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Academy of Art University Student: Gregory F. Shue | ID #: 03790412 ARH 641 | Instructor: Lum | Module 6 | Assignment 6.

2 Tigbourne Court: An Arts & Crafts Masterpiece Sir Edwin Lutyens, who was inspired by the writings of A.W. Pugin, designed Tigbourne Court (1899-1901) as a manifestation of the ideals of the Arts & Crafts movement in Britain. Pugin, who is partially credited with inspiring the Arts & Crafts movement, was primarily a champion of medieval cultural ideals. The Arts & Crafts movement, although not a reconstitution of medieval or Gothic principles, can readily be defined by three primary motives: 1) the use of simple forms, 2) the connection with a natural setting, and 3) the emphasis of truth or honesty of materials. In essence, the Arts & Crafts movement represented a reaction against the clutter and pomposity of earlier English domestic architecture. (Curtis, 92) This essay attempts to demonstrate how Tigbourne Court embodies these qualities. The formal qualities of Tigbourne Court answer the call for formal simplicity by way of its central mass capped with simple gables, which are detailed with minimized raking eaves in keeping with the British vernacular tradition. The triple- and double-gables are one of Lutyens's trademark massing devices, and have served as inspiration in contemporary traditional homes as a referential connection to the Arts & Crafts movement1. Small singleIllustration 1: Tigbourne Court by Sir Edwin Lutyens, front story wings flank the central mass in front of elevation the house, which are terminated with attenuated brick chimneys. The chimneys are a significant component of the formal composition, and they too are designed as simple rectilinear extrusions. Windows are judiciously sized, located and aligned, also in keeping with British vernacular residential architecture, although along the south facade, windows are maximized in public rooms to Illustration 2: Tigbourne Court, side elevation accentuate the proximity to the gardens. The plan (See Illustration 3) is also a relatively simple formal solution. Along the front facade, Lutyens creates a very dynamic series of alternating concave and linear walls. The landscape delineation at the side entrances and forecourt also follow the theme of undulation and juxtaposition between straight and curved lines and surfaces. However, Lutyens does not continue this architectural game of contrasts beyond the front facade. Other facades employ a more restrained formal palate with very simple geometries, with the modest second floor porch and balcony being the only exception.
1 See Robert A.M. Stern's houses at Villanova Heights ( and House at Blue Water Hill (, for example.

The interior spaces are more-or-less standard rectangles in plan and section, which are arranged on discreet levels, very dissimilar to Loos' Raumplan theory (Frampton, 93-4). The rooms are arranged not so much around alignments and views, but more around notions of public, private, and service-oriented zones. In addition, each room is a separate space unto itself, and connectivity is usually expressed as doors or more formally expressed transitions. Fireplaces are commonly back-to-back in adjoining rooms so that the house efficiently benefits from many fireplaces with a minimized number of chimneys.

Illustration 3: Tigbourne Court, first and second floor plans

Tigbourne Court's association with the Arts & Crafts movement is also bolstered by its connection with its natural setting. The property is located in a semi-rural context, bounded by tree lines along the property's edges. The site has been developed with a mix of classical and romantic gestures, combining the formal qualities of expansive lawns with the seemingly haphazard overgrowth of vines and other bushy plants. Connections between the house and the landscape are manifested via large, southfacing windows that look out across the south lawn from the Study, Hall, and Drawing Room. Other connection are made with loggias, terraces, a forecourt, a kitchen garden, as well as the Flower Room in the main body of the house, which is also adjacent to the south terrace. The materiality of Tigbourne Court is one of its strongest demonstrations of Arts & Crafts principles. The entire exterior of the house, aside from fenestration, appears to be executed in some form of masonry or stonework. As a whole, the materials are

natural and are used in ways that emphasized their innate qualities. The handmade brick is stacked as one might expect, but also exudes the craftsmanship of the mason with its display of herringbone horizontal bands, brick quoining, voussoirs, and mortar joints that incorporate small black stones into the relatively wide spaces between bricks. In addition, other materials objects are hand crafted in a sympathetic manner, including wooden doors and wrought iron strap hinges. These contribute to the total work of art for which the Arts & Crafts movement is known. In summary, Tigbourne Court is an exemplary manifestation of the ideals of the Arts & Crafts movement through its use of simple massing, its connection to its natural setting , and the emphasis of honesty in materials. With this house, Lutyens embraced William Morris's notion that architects should be masters of craft whose buildings should Illustration 4: Tigbourne Court, masonry details at front demonstrate an integrated wholeness. Tigbourne Court is much an architectural testament to the craftsman as it is an ode to happy family life in a traditional British idyllic setting. The house shares qualities of formal and informal composition with its at once picturesque and classical landscape, as some of the garden area is well-manicured while other parts seem more picturesque. Similar to Voysey's approach, Lutyens executed this design as a combination of symmetry and formality wirh informal and assymmetrical qualities. (Curtis, 89) Tigbourne Court exemplifies, through these qualites, Luyens's desire to make architecture more about mankind and nature, and less about the significant growth of machinery brought about Illustration 5: Tigbourne Court, material details by the Industrial Revolution.

Bibliography Pevsner, Nikolaus, and Edward Hubbard. "Surrey." The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971. 486-87. Print. Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. [London]: Phaidon, 1996. Print. Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. Print. Illustration Sources Illustration 1 source: 4.jpg/640px-Tigbourne_Court_DSC_1744.jpg Illustration 2 source: Illustration 3 source: sequence=1 Illustration 4 source: Illustration 5 source: jpg