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2. As a car brakes, the forces responsible for braking are applied at ground level. The center of mass of the car is well above the ground, however. Therefore, the braking forces exert a torque about the center of mass that tends to rotate the front of the car downward. This, in turn, causes an increased upward force to be exerted by the front springs, until the net torque acting on the car returns to zero. The force that accelerates a motorcycle is a forward force applied at ground level. The center of mass of the motorcycle, however, is above the ground. Therefore, the accelerating force exerts a torque on the cycle that tends to rotate the front wheel upward. Consider an airplane propeller or a ceiling fan that is just starting to rotate. In these cases, the net force is zero because the center of mass is not accelerating. However, the net torque is nonzero and the angular acceleration is nonzero. A car accelerating from rest is not in static equilibrium because its center of mass is accelerating. Similarly, an airplane propeller that is just starting up is not in static equilibrium because it has an angular acceleration. Yes. When an airplanes engine starts up from rest the propeller has a nonzero rotational acceleration, though its translational acceleration is zero. The tail rotor on a helicopter has a horizontal axis of rotation, as opposed to the vertical axis of the main rotor. Therefore, the tail rotor produces a horizontal thrust that tends to rotate the helicopter about a vertical axis. As a result, if the angular speed of the main rotor is increased or decreased, the tail rotor can exert an opposing torque that prevents the entire helicopter from rotating in the opposite direction. No. If the divers initial angular momentum is zero, it must stay zero unless an external torque acts on her. A diver needs to start off with at least a small angular speed, which can then be increased by folding into a tucked position.

4.

6.

8. 10. 12.

14.

1. Picture the Problem: The force is applied in a direction perpendicular to the handle of the wrench and at the end of the handle. Strategy: Use equation 11-1 to find the force from the known torque and the length of the wrench. Solution: Solve equation 11-1 for F:

Insight: A longer wrench can exert a larger torque for the same amount of force. 2. Picture the Problem: The weed is pulled by exerting a downward force on the end of the tool handle. Strategy: Set the torque on the tool equal to the force exerted by the weed times the moment arm and solve for the force. Solution: Solve equation 11-1 for F:

Fweed =

rweed = 0.040 m

= 31 N

Insight: The torque must be the same everywhere on the tool. Therefore, the hand must exert a 1.23 N m 0.22 m = 5.6 N force to produce a 31-N force at the weed. The force is multiplied by a factor of 22 4 = 5.5.

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11 1

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium 3. Picture the Problem: The arm extends out either horizontally or at some angle below horizontal, and the weight of the trophy is exerted straight downward on the hand. Strategy: The torque equals the moment arm times the force according to equation 11-3. In this case the moment arm is the horizontal distance between the shoulder and the hand, and the force is the downward weight of the trophy. Find the horizontal distance in each case and multiply it by the weight of the trophy to find the torque. In part (b) the horizontal distance is r = r cos = ( 0.605 m ) cos 22.5 = 0.559 m. Solution: 1. (a) Multiply the moment arm by the weight: 2. (b) Multiply the moment arm by the weight:

= r mg = ( 0.559 m )(1.61 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 8.83 N m

Insight: The torque on the arm is reduced as the arm is lowered. The torque is exactly zero when the arm is vertical. 4. Picture the Problem: The arm extends out either horizontally and the weight of the crab trap is exerted straight downward on the hand. Strategy: The torque equals the moment arm times the force according to equation 11-3. In this case the moment arm is the horizontal distance between the shoulder and the hand, and the force is the downward weight of the crab trap. Solution: Multiply the moment arm by the weight:

Insight: If the man bent his elbow and brought his hand up next to his shoulder, the torque on the shoulder would be zero but the force on his hand would remain 35 N or 7.9 lb. 5. Picture the Problem: The biceps muscle, the weight of the arm, and the weight of the ball all exert torques on the forearm as depicted at right. Strategy: Use equation 10-3 to determine the torques produced by the biceps muscle, the weight of the forearm, and the weight of the ball. Sum the torques together to find the net torque. According to the sign convention, torques in the counterclockwise direction are positive, and those in the clockwise direction are negative.

Solution: 1. (a) Compute the individual torques using equation 10-3 and sum them:

forearm = r mg = ( 0.170 m )(1.20 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) = 2.00 N m ball = rWball = ( 0.340 m )(1.42 N ) = 0.483 N m = biceps + forearm + ball

= +0.347 2.00 0.483 N m = 2.14 N m

2. (b) Negative net torque means the clockwise direction; the forearm and hand will rotate downward. 3. (c) Attaching the biceps farther from the elbow would increase the moment arm and increase the net torque. Insight: The biceps would need to exert a force of at least 90.3 N in order to prevent the arm from rotating downward (see problem 25).

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11 2

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium 6. Picture the Problem: The adult pushes downward on the left side of the teeter-totter and the child sits on the right side as depicted in the figure: Strategy: Calculate the torques exerted by the weight of the child and the force of the parents hands and sum them. The sign of the net torque indicates the direction in which the teeter-totter will rotate. Solution: 1. (a) Find the torque the child exerts on the teeter-totter.

r adult Fadult

r child mchild g

2. Find the torque exerted by the parent and sum the torques to find the direction of travel: 3. (b) Repeat step 2 with the new r for the adult: 4. (c) Repeat step 2 with the new r for the adult:

adult = r adult Fadult = ( 3.0 m )( 95 N ) = 285 N m . Here adult + child > 0 so the

teeter-totter will rotate counterclockwise and the child will move up.

adult = r adult Fadult = ( 2.5 m )( 95 N ) = 238 N m . Here adult + child > 0 so the

teeter-totter will rotate counterclockwise and the child will move up.

adult = r adult Fadult = ( 2.0 m )( 95 N ) = 190 N m . Here adult + child < 0 so the

teeter-totter will rotate clockwise and the child will move down.

Insight: The parent would have to exert the 95-N force exactly 2.48 m from the pivot point in order to balance the teeter-totter. We bent the rules for significant figures slightly to more easily compare the magnitudes of the torques. 7. Picture the Problem: The rotating systems shown at right differ only in that the two spherical movable masses are positioned either far from the axis of rotation (left), or near the axis of rotation (right). Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law to explain the motion of the hanging weight and to answer the conceptual question. Solution: 1. (a) There must be a net downward force on the mass because it accelerates downward. We conclude that the tension in the string on the left-hand rotating system is less than the weight of the mass attached to that string. 2. (b) The best explanation is III. The mass accelerates downward. Statement I is false because a < g, and statement II is false because the string does not fully support the mass. Insight: Although there is a Newtons Second Law for rotation, in this case it does not help you to determine the tension in the string. 8. Picture the Problem: The rotating systems shown at right differ only in that the two spherical movable masses are positioned either far from the axis of rotation (left), or near the axis of rotation (right). Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law to explain the motion of the hanging weight and to answer the conceptual question. Solution: 1. (a) The mass in the left-hand system drops with a smaller acceleration than the mass in the right-hand system. This means there is a smaller net force on the left-hand mass. We conclude that the tension in the string on the left-hand rotating system is greater than the tension in the string on the right-hand rotating system. 2. (b) The best explanation is I. The mass in the right-hand system has the greater downward acceleration. Statement II is true but irrelevant, and statement III is false. Insight: It is easier to rotate an object that has a smaller moment of inertia, and so it requires less torque to rotate the right-hand system than it does to rotate the left-hand system.

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11 3

Picture the Problem: A torque rotates your body about one of three different axes of rotation: case A, an axis through your spine; case B, an axis through your hips; and case C, an axis through your ankles. Strategy: Consider the moment of inertia of your body for each of the three axes in order to determine the ranking of the angular accelerations. Solution: The moment of inertia is greatest when more mass is at a greater distance from the axis of rotation. Furthermore, the greater the moment of inertia the smaller the angular acceleration produced by a given torque. Case A would correspond to the smallest moment of inertia and case C would correspond to the largest moment of inertia. With these observations in mind, we arrive at the following ranking: case C < case B < case A. Insight: A springboard diver can reduce his moment of inertia by curling tightly into the tuck position, reducing the distance between his bodys mass and his axis of rotation.

10. Picture the Problem: The torque applied to the bicycle wheel causes it to rotate with constant angular acceleration. Strategy: Calculate the moment of inertia of the wheel using I = mr 2 (Table 10-1) and then use Newtons Second Law for rotation (equation 11-4) to determine the angular acceleration. Solution: Solve equation 11-4 for :

mr 2

0.97 N m

( 0.75 kg )( 0.35 m )

= 11 rad/s 2

Insight: To exert a 0.97 Nm torque on a 0.35-m wheel you need only apply a tangential force of 2.8 N or 10 ounces. 11. Picture the Problem: The ceiling fan rotates about its axis, decreasing its angular speed at a constant rate. Strategy: Determine the angular acceleration using equation 10-6 and then use equation 11-4 to find the moment of inertia of the fan. Solution: Solve equation 11-4 for I:

I=

1 2 2 I 0 = 3.10 J into heat. Rotational work will be examined

Insight: Friction converts the fans initial kinetic energy of in more detail in section 11-8.

12. Picture the Problem: The CD rotates about its axis, increasing its angular speed at a constant rate. Strategy: Determine the angular acceleration of the CD using equation 10-11 and its moment of inertia (treat it as a disk) from Table 10-1. Then use equation 11-4 to find the torque exerted on the CD. Solution: 1. Solve equation 10-11 for :

2

= 59 rad/s 2

I=1 MR 2 = 2

1 2

( 0.017 kg )( 0.060 m )

= 3.1 105 kg m 2

Insight: The CD takes 0.80 s to accelerate to its final angular velocity, accounting for some of the delay between when you press play and when you first hear the music.

13. Picture the Problem: The ladder rotates about its center of mass, increasing its angular speed at a constant rate.

Strategy: Use Table 10-1 to find the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass M and length L that is rotated about its 1 center of mass: I = 12 M L2 . Then use equation 11-4 to find the required torque to produce the acceleration.

1 Solution: 1. Use Table 10-1 to find I = 12 M L2 :

1 1 I = 12 M L2 = 12 (8.42 kg )( 3.15 m ) = 6.96 kg m 2 2

Insight: This torque is about 1.51 ftlb, so if the person has the ladder on his shoulder and exerts the torque with his hand at arms length (3.00 ft), he need only exert 0.505 lb of force to produce the angular acceleration of 0.302 rad/s2.

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11 4

14. Picture the Problem: The wheel rotates about its axis, decreasing its angular speed at a constant rate, and comes to rest.

Strategy: Use Table 10-1 to find the moment of inertia of a uniform disk and calculate I. Then use equation 10-11 to find the angular acceleration from the initial angular speed and the angle through which the wheel rotated. Use I and together in equation 11-4 to find the torque exerted on the wheel. Solution: 1. (a) Use Table 10-1 to find I = 1 MR 2 : 2 2. Solve equation 10-11 for : 3. Apply equation 11-4 directly:

I=1 MR 2 = 2

1 2

( 6.4 kg )( 0.71 m )

= 1.6 kg m 2

2

4. (b) If the mass of the wheel is doubled and its radius is halved, the moment of inertial will be cut in half (doubled because of the mass, cut to a fourth because of the radius). Therefore the magnitude of the angular acceleration will increase if the frictional torque remains the same, and the angle through which the wheel rotates before coming to rest will decrease. Insight: If the moment of inertia is cut in half, the angular acceleration will double to 0.32 rad/s2 and the angle through which the wheel rotates will be cut in half to 0.38 rev. This is because the wheel has less rotational inertia but the frictional torque remains the same. We bent the rules for significant figures in step 2 to avoid rounding error in step 3.

15. Picture the Problem: An object consists of three masses that can be rotated about any of the x, y, or z axes, as shown in the figure at right. The z axis passes through the origin perpendicular to the plane of the figure.

Strategy: Calculate the moments of inertia about the x, y, and z axes using equation 10-18, and then apply equation 11-4 to find the required torque to give the object an angular acceleration of 1.20 rad/s2 about the various axes. Let m1 = 9.0 kg, m2 = 1.2 kg, and m3 = 2.5 kg. Solution: 1. (a) Calculate I x using equation 10-18:

I x = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32

2

I y = 0 + 0 + ( 2.5 kg )( 2.0 m ) = 10 kg m 2

2

equation 10-18:

4. Find y using equation 11-4: 5. (c) Calculate I z using equation 10-18: 6. Find z using equation 11-4:

I z = ( 9.0 kg )(1.0 m ) + 0 + ( 2.5 kg )( 2.0 m ) = 19 kg m 2

2 2

Insight: When the axis of rotation passes through a particular mass, that mass does not contribute to the moment of inertia because r = 0. The most torque is required to rotate the masses about the z axis because that axis passes through the least amount of mass (only the 1.2-kg mass).

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11 5

16. Picture the Problem: An object consists of three masses that can be rotated about any of the x, y, or z axes, as shown in the figure at right. The z axis passes through the origin perpendicular to the plane of the figure.

Strategy: Calculate the moments of inertia about the x, y, and z axes using equation 10-18. For a given torque the angular acceleration is inversely proportional to the moment of inertia: = I . Use this observation to determine the ranking of the angular accelerations. Solution: 1. Calculate I A (about the x axis) using equation 10-18: 2. Calculate I B (y axis): 3. Calculate I C (z axis):

I A = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 = ( 9.0 kg )(1.0 m ) + 0 + 0 = 9.0 kg m 2

2

I B = 0 + 0 + ( 2.5 kg )( 2.0 m ) = 10 kg m 2

2

2 2

4. Because IA < IB < IC we arrive at the ranking C < B < A . Insight: When the axis of rotation passes through a particular mass, that mass does not contribute to the moment of inertia because r = 0. The most torque is required to rotate the masses about the z axis because that axis passes through the least amount of mass (only the 1.2-kg mass).

17. Picture the Problem: A motorcycle accelerates from rest, and both the front and rear tires roll without slipping.

Strategy: Consider the torques exerted on the front and rear tires in order to produce the observed rotation of the tires and linear acceleration of the motorcycle. Solution: 1. (a) If there were no friction (for instance, the motorcycle is on slippery ice) the contact point between the tire and the road would not remain at rest, and the torque due to the drive chain would spin the tire freely with the bottom edge of the tire moving backward. The action of friction is to prevent this motion and keep the contact point of the tire at rest relative to the road. We conclude that the force exerted by the ground on the rear tire is in the forward direction. This is also the force that accelerates the entire motorcycle in the forward direction. 2. (b) If there were no friction (for instance, the motorcycle is on slippery ice) the tire would slide forward due to the force of the fork on the axle but would not rotate. The tire can only rotate if static friction is present to produce a torque about the tires axle. In order to produce the necessary torque, the force exerted by the ground on the front tire must be in the backward direction. 3. (c) The front tire rotates because the backward force of friction on the tire creates a torque about the axle. If the moment of inertia of the front tire about the axle is increased, its angular acceleration due to the same torque will decrease. We conclude that the motorcycles acceleration will decrease if the moment of inertia of the front tire is increased. Insight: The motorcycle that remains horizontal during linear acceleration is in equilibrium with respect to rotation. This means that the torques produced by the force of gravity and by the normal forces of the ground on the tires and the friction forces exerted by the ground on the tires must all balance. If the forward friction force of the ground on the rear tire is too large, for instance, the torque it creates about the rear axle is larger than the torque created by gravity on the center of mass, and the front tire lifts off the ground as the motorcycle pops a wheelie.

18. Picture the Problem: The object consists of four masses that can be rotated about any of the x, y, or z axes, as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Calculate the moments of inertia about the x, y, and z axes using equation 10-18, and then apply equation 11-4 to find the angular acceleration that results from an applied torque of 13 Nm about the various axes. Let m1 = 2.5 kg, m2 = 3.0 kg, m3 = 4.0 kg, and m4 = 1.2 kg. Solution: 1. (a) The angular acceleration will be the greatest when the moment of inertia is the smallest because the torque is the same in each case. The moment of inertia is smallest when the rectangular object is rotated about the x axis, and greatest when rotated about the z axis (see below). Therefore we predict the angular acceleration is greatest about the x axis, least about the z axis.

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11 6

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium 2. (b) Calculate I x using equation 10-18:

I x = m1r12 + m2 r22 + m3 r32 + m4 r42

2

x =

Ix

2 2

equation 10-18:

y =

Iy

2

2 2

z =

Iz

Insight: In this case it is a bit difficult to predict the moments of inertia about the x and y axes without calculating anything. Thats because although more mass (7.0 kg) is displaced from the x axis, the masses are at a shorter distance (0.50 m) when compared to the 4.2 kg of mass that are displaced 0.70 m from the y axis. It turns out the difference in distances is what makes Ix smaller than Iy. We bent the rules for significant figures a bit in steps 2 and 4 to avoid rounding error.

19. Picture the Problem: The fish exerts a torque on the fishing reel and it rotates with constant angular acceleration.

Strategy: Use Table 10-1 to determine the moment of inertia of the fishing reel assuming it is a uniform cylinder (1 MR 2 ). Find the torque the fish exerts on the reel by using equation 11-1. Then apply Newtons Second Law for 2

rotation (equation 11-4) to find the angular acceleration and equations 10-2 and 10-10 to find the amount of line pulled from the reel.

Solution: 1. (a) Use Table 10-1 to find I: 2. Apply equation 11-1 directly to find : 3. Solve equation 11-14 for : 4. (b) Apply equations 10-2 and 10-10:

I=1 MR 2 = 2

1 2

( 0.99 kg )( 0.055 m )

= 0.0015 kg m 2

I = 0.121 N m = 81 rad/s 2 0.0015 kg m 2

2

Insight: This must be a small fish because it is not pulling very hard; 2.2 N is about 0.49 lb or 7.9 ounces of force. Or maybe the fish is tired?

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11 7

20. Picture the Problem: The fish exerts a torque on the fishing reel and it rotates with constant angular acceleration.

Strategy: Use Table 10-1 to determine the moment of inertia of the fishing reel assuming it is a uniform cylinder (1 MR 2 ). Find the net torque on the reel by subtracting the torque from the friction clutch from the torque due to the 2

force the fish exerts. Then apply Newtons Second Law for rotation (equation 11-4) to find the angular acceleration and equations 10-2 and 10-10 to find the amount of line pulled from the reel.

Solution: 1. (a) Use Table 10-1 to find I: 2. Apply equation 11-1 directly to find : 3. Solve equation 11-14 for : 4. (b) Apply equations 10-2 and 10-10:

I=1 MR 2 = 2

1 2

( 0.84 kg )( 0.055 m )

= 0.00127 kg m 2

I = 0.069 N m = 54 rad/s 2 0.00127 kg m 2

2

Insight: Less line is pulled because the friction clutch reduces the net torque and angular acceleration of the reel. We bent the rules for significant figures in steps 1 and 2 to avoid rounding errors in subsequent steps. For instance, if we follow the rules of subtraction in step 2, = 0.12 0.047 N m = 0.07 N m, just one significant figure.

21. Picture the Problem: A person climbs a ladder as in the figure at right.

Strategy: Consider the equilibrium of torques for the person-ladder system when answering the conceptual question. Solution: 1. (a) As the person climbs higher on the ladder, the torque exerted about the base of the ladder increases. To counter this torque, the wall must exert a greater horizontal force, and the floor must exert the same increased horizontal force in the opposite direction. Therefore, the ladder is more likely to slip as the person climbs higher. 2. (b) The best explanation is II. The magnitude of f2 must increase as the person moves upward. Statement I is false (some of the forces do change) and statement III is false (the normal force f1 equals the weight of the person, which does not change. In addition, force f1 does not cause the ladder to slip). Insight: When placing an extension ladder against a house it is very important to ensure the bottom of the ladder is secured very well. You dont want the bottom to slip while you are high up on the ladder!

22. Picture the Problem: The two masses hang on either side of a pulley.

Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for rotation (equation 11-4) to find the frictional torque fr that would make the angular acceleration of the system equal to zero. In each case the torque exerted on the pulley by the hanging masses is the weight of the mass times the radius of the pulley. Let m1 = 0.635 kg and m2 = 0.321 kg. The torque due to m1 is clockwise and therefore taken to be in the negative direction. G Solution: Write Newtons = r ( m1 g ) + r ( m2 g ) + fr = 0 Second Law for rotation fr = r g ( m1 m2 ) and solve for fr : = ( 0.0940 m ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) ( 0.635 0.321 kg )

fr = 0.290 N m

Insight: This frictional torque represents a static friction force. If a little bit of mass were added to m1, the system would begin accelerating clockwise and the frictional torque would be reduced to its kinetic value.

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11 8

23. Picture the Problem: The torque required to open the jar is exerted by a force applied to the wrench handle.

Strategy: Use equation 11-1 to find the amount of force applied to the wrench that would create the necessary torque to open the jar. Solution: Solve equation 11-1 for F:

F=

8.5 N m = 57 N = 13 lb 0.15 m

Insight: The diameter of the lid is unnecessary information because the required torque was given in the problem. If instead the required force was given, we would first have to multiply the lid radius by the required force to find the required torque.

24. Picture the Problem: A child sits on a plank that is supported by his parents, as depicted in the figure at right. There is no acceleration.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and Newtons Second Law for rotation to obtain two equations and two unknowns (F1 and F2). Substitute one into the other to solve for the forces. Let F1 represent the mothers force, and F2 the fathers. There is no acceleration anywhere, neither translational nor rotational. Solution: 1. Write Newtons Second Law in the y direction: 2. Write Newtons Second Law for rotation, placing the axis of rotation horizon tally through the childs center of mass: 3. Substitute the expression from step 2 into step 1: 4. Now use the expression from step 2 to find F2 :

= F1 + F2 mg = 0

= F ( L ) + 0 + F ( L ) = 0

1 3 4 2 1 4

F2 = 3F1

1 4

F1 + 3F1 mg = 0 F1 = F2 = 3F1 =

3 4

mg

mg

Insight: The child is three times closer to the father than he is to the mother, and the father therefore supports three times more weight than does the mother.

11 9

25. Picture the Problem: The biceps muscle, the weight of the arm, and the weight of the ball all exert torques on the forearm as depicted at right.

Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for rotation to set the torques equal to zero, and solve for the force exerted by the biceps muscle. Solution: 1. (a) The torque exerted by the biceps must balance the total torque exerted by the forearm and baseball. Because the moment arm for the force exerted by the biceps is much smaller than the moment arms of the forces exerted by the forearm and baseball, the biceps force must be more than the combined weight of the forearm, hand, and baseball. 2. (b) Find the torques produced by the biceps muscle and each of the masses:

forearm = r mg = ( 0.170 m )(1.20 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) = 2.001 N m ball = rWball = ( 0.340 m )(1.42 N ) = 0.483 N m

biceps = r,biceps F

3. Set the sum of the torques equal to zero and solve for the biceps muscle force F:

= r ,biceps F 2.001 0.483 N m = 0 2.484 N m = 90.3 N F= 0.0275 m

Insight: The small moment arm for the biceps muscle requires it to exert a large force in order to balance the torques produced by the ball and by the forearm and hand. 90.3 N is about 20 lb of force to support a 10 ounce ball! We bent the rules for significant figures in step 2 in order to avoid rounding errors in step 3.

26. Picture the Problem: The person lies on a lightweight plank that rests on two scales as shown in the diagram at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and Newtons Second Law for rotation to obtain two equations with two unknowns, m and xcm . Solve each to find m and xcm . Using the left side of the plank as the origin, there are two torques to consider: the positive torque due to the right hand scale and the negative torque due to the persons mass. Solution: 1. (a) Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction to find m:

y

2. (b) Write Newtons Second Law for rotation and solve for xcm:

= r F

2

xcm

2

Insight: The equation in step 1 does not depend on the axis of rotation that we choose, but the equation in step 2 does. Nevertheless, we find exactly the same xcm if we choose the other scale, near her feet, to be the axis of rotation.

27. Picture the Problem: The triceratops stands on all four legs in static equilibrium as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: The footprint information indicates that twice as much weight is supported by the rear feet as is supported by the front feet. Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and Newtons Second Law for rotation in order to determine the location of the center of mass of the animal. Taking the rear feet as the pivot point, there are two torques: the negative torque due to the weight, applied at a distance d cm from the rear feet, and the positive torque due to the upward force of the ground at the front feet, applied at a distance of 3.2 m.

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11 10

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium Solution: 1. Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction to find the force exerted by the ground on the feet: 2. Write Newtons Second Law for rotation, using the rear feet as the pivot point:

= F ( 3.2 m ) mg ( d ) = 0

front cm

1 3

( 3.2 m ) = 1.1 m

Insight: As expected, the center of mass of the animal is closer to its rear feet than its front feet, causing the rear feet to support more of the weight.

28. Picture the Problem: The adult pushes downward on the left side of the teeter-totter and the child sits on the right side as depicted in the figure:

r adult

r child

Strategy: Calculate the torques exerted by the weight of the child and the force of the parents hands and sum them. Set the net torque equal to zero to enforce Fadult mchild g the condition of equilibrium, and use the resulting expression to find the appropriate distances. Taking the center of the teeter-totter as the pivot point, the child exerts a negative torque and the parent exerts a positive torque on the system. G Solution: 1. (a) Set the net torque equal to = radult Fadult rchild ( mchild g ) = 0 zero and solve for r adult the child exerts on 2 r (m g ) ( 1 2 5.2 m ) (19 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s ) the teeter-totter. r adult = child child = = 2.3 m Fadult 210 N 2. (b) Repeat step 1 for the different force exerted by the parent:

r adult = r child ( mchild g ) Fadult =

2 (1 2 5.2 m ) (19 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s )

310 N

= 1.6 m

3. (c) The answers would not change because only the teeter-totters length enters into the calculations (the child sits half a length from the pivot point), not its mass. Insight: If the parent were to push down on the very end of the teeter-totter, 2.6 m from the pivot, they would only need to push with a force equal to the childs 190-N weight.

29. Picture the Problem: The force applied to the button produces a positive torque on the remote about the edge of the table, and the weight of the remote produces a negative torque about the same pivot.

Strategy: The maximum overhang corresponds to the case when the torque about the table edge caused by the button force is balanced by the torque caused by the weight of the remote. Assuming the remote has a uniform composition, its center of mass is exactly midway between its two ends. Solution: 1. Set the net torque about the table edge equal to zero and solve for L:

= ( L b) F ( x

cm

L ) mg = 0 xcm mg + bF F + mg 9.14 cm

L ( F + mg ) = xcm mg + bF L=

2 (1 2 23.0 cm ) ( 0.122 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s ) + (1.41 cm )( 0.365 N ) L= = ( 0.365 N ) + ( 0.122 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 )

Insight: The overhang corresponds to 40% of the length of the remote. It could never be more than 50%, of course, because the center of mass needs to be above a point of support for equilibrium to be established. The overhang is rather large in this case because the 0.365 N button force is small compared with the 1.20-N weight of the remote.

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11 11

30. Picture the Problem: The meter stick is supported by the tension in the string in the manner indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: Set the net torque about the meter sticks contact with the wall equal to zero and solve for the tension in the string. The torque due to the string is positive and the torque due to the weight is negative. Solution: 1. (a) Find for a 2.5-m string: = cos 1 (1.0 m 2.5 m ) = 66 2. Set

G T

pivot

G W

G = L (T sin ) ( L ) (W ) = 0

1 2

T=

3. (b) A shorter string will make a smaller angle with the stick in order to hold it horizontally. The smaller angle will require a tension greater than that found in part (a) in order to produce the same torque. 4. (c) Find for a 2.0-m long string: 5. Set

G = L (T sin ) ( L ) (W ) = 0

1 2

T=

) = 0.91 N

Insight: The tension in the string is less than the 1.6-N weight of the meter stick because there is an upward force on the stick at the pivot point that helps to support the weight of the stick. That force produces no torque, however, so we did not need to consider it in the solution to this problem.

31. Picture the Problem: The diver of mass m stands at the end of the diving board of mass M as shown at right. Example 11-4 indicates the board is 5.00-m long, the pillars are 1.50 m apart, and the mass of the diver is 90.0 kg.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and Newtons Second Law for rotation with the pivot point at the left end of the board. The two equations can then be combined to find the two unknowns F1 and F2. Solution: 1. Set

G

y

1 2 diver

2. Set

F2 :

G = ( 0) F + ( d ) F ( L ) m F2 =

g (1 L )Wboard = 0 2

F2 = 3320 N = 3.32 kN

Insight: Both F1 and F2 have increased in magnitude over the values reported in Example 11-4 where the weight of the board was neglected. This is because even without the diver, the boards own weight exerts a downward force on the right hand pillar and an upward force on the left hand pillar.

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11 12

32. Picture the Problem: The bat rests horizontally on Babes shoulder, with one hand holding the small end of the bat.

Strategy: The hand exerts a downward force to counteract the torque created by the weight of the large end of the bat. The shoulder exerts an upward force on the bat to support the weight and the downward force of the hand. Write Newtons Second Law for torque (let the shoulder be the pivot point) and again in the vertical direction to find the force exerted by the hand and by the shoulder.

creates a positive (counterclockwise) torque:

Fh = 22.5 cm G Fh = ( 21.3 N ) y

= 21.3 N

2. (b) Write

= Fh + Fs mg = 0

Insight: The shoulder force upward balances the 21.3-N hand force and the 10.8-N weight, both of which are downward.

33. Picture the Problem: The rod is supported by the wire and a hinge as depicted in the figure at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque (let the hinge be the pivot point) to find the magnitude of the tension in the wire. Then use Newtons Second Law in the x and y directions to determine the components of the hinge G force H . Solution: 1. (a) Set

G T

G H

L G mg

= r

T=

wire

T r weight mg = 0 mg =

1 2

= Hx T = 0

2. (b) Set

F

F

H x = T = 39 N

3. (c) Set

= H y mg = 0

G Insight: In this configuration the horizontal and vertical components of the hinge force H are nearly equal so that G H points a little bit less than 45 above horizontal and to the right. If you put in the numbers you find G H = 53 N at 43 above horizontal.

11 13

G T

34. Picture the Problem: The rod is supported by the wire and a hinge as depicted in the figure at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque (let the hinge be the pivot point) to find the magnitude of the tension in the wire. Solution: 1. (a) The tension will decrease, because r weight has

G H

L G mg

2. (b) Set

= 0 and solve = r

T=

wire

T r weight mg = 0 mg =

1 2

for T:

r weight r wire

Insight: As the rod is pulled more and more toward the vertical, the hinge supports more and more of the rods weight, so that the wire needs to support less and less weight. When the rod is vertical the tension would be zero.

35. Picture the Problem: The person stands on a 7.2-kg ladder in the manner depicted by the figure at right.

Strategy: The problem can be solved by setting the vector sums of the forces and the torques equal to zero. The only difference between this problem and Active G Example 11-3 is the addition of a vector mA g at the center of mass of the ladder. G The horizontal distance between the base of the ladder and the vector mA g is

c=

( 12 4.0 m ) ( 12 3.8 m )

2

= 0.62 m.

Solution: 1. Set

f3 :

= a f

f3 =

3 b mg c mA g = 0 g ( mb + mA c )

a

2

f3 =

3.8 m = f 2 f3 = 0 = f1 mg mA g = 0 = 904 N = 0.90 kN

= 165.1 N = 0.17 kN

3. Set

f 2 = f 3 = 0.17 kN

= 0 and solve for f1 :

4. Set

Insight: The addition of the ladders mass increased the friction force f 2 because the normal force is increased in order to support the weight of both the person and the ladder. Increasing f 2 also increases f 3 because the two forces must

balance so that

= 0 . Finally, f1 is increased because it must support the additional 71 N of the ladders weight.

11 14

36. Picture the Problem: The horizontal force F is applied to the rod as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Let L = the rod length and write Newtons Second Law for torques (let the bolt be the pivot point) in order to determine the wire tension T. Then write Newtons Second Law in the horizontal and vertical directions to determine the G components of the bolt force Fb . Solution: 1. (a) Set

= 0 and

= L (T cos 45) ( L ) F = 0

1 2

solve for T :

T=

= 0 and solve for Fb,x :

F F = 2 cos 45 2

2. (b) Set

F F

= F + Fb,x T cos 45 = 0

3. (c) Set

= Fb,y T sin 45 = 0

1 2

37. Picture the Problem: The Achilles tendon, ankle joint, and normal forces act on the foot as shown in the diagram at right.

Strategy: The foot is in equilibrium at the moment under consideration. Write Newtons Second Law for torque and for the vertical and horizontal directions in order to find the magnitudes of the forces FH and FJ . Let a = 4.25 cm and b = 9.66 cm to simplify the expressions a bit. Solution: 1. Set

= 0

about

= a ( F

FH =

sin ) + ( b a ) N = 0

= 330 N

2. Set

F F

= 0 to find FJ,x :

F F

= FH cos FJ,x = 0 = FH sin + N FJ,y = 0 FJ,y = FH sin + N = ( 330 N ) sin 59.2 + 223 N = 507 N

y

3. Set

= 0 to find FJ,y :

FJ = FJ,2x + FJ,2y =

(169 N )

+ ( 507 N ) = 534 N

2

Insight: Note that the joint force is 2.40 times larger than the normal force. In other words, if you stand on the toes of one foot, the joint must exert a force of more than twice your weight! The number 330 N in this problem has three significant digits.

11 15

G N

38. Picture the Problem: The stick rests on the bowling ball as shown in the diagram at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque (let the pivot point be the point of contact between the stick and the floor) and then write Newtons Second Law in the vertical and horizontal directions to find the magnitudes of N, f x , and f y . Use the dimensions indicated in the figure, together with

fy

L

fx

G mg

the definition that A = the overall length of the stick. By carefully studying the geometry we find that H = R + R cos .

Solution: 1. (a) Set

= 0

= 0 = r mg + NL = (

1 2

( 0.214 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s2 ) ( 0.436 m ) sin 30.0 cos 30.0 = 2( 1 2 0.216 m ) (1 + cos 30.0 )

0.983 N

2. Set

F F

= 0 to find Fx :

= f x N sin = 0

3. Set

f y = mg N cos

Insight: The two components of the floors contact force combine to produce a force of 1.34 N inclined at 68.5 above the horizontal and directed toward the positive x direction.

39. Picture the Problem: The pulling force and the weight act on the crate as depicted in the figure at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque (let the lower right corner of the crate be the pivot point) and solve for the magnitude of the applied force F. Solution: 1. (a) Set

F L mg

= 0

= ( L ) mg L F = 0

1 2

F=1 mg = 2

1 2

79.5 N

3. The maximum static friction force exceeds the tipping force, so the two horizontal forces balance and the crate will tip but not slide horizontally. 4. Set

= 0

= L mg L F = 0

5. The applied force exceeds the maximum horizontal static friction force, so the crate will slide and not tip. Insight: If the coefficient of static friction were less than 0.500, the crate would always slide and never tip.

11 16

40. Picture the Problem: The horizontal force is applied at a distance h above the floor as indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: In order to balance the horizontal forces, the applied force must be no larger than the maximum static friction force. If it were larger, the crate would slip horizontally instead of tipping. Set the applied force equal to the maximum static friction force and find the minimum height h above the floor at which such a force could be applied and still tip the crate. This is accomplished by writing Newtons Second Law for torque with the pivot point at the lower-right corner of the crate. Solution: 1. (a) Find the maximum static friction force: 2. Set

F L mg h

= 0

= ( L ) mg h F = 0

1 2

h=

2

3. (b) The applied force would be F = 90.7 N because it can be no larger than the maximum static friction force determined in step 1. Insight: If F were larger than 90.7 N, the crate would slip horizontally rather than tip about its lower-right corner, and if F were smaller than 90.7 N, the height h would have to be larger than 1.06 m in order to produce sufficient torque to tip the box.

41. Picture the Problem: The box of cereal is at the left end of the basket and the milk carton is at the right end.

Strategy: Place the origin at the center of the L = 0.620 m basket. Write Newtons Second Law for torque with the pivot axis at the center of the basket. Set the net torque equal to zero and solve for the distance r of the orange juice from the center of the basket. The orange juice will be placed on the cereal side of the basket because the cereal has less mass and exerts less torque than does the milk. Solution: Set

31.0 cm

Cereal

mcereal g

mjuice g

Milk

mmilk g

= 0

and

= + ( L ) m

1 2

solve for r:

g + r m juice g ( 1 L ) mmilk g = 0 2 1 1 L ( mcereal + mmilk ) 2 ( 0.620 m )( 0.722 + 1.81 kg ) r= 2 = = 0.187 m = 18.7 cm m juice 1.80 kg

cereal

Insight: Another way to solve this question is ensure that the center of mass of the basket is at its geometric center, in a manner similar to problem 46 in Chapter 9. However, the balancing of the torques is actually a bit simpler in this case.

11 17

42. Picture the Problem: The cat is perched on the plank as shown in the figure at right. Active Example 11-2 indicates that the uniform plank is 4.00 m long and has a mass of 7.00 kg. The plank is supported by two sawhorses, one 0.440 m from the left end of the board and the other 1.50 m from its right end.

Strategy: Set the net torque, with the right hand sawhorse acting as the pivot point, equal to zero and solve for the distance r of the cat from the right sawhorse. Then determine the distance of the cat d cat from the right end of the plank. The center of mass of the plank is a distance 1 4.00 m ) 1.50 m = 0.50 m from the right hand sawhorse. 2( Solution: 1. Set

= 0

= r

rcat =

cm

mplank mcat

Insight: If the cat were twice as massive it could only walk to within 0.88 m of the end. We bent the rules for significant figures a bit in step 1 in order to retain two digits in the answer.

43. Picture the Problem: The necklace hangs on one end of the meter stick and the balance point is found to be 9.5 cm from the 50.0 cm mark.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque with the necklace at 100 cm and the pivot point at the 59.5-cm mark. Solve the resulting expression for the mass m of the necklace. Let M be the mass of the meter stick. Solution: 1. (a) The mass of the necklace is less than the meter sticks, because the moment arm for the necklace (50.0 9.5 cm = 40.5 cm) is greater than the moment arm for the mass of the meter stick (9.5 cm). 2. (b) Set

= 0

= d ( Mg ) r ( mg ) = 0

m=

Insight: If the necklace were heavier than the meter stick, the balance point would move more than 25.0 cm from the center.

44. Picture the Problem: The books are arranged in a stack as depicted at right, with book 1 on the bottom and book 3 at the top of the stack. Strategy: It is helpful to approach this problem from the top down. The center of mass of each set of books must be above or to the left of the point of support. Find the positions of the centers of mass for successive stacks of books to determine d. Measure the positions of the books from the right edge of book 1 (right hand dashed line in the figure). If the center of mass of the books above an edge is to the right of that edge, there will be an unbalanced torque on the books and theyll topple over. Therefore we can solve the problem by forcing the center of mass to be above the point of support.

Solution: 1. The center of mass of book 3 needs to be above the right end of book 2:

d2 = L 2

m ( L 2) + m ( L ) 2m 3 L 4

2. The result of step 1 means that the center of mass of book 2 is located at L 2 + L 2 = L from the right edge of book 1. 3. The center of mass of books 3 and 2 needs to be above the right end of book 1:

d1 = X cm,32 = =

11 18

4. The result of step 3 means that the center of mass of book 1 is located at 3L 4 + L 2 = 5 L 4 . 5. The center of mass of books 3, 2, and 1 needs to be above the right end of the table:

d = X cm,321 = m ( L 2 ) + m ( L ) + m ( 5L 4 ) 3m = 11 L 12

Insight: As we learned in problem 87 of Chapter 9, if you add a fourth book the maximum overhang is ( 25 24 ) L . If

you examine the overhang of each book you find an interesting series: d =

a hint about how to predict the overhang of even larger stacks of books.

45. Picture the Problem: The glove hangs on one end of the bat and the balance point is found to be 24.7 cm from the 71.1 cm mark. Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque with the glove at 0.00 cm and the pivot point at the 71.1 24.7 cm = 46.4 cm mark. Solve the resulting expression for the mass M of the bat. Let m be the mass of the glove.

Solution: Set

= 0

= d ( Mg ) r ( mg ) = 0

M =

1 2

Insight: If the bat were the same mass as the glove, the balance point would have moved

the glove, so that the center of mass of the bat and the glove were equidistant from the pivot point. 46. Picture the Problem: The mass falls straight down, its speed reduced due to the rotation of the disk. The physical situation is depicted at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the pulley, and Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for the bucket. Combine those two equations together with the relation, a = r , which comes from the fact that the rope does not slip along the rim of the pulley, in order to find the linear acceleration, angular acceleration, and distance traveled in 1.50 s. Let m = bucket mass, M = pulley mass, R = pulley radius, T = rope tension, and note that for the pulley, I = 1 MR 2 . Let 2

Solution: 1. (a) Set

= I

for the

= rT = I

2 1 I ( 2 MR ) ( a R ) 1 T= = = 2 Ma r R

2. Set

3. Now solve for a:

= T + mg = ma

1 2

( Ma ) + mg = ma

4. (b) Now set a = R and solve for : 5. (c) Use equation 4-3(b) with v0 y = 0

1 2

to find y .

y = 0 + 1 a t2 = 2 y

2

= 9.77 m

Insight: The relatively small mass of the pulley (it weighs 1.6 lb) doesnt slow down the heavy (6.3 lb) bucket very much. The bucket accelerates at 0.885g and travels 9.77 m (32.1 ft) in just 1.50 s.

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11 19

47. Picture the Problem: The mass falls straight down, its speed reduced due to the rotation of the disk. The physical situation is depicted at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the pulley, and Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for the bucket. Combine those two equations together with the relation, a = r , which comes from the fact that the rope does not slip along the rim of the pulley, in order to find the linear acceleration and the tension T. Let M = bucket mass, m = pulley mass, r = pulley radius, T = rope tension, and note that for the pulley, I=1 mr 2 . Let downward be the positive direction for the bucket. 2 Solution: 1. (a) The tension in the rope must be less than the weight of the bucket. If it were equal to the weight of the bucket, the forces on the bucket would be balanced and there would be no acceleration. If it were greater than the weight of the bucket, there would be a net upward force on the bucket and it would accelerate upward instead of falling down! 2. (b) Set

= I

for the

= rT = I

T=

2 1 I ( 2 mr ) ( a r ) 1 = = 2 ma r r

3. Set

4. Now solve for a:

= T Mg = Ma

( 12 ma ) Mg = Ma Mg = ( M 1 m) a 2

M 2.85 kg 2 2 a= ( 9.81 m/s ) = 8.68 m/s g = 1 1 M m 2.85 0.742 kg ( ) 2 2

T=1 ma = 2

1 2

3.22 N

Insight: The relatively small mass of the pulley (it weighs 1.6 lb) doesnt slow down the heavy (6.3 lb) bucket very much. The 3.22-N tension in the rope is only 11.5% of the 28.0-N weight of the bucket.

48. Picture the Problem: The disk-shaped merry-go-round undergoes an angular acceleration due to the torque created by the tangential force applied by the child. Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the rotation axis of the merry-go-round and solve for the mass M. The moment of inertia of the merry-go-round, a disk of radius R, is I = 1 MR 2 (from Table 10-1) and the angular 2 acceleration = t (from equation 10-6).

Solution: Set

= I , substitute

I=1 MR 2 2

= R F = I = (

M =

1 2

MR 2 )

Insight: The 40.0 N force (8.99 lb) creates a torque of 96.0 Nm (70.8 ftlb) on the merry-go-round. By the time the merry-go-round is rotating at 0.0870 rev/s, the speed of its rim is 1.31 m/s, a fairly gentle spin. The centripetal acceleration a child on the rim would experience is 0.717 m/s2, or 0.0731g.

49. Picture the Problem: You pull straight downward on a rope that passes over a disk-shaped pulley and then supports a weight on the other side. The force of your pull rotates the pulley and accelerates the mass upward. Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for the hanging mass and Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the pulley, and solve the two expressions for the tension T2 at the other end of the rope. We are given in the problem that T1 = 25 N. Let m be the mass of the pulley, r be the radius of the pulley, and M be the hanging mass. For the diskshaped pulley the moment of inertia is I = 1 mr 2 . . 2

Solution: 1. (a) No, the tension in the rope on the other end of the rope accelerates the hanging mass, but the tension on your side both imparts angular acceleration to the pulley and accelerates the hanging mass. Therefore, the rope on your side of the pulley has the greater tension.

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11 20

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium 2. (b) As stated in the problem, T1 = 28 N for the rope on your side of the pulley. G G 3. Set F = ma for the hanging mass: Fy = T2 Mg = Ma 4. Set

= I

= r T r T

1

= I = ( 1 mr 2 ) ( a r ) a = 2 (T1 T2 ) m 2

5. Substitute the expression for a from step 4 into the one from step 3, and solve for T2 (the tension on the other side of the pulley from you):

T2 Mg = M 2 (T1 T2 ) m mT2 mMg = 2 MT1 2 MT2 T2 = M ( 2T1 + mg ) 2M + m 2 ( 28 N ) + (1.2 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) ( 0.67 kg ) = 18 N = 2 ( 0.67 kg ) + 1.2 kg

Insight: The net force on the hanging mass is thus T2 Mg = 18 6.6 N = 11.4 N , enough to accelerate it upward at

17 m/s2. The angular acceleration of the pulley is thus a r = (17 m/s 2 ) ( 0.075 m ) = 230 rad/s 2 .

50. Picture the Problem: You pull straight downward on a rope that passes over a disk-shaped pulley and then supports a weight on the other side. The force of your pull rotates the pulley and accelerates the mass upward. Strategy: In the previous problem, we wrote Newtons Second Law for the hanging mass and Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the pulley, and solved the two expressions for the tension T2 at the other end of the rope. We found that T1 = 25 N and T2 = 16 N. Use Newtons Second Law for the hanging mass to find the linear acceleration. G G Solution: Set F = ma for the Fy = T2 Mg = Ma hanging mass and solve for a: T 16 N 9.81 m/s 2 = 14 m/s 2 a= 2 g = 0.67 kg M

Insight: If you reduce your force and pull on the rope with a force equal to the weight of the hanging mass, 6.6 N, the acceleration would be zero and both tensions would be 6.6 N; and the system would move at constant speed.

51. Picture the Problem: The weight of the empty paint can pulls downward on one end of the meter stick and the weight of the meter stick pulls down at the 50.0-cm mark, the center of mass. The system is balanced when suspended at the 20.0-cm mark. Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the 20.0 cm mark and Newtons Second Law for force in the vertical direction. Combine the two equations to find the mass M of the empty paint can and the mass m of the meter stick. Let S represent the upward scale force of 2.54 N, let rpc = the 20.0-cm moment arm of the paint can, and let rcm = the 30.0-cm moment arm of the meter sticks center of mass.

Solution: 1. (a) Set 2. Set

= S Mg mg = 0

m= S gM

= 0

for M:

3. Substitute the expression for M into step 1:

= r M r m = 0 M = (r r ) m m = S g (r r ) m

pc cm cm pc cm pc

m=

g (1 + rcm rpc )

2

2.54 N

= 0.104 kg

Insight: Verify for yourself that adding 0.100 kg of paint to the can shifts the balance point to 14.4 cm and increases the scale force to 3.53 N.

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11 21

52. Picture the Problem: The masses and pulley are configured as depicted in the figure at right:

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for both m1 and m2 , and then write Newtons Second Law for torque about the pulleys rotation axis. Combine the three equations to find the linear acceleration of the masses. Assume the rope does not slip along the rim of the pulley of radius R, so that a = R . Let counterclockwise rotation (m2 accelerating downward) be the positive direction for each part of the system. For the disk-shaped pulley the moment of inertia I = 1 MR 2 . 2 Solution: 1. Write 2. Write

= T1 m1 g = m1a

3. Write

= T2 + m2 g = m2 a

2

= I

= RT

RT1 = I = ( 1 MR 2 ) ( a R ) 2 T2 T1 = 1 Ma 2

4. Add the two equations from steps 1 and 2, and rearrange: 5. Substitute the result from step 3 into step 4 and solve for a:

T1 m1 g + ( T2 + m2 g ) = ( m1 + m2 ) a

( m2 m1 ) g ( m1 + m2 ) a = T2 T1

Ma ( m2 m1 ) g ( m1 + m2 ) a = 1 2 M )a ( m2 m1 ) g = ( m1 + m2 + 1 2 m2 m1 a= g 1 m1 + m2 + 2 M

Insight: This is similar to the result of Example 6-7 except for the addition of the pulleys mass in the denominator. A massive pulley reduces the acceleration of the system because of the torque required to rotate it.

53. Picture the Problem: The spherical Earth rotates about its axis with a period of 24.0 hours.

2 Strategy: Use equation 11-11 and the moment of inertia of a uniform sphere rotating about its axis, I = 5 MR 2 , to find

the angular momentum of the Earth. Note that the angular speed is = 2 T (equation 10-5) and the period T of rotation is 24.0 hr 3600 s/hr = 86, 400 s.

Solution: Apply equation 11-11 directly:

L = I = (

2 5

2 MR ) T

2

= 7.05 1033 kg m 2 /s

Insight: The angular momentum of the Earth is very slowly being dissipated by tidal friction, as mentioned in problems 21 and 53 of Chapter 10.

11 22

54. Picture the Problem: The disk-shaped record rotates about its axis with a constant angular speed.

Strategy: Use equation 11-11 and the moment of inertia of a uniform disk rotating about its axis, I = 1 MR 2 , to find the 2

Solution: Apply equation 11-11 directly:

L = I MR 2 ) = = (1 2

1 2

( 0.015 kg )( 0.15 m )

L = 5.9 104 kg m 2 /s

Insight: The angular momentum of a compact disk rotating at 300 rev/min is about 7.5104 kgm2/s. The compact disk (m = 13 g, r = 6.0 cm) is smaller than a record, but it spins faster, so the angular momenta are similar.

55. Picture the Problem: The fly lands on the rim of the record, 15 cm from the rotation axis, and rotates with an angular speed of 33 1 rev/min. 3

Strategy: Use equation 11-11 and the moment of inertia of a single point mass, I = mr 2 , to find the angular momentum of the record. Solution: Apply equation 11-11 directly:

L = I rev 2 rad 1 min 2 = ( mr 2 ) = ( 0.0011 kg )( 0.15 m ) 33 1 3 min rev 60 s L = 8.6 105 kg m 2 /s

Insight: If the angular speed of the record were to double, the angular momentum of the fly would double but its rotational kinetic energy would quadruple.

56. Picture the Problem: Jogger 1 runs in a straight line at constant speed in the manner indicated by the figure at right. Strategy: Use p = mv (equation 9-1) and L = rmv (equation 11-12) to find the linear and angular momenta, respectively.

Solution: 1. (a) Apply equation 9-1 directly: 2. (b) Apply equation 11-12 directly:

p = mv = ( 65.3 kg )( 3.35 m/s ) = 219 kg m/s

L = r mv

L = 1.09 103 kg m 2 /s

Insight: Note that the angular momentum of the jogger depends upon the location of the origin of the coordinate system.

57. Picture the Problem: Jogger 2 runs in a straight line at constant speed in the manner indicated by the figure at right. Strategy: Use p = mv (equation 9-1) and L = rmv (equation 11-12) to find the linear and angular momenta, respectively. Solution: 1. (a) Apply equation p = mv = ( 58.2 kg )( 2.68 m/s ) 9-1 directly: = 156 kg m/s

2. (b) Apply equation 11-12 directly:

L = r mv = ( 6.00 m )( 58.2 kg )( 2.68 m/s )

L = 936 kg m 2 /s

Insight: The angular momenta of joggers 1 and 2 both have the same sign (they are both clockwise). If you use the right hand rule introduced in section 11-9, the angular momentum vectors of each point into the page.

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58. Picture the Problem: Jogger 3 runs in a straight line at constant speed in the manner indicated by the figure at right. Strategy: Use L = rmv (equation 11-12) to find the angular momentum.

Solution: 1. (a) The angular momentum increases with the perpendicular distance to the reference point. Since jogger 3s perpendicular distance to point A is zero, his angular momentum is zero with respect to point A. Therefore his angular momentum is greater with respect to point B. 2. (b) Jogger 3 has the same perpendicular distance to point B as he has to the origin, O. Therefore, his angular momentum with respect to B is the same as it is with respect to O. 3. (c) Apply equation 11-12 directly: 4. Apply equation 11-12 directly: 5. Apply equation 11-12 directly:

LA = r , A mv = ( 0.00 m )( 62.2 kg )( 5.85 m/s ) = 0 kg m 2 /s LB = r , B mv = ( 7.00 m )( 62.2 kg )( 5.85 m/s ) = 2.55 103 kg m 2 /s LO = r ,O mv = ( 7.00 m )( 62.2 kg )( 5.85 m/s ) = 2.55 103 kg m 2 /s

Insight: The angular momenta of all 3 joggers have the same sign (they are all clockwise). If you use the right hand rule introduced in section 11-9, the angular momentum vectors of each point into the page.

59. Picture the Problem: The egg beater rotates about its axis with constant angular acceleration due to the applied torque. Strategy: Use equation 11-14 to find the change in angular momentum due to the applied torque. Then use equation 11-11 to find the angular speed of the egg beater.

Solution: 1. (a) Solve equation 11-14 for L : 2. (b) Solve equation 11-11 for :

L = t = ( 0.12 N m )( 0.65 s ) = 0.078 kg m 2 /s

Insight: As long as the torque is applied to the egg beater, its angular speed and angular momentum will increase linearly with time.

60. Picture the Problem: The windmill rotates about its axis with constant angular acceleration due to the applied torque. Strategy: Use equation 11-14 to find the torque required to change the angular momentum of the windmill by the specified amount during the given time interval.

Solution: Apply equation 11-14 directly:

Insight: Note that the 1200 kgm2/s change in angular momentum limits the answer to only two significant figures. When the wind is blowing at a constant speed, the net torque on the windmill is zero and it rotates at constant speed.

61. Picture the Problem: The gerbils remain stationary but the exercise wheel rotates with constant angular speed. Strategy: Because the gerbils are running in place, their speed is zero relative to the laboratory frame of reference and they contribute no angular momentum. Use equation 11-11 together with the moment of inertia of the hoop-shaped wheel ( I = MR 2 ) and the fact that the gerbils run without slipping ( v = R ) to find the angular momentum of the wheel.

Solution: Apply equation 11-11 directly:

L = I = ( MR 2 ) ( v R ) = MRv

= ( 0.0050 kg )( 0.095 m )( 0.55 m/s ) = 2.6 104 kg m 2 /s

Insight: If the gerbils were to suddenly stop and clutch the rim of the exercise wheel, they would rotate with the wheel in a vertical circle, and would contribute to the angular momentum. At the instant they grab on to the wheel, the angular momentum would remain the same but the moment of inertia would increase to I = ( M + 2mgerbil ) R 2 and the linear

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11 24

62. Picture the Problem: A student rotates on a frictionless piano stool with his arms outstretched, a heavy weight in each hand. Suddenly he lets go of the weights, and they fall to the floor.

Strategy: The angular momentum of any rotating solid object can only change if there is a torque on the system. Although there is no torque on the student, there is a torque on the weights when they land on the floor. Solution: 1. (a) Dropping the weights does not produce any torque on the student-piano stool system, so its angular momentum will remain the same. The moment of inertia of the student-piano stool system (not including the weights) is also constant. We conclude that the students angular speed will stay the same. 2. (b) The best explanation is III. Dropping the weights exerts no torque on the student, but the floor exerts a torque on the weights when they land. Statement I is false (the angular momentum remains constant until the weights land) and statement II is false (the moment of inertia of the student, apart from the weights, remains constant). Insight: You might wonder, if the student continues spinning at the same rate but has a lower moment of inertia, why isnt angular momentum conserved? After the student drops the weights they will continue traveling in parabolic paths tangent to their initial circular path. During the fall the angular momentum of the student-weights system remains constant, but it suddenly decreases when the floor exerts a torque on the weights to bring them to rest.

63. Picture the Problem: A puck on a horizontal, frictionless surface is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the surface, as shown at right.

Strategy: The angular momentum of any rotating object can only change if there is a torque on the system. Solution: 1. (a) The string force is radial and exerts no torque on the puck, so its angular momentum remains constant. Because angular momentum L = m v r , and r will decrease, we conclude that the pucks linear speed will increase. 2. (b) As stated above, the angular momentum of the puck remains constant, but its moment of inertia about the hole I = m r 2 will decrease. Because angular momentum L = I , and I will decrease, we conclude that the pucks angular speed will increase. 3. (c) As stated above, the angular momentum of the puck will stay the same because there is no torque on it. Insight: The puck is displaced toward the hole, parallel to the direction of the string tension force. The string therefore does work on the puck and the puck gains kinetic energy. The energy source is the hand that is pulling on the string. This implies that the string force is not perpendicular to the direction of motion, in contrast to problem 64 below.

64. Picture the Problem: A puck on a horizontal, frictionless surface is attached to a string that wraps around a pole of finite radius, as shown at right.

Strategy: In this system there is no external energy source. The string therefore does no work on the puck, and the string force is perpendicular to the direction of motion. Thus at each instant the puck undergoes circular motion about the point of contact between the string and the cylinder. Note also that the string force does not point radially toward the center of the cylinder, but toward the edge of the cylinder. Thus the string exerts a torque on the puck about the center of the cylinder. Solution: 1. (a) Because no work is done on the puck, we conclude that the pucks kinetic energy and its linear speed will stay the same. 2. (b) In order for the pucks speed v to stay the same while its distance r from the center of the cylinder decreases, the angular momentum L = mvr of the puck must decrease. This decrease is caused by the negative (clockwise) torque about the center of the cylinder that is produced by the string. Insight: In problem 63 the spiral path of the puck is caused by fact that the string force is not perpendicular to the pucks motion. In that problem the torque is zero but energy is not conserved. In this problem the spiral path is caused by the wrapping of the string around the cylinder. The torque is nonzero but the energy is conserved.

11 25

65. Picture the Problem: The skater pulls his arms in, decreasing his moment of inertia and increasing his angular speed. Strategy: The angular momentum of the skater remains the same throughout the spin because there is assumed to be no torque of any kind acting on his body. Use the conservation of angular momentum (equation 11-15) together with equation 11-11, to find the ratio I f I i .

Solution: Set Li = Lf and solve for I f I i :

I ii = I f f I f i 3.17 rad/s = = = 0.581 I i f 5.46 rad/s

Insight: By rearranging his mass, especially by bringing his arms and legs in close to his axis of rotation, the skater has reduced his moment of inertia by an impressive 42% and increased his angular speed by 72%.

66. Picture the Problem: A 34.0-kg child runs with a speed of 2.80 m/s tangential to the rim of a stationary merry-goround. The merry-go-round has a moment of inertia of 512 kgm2 and a radius of 2.31 m. After the child hops on the merry-go-round it rotates with an angular speed of 0.317 rad/s. Strategy: The merry-go-round initially has no kinetic energy because it is at rest. Therefore the initial kinetic energy of mvi2 of the child. After the child hops on, the merry-go-round has an the system is the linear kinetic energy K = 1 2 angular speed of 0.317 rad/s and the system has a kinetic energy of K = 1 I 2 , where I = I m-g-r + mchild r 2 . 2

Solution: 1. Calculate Ki: 2. Calculate K f = 1 I 2 : 2

Ki = 1 mchild vi2 = 2

Kf =

1 2

1 2

= 133 J

(I

m-g-r

Insight: Kinetic energy is lost due to the inelastic collision between the child and the merry-go-round.

67. Picture the Problem: A diver tucks her body in midflight, decreasing her moment of inertia.

Strategy: The angular momentum of the diver remains the same throughout the dive because there is assumed to be no torque of any kind acting on her body. Use the conservation of angular momentum (equation 11-15) together with equation 11-11, to find the ratio f i . Solution: Set Li = Lf and solve for f i :

I ii = I f f I f I i = = 1 i = 2 Her angular speed doubles. i I f 2 I i

Insight: Her angular momentum actually decreases ever so slightly due to the effect of air friction.

68. Picture the Problem: A diver tucks her body in midflight, decreasing her moment of inertia.

Strategy: Find the ratio of K f K i by using equation 10-17, the given ratio I f = 1 I , and the result of the previous 2 i

problem, f = 2i .

Solution: 1. (a) The divers kinetic energy will increase, because the diver does work in going into her tuck. 2. (b) Use K = 1 I 2 to find K f K i : 2

2 I 2 ( 1 I i ) (2i ) Kf 1 = 21 f f2 = 2 = 2 Her kinetic energy doubles. Ki I ii 2 2 I i i

Insight: One way to picture the work the diver must do is to realize that in her frame of reference, centrifugal force tries to push her arms and legs outwards, away from the axis of rotation. She must do work against that force to enter the tuck position, and the work her muscles do increases her kinetic energy.

69. Picture the Problem: A child runs tangentially to a rotating merry-go-round and hops on.

Strategy: Use conservation of angular momentum because there is no net torque on the system as long as the system includes both the person and the merry-go-round. Find the M r 2 , and the system after moments of inertia of the disk-shaped merry-go-round, I mgr = 1 2

M r 2 + m r 2 , where M is the mass of the merry-go-round, m is the the person hops on I f = 1 2

mass of the person, and r is the radius of the merry-go-round. Set Li = Lf and solve for the final angular speed f , where the initial angular speed is: i = ( 0.641 rev/s )( 2 rad rev ) = 4.03 rad/s.

11 26

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium Solution: 1. Set Li = Lf and rearrange 2. Now solve for f :

Ldisk + Lperson = Lfinal

1 2

M r 2 ) i + mv r = ( 1 M r 2 + m r 2 ) f 2

M r 2i + mv r Mri + 2mv = 2 2 1 M r +2m r 2 M r +m r (155 kg )( 2.63 m )( 4.03 rad/s ) + 2 ( 59.4 kg )( 3.41 m/s )

1 2

f =

=

= 2.84 rad/s

Insight: The merry-go-round has slowed down because the initial linear speed of the person (3.41 m/s) is less than the initial linear speed of the rim of the merry-go-round (10.6 m/s).

70. Picture the Problem: A child runs tangentially to a rotating merry-go-round and hops on. Strategy: Use equation 10-19 to sum the initial kinetic energy of the merry-go-round to the initial kinetic energy of the person. Then find the moment of inertia of the system after the MR 2 + mR 2 ) and use it together with equation 10-17 to find the final person hops on ( I f = 1 2 kinetic energy.

Solution: 1. (a) The kinetic energy of the system must decrease because some energy will be dissipated in the inelastic collision between the person and the merry-go-round. 2. (b) Find K i from equation 10-19: 3. Insert the numbers: 4. Find K f from equation 10-17:

Ki = 1 I 2 +1 mv 2 = 2 disk i 2 Ki =

1 4 1 2

1 2

MR 2 ) i 2 + 1 mv 2 2

2

2 1 2

2

Kf = 1 I 2= 2 final f

1 2

MR + mR 2 ) f 2

Insight: The kinetic energy of the system would decrease even if the person were running faster than the 10.6 m/s the rim is traveling initially and the merry-go-round speeds up as a result of the collision. Energy will be lost whenever a collision is inelastic.

71. Picture the Problem: The student catches the mass away from the axis of rotation of the stool upon which she sits, and as a result of the collision she rotates with constant angular speed. Strategy: Because there is no external torque on the system, the angular momentum of the 1.5-kg mass equals the angular momentum of the student plus mass system after the catch. Use equation 11-15 together with equations 11-11 and 11-12 and a calculation of the final moment of inertia to determine the final angular speed of the student.

Solution: Set Li = Lf and solve for f :

mvr + 0 = I f f mvr = ( I student-stool + mr 2 ) f

f =

(1.5 kg )( 2.7 m/s )( 0.40 m ) mvr = = 0.37 rad/s I student-stool + mr 2 4.1 kg m 2 + (1.5 kg )( 0.40 m )2

Insight: Doubling the initial speed of the 1.5 kg mass will double the final angular speed of the student even though the moment of inertia of the 1.5 kg mass (0.24 kgm2) is small compared to the student-stool system (4.1 kgm2). This is because the total angular momentum depends linearly upon the initial speed of the mass.

11 27

72. Picture the Problem: The student catches the mass away from the axis of rotation of the stool upon which she sits, and as a result of the collision she rotates with constant angular speed. Strategy: Because the 1.5-kg mass does not bounce off the student, the collision between the mass and the students hand is inelastic, and kinetic energy is lost in the process. Use equations 7-6 and 10-17 to determine the kinetic energy before and after the collision. Solution: 1. (a) The kinetic energy of the mass-student-stool system will decrease because energy is dissipated in the collision between the mass and the students hand.

2. (b) Use equation 7-6 to find K i : 3. (c) Use equation 10-17 to find K f :

1 2 1 2

mv 2 =

I 2 =

1 2 1 2

= 5.5 J

(I

student-stool

+ mr 2 ) 2

4.1 kg m 2 + (1.5 kg )( 0.40 m )2 ( 0.37 rad/s )2 =1 2 2 1 = I 0.30 J 2 Insight: As predicted in part (a), 95% of the kinetic energy of the system was dissipated in the collision. If the initial speed of the mass were doubled to 5.4 m/s, the final angular speed would also double and the energies would each quadruple, and 95% of the kinetic energy would still be dissipated in the collision.

73. Picture the Problem: A mouse on the freely rotating turntable walks to the rotation axis.

Strategy: The moment of inertia of the turntable-mouse system will decrease as the mouse walks toward the axis, but the angular momentum of the system will remain the same because there is no external torque. Use conservation of angular momentum together with equation 11-11 to find the final angular speed of the system. Solution: 1. (a) Angular momentum is conserved as the moment of inertia decreases, so the turntable rotates faster according to the equation, I ii = I f f . 2. (b) Set Li = Lf and solve for f :

I ii = I f f I I + mr 2 f = i i = i I +0 If 2 5.4 103 kg m 2 + ( 0.032 kg )( 0.15 m ) 5.4 103 kg m 2

f =

( 33 1 3

rev/min ) = 38 rev/min

Insight: A heavier mouse would have an even larger effect upon the final angular speed because it would create a larger change in the moment of inertia.

74. Picture the Problem: The student rotates freely on the piano stool with outstretched arms holding the masses away from the axis of rotation, and then pulls the masses inward toward his body.

Strategy: The moment of inertia of the student-masses system will decrease as he brings the masses inward toward the rotation axis, but the angular momentum of the system will remain the same because there is no external torque. Use conservation of angular momentum together with equations 10-18 and 11-11 to find the final distances of the masses from the rotation axis. Then use equation 10-17 to find the initial and final kinetic energies of the system. Solution: 1. (a) Find I i for the system using equation 10-18: 2. Set Li = Lf and solve for I f :

I i = I s-s + 2mri 2 = 5.43 kg m 2 + 2 (1.25 kg )( 0.759 m ) = 6.87 kg m 2

2

1 2

1 2

I ii2 =

2

= 1.18 kJ

11 28

Chapter 11: Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium 5. Use equation 10-17 to find K f :

1 2

1 2

I f f2 =

2

= 1.42 kJ

Insight: The kinetic energy increases because the student must do work to pull in the masses against the centrifugal force. This student is probably pretty dizzy after rotating 3 times per second! The required centripetal force on the masses at the original rotation rate and distance is 26.6 times the weight of the masses. That means the 2.75 lb exercise weights now feel like 73 lbs each!

75. Picture the Problem: The child walks in a circle at constant speed around the rim of a merry-go-round. The child and the merry-go-round are initially at rest.

Strategy: The angular momentum (relative to the ground) of the child-merry-go-round system remains zero after the child begins walking because there is no external torque on the system such as friction. If the child walks in a counterclockwise direction, the merry-go-round must rotate in a clockwise direction with an angular speed that produces zero net angular momentum. Use this principle, together with equations 3-8, 10-12, 11-11, 11-12, and 11-15 to find the childs speed relative to the ground, vc,g . Solution: 1. (a) Set Li = Lf , using equations 11-11 and 11-12 to write the angular momenta and equation 10-12 to relate the linear speed of the rim of the merry-go-round to its angular speed. 2. Use equation 3-8 to find the relative speeds, with vc, m-g-r = v : 3. Substitute the expression from step 2 into step 1 and solve for the childs speed relative to the ground:

0 = Lchild + Lm-g-r = R mvc, g + I m-g-r R mvc, g = I ( vm-g-r, g R ) vc, g = vc, m-g-r + vm-g-r, g vm-g-r, g = vc, g vc, m-g-r = vc, g v

R 2 mvc, g = I ( vc, g v )

( mR

+ I ) vc, g = Iv vc, g = Iv I + m R2

4. (b) As I 0, vg 0. This is correct, because an ultra-light merry-go-round would move easily beneath the childs

feet and act like a slippery surface, preventing the child from generating forward motion relative to the ground.

5. (c) As I , vg v. This is also correct, because an ultra-massive merry-go-round would hardly budge, and then

the speed of the child with respect to the ground would be about the same as her speed relative to the merry-go-round.

Insight: Other interesting effects occur when we consider the childs frame of reference on the rotating merry-go-round. For instance, if the merry-go-round is rotating clockwise as viewed from above, and the child attempts to walk toward the axis of rotation, she will feel pushed toward the left due to the Coriolis force. This inertial force arises because the outer regions of the merry-go-round have a higher linear speed than the inner regions.

76. Picture the Problem: Two spheres of equal mass and radius are rolling across the floor with the same speed. Sphere 1 is a uniform solid; sphere 2 is hollow.

2 Strategy: See Table 10-1 to find that the moment of inertia of a solid sphere is I solid = 5 M R 2 whereas for a hollow

M R 2 . Use these expressions to evaluate the kinetic energy of each sphere. Use equations 11-18 and sphere I hollow = 2 3

10-17 to determine the work required to get the baton spinning at 7.4 rad/s.

Solution: 1. (a) Each sphere must each have the same angular speed because they have the same radius and linear I 2 . We conclude that the hollow sphere 2 has the greater speed. The kinetic energy of each sphere is given by K = 1 2

kinetic energy and the work required to stop sphere 1 is less than the work required to stop sphere 2.

2. (b) The best explanation is I. Sphere 2 has the greater moment of inertia and hence the greater rotational kinetic energy. Statement II is false, the spheres have the same translational kinetic energy but different rotational kinetic energies. Statement III is false as well. Insight: The hollow sphere has a larger moment of inertia because more of its mass is located at a long distance away from its center of mass.

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11 29

77. Picture the Problem: The baton is a uniform rod that is given an angular acceleration about its center of mass by the application of an unbalanced torque.

Strategy: See Table 10-1 to find that the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass M and length L that rotated about 1 ML2 . Use equations 11-18 and 10-17 to determine the work required to get the baton spinning its center of mass is I = 12

at 7.4 rad/s.

Solution: Use equations 11-18 and 10-17 to find W:

W = Kf Ki = 1 I f2 0 = 2

1 2

1 12

ML2 ) f2

Insight: The rotational energy of the baton is only enough to raise its center of mass a distance h = W mg = 6.5 cm.

78. Picture the Problem: The torque acting through an angular displacement does work on the doorknob.

Strategy: Use equation 11-17 to find the torque required to do the specified work in the given amount of angular displacement. Solution: Solve equation 11-17 for :

Insight: The work done on the doorknob may be stored as spring potential energy inside the latch mechanism, or it may be dissipated as heat via friction.

79. Picture the Problem: The merry-go-round is a uniform disk that is given an angular acceleration about its center of mass by the application of an unbalanced torque.

Strategy: The work done by the applied torque imparts kinetic energy to the merry-go-round. Set the torque times the angular displacement equal to the final kinetic energy of the merry-go-round (equations 11-17 and 11-18) and solve for f . The moment of inertia of the merry-go-round is taken to be I = 1 MR 2 , as indicated in Table 10-1 for a uniform 2

Solution: 1. Set W = K , applying equations 11-17, 11-3, and 10-17: 2. Solve for f :

= ( rF ) = K f K i = 1 I f2 0 2

f =

=

2 rF = I

2 RF 2 1 2 MR

1 2

(167 kg )( 2.74 m )

= 0.423 rad/s

Insight: This rotation rate corresponds to a linear speed of only 1.16 m/s for the rim of the merry-go-round. The applied force did 56.1 J of work to give the merry-go-round 56.1 J of rotational kinetic energy.

80. Picture the Problem: The torque acting through an angular displacement does work on the ice cream crank.

Strategy: Use equation 11-17 to find the work done by the torque acting through the given angular displacement. One complete turn corresponds to an angular displacement of 2 radians. Solution: Apply equation 11-17 directly:

W = = ( 3.95 N m )( 2 rad ) = 24.8 J

Insight: The work done on the ice cream crank is dissipated as heat via friction in the viscous ice cream mixture.

11 30

81. Picture the Problem: The drill spins the bit at a rapid rate while exerting a torque on the bit to keep it spinning.

Strategy: The power produced by the drill equals the torque it produces times its angular speed (equation 11-19). Solution: 1. Convert into units of N m: : 2. Convert into units of rad/s: 3. Apply equation 11-19 directly:

1 lb 4.45 N 1m = 0.0260 N m 16 oz 1 lb 39.4 in

= 3.68 oz in

= 42,500

Insight: The same torque applied at 425 rev/min requires only 1.16 W of power.

82. Picture the Problem: The object gains rotational kinetic energy from an applied torque acting through an angular displacement.

Strategy: Find the kinetic energy that the L-shaped object has when it is rotated at 2.35 rad/s about the x, y, and z axes. The work that must be done on the object to accelerate it from rest equals its final kinetic energy (equations 11-18 and 10-17). From problem 15 we note that I x = 9.0 kg m 2 , I y = 10 kg m 2 , and I z = 19 kg m 2 . Solution: 1. (a) Find K f for rotation about the x axis: 2. (b) Find K f for rotation about the y axis: 3. (c) Find K f for rotation about the z axis:

W = Kf = 1 I 2 = 2 x x W = Kf = 1 I 2 = 2 y y

W = Kf = 1 I 2 = 2 z z

1 2 1 2

1 2

2

= 25 J = 28 J

= 52 J

2

2

Insight: The larger the moment of inertia, the more work is required to obtain the same rotation rate.

83. Picture the Problem: The object gains rotational kinetic energy from an applied torque acting through an angular displacement.

Strategy: Find the kinetic energy that the rectangular object has when it is rotated at 2.5 rad/s about the x, y, and z axes. The work that must be done on the object to accelerate it from rest equals its final kinetic energy (equations 11-18 and 10-17). The power required to accomplish this in 6.4 s is the work divided by the time (equation 11-19). From problem 18 we note that I x = 1.8 kg m 2 , I y = 2.5 kg m 2 , and I z = 4.3 kg m 2 . Solution: 1. (a) Find P for rotation about the x axis:

I 2 W 1 = 2 x x = P= t t

2 W 1 2 I y y = = P= t t 1 2

2

6.4 s

1 2

= 0.88 W

2

2

6.4 s

1 2

= 1.2 W

P=

I 2 W 1 = 2 z z = t t

2

6.4 s

= 2.1 W

Insight: The larger the moment of inertia, the more work is required to obtain the same rotation rate.

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11 31

84. Picture the Problem: The saw blade rotates on its axis and gains rotational kinetic energy due to the torque applied by the electric motor. Strategy: The torque applied through an angular displacement gives the blade its rotational kinetic energy. Use equations 11-17 and 10-17 to relate the kinetic energy to the torque applied by the motor. Then use equation 11-17 again to find the kinetic energy and angular speed after the blade has completed half as many revolutions.

Solution: 1. (a) Find f in units of rad/sec: 2. Set W = K and solve for :

f = 3620

1 2

W = = 1 I 2 and I = 1 mr 2 2 2 mr 2 2 = = 2

1 2

2

= 15.8 N m

3. (b) The time to rotate the first 3.15 revolutions is greater than the time to rotate the last 3.15 revolutions because the blade is speeding up. So more than half the time is spent in the first 3.15 revolutions. Therefore, the angular speed has increased to more than half of its final value. After 3.15 revolutions, the angular speed is greater than 1810 rpm. 4. (d) Set W = K and solve for :

= 1 I 2 = 1 mr 2 2 2 4 =

4 = mr 2

( 0.755 kg )( 0.152 m )

Insight: The angular speed increases linearly upon time ( = 0 + t = t ) but depends upon the square root of the

2 + 2 = 2 . angular displacement: = 0

85. Picture the Problem: A uniform disk stands upright on its edge, and rests on a sheet of paper placed on a tabletop. The paper is pulled horizontally to the right. Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for linear motion and for torques to predict the behavior of the disk. Solution: 1. (a) There are three forces that act upon the cylinder, the force of friction from the paper, the force of gravity on the center of mass, and the normal force from the tabletop. The paper force is the only one that exerts a torque about the cylinders center of mass, and it acts in the counterclockwise direction to rotate the disk. 2. (b) The normal force and the force of gravity balance each other and do not produce any acceleration. The paper force is unbalanced and produces an acceleration that will cause the center of the disk to move to the right. Insight: When the paper is removed the disk is translating toward the right but is rolling toward the left. What happens next depends upon the rotation and translation speeds as well as the magnitude of the friction force on the disk. 86. Picture the Problem: The two rotating systems shown at right each consists of a mass m attached to a rod of negligible mass pivoted at one end. On the left, the mass is attached at the midpoint of the rod; to the right, it is attached to the free end of the rod. The rods are released from rest in the horizontal position at the same time. G Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for torques = I to predict the behavior of the two rotating systems.

Solution: The angular acceleration of each system is given by = I . We can see that the right hand system experiences a larger torque due to its larger moment arm, but it also has a larger moment of inertia. Quantifying the two

L ) ( mg ) and I left = m ( 1 L) = 1 m L2 , so left = ( 1 systems, we find that left = ( 1 2 mg L ) 2 2 4

2 2

2

right = m g L and I right = m L , so right = ( m g L ) ( m L ) = g L . We can see that the left hand system has the larger

angular acceleration, and we conclude that when the rod to the left reaches the vertical position, the rod to the right is not yet vertical (location A). Insight: The greater effect is the moment of inertia, because it depends on the square of the distance from the axis of rotation, whereas the torque depends only on the first power of the distance.

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1 4

m L2 = 2 g L , and

11 32

87. Picture the Problem: A disk and a bicycle wheel of equal radius and mass each have a string wrapped around their circumferences. Hanging from the strings, halfway between the disk and the hoop, is a block of mass m, as shown at right. The disk and the hoop are free to rotate about their centers. G Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for torques = I to predict the behavior of the two rotating systems.

Solution: 1. (a) Upon its release the mass exerts equal torques on the disk and the wheel. However, the disk has a smaller moment of inertia than the wheel and experiences the larger angular acceleration = I . The string on the disk will unravel faster than the string on the bicycle wheel, and we conclude that when the block is allowed to fall, it will move toward the left. 2. (b) The best explanation is II. The wheel has the greater moment of inertia and unwinds more slowly than the disk. Statement I is false, and statement III is true, but irrelevant. Insight: Statement III is only true in terms of mass and radius. In terms of moment of inertia, the system is not symmetric, and that fact is what leads to the observed behavior.

88. Picture the Problem: A beetle sits at the rim of a turntable that is at rest but is free to rotate about a vertical axis. Strategy: Use the conservation of angular momentum to answer the conceptual question. Solution: 1. (a) As the beetle begins to walk, it exerts a force and a torque on the turntable. The turntable exerts an equal but opposite force and torque on the beetle. There are no torques on the beetle-turntable system, so there is no net change in its linear or angular momentum. If the turntable is much more massive than the beetle, it will barely rotate backward as the beetle moves forward. The beetle, then, will begin to circle around the perimeter of the turntable almost the same as if it were on solid ground. 2. (b) If the turntable is virtually massless, it will rotate backward with a linear speed at the rim that is almost equal to the forward linear speed of the beetle. The beetle will progress very slowly relative to the ground in this casethough as far as it is concerned, it is running with its usual speed. In the limit of a massless turntable, the beetle will remain in the same location relative to the ground. Insight: In either case, massive turntable or nearly massless turntable, the angular momentum of the beetle in the laboratory frame of reference is balanced by the angular momentum of the turntable. The angular momentum of the beetle-turntable system must remain zero because there are no external torques on the system. 89. Picture the Problem: A beetle sits at the rim of a turntable that is at rest but is free to rotate about a vertical axis. Strategy: Use the conservation of angular momentum to answer the conceptual question. Solution: The angular momentum L = I of the system must remain constant because there are no external torques acting on it. Thus, as the beetle walks toward the axis of rotation, which reduces the moment of inertia of the system, the angular speed of the turntable will increase. Insight: The beetle must do work against the centrifugal force, or from another perspective the force of friction (that supplies the centripetal force to keep the beetle moving in a circle) does work on the beetle as it moves toward the center. The kinetic energy of the beetle therefore increases. A similar effect occurs when an ice skater does work to move her arms inward toward her body, and gains kinetic energy as she spins faster. 90. Picture the Problem: The Earth is imagined to magically expand, doubling its radius while keeping its mass the same. Strategy: Use the conservation of angular momentum to answer the conceptual question. Solution: The angular momentum L = I of the Earth must remain constant because there are no external torques

2 acting on it. The moment of inertia I = 5 M R 2 would increase after the expansion, so the angular speed would

decrease and the length of a day would increase. Insight: The moment of inertia of the Earth in this case would increase by a factor of four, producing a day that is four times longer, or 96 hours!

11 33

91. Picture the Problem: The work the hamster does on the exercise wheel gives the wheel rotational kinetic energy.

Strategy: Find the rotational kinetic energy of the wheel to determine the work done by the hamster (equation 11-18).

Use Table 10-1 to find the moment of inertia of a hoop, I = mr 2 . The hamster runs without slipping relative to the circumference of the exercise wheel, so that = v r (equation 10-15) relates its linear speed with the angular speed of the wheel.

Solution: Set W = K and substitute for I and :

W = K = 1 I 2 = 2

1 2

( mr ) ( v r )

2

=1 mv 2 = 2

1 2

= 5.5 10 3 J = 5.5 mJ

Insight: Note that in this special case the rotational kinetic energy of the wheel in the laboratory frame of reference equals the linear kinetic energy the hamster has in the rotating frame of reference of the wheel.

92. Picture the Problem: The persons weight is supported by the hinge and the wire in the manner shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Set the sum of the torques about the hinge equal to zero and solve for the moment arm of the person relative to the hinge. Let L = length of the rod, mr = mass of the rod, mp = mass of the person, and

rp = distance from the hinge to the person. Let T = Tmax = 1400 N and use

G T

rp

G mr g

G mp g

Solution: Set

= 0

and

= L (T sin ) ( L ) m g ( r ) m g = 0

1 2 r p p

solve for rp :

LT sin Lmr g rp = mp g

1 2

2 ( 4.25 m )(1450 N ) sin ( 30.0 ) 1 2 ( 4.25 m )( 47.0 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s ) = ( 68.0 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s2 )

3.15 m

Insight: Note that when the person is 3.15 m from the hinge the tension in the cable (1450 N) is more than twice the weight of the person (667 N). This is because about half the tension is pulling horizontally toward the hinge and not supporting the downward weight of the person and the rod.

93. Picture the Problem: The puck travels in a circular path about the hole in the table, but the radius of the path can be adjusted by pulling on the string from underneath the table, as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Let the angular momentum of the puck remain constant, and use equation 11-12 to find the final speed of the puck. Solution: 1. (a) The angular momentum of the puck does not change because the string exerts no torque on the puck, but its moment of inertia decreases as the radius of its path decreases. Because L = mvr we conclude the linear speed of the puck must increase in order for L to remain the same while r decreases. 2. (b) Set Li = Lf and solve for vf :

mvr = mvf rf r r vf = v = v 1 = 2v rf 2r

Insight: The puck gains kinetic energy in this process because pulling on the string exerts a force in the same direction as the radial displacement and therefore does work on the puck.

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11 34

94. Picture the Problem: The masseter muscle and the biting force each produce a torque about the joint in a manner depicted by the figure at right.

Strategy: Find the torques produced by the two forces by finding the portion of each force that is perpendicular to the horizontal moment arms shown in the figure (equation 11-3). The torque from the biting force must be the same magnitude as the torque from the masseter muscle in order for the torques to be in equilibrium. Use the torque produced by the biting force together with the moment arm to find the magnitude of that force. Finally, apply Newtons Second Law in the horizontal and vertical G directions to find the components of the force FJ that the mandible exerts on the joint. G = r F = ( D d )( FM cos ) Solution: 1. (a) The vertical component of FM is the

portion of the force that produces a torque about the moment arm rM = D d .

2. (b) Use equation 11-3 again to find FB :

FB =

= r F = DFB 13.3 N m

D = 0.1085 m

= 123 N

3. (c) Set

= 0 to find FJ,x :

F F

= FM,x + FJ,x = 0

4. (d) Set

= 0 to find FJ,y :

FJ,y = FB FM,x

Insight: While the biting force is large (123 N is equal to 27.6 lb) the 348-N total force on the joint is the same as 78.3 lb, and is an indicator of how strong the joints and muscles must be in order for the jaw to work correctly!

95. Picture the Problem: The force from the elastic cord produces a torque about the elbow joint in the manner indicated by the figure at right.

Strategy: Use the geometry in the figure to determine the component of the moment arm that is perpendicular to the force F, and then use equation 11-3 to determine the F that will produce the desired torque. Finally, use Hookes Law (equation 6-4) to find the spring constant from the force and the stretch distance. Let a be the 38-cm length of the persons arm. The perpendicular component of the moment arm is r = a sin . A careful analysis of the geometry reveals that = 61 39 = 22. The stretch distance x is the difference between the 44-cm stretched length and the 31-cm unstretched length of the elastic cord. Solution: 1. Solve equation 11-3 for F: 2. Solve equation 6-4 for k:

F=

( 0.38 m ) sin 22

81 N m

= 570 N

k=

Insight: The 570 N of force the elastic cord exerts on the hand is equivalent to 130 lb. A good workout!

11 35

96. Picture the Problem: This is a units conversion problem. Strategy: The formula is a version of equation 11-19 but with non-metric units. The constant C simply converts the units from rev/min to rad/s and from ftlb/s to horsepower. Use equation 11-19 to find the value of C, then use the given formula and the known value of C to find the engine torque in ftlbs.

Solution: 1. (a) Use equation 11-19 to find C:

P ( hp ) = ( ft lb ) ( rev/min ) 2 rad 1 min 1 hp 1 rev 60 s 550 ft lb/s Torque RPM Torque RPM HP = hp = 5252 ft lb rpm/hp C C = 5252 ft lb rev/min/hp = 5250 ft lb rev/min/hp C HP ( 5252 ft lb rpm/hp )( 320 hp ) = = 259 ft lb RPM ( 6500 rpm )

Torque =

Insight: The constant C can be considered unitless because it is basically power divided by power, but we retained the units to indicate how to accomplish the conversion. We bent the rules for significant figures for C a bit in step 2 to avoid rounding error.

97. Picture the Problem: The torque about the hip joint from the weight of the tail balances the torque from the weight of the upper torso of the dinosaur. Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the hip joint and solve for the mass of the tail. Let mU be the mass of the upper torso, let mT be the mass of the tail, and let M = mU + mT be the total mass of the T. rex.

Solution: 1. Set

= 0 and

substitute for mU :

2. Now solve for mT :

rT mT rU ( M mT ) = 0 mT =

rT mT g rU mU g = 0

Insight: Such a massive tail would not be necessary if the creature stood upright like humans do, placing its mass over the point of support of its feet. Other creatures like monkeys have large tails for better balance when doing acrobatics in the tree tops.

98. Picture the Problem: The weight of the pen, the thumb force, and the index finger force act on the pen in the manner indicated by the figure. Strategy: Use Newtons Second Law for torque and Newtons Second Law for force in the vertical direction to determine the magnitudes of the forces. The forces and torques are each in equilibrium. The weight of the pen will act at the center of mass, 7.0 cm from the end of the pen. Solution: 1. (a) The force from the index finger will be greater in magnitude than the force from the thumb, because the finger force has to counteract both the thumbs force and the pens weight.

2. (b) Set

G Ff G mg G Ft

3.5 cm 7.0 cm

Ff :

= r F

f

Ff =

rcm mg = 0

) = 0.55 N

3. Set

= Ff Ft mg = 0

Insight: The largest force, 0.55 N, amounts to only 2.0 oz. The 28 g pen weighs about 1.0 oz.

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11 36

99. Picture the Problem: The person stands on the 60.0-N ladder in the manner depicted by the figure at right.

Strategy: The problem can be solved by setting the vector sums of the forces and the torques equal to zero. The only differences between this problem and Active Example 11G 3 are the addition of a vector mA g at the center of mass of the ladder, and the modification of the distance b. The horizontal distance between the base of the ladder and the vector G 2 2 mA g is c = ( 1 4.0 m ) ( 1 3.8 m ) = 0.62 m. 2 2 Solution: 1. (a) Set

= 0 and solve

= a f

2. Determine the numerical value of f 3 :

b mg c mA g = 0 bmg + cmA g c ( mg + mA g ) f3 = = a a

3 2 ( 0.62 m ) ( 85 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s ) + 60.0 N

f3 =

x

3. Set

F

F

= 0 and solve for f1 :

= f 2 f3 = 0 = f1 mg mA g = 0 = 894 N = 0.89 kN

f 2 = f 3 = 0.15 kN

4. Set

5. (b) Set

b=

2 2

f 3 . Let

= 0.94 m:

f3 = =

4.0 m ) ( 3 3.8 m ) (3 4 4

f 3 = 216 N = 0.22 kN

f 2 = f3 = 0.22 kN

f1 = 894 N = 0.89 kN

Insight: As the person climbs higher on the ladder both f 3 and f 2 increase. The ladder leans with more force f 3 against the wall and relies more heavily on the static friction force f 2 to keep the base of the ladder from sliding out.

11 37

100. Picture the Problem: The sign is supported by a rope as indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: Set the net torque about the bolt equal to zero and solve for the tension in the rope. The torque due to the rope is positive and the torque due to the weight is negative. Then write Newtons Second Law in the vertical and horizontal directions to find the vertical and horizontal G components of the force F exerted by the bolt on the sign. Solution: 1. (a) Set

= ( 2 L )(T sin ) ( L )( mg ) = 0

T=

) = 229 N

2 tan 20.0

= 216 N

1 2

78.5 N

Insight: Note that the 229-N tension in the rope is almost 1.5 times larger than the 157-N weight of the sign because the rope is also pulling horizontally, and only the vertical portion is supporting the weight of the sign. It would take an infinite force to support the sign with a rope that is horizontal ( = 0.0)!

101. Picture the Problem: The diver of mass m stands at the end of the diving board of negligible mass as shown at right. The pillars are d = 1.10 m apart, the mass of the diver is 67.0 kg, and the magnitude of F1 = 828 N.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for rotation with the pivot point at the second pillar and solve for L. Then write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and solve for F2.

= 0

= d F + ( L d ) mg = 0

1

L=

d ( mg + F1 ) mg

2.49 m

2. (b) Set

= F1 + F2 mg = 0

Insight: Pillar 1 must exert a downward force in order to balance the torque produced by the divers weight. Pillar 2 G G must therefore exert a large force upward to balance the two downward forces F1 and mg .

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11 38

102. Picture the Problem: The diver of mass m = 90.0 kg stands at a distance x from the left end of the diving board of mass M = 85 kg and length L = 5.00 m as shown at right. The pillars are d = 1.50 m apart.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction and Newtons Second Law for rotation with the pivot point at the left end of the board. The two equations can then be combined to find the two unknowns F1 and F2 as functions of x.

Solution: 1. Set

G

=0

F

F2 :

2. Set

y

G = 0F + ( d ) F ( x ) m

1 2

g (1 L ) mboard g = 0 2 1 g F2 = ( mdiver gx + 1 mboard gL ) = ( mdiver x + 1 mboard L ) 2 2 d d 2 9.81 m/s = 85 kg )( 5.00 m ) ( 90.0 kg ) x + 1 2( 1.50 m F2 = ( 589 N/m ) x + 1390 N G F2 = ( 0.589 kN/m ) x + 1.4 kN y

diver

F1 = ( 90.0 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) + ( 85 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s 2 ) ( 589 N/m ) x + 1390 N = ( 589 N/m ) x + 330 N G F1 = ( 0.589 kN/m ) x + 0.33 kN y

Insight: As the diver moves toward the end of the board, x increases, F1 becomes larger in the negative (downward) direction, and F2 becomes larger in the upward direction, with maximum values of F1 = 2.6 kN and F2 = 4.3 kN .

103. Picture the Problem: The weight of the person is distributed between the heel and the toe in different ways because of the shape of the shoe as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about point A and solve for FB . Then write Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction to find the force FA . Note that the forces FA and FB are upward forces on the foot exerted by the floor. Solution: 1. (a) Set

= 0 and

solve for FB :

FB = 83.1 N

2. Now set

5. (c) The high heel has shifted more of the womans weight to her toes.

G Insight: Note that even a flat shoe exerts more force on the heel than the toes because w is located closer to the heel .

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11 39

104. Picture the Problem: The quadriceps muscle exerts a force just below the knee that supports the lower leg in the manner indicated in the figure.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the knee joint and solve for FQ . Note that the moment arm for the quadriceps

force is : r ,Q = (12 cm ) sin 29 = 5.8 cm and for the weight of the leg it is: r ,W = ( 35 cm ) cos 39 = 27 cm .

Solution: Set

FQ :

Insight: Note that in order to produce the same torque as the legs weight, but with a much smaller moment arm, the muscle must exert a force that is 4.7 times greater than the weight of the leg.

105. Picture the Problem: The deltoid muscle exerts a force just below the shoulder that supports the weight of the upper and lower arms, hand, and stop sign in the manner indicated by the diagram at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the shoulder joint and solve for f d . Note that the moment arm for the deltoid force is:

r ,d = (14 cm ) sin18 = 4.3 cm, and the moment arms for the weights are

just those x components that are labeled in the diagram. Then write Newtons Second Law in the horizontal and vertical directions to find the forces f x and f y .

Solution: 1. (a) The magnitude of f d is greater than the magnitude of f x because although f x must equal the magnitude of the horizontal component of f d (because they are the only two horizontal forces and the arm is in equilibrium), f d also has a vertical component. 2. (b) Set

fd :

4.3 cm

f d = 380 N = 0.38 kN

3. (c) Set

4. (d) Set

Insight: The negative value of f y indicates it actually acts in the downward direction on the shoulder joint, not upward

as indicated in the figure. The rules of subtraction leave us with just one significant figure for the answer to part (d).

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11 40

106. Picture the Problem: The triceps muscle exerts an upward force on the ulna at a point just behind the elbow joint as indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the elbow joint and solve for FT . Solution: 1. Set

solve for FT :

= 0 and

rT FT rcm Mg + rF F = 0 FT = FT = rF F rcm Mg rT

2.78 cm

= 962 N

Insight: The 962-N (216-lb!) force exerted by the triceps muscle is much greater than the 89.0-N (20.0-lb) force exerted by the hand because the moment arm of the triceps force is much smaller than that of the hand.

107. Picture the Problem: The books are arranged in a stack as depicted at right, with book 1 on the bottom and book 4 at the top of the stack.

Strategy: It is helpful to approach this problem from the top down. The center of mass of each set of books must be above or to the left of the point of support, otherwise there will be a net torque on the system and it will tip. Find the positions of the centers of mass for successive stacks of books to determine d. Measure the positions of the books from the right edge of book 1 (right hand dashed line in the figure). Solution: 1. (a) The center of mass of book 4 needs to be above the right end of book 3.

d3 = L 2

2. The result of step 1 means that the center of mass of book 3 is located at L 2 + L 2 = L from the right edge of book 1. 3. The center of mass of books 4 and 3 needs to be above the right end of book 2:

d 2 = X cm,43 = m ( L 2) + m ( L ) 2m = 3 L 4

4. The result of step 3 means that the center of mass of book 2 is located at 3L 4 + L 2 = 5L 4. 5. The center of mass of books 4, 3, and 2 needs to be above the right end of book 1:

d1 = X cm,432 = m ( L 2 ) + m ( L ) + m ( 5L 4 ) 3m = 11 L 12

6. The result of step 3 means that the center of mass of book 1 is located at 11L 12 + L 2 = 17 L 12. 7. The center of mass of all four books needs to be above the right edge of the table:

d = X cm,4321 = m ( L 2 ) + m ( L ) + m ( 5L 4 ) + m (17 L 12 ) 4m = 25 L 24

8. (b) If the mass of each book is increased by the same amount, the answer to part (a) will stay the same because it only depends upon the assumption that each book has the same mass, irregardless of the value of that mass. L L L L 25 L . The + + + = 2 4 6 8 24 series gives you a hint about how to predict the overhang of even larger stacks of books! Insight: If you examine the overhang of each book you find an interesting series: d =

11 41

108. Picture the Problem: The Earth spins on its axis with a nearly constant angular speed.

Strategy: Because the melting of the polar ice caps redistributes the Earths mass a little bit but does not exert an external torque on the planet, the angular momentum of the Earth would remain constant. Combine equations 10-5, 11-11, and 11-15 to find the new rotation period for the Earth. Solution: 1. (a) With conservation of angular momentum, an increase in the moment of inertia leads to a decrease in the speed of rotation. The length of a day would therefore increase. 2. (b) Set Li = Lf and substitute L = I : 3. Now let = 2 T and solve for Tf : 4. Find T = Tf Ti :

I ii = I f f 2 Ii Ti 2 If If = If Tf = Ti = Ti T I f i Ii

Insight: The longer day would be noticeable over time, as 261 s is equivalent to 4.35 min. The longer day would cause grief for time-sensitive astronomical observations and would mean that geosynchronous satellites would be in the wrong orbits and would drift slowly across the sky (see Active Example 12-1).

109. Picture the Problem: The force F is applied to the axis of the wheel in order to lift it over the step as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: In order to find the minimum force F that will lift the wheel over the step, we must balance the torques. The torque about the corner of the step that is produced by F must balance the torque produced by the downward force of gravity acting at the axle. The R and the moment arm for the moment arm for the force F is r ,F = 1 4

weight is r ,W = R cos , where cos =

R2 ( 1 4 R) R

2

15 . 16

Solution: Set

Fmin :

= r

Fmin =

,W

Mg r,F Fmin = 0 =

r,W Mg r ,F

(R

15 16 Mg R4

15 Mg

Insight: Less force is required if the step is smaller. For instance, a step height of R 2 would only require a force of

Fmin = 12 Mg .

110. Picture the Problem: The yo-yo hangs in equilibrium under the influence of the two G G forces T1 and T2 as indicated in the diagram at right.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the yo-yo, and then Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for the yo-yo and for the hanging mass to obtain expressions for T1 , T2 , and m. The problem states that R = 5.60 r . Solution: 1. Set

1

11 42

T1 T2 Mg = 0

T1 (T1 5.60 ) = Mg

2

T2 =

= 0.215 N

4. Set

solve for m:

Insight: If the hanging mass were not there, the weight of the yo-yo would create a torque with moment arm r relative G to the point where T1 contacts the axis, and the yo-yo would rotate counterclockwise and descend the string.

111. Picture the Problem: The various forces are applied to the rod, which is in equilibrium, as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Let L = the rod length and write Newtons Second Law for torque about the bottom of the rod in order to determine the wire tension T. Then write Newtons Second Law in the horizontal and vertical directions to determine the normal force N and the static friction force fs . Then determine the maximum force F that can be applied to the rod without causing it to slip. Solution: 1. (a) Set

solve for T:

= 0 and

= L (T cos 45) ( L ) F = 0

1 2

T= = 0 , substitute the

F =F 2 cos 45

2. Set

F

F

= N Mg T sin 45 = 0

F 1 1 N = Mg + T sin 45 = Mg + = Mg + 2 F 2 2

3. Set

= 0 and substitute

1 2

for f s = s N = s ( Mg + F ) :

= F f s T cos 45 = 0 F 1 1 = s ( Mg + 1 F)+ = s Mg + 2 F ( s + 1) 2 2 2

F = s N + T cos 45

F1 F ( s + 1) = s Mg 2 F=

s Mg Mg 2 s M g = 1 s = 1 1 2 ( s + 1) 2 (1 s ) 1 s

Insight: The maximum force increases with s until it becomes infinite when s = 1 . If the coefficient of static friction is one or larger, it is impossible to pull the bottom of the rod out while applying the force at the midpoint; you would have to pull on a point below the midpoint.

11 43

112. Picture the Problem: The various forces are applied to the rod, which is in equilibrium, as shown in the figure at right.

Strategy: Let L = the rod length and write Newtons Second Law for torque about the bottom of the rod in order to determine the wire tension T. Then write Newtons Second Law in the horizontal and vertical directions to determine the normal force N and the static friction force fs . Then show the maximum force F can be infinitely large and the rod will still not slip. Solution: 1. (a) Use the expression from problem 96 to find the maximum F: 2. (b) Set

2 1 2s Mg 2 ( 7 ) ( 2.3 kg ) ( 9.81 m/s ) = = 7.5 N 1 s l 1 7 7 8

F=

= L (T cos 45) ( L ) F = 0

T= F 7 2 = F cos 45 8

7 8

3. Set

= N Mg T sin 45 = 0

7 2F 1 7 N = Mg + T sin 45 = Mg + = Mg + 8 F 8 2

4. Set

for f s = s N = s ( Mg + F ) :

1 2

= 0 and substitute

= F f s T cos 45 = 0 7 2F 1 7 F)+ = s ( Mg + 7 = s Mg + 8 F ( s + 1) 8 8 2

F = s N + T cos 45

F7 F ( s + 1) = s Mg 8 F=

s Mg = 1 7 8 ( s + 1)

1 8

8 Mg s Mg = s 1 7 1 7 s ( s)

6. Now if we insert s = 1 7 into the above expression, the denominator becomes 11 = 0 and the force F becomes infinite. Thus the bottom of the rod will not slip under these conditions, no matter how hard you pull! Insight: On the other hand, if the surface were frictionless ( s = 0 ) the rod would slip with the smallest force applied anywhere along the length of the rod.

11 44

113. Picture the Problem: The cylinder rotates and falls downward along the length of the string.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the center of the cylinder, then Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for the cylinder in order to find its linear acceleration. From Table 10-1 the moment of inertia for a cylinder rotated about its axis is I=1 mr 2 . Let upward be the positive direction. 2 Solution: 1. Set

G T

= I

r T = I = ( 1 mr 2 ) ( a r ) 2 T = ma

1 2

G mg

2. Let

T mg = ma

1 2

ma ) mg = ma

1 2

a+a = g a =

2 3

Insight: Two ideas can help explain the slowing of the cylinders acceleration: (1) the string exerts an upward force on the cylinder, reducing the net force that is accelerating it downward; and (2) the rotation of the cylinder stores some of the gravitational potential energy in the form of rotational as opposed to translational kinetic energy.

114. Picture the Problem: The sphere rotates and falls downward along the length of the string.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for torque about the center of the sphere, then Newtons Second Law in the vertical direction for the sphere in order to find its linear acceleration. From Table 10-1 the moment of inertia for a sphere rotated about its axis is 2 I=5 mr 2 . Let upward be the positive direction. Solution: 1. Set

G T

= I

2 r T = I = ( 5 mr 2 ) ( a r )

T = ma

2 5

G mg

2. Let

T mg = ma

2 5

ma ) mg = ma

2 5

a+a = g a =

5 7

Insight: Two ideas can help explain the slowing of the spheres acceleration: (1) the string exerts an upward force on the sphere, reducing the net force that is accelerating it downward; and (2) the rotation of the sphere stores some of the gravitational potential energy in the form of rotational as opposed to translational kinetic energy.

11 45

115. Picture the Problem: You pull straight downward on a rope that passes over a disk-shaped pulley and then supports a weight on the other side. The force of your pull rotates the pulley and accelerates the mass upward.

Strategy: Write Newtons Second Law for the hanging mass and Newtons Second Law for torque about the axis of the pulley. Let T1 be the tension on the right side of the pulley and T2 be the tension on the left side. Let m be the mass of the pulley, r be the radius of the pulley, and M be the hanging mass. The tension T1 on the right side must equal the

mr 2 (Table 10-1). pulling force F. For the disk-shaped pulley the moment of inertia I = 1 2

F = ma

= T2 Mg = Ma T2 = M ( g + a )

1 2

2. Set

= I

= r T r T

a= 2 (T1 T2 )

= I = ( 1 mr 2 ) ( a r ) 2

a = 2 (T1 T2 ) m

2 F M ( g + a ) = 2 ( F Mg ) 2 M a = m m m m a (1 + 2 M m ) = 2 ( F Mg ) m a= m (1 + 2 M m ) 2 ( F Mg ) = 2 ( F Mg ) 2M + m = F Mg M+1 2m

3. Substitute the expression for T2 from step 1 into the one from step 2, and solve for a:

4. (b) The tension on the right side of the pulley is T1 = F because there can only be one tension along the rope. 5. (c) Substitute for a in the expression from step 1:

F Mg T2 = Mg + Ma = Mg + M 1 M + 2m Mg ( M + 1 MF M 2 g 2 m) = + M+1 M+1 2m 2m T2 =

2 M 2g + 1 2MF + mMg 2 mMg + MF M g = 1 M +2m 2M + m

6. (d) As m 0, a F M g and T2 F . These are the expected results for a massless, frictionless pulley. As

2 FM Mg + = 0 + Mg = Mg . These are the expected results for a pulley that is too 2M + 2M + massive to rotate, so that the hanging mass is in equilibrium at rest. m , a 0 and T2

Insight: The tension in the rope on the left side accelerates the hanging mass, but the tension on the right side both imparts angular acceleration to the pulley and accelerates the hanging mass. Therefore, the right hand rope has the greater tension T1 .

116. Picture the Problem: The bricks are stacked in the manner indicated by the figure at right.

Strategy: Concentrate on the brick farthest to the right. The sum of the torques about the pivot point at the right edge of the bottom brick must be zero. There are two torques to consider, one caused by half the weight of the top brick acting on the upper-left corner, and one caused by the weight of the brick itself acting on the center of mass. L. An examination of the diagram reveals that a = L x and b = x 1 2

11 46

a(1 mg ) b ( mg ) = 0 2 mg ) = bmg = ( x 1 L ) mg ( L x)( 1 2 2 L x = 2x L 2 L = 3x x =

2 3

Insight: The answer is independent of the mass of the bricks. It only assumes that the bricks all have the same mass and are placed symmetrically so that the weight of the top brick is evenly distributed between the two middle bricks.

117. Picture the Problem: A tooth is both moved and rotated by the application of two forces. The graph at right shows the values of the two forces necessary to produce a given torque, where the torque is measured about the center of the tooth.

Strategy: A counterclockwise torque is desired to correct the clockwise rotation of the tooth. This means that the force F2 must be larger than F1 . Solution: Requiring that F2 > F1 means that graph I corresponds

to F2 and graph II corresponds to F1 .

Insight: The forces as drawn do not have any x component, but if they did, the magnitudes of the two x components would need to cancel in order to avoid shifting the tooth in the x direction.

118. Picture the Problem: A tooth is both moved and rotated by the application of two forces. The graph at right shows the values of the two forces necessary to produce a given torque, where the torque is measured about the center of the tooth.

Strategy: Inspect the graph of line II to determine the value of the torque that corresponds to one of the forces being equal to zero. Solution: Line II, corresponding to force F1 , crosses the zero force mark at a torque of 0.0023 Nm. Insight: Although this arrangement puts less stress on the tooth, the torque is insufficient to rotate the tooth properly. We could also use equations to find the torque. Let Fy = F1 + F2 = 1.8 N F2 = 1.8 N if F1 = 0. Then the torque G on the tooth is = 0 + ( D d ) F2 = ( 4.5 3.2 mm )(1.8 N ) = 0.0023 N m.

119. Picture the Problem: A tooth is both moved and rotated by the application of the two forces indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: Set the torque about the center of the tooth equal to zero and the sum of the forces equal to 1.8 N in order to determine the magnitudes of the forces. G G Solution: 1. Set = 0 and = d F1 + ( D d ) F2 = 0

substitute F2 = Ftotal F1 :

( D d )( Ftotal F1 ) = d F1

D Ftotal = F1 = 4.5 mm

F2 = 1.8 N 0.52 N = 1.3 N

(1.8 N ) =

0.52 N

Insight: Although this arrangement puts the correct force on the tooth, there is no torque to rotate the tooth properly.

11 47

120. Picture the Problem: A tooth is both moved and rotated by the application of the two forces indicated in the figure at right.

Strategy: Set the torque about the center of the tooth equal to 0.0099 Nm and the sum of the forces equal to 1.8 N in order to determine the magnitudes of the forces. G G Solution: 1. Set = 0 and = d F1 + ( D d ) F2 = total

substitute F2 = Ftotal F1 :

( D d )( Ftotal F1 ) total = d F1

D

1

0.0045 m

= 1.7 N

Insight: Although this arrangement puts the correct force on the tooth, there is no torque to rotate the tooth properly.

121. Picture the Problem: The cart slides along a frictionless track because of a constant force exerted by a string that is passed over a pulley. As in Example 11-7, the cart has a mass of 0.31 kg, the pulling force is 1.1 N, and the pulley radius is 0.012 m. However, the pulley mass is doubled to 0.16 kg. Strategy: Apply Newtons Second Law independently to the pulley and to the cart and solve for T2 . The pulley is a disk with moment of inertia

I=1 mr 2 (Table 10-1). 2

Solution: 1. (a) The value of T2 will decrease when the mass of the pulley is doubled because a larger net torque will be required to rotate the pulley, forcing T2 to decrease if T1 remains the same. 2. (b) Set 3. Set

F = ma

and solve for T2 :

T2 = Ma a =

T2 M

= I

1 2

T2 (1 + 1 m M ) = T1 2 T2 =

Insight: As predicted, the tension T2 decreased from 0.97 N to 0.87 N when the mass of the pulley was doubled. If the mass of the pulley were infinitely large the tension T2 would be zero and so would the acceleration of the system.

11 48

122. Picture the Problem: The cart slides along a frictionless track because of a constant force exerted by a string that is passed over a pulley. As in Example 11-7, the pulley has a mass of 0.080 kg, the pulling force is 1.1 N, and the pulley radius is 0.012 m. However, the cart mass is doubled to 0.62 kg.

Strategy: Apply Newtons Second Law independently to the pulley and to the cart and solve for T2 . The pulley is a disk with moment of inertia

I=1 mr 2 (Table 10-1). 2

Solution: 1. (a) The value of T2 will increase when the mass of the cart is doubled because a larger net force will be required to accelerate the cart, forcing T2 to increase if T1 remains the same. 2. (b) Set 3. Set

F = ma

T2 = Ma a =

T2 M

= I

1 2

T2 (1 + 1 m M ) = T1 2 T2 =

Insight: As predicted, the tension T2 increased from 0.97 N to 1.0 N when the mass of the cart was doubled. If the mass were infinitely large, the tension T2 would be 1.1 N, and the acceleration would be zero because there would be no net torque on the pulley (and the cart is just too massive to accelerate).

123. Picture the Problem: The child runs tangentially to the merry-go-round and hops on. As in Active Example 11-5, the child has a mass of 34.0 kg, the merry-go-round has a moment of inertia of 512 kgm2 and a radius of 2.31 m, but the childs initial speed is different than 2.80 m/s.

Strategy: Use equation 11-15 together with equation 11-11 to conserve angular momentum before and after the child jumps on the merry-goround. Solve the resulting expression for the initial speed v of the child.

2

rm

2

Insight: As we would expect, the child needs to run faster in order to get the merry-go-round spinning faster. The 34% increase in linear speed of the child results in a 34% increase in the angular speed of the merry-go-round because the initial and final angular momentum of the system depends linearly upon the speed of the child.

11 49

124. Picture the Problem: The child runs at an angle to the merry-go-round and hops on. As in Active Example 11-5 the child has a mass of 34.0 kg, the merry-go-round has a moment of inertia of 512 kgm2 and a radius of 2.31 m, and the childs initial speed is 2.80 m/s.

Strategy: Use equation 11-15 together with equation 11-11 to conserve angular momentum before and after the child jumps on the merry-goround. The moment arm of the childs angular momentum is r = r sin . Solve the resulting expression for the approach angle of the child. Solution: 1. Set Li = Lf and solve for sin :

0 + rmv sin = I f f = ( I + mr 2 )

( I + mr ) sin =

2

rmv

2. Solve for , keeping in mind that the calculator will return an angle equal to 180 :

512 + ( 34.0 )( 2.31)2 kg m 2 ( 0.272 rad/s ) = 180 sin ( 2.31 m )( 34.0 kg )( 2.80 m/s )

1

Insight: If the child approaches at an angle that is greater than 90, his initial angular momentum is smaller and the merry-go-round ends up spinning at a slower rate. If = 180, the initial angular momentum would be zero and the merry-go-round would not rotate at all; in this case the child approaches the merry-go-round along the radial direction.

11 50

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