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486 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES down in Avodhys and accept lifelong royal support. Vasuband accepted the ofer..The master was creativeeven athisadvanced age, and more chan a match for Vasursta, the Young King’s grammar Drotheri- law nis favote spor of debate. But. debate wa to him mainly upaya: if could lead t0 no one's interest in Maayan, he ‘would not engage int. Thus, when Sanghabhadea whe had writen his two great treatises, one of which furious denunciation of the ofa Bhsya, challenged Vasubandhu to defend the Koda statements, and was invited to come to court and debate bythe alos Vasu ‘Vasubandhu tld his ppis that e could see no good reason for such a debate, bu diplomatcally sent the ofl answer the Saghabhadra Would indeed. be hard to defeat.The debate never 100k place..Saighabhadra in fcr died shor after” “Vasubandhu did not long survive Sanghabhadra nthe elghtith year hislife, 396, be ded.” ‘Over thiry works are atibuted to Vasubandha by tradition for ‘which we have no special reason o doubt his authorship. A good many ofthese are commentaries on Mahayana suas and Sstas, most of ‘hem avallable now only in Chinese or Tibetan translations fatal. In ‘Keeping with the puraive chronology provided by Anacker’ account Just provided, we shall place the Abhidharma works previous o those ‘Mayana stra, andthe remaining, Yogicira works atthe end, with ‘he Thsvabhavanidefaastin keeping with Anackers estimate 173. VASUBANDHU, Abhidharmakosa “The Kola was fist known to men readers in two Chinese seasons, one by Paamarta ta the sich century, te her By Hsan-sang inthe seventh Tere are ala ewe Tibetan anslaons, ney Sinaia he eb ra, dang one inh cenmy- Rahul Sankryayana acovered te Sank ext Norn ‘Tibet in 1995 and made Feros thse ae the bas ete recent edons Laie de a Vallee Poussin wanted san, Chines into French and there re various paral amlatons fa ts surary "references ae wt eon by Swart Dwadar ‘Shas whereas “T= relerences ate to ao Made four vate Bagi ean of oust. ep, numbed comers ‘Summary by Stefan Anacker (CHAPTER ONE: Realms 1. (64; 786 Homage he Boa, who dey al ines. Eiei-15; 150) Aiba i dln ar pore wndom with accompaniments aya bead forimpete wom orev oF reuses whieh renin pre wisdom Gn, TS) Te only way to ly eth defilement hat cause worl wandering ito ive the factor, and 118 fr this Invesiaton the Buddha aug Dida. "fee; Tos) Al condoned fcr xcept hose of he ath are contaminsang berms dfiement aden them cE 19,129) Teter unconone aor-apaceclelated and unaiclated can ae noncntariatn (22022 79.60 Caled cemaonsare separate dishncions Unealelted estan it complete end arsng "(5 5, TD Cononed cis can abe bed under the five aggregates Ty re tempora te objets scours ens nd involte aaa objets (28 29, T6869) Contaminnng factors re ring aes. ‘here bra beng tustang oognaing wordy he ope of pions extent *. (E30; T63) Material form comprises the five sense-organs, five ves and unmanestonn Telia earner of ese ae soberaten, inal ete To. 3, Tot 8) There are two (or wen) materi base. Sounds are etl, tose sil, tel fool, nd tangles are sfeleven sor TH0; 167) Unmanfest mae form occurs in sees dependent onthe great elements whichis distracted or unaware 4Unmanifest form is used to explain the karmie veubution of ‘one who hat instigated an acon. Someone who prompts fomeone else to murder engenders an uamanifest form of karma, ‘soon as he prompts; the unmanifet form "comes ro maturity” ‘when the other person actually commis the murder. 488 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN HULOSOPETES 12,643; 168.69) The great fire and wind. They function espe heading and motion, 13,43; T6) As commonly used "ean, "water, "ire and wind” refer to colorsand shapes 14.(647-48; 772) Feelings are experiencings. Conceptual ‘eniications ae the grasping of signs. 15.(E48-50; 773) The aggregates of feelings, identifications, and conditioning factors, together with unmaniest form and the unconditioned factors, belong “to the sense bass of factors (dharmayetana), te eal offers 16.0850; T74) Consciousness is the awareness of something ‘manifesting @rarvfigt). is the mental organ; itis seven element, seconsciousheses plus mind, 17.(851; 775) The term ind” (mana is used for any occurence ofthe six ype of conscousneses which innately afterands gies ss to 2 menialconseiousness moment. Eighteen sensory dome ae ‘enumerated support there beg jars types of eonseouanes, 38,0654; 176) allcondiioned factors are included in an aggresate, sense basis, oran element, 19,55; 17) Vabhaska: Though che organs of sight, hearing, and selling are double, hey each count as only one sensory. 20.(856-62; 177.80) On the etymology of ‘kha “dae 21.0864; TBI) Feelings and ientications are designated as ‘evarate aggregates because they are the cases of disp, of saat, and because of order, 22.(E55-66; T91-83) The unconditioned cant be clasifed under “aaregates, since they are tha sort of thing. The oer in which the agaregate rc listed reflects het relative grossnes or mubilcy the ‘efling capacities, and thelr elative range inthe four rele 23.(267 68; T84) The five sensory consciousnesses have objects which are simultaneously present. The arrangement ofthe sense-hels has 0 do with the range and rapidity of thei functioning, the eye having a longer eange and greater rapidity than the eth ea a 24.(869; TAS) Only one sense-feld is called @ material basis because of is excellence and predominance. Only one sense ‘el i ‘alle a basis of facos" because of watt includes lal elements ae earth, water, ly as supporting, amidtying, ABHIDHARMAKOSA, 489 25-26,(670-72; 186-87) The rest ofthe large numberof factors that the Buddha refers to fall among either the material or conditioning '27.(672.765; 787-88) Examples of how other factors can be clasiied as aggregates, senses and elements, 28.(£77-78; T8889) The element of spac is, lghe or dark. The consciousness elements con locust birth, 29a-b.(£79-81; 789-82) Only one material elements visible, Ten ‘material elements are resistant. Fight elements are neutral hose ‘excluding matter and sound), ‘29cd-30, E8187; 792-92) The rest ofthe elements can be of three sors, good, bad or neutral. All ofthe elements exist inthe realm of desire fourteen exist inthe material ream (excluding smell ae, the smell and taste awareness) 31.(657; 795.96) In dhe material ream all the material sensory domains are absent. In that realm occur the element-the mind slemen, the mental consciousness element, and the factor element. ‘They ean be contaminating or not. 52.(E88; 796-97) Five awareness elements involv inital and sustained thought. The mind, mental consciousnes, and the factor lementsinvolve three afferent combinations of ital and sustained ‘ought. The resto the elements involve no bought '38.(€89-90; 797) The five awarenesses are constructiontie, not involving defining and memory. Those two kins of consction ece any distracted mentality, be it wise oF meron 34.(690.91; 798) Seven elements of awareness plusone partofthe factorelement have supporting abject. The seven plus the factor tlement and sounds are never appropriated bya ody The remain hie sensory domains are sometimes appropriated, sometimes not '35.(E92-95; 799-101) Among the ten material element, the tangible element consists, in part ofthe great elements and in parol ‘material form derived from hese great elements. The emaiing ane ‘material elements ae only derivative '36.(695-96; T102) Four elements can cu or be cut, burn of be ‘burned, weigh or be weighed. There is disgeeement about detalls '37.(697-99;7109-104) The five interal sense bases are the cele ‘of karmie maturation and grow through nourishment, Sound isnewet the resuleofkarmle maturation cording to some, inating, being the 490 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES 38, (£100-103;7105-106) Only one sensory domain grasps realy the unconditioned (which is par ofthe sensory domain of mental ‘copnitabls), because only itis pemanent. $9,(E108107; T107-109) Twelve of the sensory elements are personal-the twelve excluding those sk thar are objects of ‘The sensory clement called "ator element" is homogeneous. The remaining ones are parally homogeneous '40.(E109 110; 112-114) Fifteen elements are abandoned in rmeditational concentration; the last thineen ate of thee kinds. Undefied and material factors are not abandoned by the pach of “£1, (E112-114; T113-114) The erm "view" (dst is used forthe visual organ a well freight views which form pars ofthe factor “lement The five sensory consciousnesses are aot views, sthereis0| Jundgmentin tiem made after deliberation, 426115114; T114-115) Valbasika: 1 is the eye which sees visiles, noe the visual consciousness. For when the visible ‘obstructed, or the ee, teres nothing seen “43(119.120, 7119) Vaibhisika: The ee, ear, and mind perceive their objets without coming deel in touch with them, Ths is nor the case with the other tree organs of sense "44,(E123-125, 1122-125) The three organs starting with the ‘olfactory gasp an objec of equal ie. The objets ofthe five sensory ‘onsciousnesses occur simultaneously with their consciousnes, But the mental conscousnessmay have apast, present or furue object of "45 (E126 127; 7125) Since a consciousness depends both on the object and the organ, why ionly the organ designated asits suppor? Because the conciousness changes according to the orga. "46,(6128-129; 7127-128) There i no inferiority or superiority 35 regards diferent kinds of organs or conscousnesses in the sme experiential sphere. "47,2120 131; 1128-129) Sometimes the mental consciousness of ‘apsychophysieal complex may be ina superior experiential sphere the other consciousnesses-for instance, when itis meditationally ‘concentrated, '48,(8131-182; 1129-190) Everything perceived by the other consciousness is diacemed by she mental conscousness. The ABHIDHARMAKOSA, ao unconditioned factors (J, 4:5) are eternal, Thee are rweary.1W0 faculties, factors which have a predominance for the psychophysical complex. They are the faculties of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, tare body, mind (peaning al six conscoumene), eminiiy, masculiy, vital, satisfaction frustration, contentedness,jeitation equanimity, faith, energy, mindfulness, meditation, insight coming ro know what ‘wasn't known, understanding, and perfect knowledge. (Por the Aefinisions ofthese see Chapter Two.) (CHAPTER TWO: The Faculties 1.(€195 138;7159-155) Valbhasta: Five faculties predominate in respect of four things, and fourin respect to wo; ive and eh with regard ro afftion and purification, 2,(E140; 7155-156) The faculties which ae sense organs are really predominant in relation roche ive sensory consciousness, andthe faculty of mind (eE.1, 17) i predominant in regard #0 mental S.(E141; T1S6-157) Vitaliy, feelings and the five faculties begining wi ath ae predominant in ating We, fetone and purifications ‘4(E141; 157) Coming to know what wasn't known, understanding and pret knowledge predominate in respect 5.(E142; 1158) The faculties ae the loc of awareness and what concepualze, maintains, fics, prepares and purifies them 6143; T1S9) Alternatively, there are fourteen (positive) faculies, comprising the loc of ativey an the arising maintenance ted psig of eo ti et gt ton say "7145-146; 7150-161) Allthe information regarding thefaculies Which is provided by U, 7-19, 30, 6061 and IV, 8-127 may be Alagrammed a5 follows: