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STP 977

Advanced Triaxial Testing of


Soil and Rock
Robert T. Donaghe, Ronald C. Chaney, and Marshall L. Silver,
editors
I I !
ASTM
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Advanced triaxial testing of soil and rock/Robert T. Donaghe, Ronald
C. Chaney, and Marshall L. Silver, editors.
(STP; 977)
"The symposium on advanced triaxial testing of soil and rock was
presented at Louisville, Kentucky on 19-20 June 1986 sponsored by
ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock"Foreword.
ASTM publication code number (PCN) 04-977000-38.
Includes bibliographies and index.
ISBN 0-8031-0983-0
1. Soils^TestingCongresses. 2. RocksTestingCongresses.
I. Donaghe, Robert T. II. Chaney, Ronald C. III. Silver, Marshall
L. IV. ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock. V. Title: Advanced Triaxial
testing of soil and rock. VI. Series: ASTM special technical
publication: 977
TA710.5.A38 1988 88-19070
624.1'5136'0287dcl9 CIP
Copyright by AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS 1988
NOTE
The Society is not responsible, as a body,
for the statements and opinions
advanced in this publication.
Peer Review Policy
Each paper published in this volume was evaluated by three peer reviewers. The authors
addressed all of the reviewers' comments to the satisfaction of both the technical editor(s)
and the ASTM Committee on Pubhcations.
The quality of the papers in this publication reflects not only the obvious efforts of the
authors and the technical editor(s), but also the work of these peer reviewers. The ASTM
Committee on Publications acknowledges with appreciation their dedication and contribution
of time and effort on behalf of ASTM.
Printed in Baltimore
November 1988
Foreword
The symposium on Advanced Triaxial Testing of Soil and Rock was presented at Louisville,
Kentucky on 19-20 June 1986 sponsored by ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock.
Robert T. Donaghe, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ronald C. Chaney, Humboldt State
University, and Marshall L. Silver, University of Illinois, served as chairmen of the sym-
posium and editors of the resulting publication.
T
Overview
EQUIPMENT
State-of-the-Art Paper
Some Recent Developments in tViaidal Testing Systems for Cohesionless Soils
FUMIO TATSUOKA 7
Flow Pump Applications in IViaxial TestingHAROLD W. OLSEN,
ROGER Hi MORIN, AND ROGER Wi NICHOLS 68
A Computer Controlled Hydraulic tViaxial Testing Systeih'^BRUCB Ic. MENZIES 82
An Automated TriAnitA Testing Systemx. s. LU CLARENCE K. CHAN,
AND C. K. SHEN 95
Microcomputer-Based Data Acquisition Systems for iWaxial Testing of Soft
Yielding RocksMALCOLM REEVES 107
A Stress- ahd Strain-Contrdlled Monotonic and Cyclic Loading System
Y. p. VAID, D. NEGUSSEY, AND M. ZEROOUN 119
A 300-nun-Diameter Triaxial Cell with a Double Measuring Device-^
JEAN-MlCHfiL DUPAS, ALAIN PECKER, PIERRE BOZETTO, AND
JEAN-JACQUES FRY 132
Simultaneous Hydraulic/Physical Parameter Measuremrat on Rock Specimens
Subjected to IViaxial ConditionsFRED A. DONATM, JON T. HOLDER,
AND LESTER S. FRUTH 143
iViaxial Testing of Intact Salt Rocks: Pressure Control, Pressure Systenks, Cell
and Frame DesignJAMES R. BALESHTA AND MAURICE B. DUSSEAULT 155
Relationship Between Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Compacted Soils
JOHN F. PETERS AND DANlEL A. LEAVELL 169
Influence of Filter Paper and Leakage on iViaxial testitig-SERGE LEROUEIL,
FRANCOIS TAVENAS, PIERRE La ROCHELLE, AND MiCHEL TREMBLAY 189
MeiKurement of Deformations in the Standard TViaxial Environment witli
a Comparison of Local Versus Global Measurements on a Fine, Fully
Drained SandPAUL FERGUSON LINTON, MICHAEL C. MCVAY,
AND DAVID BLOOMOUIST 202
TEST METHODS
State-of-the-Art Paper
A Reevaluation of Conventional Triaxial Test MethodsGUALTIERO BALDI,
DAVID W. MIGHT, AND GREGORY E. THOMAS 219
State-of-the-Art Paper
Triaxial Testing Methods for SoilsSUZANNE LACASSE AND TORALV BERRE 264
IViaxial Testing of Granular Soil Under Elevated Cell Pressure
JEAN LOUIS COLLIAT-DANGUS, JACQUES DESRUES, AND PIERRE FORAY 290
Consolidated Drained IViaxial Testing of Piecbnont Residual Soil
PHILIP C. LAMBE AND WILLIAM T. HEARTZ 311
Triaxial Relaxation Tests on a Soft Clay^VINCENT SILVESTRI, MICHEL SOULIE,
ZIAD TOUCHAN, AND BERNARD FAY 321
Triaxial Testing of Marine Sediments with High Gas ContentsGRETCHEN RAU
AND RONALD C. CHANEY 338
Results and Interpretation of Multistage TMaxial Compression Tests
MAURIZIO SORANZO 353
Application of Multistage TMaxial Test to Kuwaiti SoilsHAMED S. SAEEDY
AND MOHAMMED A. MOLLAH 363
Triaxial Testing of Weak Rocks Including the Use of IViaxial Extension Tests
PETER J. MILLAR AND DAVID R. MURRAY 376
Triaxial Permeability and Strei^h Testing of Contaminated Soils
JEFFREY C. EVANS AND HSAl-YANG FANG 387
Preparation of Reconstituted Sand SpecimensY. P. VAID AND D. NEGUSSEY 405
TEST INTERPRETATION AND ERRORS
State-of-the-Art Paper
IViaxial Testing of Saturated Cohesive SoilsJOHN T. GERMAINE
AND CHARLES C. LADD 421
Determination of Undrained Shear Strength of Low Plasticity Oays
JOHN F. PETERS 460
Cyclic Triaxial Strain-Controlled Testing of Liquefiable Sands
MLADEN VUCETIC AND RICARDO DOBRY 475
TYiaxial Test for Embankment Dams: Interpretation and Validity
HEDI DENDANI, ETIENNE FLAVIGNY, AND JEAN JACQUES FRY 486
Compression and Shear Deformation of Soil Under Wide-Ranging Confining
PressureRYOSUKE KITAMURA AND MOTOHISA HARUYAMA 501
Interpretation of Triaxial Compression Test Results on Partially Saturated Soils
RICHARD W. PETERSON 512
New Concept of Effective Stress in Unsaturated Soil and Its Proving Test
DAIZO KARUBE 539
Probabilistic Characterization of Shear Strength Parameters Using TMaxial Test
DataPINNADUWA H. S. W. KULATILAKE 553
Interpretation of Triaxial Test Results of Cohesionless Soils: A New Model
GILBERT Y. BALADI AND THOMAS T. H. WU 567
Pore-Pressure Distributions in Constant Strain-Rate Triaxial Tests
WILLIAM Z. SAVAGE 582
Pore Pressure Response of an Undisturbed and Reconstituted Anglian Till in
Undrained TYiaxial CompressionJOHN ANTHONY LITTLE 592
Shear Band Formation in Triaxial and Plane Strain TestsJOHN P. PETERS,
POUL V. LADE, AND ANDERS BRO 604
Effects of Sampling Disturbance on Shear Strength of Glacial Till and Compacted
FillDANIEL P. DI ETZLER, DEVI N A. MOOSE, AND JEFFREY C. SCHUH 628
Influence of Specimen Preparation Techniques and Testing Procedures on
Undrained Steady State Shear StrengthNORMAN D. DENNIS 642
TViaxial Compressive and Extension Strength of Sand Affected by Strength
Anisotropy and Sample SlendernessWOON-KWAN LAM AND
FUMIO TATSUOKA 655
The Influence of Filter Strip Shape on Consolidated Unch-ained Triaxial Extension
Test ResultsTOSHIYUKI MITACHI, YUKIHIRO KOHATA,
AND YUTAKA KUDOH 667
The Effect of End Restraint on Volume Change and Particle Breakage of Sands
in TViaxial TestsTZOU-SHIN UENG, YEONG-MING TZOU, AND
CHUNG-JUNG LEE 679
Effects of End Conditions on Triaxial Compressive Strength for Cohesionless
SoilSATOSHI GOTO AND FUMIO TATSUOKA 692
Effects of Height-to-Diameter Ratio in IViaxial Specimens on the Beliavior of
Cross-Anisotropic SandPOUL V. LADE AND UZAIR WASIF 706
Observational Approach to Membrane and Area Corrections in IViaxial Tests
PIERRE La ROCHELLE, S. LEROUEIL, B. TRAK, L. BLAIS-LEROUX,
AND F. TAVENAS 715
Stress Path Considerations in Multistage IViaxial Testing
MARK R. SCHOENEMANN AND MARVIN R. PYLES 732
NEW TEST VARIETIES
State-of-the-Art Paper
Cubical Devices: Versatility and ConstraintsJ. R. F. ARTHUR 743
State-of-the-Art Paper
Hollow Cylinder Torsional Devices: Their Advantages and Limitations
ADEL S. SAADA 766
Discussion 790
The Cambridge TVue TViaxial ApparatusDAVID W. AIREY AND DAVID M. WOOD 796
A TVue Triaxial Cell for Soil and RockPAUL MICHELIS 806
A True TViaxial Testing CellVINCENT SILVESTRI, RAYMOND N. YONO,
AND ABDEL MOSHEN ONSY MOHAMED 819
True Triaxial Test of Rock Under Stress and Strain Rate Control
TETSURO ESAKI , TSUYOSHI KI MURA, KAZ UO AOKI , AND TADASHI NISHIDA 834
A Nevf Independent Principal Stress Control ApparatusAKITOSHI MOCHIZUKI,
MASATO MI KASA, AND SHINICHI TAKAHASHI 844
Special Stress Paths Along the Limit Surface of a Sand Specimen with the Use
of a TVue TViaxial ApparatusJACK LANIER 859
Index 871
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