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The First Philippine Republic

The First Philippine Republic


Established by the first Republican Constitution in Asia in 1899 The Constitution was written in Spanish known as "Constitucin Poltica de Malolos First important document produced by Filipino representatives

The First Philippine Republic


Table of Titles (15):

The Republic The Government Religion The Filipinos and Their National and Individual Rights The Legislative Power The Permanent Commission The Executive Power The President of the Republic The Secretaries of Government The Judicial Power

The First Philippine Republic


ContTable of Titles (15):
Provincial and Popular Assemblies Administration of the State Amendment of the Constitution Constitutional Observance, Oath and Language Transitory Provisions

The First Philippine Republic


Historical Influences
Cartilla and Sangguniang Hukuman Constitution of Biak-na-Bato Constitution of the Island of Luzon Provisional Constitution Constitutional Program of the Philippine Republic Autonomy projects

The First Philippine Republic


Preamble
"Nosotros los Representantes del Pueblo Filipino, convocados legtimamente para establecer la justicia, proveer a la defensa comn, promover el bien general y asegurar los beneficios de la libertad, implorando el auxili del Soberano Legislador del Universo para alcanzar estos fines, hemos votado, decretado y sancionado la siguiente"

The First Philippine Republic


Important Features of the Malolos Constitution:
1. Sovereignty resides exclusively in the People 2. National and individual rights of Filipinos and aliens 3. Bill of Rights 4. Popular, representative and responsible government 5. Three branches of the government 6. Separation of Church and State

The First Philippine Republic


The Executive Branch
Official title is President of the Republic Term of 4 years Elected by the Assembly (with reelection allowed) Has a Cabinet composed of seven Secretaries of government

The First Philippine Republic


The Departments of Government
1. Foreign Affairs (Apolinario Mabini, Leon Ma. Guerrero) 2. Interior (Teodoro Sandico, Severino de las Alas) 3. Finance (Mariano Trias, Hugo Ilagan) 4. War and Navy (Baldomero Aguinaldo, Mariano Trias) 5. Public Instruction (Aguedo Velarde) 6. Public Communication and Works (Maximo Paterno) 7. Agriculture, Industry and Commerce (Leon Ma. Guerrero)

The First Philippine Republic


The Judicial Branch
Judicial power was vested in the Supreme Court of Justice and in other courts created by law Members of the Supreme Court of Justice as well as the Office of the Solicitor General were appointed by the Assembly Has the power to apply laws in civil and criminal cases

The First Philippine Republic


The Legislative Branch
Unicameral Known as the Assembly of Representatives Term of four years Included the Secretaries of government as members of the Assembly Annual session for a period of at least three months Possesses general legislative powers

The First Philippine Republic


ContThe Legislative Branch
Powers as an independent body
Select its own officers Censure and interpellate Impeach the President, cabinet members, Chief Justice and Solicitor General

The Permanent Commission


Composed of seven members who acts as the law-making body when the Assembly is not in session

The First Philippine Republic


Most Important Achievements of the Malolos Congress
Establishment of Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools Passage of law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P20M from banks for government expenses Declaration of War against the United States

The First Philippine Republic


Conclusion:
The Malolos Constitution embodied the desire and capacity of the Filipinos to establish a government of the people. By adopting the principles taken from the constitutions of Cuba, Mexico, Belgium, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil and France the Constitution ventured in applying democracy in its early stages. What makes it worth to remember is the tenacity of the people in the time of war to proclaim their independence and nationality to emerge from the dark ages of Spanish Rule and American Sovereignty. It is a testament to the will power and the intelligence of the early Filipinos to govern themselves as an independent country.

The First Philippine Republic


Sources: Rodriguez, Rufus. Introduction to Law. Quezon City, Philippines: Rex Printing Company, Inc., 2001 The Malolos Congress. http://filipino.biz.ph/history/malolos.html Constitution of the Philippines. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_ Philippines#Malolos_Constitution_.281899.29 History of the Philippines (1898-1946). http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Histor y_of_the_Philippines_%281898-1946%29 The Malolos Congress. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malolos_Congress