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Database (world for facts)

System

Supervised
Requires Large amount of manually annotated logical forms from which system learns Scarcity of annotator pool Logical forms becomes the target to be achieved Doesnt Scale up

Unsupervised
Cant handle deeper linguistic constructs like Quantification Negation Superlatives Doesnt Scale up


X z y

Representaion

Learning

City

Population

loc

Argmax

CA

City

Population

loc

Argmax

State

CSP
DCS trees as a collection of tree-structured CSPs connected via aggregate relations. Computation of CSP solutions are NP-Hard

Tree
DCS Trees maintains similarity to syntactic structure denotation depends on its sub trees only through their denotations

Tree structures dynamic programming algorithm exists

The tree structure enables us to compute denotations efficiently based on the recurrences

Syntax

DCS tree doesnt match with syntax 2 structures are structure divergent Head - city Head - argmax

DCS tree with join & aggregate

Traverse

Traverse

river

city

river

city

some

every

some

every

World (DB)

CA matching strings to form predicates

most is argmax function words defined


Populous, city (Nouns/adj.) Predicates p1..pn

1 1 c c

1 1 c c

1 1 c c

ZL

Set of Permissible DCS Trees

Semantic formalism DCS

Learning Technique to learn a parser from Q&A pairs, with a latent logic form
Latent logic form is induced in unsupervised manner System Fares Better when compared to existing systems, that uses logical forms Based on Answer accuracy provided for benchmarks on GEO and JOBS database

Learning Dependency Based Compositional Semantics Percy Liang, Michael Jordan, Dan Klein, University Of California, Berkeley, HLT 2011

On Compositional Semantics Wlodek Zadrony, IBM Research, COLING 1992

Semantic Parsing on Freebase from Question Answer pairs, Berant, Chou, Roy, Frostig, Liang EMNLP 2013