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Unit 3 Test Review Andes: formed by o-c convergence; volcanic mountain chain Asthenosphere: plastic-like layer of the upper mantle that plates of lithosphere float on Continental Drift Theory: Wegeners theory that all the continents have slowly moved to their current positions Convection currents: heat transfer within the mantle that drives plate tectonics Convergent: plates are coming together; 3 types: o-o, o-c, c-c Crust: top layer of Earth Divergent: plates are moving away from a common point Glacial Deposits: evidence of continental drift; found in S.America, India, Australia & Africa; climate was once dramatically different Glomar Challenger: research ship; drilled rocks from seafloor and showed that rocks ages increase as you move away from the mid-ocean ridge; evidence for sea-floor spreading Glossopteris: plant fossil evidence for continental drift; found in Southern continents (S.America, India, Africa, Australia, Antarctica) Great Rift Valley: Divergent plate boundary in East Africa where the continent is splitting apart Himalayas: formed by c-c convergence Lithosphere: crust and upper mantle; make up the plates Magnetic field: created by Earths core; see evidence of reversals in the rock record parallel stripes of positive-negative in relation to the midocean ridge Mantle: the middle layer of Earth; convection currents transfer heat Mesosaurus: reptile fossil evidence for continental drift; found only in S.America and Africa Mid-ocean ridge: divergent plate boundary Pangaea: supercontinent Plate Tectonic Theory: theory that the earths lithosphere is subdivided into plates which float around on the asthenosphere Plates: crust and upper mantle; lithosphere Speeds of seismic waves: speed up in solids, slowdown in liquids; all due to density of the material. Helped to determine the inner structure of the Earth SONAR: Sound Navigation and Ranging; technology used to map the ocean floor Subduction: when one plate sinks down under another plate due the the differing density; oceanic crust subducts. Creates deep-sea trenches and volcanoes Transform boundary: when 2 plates slide past one another; San Andreas Fault

25. Wegener: developed the theory of continental drift Know the following: 1. What is the evidence supporting plate tectonics? o Continental drift & sea-floor spreading 2. Wegeners initial observation and evidence provided for continental drift (3); why rejected? o Initial observation = continents edges look like puzzle pieces o Fossil clues: Mesosaurus, Glossopteris o Climate clues: Spitsbergen, glacial deposits o Rock clues: Appalachians link up with Greenland & W. Europe o Rejected: lack of a mechanism to drive movement 3. Hesss seafloor spreading evidence (2) o Glomar Challenger: rock ages progressively increase as you move further from the mid-ocean ridge o Magnetic striping: positive and negative stripes are evident parallel to the mid-ocean ridge 4. The history of SONAR; who developed? Why? o Developed by German military and used to find enemy submarines 5. How and why do convection currents occur? Illustrate their motion including plate movement. o Heat transfer occurs within the mantle and drives motion; caused by changes in density related to temperature heat rises, cool sinks 6. Where is plate movement most evident? Provide evidence of that interaction. o Seen and felt at the plate boundaries; evidence includes mountains, volcanoes, deep-sea trenches, and earthquakes that occur along the plates edges 7. Explain the process of subduction Process of crust reentering the mantle as part of the crust recycling process. When an oceanic plate converges with a less dense oceanic or continental plate, the more dense oceanic plate goes down into the mantle. Creates a deep-sea trench where one plate bends & sinks beneath the other. Rock melts and newly formed magma is forced upward as a plate is subducted forming volcanoes