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MANUAL ROBOT

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
CHASSIS,CLAMPS LOCOMOTION SYSTEM ACTUATORS POWER SYSTEM CONTROL SYSTEM

THE FRAMEWORK:CHASSIS

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

THE CLAMPS

THE LOCOMOTION SYSTEM


DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE SKID STEER DRIVE SINGLE WHEEL DRIVE ACKERMANN STEERING SYNCHRO DRIVE

THE DIFFERENCIAL DRIVE


THE MOST COMMON DRIVE EASY TO IMPLEMENT TWO INDEPENDENT POWERED WHEELS 1 FREELY ROTATING WHEEL,OR 2 INDEPENT FREELY ROTATING WHEELS

DRIVING STRAIGHT: Vl=Vr=V>0; TAKING A RIGHT TURN:Vr<Vl; ROTATING CLOCKWISE:Vl=-Vr,Vl>0;

SKID STEER DRIVE


ALL FOUR WHEELS POWERED WHEELS ON THE SAME SIDE ARE ELECTRICALLY SHORTED TO MOVE IN SAME DIRECTION SIMILAR TO DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE

DIFFERENTIAL V/S SKID STEER


POWER ON ALL 4 WHEELS INCREASES TRACTION FOR SKID STEER DEAD RECKONING IS DIFFICULT IF SKIDDING OCCURS IN SKID STEER

SINGLE WHEEL DRIVE


POWERED WHEEL ALSO ROTATES ABOUT ANOTHER AXIS TO FACILITATE CURVILINEAR MOTION SLIPPING OCCURS ROTATION ON THE SPOT IS DIFFICULT

ACKERMANN STEARING
BOTH THE REAR WHEELS ARE POWERED BY THE SAME SHAFT THE FRONT WHEELS PROVIDE FOR CURVILINEAR MOTION

ACKERMANN V/S DIFFERENTIAL


DRIVING STRAIGHT IS NOT A PROBLEM AS IN DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE BOT CANT TURN ON THE SPOT BUT REQUIRES SOME MINIMUM RADIUS REAR WHEELS SLIP WHILE TRACKING CURVES

SYNCHRO DRIVE
3 WHEELS ,ALL POWERED ALL WHEELS AT A GIVEN INSTANT POINT IN THE SAME DIRECTION CAN GO IN ANY DIRECTION HAS TO STOP BEFORE CHANGING DIRECTION,ELSE SKIDS

SYNCHRO DRIVE

ACTUATORS:MOTORS

WORKING PRINCIPLE

BACK EMF & ITS SIGNIFICANCE


Eb IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO REVOLUTIONS PER SECOND =>IF RPS IS HIGH Eb IS ALSO HIGH THUS EFFECTIVE VOLTAGE ACROSS THE MOTOR = V-Eb =>LESS CURRENT =>AT HIGH RPM CURRENT CONSUMPTION IS LOW

POWER EQUATION
POWER IN ROTATIONAL MOTION IS GIVEN BY TW T=TORQUE,W=ANGULAR VELOCITY THEREFORE,USEFUL POWER = TW POWER IS A DIRECT FUNCTION OF CURRENT =>MORE CURRENT DRAWN : MORE POWER DELIVERED

TORQUE V/S SPEED

BOLD INDICATES PERFORMANCE UNDER ELECTRONIC RERGULATION TIHIN LINES INDICATE UNREGULATED PERFORMANCE

TORQUE V/S SPEED


IN A PERMANENT MANGNET DC MOTOR : SPEED IS PROPORTIONAL TO VOLTAGE TORQUE IS PROPORTIONAL TO CURRENT TORQUE AND SPEED ARE IDEALLY INDEPENDENT WITHIN A CERTAIN RANGE WHEN THE APPLIED VOLTAGE INCREASES THE FOLLOWING CHANGES OCCUR:

NON IDEAL BEHAVIOUR

MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS

WHEELS
MECANUM WHEELS OMNI WHEELS CASTER WHEELS

MECANUM WHEELS

MECANUM WHEELS CONTINUED

MECANUM WHEELS CONTINUED


FWD=1/2/3/4 F BCK=1/2/3/4 B SL=1/4 B,2/3 F SR=1/4 F,2/3 B CLKWISE TURN: 1/3 F,2/4 B CTRCLKWISE TURN: 1/3 B,2/4 F

WHATS WRONG THEN ?


TOO COSTLY : 300$ APPROX. FOR 4 WHEELS REDUCED OVERALL EFFICIENCY DUE TO INTERNAL CANCELLATION OF VELOCITY VECTORS

OMNI WHEELS

OMNI WHEELS
FWD/BCK: 1/3 F/B SLIDE L/R: 2/4 F/B CLK/CTRCLK : DIAGONALLY OPP WHEELS IN OPP DIRECTION LOW COST 4000 RS 4 WHEELS LOW EFFEICENCY

CASTER WHEEL
DUMMY WHEEL USED AS SUPPORT GENERALLY IN 3 WHEELED ROBOTS CAN MOVE IN ANY DIRECTION

POWER SYSTEM:BATTERY
LI ION BATTERY LEAD ACID BATTERY NI MH/NI CD BATTERY NI ZN BATTERY ZN MN02 BATTERY

BASIC TERMS
CELL:ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE SUPPLYING ENERGY BECAUSE OF AN INTERNAL CHEMICAL REACTION BATTERY:ONE OR MORE CELLS IN SERIES OR IN PARALLEL ESR:EQUIVALENT SERIES RESISTANCE,OR THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF THE BATTERY

BASIC TERMS
AMP HR CAPACITY: AMOUNT OF CURRENT A BATTERY CAN SUPPLY FOR 1HR BEFORE THE BATTERY VOLTAGE REACHES END OF CYCLE MPV: MID POINT VOLTAGE,VOLTAGE AFTER BATTERY HAS DISCHARGED 50%

BASIC TERMS
EOL: END OF LIFE VOLTAGE,VOLTAGE AFTER BATTERY IS COMPLETELY DISCHARGED ENERGY DENSITY: ENERGY TO WEIGHT RATIO

COMPARISONS
CELL TYPE ENERGY DENSITY (WHR/KG) NI MH NI CD LI ION LEAD ACID
90 25

55

50

COMPARISONS CONTINUED
=> PRODUCTS POWERD BY LI ION CAN BE MADE MUCH LIGHTER WITHOUT SACRIFICING RUN TIME ALTERNATELY => FOR SAME WEIGHT ENERGY SUPPLIED BY LI ION IS ALMOST DOUBLE

CELL VOLTAGE
LI ION AND NICD,NIMH ARE ALMOST IDEAL FOR LEAD ACID RATE OF FALL OF VOLTAGE WITH TIME IS HIGH

SELF DISCHARGE
SELF DISCHARGE => HOW QUICKLY A BATTERY WILL LOSE ITS ENERGY WHILE UNUSED,DUE TO UNWANTED CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITHIN THE CELL LEAD ACID: 4% TO 6% PER MONTH NI CD: 15% TO 20% PER MONTH NI MH: 30% PER MONTH LI ION: 2% TO 3% PER MONTH

DISSADVANTAGES OF LI ION
COST : LI ION>NI MH>NI CD>LEAD ACID RECHARGING:EXTREMELY CONTROLLED ENVIROMENTS,SPECIAL RECHARGING ICS HIGH ESR COMPARED TO NIMH AND NICD

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

WORD OF CAUTION
WHILE SOLDERING THE DPDT SWITCH,HOLD THE SOLDER GUN NOT MORE THAN 5 SECONDS IN CONTACT WITH THE POLES THE BOT MAY TOPPLE IF THE CG IS NOT ADJUSTED AND FALLS OUTSIDE THE BODY WHILE CLAMPING THE MOTORS,DONT EXCESS TIGHTEN THE SCREWS,ELSE GEAR BOX MAY GET DAMAGED

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING


ROBOT BUILDERS BONANZA EMBEDED ROBOTICS : Thomas Brunl HANDBOOK OF SMALL ELECTRIC MOTORS NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR APPNOTE:CHARACTERISTICS OF RECHARGABLE BATTERIES