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Structural Design of Masonry

ii

Structural Design of Masonry

ISBN 1-58001-188-8

COPYRIGHT © 2005, International Code Council

1-58001-188-8 COPYRIGHT © 2005, Intern ational Code Council ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication is a copyrighted
1-58001-188-8 COPYRIGHT © 2005, Intern ational Code Council ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication is a copyrighted

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This publication is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council. Without advance written permis- sion from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage and retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: ICC Publications, 4051 W. Flossmoor Rd, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795 (Phone 708-799-2300).

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate; however, it is being provided for informational purposes only and is intended for use only as a guide. Publication of this document by the ICC should not be construed as the ICC engaging in or rendering engineer- ing, legal or other professional services. Use of the information contained in this workbook should not be considered by the user as a substitute for the advice of a registered professional engineer, attorney or other professional. If such advice is required, you should seek the services of a regis- tered professional engineer, licensed attorney or other professional.

Trademarks: “International Code Council” and the “ICC” logo are trademarks of International Code Council, Inc.

Publication Date: September 2005

First Printing: September 2005

Printed in the United States of America

iii

Preface

iii Preface Structural Design of Masonry is intended to be a source of technical information for

Structural Design of Masonry is intended to be a source of technical information for designers, builders, contractors, code officials, architects, and engineers:

indeed, anyone involved with the business of masonry construction. Numerous sources, references, and technical experts have been consulted during its prepara- tion.

The ability to solve structural design problems is a prime requisite for the success of any engineer and/or architect. To facilitate development of this ability, a col- lection of example problems accompanied by a series of practical solutions and structural engineering methodologies is included herein. These examples place special emphasis on detailed structural design of any portions of conventional structures for which masonry may be the designated material.

Since their introduction in the early 1960s, computer have enjoyed a phenomenal rise in popularity that has pushed members of the structural engineering profes- sion to new heights driven by improved computational power and a growing need for new, safer buildings.

While older methods of structural design will remain useful, it becomes neces- sary to update the business of masonry design and accommodate to the pace of the construction industry in general.

To that end, recognizing the software capabilities of the Finite Element Method (FEM) when designing masonry buildings is essential. This text presents a series of problems/solutions to aid in the reader’s understanding of the FEM. Specific reference is also made to Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as it concerns masonry structures and practical problem-solving techniques are included in the text.

The 1997 UBC and the 2000 IBC provide a fundamental source of information that supports the specific material contained herein. Both Working Stress Design and Strength Design methodologies are addressed, and specific code references are supplied where appropriate.

The CD accompanying this text contains the IBC and UBC chapters applicable to the subject of masonry construction.

iv

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the International Code Council (ICC) for their cooperation in the publication of this book. Special thanks are extended to:

Mark Johnson

Suzanne Nunes – Manager, Product and Special Sales

– Senior Vice-president Business Product Development

Marje Cates

– Editor

Mike Tamai

– Typesetting/Design/Illustration

Mary Bridges

– Cover Design

Others who have generously allowed reprinting or adaptation of information con- tained in their photographs, illustrations, and technical documents include:

New York Historical Society Concrete Masonry Association Masonry Institute of America Portland Cement Association

v

About the Author

Dilip Khatri, Ph.D., S.E., is the principal of Khatri International Inc. located in Pasadena, California. His credentials include a B.S. in Civil Engineering – Cali- fornia State of Technology, Pasadena; M.B.A. and Ph.D. – University of South- ern California, Los Angeles.

Dr. Khatri is a Registered Civil and Structural Engineer in the states of Illinois, New York, Virginia, and California, where he is also a licensed General Contrac- tor.

His experience includes employment at NASA – JPL, Rockwell International, and the Pardee Construction Company. He has served as an expert witness for several construction-law firms and as an insurance/forensic investigator of struc- tural failures. He served on the faculty of California State Polytechnic University in Pomona for seven years.

Dr. Khatri resides in Pasadena, California with his son, Viraj, to whom this book is dedicated.

Pomona for seven years. Dr. Khatri resides in Pasade na, California with his son, Viraj, to

vi

vii

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 History of Masonry and Practical

.1

Table of Contents

1.1 Brief history of

 

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1.2 Practical Aspects of Masonry

 

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1.3 Practical Evaluations: Advantages, Disadvantages, and

 

Cost Aspects

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22

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23

Chapter 2 Masonry Components and Structural Engineering

 

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2.1

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2.2

Load Path

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2.2.1 Moment frame system (UBC 1629.6.3, IBC 1602.1)

 

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2.2.2 Bearing wall system (UBC 1629.6.2, IBC

 

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2.2.3 Building frame system (UBC 1629.6.3, IBC 1602.1)

 

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2.2.4 Dual system (UBC 1629.6.5, IBC 1602)

 

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2.2.5 Cantilevered column system (UBC 1629.6.6, IBC 1602)

 

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2.3 Vertical Load Analysis (UBC 1602, 1606, 1607, and IBC

 

34

2.4 Wind Load Design

 

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2.5 Earthquake Load

 

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2.5.2 2000 IBC

 

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2.6 Snow Load Analysis

 

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2.7 Summary

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45

Examples

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47

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60

Chapter 3

Structural Engineering and Analysis

 

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3.1 Working Stress Design

 

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3.1.1 Elastic zone and plastic zone

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3.1.2 Analysis assumptions and structural behavior

 

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3.1.3 Moment-curvature

 

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3.1.4 Stages of structural loading

 

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3.1.5 Structural performance and definitions

 

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3.1.6 Derivation of analysis equations

 

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3.1.7 Design procedure

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3.2 In-plane Shear Analysis

 

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3.2.2 Definitions

 

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3.3 Bending

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83

viii

Table of Contents

 

3.3.2

Practical

 

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3.3.3

Analysis equations .

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3.3.4

Analysis of T-beam section

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3.3.5

Analysis of a double reinforced

 

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3.3.6

Analysis of deflection

 

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3.4

Axial Compression and

 

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3.4.2 Structural failure

 

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3.4.6 Secant loading: secant formula and P-delta effects

 

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3.4.7 Combined axial and flexural stress

 

105

3.5 Practical Evaluation of

 

108

3.6 Summary.

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3.7 Assignments .

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Chapter 4 Shear Wall Buildings with Rigid Diaphragms

 

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4.1 Introduction

 

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4.2 Diaphragm Behavior

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114

 

4.2.1

Flexible and rigid diaphragms

 

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4.3 Shear Wall Stiffness

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4.4 Center of Rigidity and Center of

 

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4.5 Torsion of a Rigid Diaphragm

 

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Summary.

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138

Examples

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Chapter 5

Working Stress Design

 

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5.1 Introduction

 

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151

5.2 Analysis of Beams and

 

152

5.3 Shear Wall Analysis

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160

5.4 Finite Element Analysis of Shear

 

164

 

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Finite element basics

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5.4.1.1

 

Structural

 

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5.5

Practical Engineering Evaluation and

 

172

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Chapter 6 Strength Design of Shear Walls and Masonry Wall Frames

 

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6.1 Introduction

 

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219

6.2 Shear wall Analysis

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237

6.3 Finite Element Analysis of Shear Walls Using Strength Design

 

245

6.4 Reinforced Masonry Wall Frames

 

249

ix

Table of Contents

6.5

Earthquake Damage

 

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264

Examples

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269

Appendices A and B can be found on the CD

Appendix C

Analysis of Walls

Appendix D

Flowcharts

Note

In this document, certain numbers will appear in bold type at the right-hand mar- gin of the text column. Such numbers will identify the sections, equations, for- mulas or tables appearing in the 2000 IBC and/or 1997 UBC that are referenced herein.

The 1997 UBC references are shown in parentheses

 

IBC

UBC

Section

000.0.0

(000.0.0)

Equation

Eq. 0-00

(Eq. 0-00)

Formula

F 0-0

(F 0-0)

Table

T 00.0

(T 00.0)

x

x

11

History of Masonry and Practical Applications

1.1 Brief History of Masonry

From the walls of Antioch to the Appian Way, from the Great Wall of China to the Pyramids of Giza, masonry has been used for fortifications, temples, roads, mosques, shrines, cathedrals, obelisks, and myriad other structures.

The Egyptians were among the first people in recorded history to use masonry, beginning construction on the massive pyramids at Giza circa 2500 BC. Histori- ans and engineers still cannot determine how the ancient Egyptians could bring these raw materials together, cut them, move them, and place them where they are. The Temple of Khons, constructed at Karnak in the twelfth century BC, is another example of a massive Egyptian masonry undertaking.

The Egyptians were not the only civilization to discover the benefits of masonry. On the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, the Toltecs constructed El Castillo using the concept of masonry blocks in 1100 AD. And farther north, the Aztecs built their capital, Tenochtitlan, in 1325 AD; an entire city constructed using masonry technology.

In England, at about the same time the Toltecs were building El Castillo, William the Conqueror began construction on Windsor Castle. British castles had imme- diate practical use, providing the main line of defense against attackers. Even after the emergence of the Renaissance, castles were a functional part of British culture and continue to represent the history of the region.

In India, the magnificent Taj Mahal (Figure 1-1) was built over a span of twenty- two years, beginning in 1632 AD. It represents two important qualities in masonry: durability and architectural presence. Its marble, properly maintained, has shone for more than three centuries and will, presumably, continue to do so for centuries to come.

2

1

History of Masonry and Practical Application

2 1 History of Masonry and Practical Application Figure 1-1 Taj Mahal Masonry buildings comprised much

Figure 1-1

Taj Mahal

Masonry buildings comprised much of the early New York City skyline, (Figure 1-2). Among them, since demolished, was the Western Union Building in this 1911 photograph (Figure 1-3), which was constructed in 1872 and stood for over a century. The Evening Post Building (Figure 1-4) was another fixture of the New York skyline, and the Liberty Tower still stands as a landmark of masonry construction (Figure 1-5).

stands as a landmark of masonry construction (Figure 1-5). Collection of the New York Historical Society

Collection of the New York Historical Society

Figure 1-2 Lower Manhattan, Bird’s Eye View

Negative No. 23366

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1.1 Brief History of Masonry

3 1.1 Brief History of Masonry Collection of the New York Historical Society Negative No. 48522

Collection of the New York Historical Society

Negative No. 48522

Figure 1-3 Western Union Building, Northwest Corner of Broadway and Dey Streets

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1

History of Masonry and Practical Application

4 1 History of Masonry and Practical Application Collection of the New York Historical Society Figure

Collection of the New York Historical Society

Figure 1-4 Evening Post Building