is rumoured that unpublished analysis has found DMT in the plant[2] Acacia sieberiana

3.6% alkaloids from leaves and stem bark (40% NMT, 22.5% DMT, 12.7% 2-methyl-tetrahydro--carboline, and traces of N-formyl-NMT which might be an artefact of extraction)[64]

Acacia simplex (syn. A. simplicifolia)

Acacia spectabilis

0.21-0.35% alkaloids from leaves and stems, about 2/3 phenethylamine[3] Up to 0.89% alkaloids from leaves and stems, 0.05-0.17% from unripe pods, mostly phenethylamine[37][1] 0.008% alkaloids from leaves including -methylphenethylamine and tyramine (tentatively identified)[12]

Acacia suaveolens

Acacia texensis

Published reports of DMT in the leaf[5] derive from a misreading of a paper that found no DMT in leaves of this species[6]. Needs research Acacia tortilis

Acacia vestita

Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem (up to 83% of total alkaloids); alkaloid content was highest in autumn and spring (0.12-0.28%), lowest in summer and winter (0.030.08%)[3]

Acacia victoriae

Tentative positive for DMT in aerial parts of a 1 yr old plant, and 5-MeO-DMT in roots of 2 yr old seedlings[7]; a formal screening found no alkaloids in leaf and stem[23]. Appears to contain DMT based on human bioassays[2]

Acacia species having little or no alkaloids in the material sampled[38]


Species containing a concentration of alkaloids of 0-0.02% include:

Acacia acinacea Acacia baileyana Acacia decurrens Acacia dealbata Acacia mearnsii Acacia drummondii Acacia elata Acacia falcata Acacia leprosa Acacia linearis Acacia melanoxylon Acacia retinodes Acacia saligna Acacia stricta Acacia verticillata Acacia vestita

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