You are on page 1of 1305

# Instructor's Manual to ACcolnpany

FOURTH EDITION

Fundamentals
BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

THEODORE H. OKIISHI
Department of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa, USA

## John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 COMPUTER PROBLEMS .................................................................................................... 2 Standard Programs-File Names and Use .................................................................... 2 SOLUTIONS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Introduction................... .......... ............. ..................... ....................... 1-1 Fluid Statics......... ..... ...... ........ ................ .......................................... 2-1 Elementary Fluid Dynamics-Bernoulli Equation .......................... 3-1 Fluid Kinematics... ...... .......... ......... ..... ................... .......................... 4-1 Finite Control Volume Analysis ....................................................... 5-1 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................................. 6-1 Similitude, Dimensional Analysis, and Modeling ............ ............... 7-1 Viscous Pipe Flow............................................ ................................ 8-1 Flow Over Immersed Bodies ........................................................... 9-1 Open-Channel Flow...... ...... ......... ....... ..................................... ...... 10-1 Compressible Flow ......................................................................... 11-1 Turbomachines ............. .................. ................................................ 12-1

Appendix A

## Listing of Standard Programs .......................................................... A-I

INTRODUCTION

This manual contains solutions to the problems presented at the end of the chapters in the Fourth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS. It is our intention that the material in this manual be used as an aid in the teaching of the course. We feel quite strongly that problem solving is an essential ingredient in the process of understanding the variety of interesting concepts involved in fluid mechanics. This solutions manual is structured to enhance the learning process. Approximately 1220 problems are solved in a complete, detailed fashion with (in most cases) one problem per page. The problem statements and figures are included with the problem solutions to provide an easier and clearer understanding of the solution procedure. Except where a greater accuracy is warranted, all intermediate calculations and answers are given to three significant figures. Unless otherwise indicated in the problem statement, values of fluid properties used in the solutions are those given in the tables on the inside of the front cover of the text. Other fluid properties and necessary conversion factors are found in the tables of Chapter I or in the appendices. Some of the problems [those designed with an (*)] are intended to be solved with the aid of a programmable calculator or a computer. The solutions for each of these problems are presented in essentially the same format as for the non-computer problems. Where appropriate a graph of the results is also included. Further details concerning the computer and their solutions can be found in the following section entitled Computer Problems. In most chapters there are several problems [those designated with a (t)] that are "openended" problems and require critical thinking in that to work them one must make various assumptions and provide necessary data. There is not a unique answer to these problems. Since there are various ways that one may approach many of these problems and since specific values of data need to be assumed, looked up, or approximated, we have not included solutions to these problems in the manual. Providing solutions, we feel, would be counter to the rational for having these problems-we want students to realize that in the real world problems are not necessarily uniquely formulated to a have a specific answer.

One of the new features of the Fourth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS is the inclusion of new problems which refer to the fluid video segments contained in the E-book CD. These problems are clearly identified in the problem statement. Although it is not necessary to use the CD to solve these "videorelated" problems, it is hoped that the use of the CD will help students relate the analysis and solution of the problem to actual fluid mechanics phenomena.

Another new feature of the Fourth Edition is the inclusion of laboratory-related problems. In most chapters the last few problems are based on actual data from simple laboratory experiments. These problems are clearly identified by the "click here" words in the problem statement. This allows the user of the E-book CD to link to the complete problem statement and the EXCEL data for the problem. Copies of the problem statement, the original data, the EXCEL spread sheet calculations, and the resulting graphs are given in this solution manual. Considerable effort has been put forth to develop appropriate problems and to present their solutions in a manner that we feel is helpful to both instructors and students. Any comments or suggestions as to how we can improve this material are most welcome.

COMPUTER PROBLEMS
As noted, problems designated with an (*) in the text are intended to be solved with the aid of a programmable calculator or computer. These problems typically involve solutions requiring repetitive calculations, iterative procedures, curve fitting, numerical integration, etc. Knowledge of advanced numerical techniques is not required. Solutions to all computer problems are included in the solutions manual. Although programs for many of these problems are written in the BASIC programming language, there are obviously several other math-solver or spreadsheet programs that can be used. A number of the solutions require the use of the same program, such as a program 'for curve fitting, or a numerical integration program, and these "standard" programs are included. For those requiring use of one of the standard programs, there is a statement in the problem solution which simply indicates the standard program used to solve the problem. A list of these standard programs, with their file names, follow. The actual programs are given in the appendix. Most of the standard programs are, of course, readily available in other math-solver or spreadsheet programs, and the student can simply use the programs with which they are most familiar.

## Standard Programs-File Names and Use Curve Fitting

EXPFIT.BAS LINREG l.BAS LINREG2.BAS POLREG.BAS POWERl.BAS Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=ae bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=a+bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y =do + d JX + d 2x2 + d 3x3 + ... Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=ax b

Numerical Integration
SIMPSON.BAS TRAPEZOLBAS Calculates the value of a definite integral over an odd number of equally spaced points using Simpson's rule Calculates the value of a definite integral using the Trapezoidal Rule

Miscellaneous
COLEBROO.BAS Determines the friction factor for laminar or turbulent pipe flow with the Reynolds number and relative roughness specified (for turbulent flow the Colebrook formula, Eq. 8.35, is used) Determines the real roots of a cubic equation Calculates Fanno or Ray leigh flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio (k> 1) for entered Mach number Calculates one-dimensional isentropic flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ration (k> 1) for entered Mach number Calculates normal-shock flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio (k> 1) for entered upstream Mach number (Ma)

CUBIC.BAS FAN_RAY.BAS

ISENTROP.BAS

SHOCK.BAS

t. t

1.. 1 Detennine the dimensions. in both the FLT system and the MLT system, for (a) the product of mass times velocity, (b) the product of force times volume. and (c:) kinetic energy divided by area,

mASS

;( ve/oc;'& .:.
F .:. M L T-.2

(;VI ) (L 7-

1 )

Sinee.

Fr

( b)

./oree

J(

Y&/I/ml!

F L3
(ML T-2.)(L3) _ /'1L if T-Z.

(~

J::,;'e/:'G e ne r.!~
t:l

reL
/'1T
-2.

/- I

/'2

1.2

Verify the dim~nsions, in both the FLT and MLT~ystems .. ofthe folioWing quantities which appear in Table 1.1: (a) angular velocity, (b) energy, (c) moment of inertia (area), (d) power, and (e) pressure.

( 0.)

..!.

(.b)

Since.
Wt?/'"K

= I()rce;(

d/sl-tll1tt:..)

~nerJ!J
tJr

FL

~if;,

F _' /11 L T- 2

## e. n erj tj ~ (M I- T -2) (L) == M L 2 T - 2

cc) /7l{pmfl1t 0/ inerlltt.~V'ea.) =

sec~l?d /nl'Jme/}f

D/

t:lff?l

. (1.:2-)(L~)

=. L If

+-()rce

LZ.

=F

L- 2

J..---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

/-2.

1.3
\. ~ Verify the dimensions, in both the FLT system and the MLT system, of the following quantities which appear in Table 1.1: (a) acceleration, (b) stress, (c) moment of a force, (d) volume, and (e) work.

## a cc-e/e ro.:tt'tJl1 ::::

~ t-r-<
eS5

Ve.JDC.I+~ .:=

+/me
F. == L;" -

./C)Yce
0. rea..

(C)

/?1t:J/)')t"l1i ,,{

(-kyce

.force.K dlsftln('~
2

.-: 1= L
Z

=f/1LT-VL ...:
(a)

I1L T-

volume

Oen~f-h) 3.-:.

--

L3

(e)

Work -

!=L

/- '3

/''1

I
ra..)

1.4

If P is a force and x a length, what are the dimensions (in the FLT system) of (a) dPI dx, (b) tf'Pldx\ and (c) JP dx?

dP
dJC

p. -. -L

!= L- 2

I I I

(b)

d 3.f
dx:.
3

:::r

L3
-"'

. PL

1= L-3

(C)

jPdx

-.

I
I
I
I

i
I

/.5

1.5 If p is a pressure, V a velocity, and p a fluid density, what are the dimensions (in the MLT system) of (a) pip, (b) pVp, and (c) p/pV 2?

(a. )

1> _ -f

. -

f.1L-'T-Z.

## '--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._........... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......J

I-~

/. ID

1.6

If V is a velocity, fa length, and \I a fluid property having dimensions of UT-I, which of the following combinations are dimensionless: (a)

(a.)

(e)

## V J. -zJ .:.. (L T -'j(L)f1. z r)

- L~ T-1
,

mol dlm.nsienle,s)
(oof dimfnsl'oIl!ess) dlfnen sion!e>s )

(1:, )

v.R -V
V 2 -z)

(Lr')(L)
(L'2. T I)

. LOr"

( dimension /ess)
L~r3

(C! )

(L T-) "(L r - I) ~
(LT - 1 )

(d)

V ).11

{L )(L' r

')

-l.

(not

j 7

Dimensionless combinations of quan1.7 tities (commonly called di mensionless parameters) play an important role in flu id mechanics. Make up five possible dimensionless parameters

Some possible

e" Q mpl e~ :

## u C( e Ie r,,-/-'M " f 1m e ve /OCI f '1

frefllenc'j ;(

(L r2)(T)
(L

rlJ

-. L"T"

hme
2.

(rl){r) ..:.
(LT - I)'"
(L)( L r'-)

TO
,
",

(ve!oci+!j)

/ t'179 f !? x. <lea/uP/1M
, force " -lime = /771Y/n en rum

L"T
F"i"TO

(F)(r)
(11 LT -~

## (j=){T) :. (1'7 zr:J(Lrj

I deMif-') " velocil-j " len-P'4 --' (Mr 3)(LT - }(d = M'L"T ' Mr ' 7-1 d'f nllr>1i< visUJ~if:J

1- 5

/.~

118 The force, P, that is exerted on a spherical particle moving slowly through a liquid is given by the equation
P = 37CJlDV

where Jl is a fluid property (viscosity) having dimensions of FL -2T, D is the particle diameter, and V is the particle velocity. What are the dimensions of the constant, 37C? Would you classify this equation as a general homogeneous equation?

## .p =- 37T;<D V [f] -'- [3rr][pc :Lr][L][L r~

[F]
,

==

[:?7TJ [pJ
/.5

37T
15
tt

d/men.510I1Je~s,

C(nd

-the ~2t1a!-/{)I1

1 ene Y'(J/

hl/rn()~eneOU5 efJtAa..f-/on.

yes.

/- ~

/. 'I

I
According to information found in an old hydraulics book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula
h

## (0.04 to 0.09){D / d)4V2 /2g

where h is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter,
d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid

~=

(O.OLf

1-0 ('). {) 9)

gn= [D.O~
:Slll71e

1-.

li-t

## [L J== [O.OLf -1-0 0,07] [LJ

Since eac.h hrf}z

n4t1e

the

-the Cf!)I1~"'lfi I-erm (~. ~'f ~ ~. ~tj) rnusf /;~ climfns/f.,hless. Thus the e$ti/{,t/~H /.5 a. !J~n(lY~ I 1 h~mo1enet!Jvs lttA..-6I4;;' .fh{(.i: IS 1I11//c/ IH CiI1.!! ~!:f5Iem ~f Un ,f..:5. Yes. t. /0 1.10 I cosity (FL -~T), p the blood density (ML -3), D the artery diameter, Ao the area of the unobstructed artery. and A I the area of the stenosis. Determine the dimensions of the constants K,. and K". Would this equation be valid in any system of units? The pressure difference, Ap, across a partial blockage in an artery (called a stenosis) is approximated by the equation .1p = K! pV (All D + K" A I )2 p V- ## where V is the blood velocity, Jl the blood vis- Since eac.h -terM mv.st h~lJe. the same dimensions; k'v Cll'ld Ku are dirnen5ionJe-:'5. Thu~.1 fhe efuafltJJI/ IS (;( ttener~1 h()f71~jel1eO"s e~ ua.l-;tJv, -tnCI'/- w{)uld be va/ic/ t'n Cfn!! C()tJ5isffnt sfjsl-em of U)1jf5. yes. /-7 I. / / I . II Assume that the speed of sound, c, in a fluid depends on an elastic modulus, Eu, with dimensions FL ~2, and the fluid density, p, in the form c = (Eu)"(p)h. If this is to be a dimensionally homogeneous equation, what are the values for a and h? Is your result consistent with the standard formula for the speed of sound? (See Eq. 1.19.) 0) ## FPr ~ d)J11eY1~/Of1tt/I'1 h(!)mt1ef1eDIJ5 -$ad

In

the etua.t,bJ-f fntlS1- haf/(. -fJu 5f1/)/e -/ne Y"'9Jtf hand ~/de ()f. P~l OJ mus+ h~ve the dlmenslPA,s of- L 7-'. There /dYe)

{!)'J1

a-tb==o
2.},=-1
(i:1>

## sa -/-1 's.f." C6"t/, ',,,()~

"n r)

.ta -f If b = - I (.. :!iJ 1-, ~ I-y ~Y1 dJ/o'" "" L) a. =L tlnt! /:; = - ). Z. 2.
So

-tn..-f.

c = ~i0:
/s
YeS.

Thb re.5u

1+

~nsisl-f"r /AI;-!/1

the, sblltlt/J'p

~rIl1U/A

-kr 17te

## :5peed ()j2- 5DUJlJd.

1- 'j

I,

/2.

I
1.12 A formula for estimating the volume rate of flow, Q. over the spillway of a dam is

= C v28 B (H + V2/2g)3/2

where C is a constant. g the acceleration of gravity. B the spillway width. H the depth of water passing over the spillway. and V the velocity of water just upstream of the dam. Would this equation be valid in any system of units? Explain.

I:errn ,i1 ~e .e.Su.Lf/~H rnus-t- ha.ve +he SQ/7Ie dimellsi{)l/s -the ~11.sb1l/i C VI must:- he cilmeI15/!)/J )e~s. Thtls; -tnt!.. .et(f~tltJH is a ~-ene r-a I
htPl1IP ,e/ledJ t(J eg Ua.,tIOJl -1'n,f WOf,{ /~ 411'1 e4)A~/sl:ent Set: of (,Iilif.s. Ye~.

5/~ce ea.c;"

## be. v t).. //d

/. / if

Make use of Table 1.3 to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 10.2 in.lmin, (b) 4.81 slugs, (c) 3.02lb, (d) 73.1 ft/s2, (e) 0.0234 lbs/ft2

1.14-

(c>-)

1t),2

:;;'1 - (;0. 2
- i-.

-3 /W1

tf. 32.

T
70, 2 ). ff

('I:?/

## sill!> ) (;. 'f$f' ;< I () If. If'If sju~) = /3. If AI ( ~ ) 3. tJ:L /b::: (3. ~ Z / b ) ( f1 ).=: ## Cd) 73. J :Efi : ~ ## ce) CJ, tJ23'1 Ibs ff~ ## (0. ~Z3'f ITt.) I, /2 Ns M'J'l. ('/,7.?1;tIO N -': ",.,1- lb. s -ft'l- 1-/0 /./.5' 1.15 Make use of Table 1.4 to express the following quantities in BG units: (a) 14.2 km, (b) 8.14 N/m 3 , (c) 1.61 kg/m\ (d) 0.0320 Nm/s, (e) 5.67 mm/hr. (b) o o.llf. ,11'I'f !!..3 ## " (g. 'If ~ (~3U;(/O3 l I. ( ':3 ) ,,",,3 ## = 5'. IF)( 10'2 Pt. Cf Iff) )(. /0 -3 SJUjS) ~~ (d) 0.0320 -S N-1'H1 (~, 0 j 20 N ~ I1f1 2.3b)(JD -2 ## il-Ib (7, 371P;( /V-I ) oS N/'M .{.f/b oS oS - s: 17 )1.10 -to 1-1 ...5 /-11 /. /(0 1.lG Make use of Appendix A to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 160 acre, (b) 742 Btu, (c) 240 miles, (d) 79.1 hp, (e) 60.3 OF. IfpO a. ere (6) 7tf2 137U = = 0: ## 6'1-2 sru) (.,;</0 3 BTU J.)= I'n1L 7.g3X/~5J C~) Cd) .2LjO int.' ## (;'''10 tni ) (;'''Oq;(./(;.3 1"YY1,)::: 38iDX/oS"t?11 (7.'f5"7 X /02. (;{;) '" '= 71. / hp Tc (7'i'./ hp ) - (e) l' ~1).3 f) ( 32) /5.7 "C:: ::::), k = /5",7 -r 273 gr 1< 1-/2 /./7 I 1.17 Clouds can weigh thousands of pounds due to their liquid water content. Often this content is measured in grams per cubic meter (glm3). Assume that a cumulus cloud occupies a volume of one cubic kilometer, and its liquid water content is 0.2 glm 3. (a) What is the volume of this cloud in cubic miles? (b) How much does the water in the cloud weigh in pounds? 1M1= 3.281 ## U (;0'/111.1) (g, Z8'1 ~ ) ( 2!b >fIb) 3 t:) 0,2 j 0 nn,,3 (h) %J == ## 0 X -Vol"rn~ l d' =: jJ d = {0.2 ;'3 ){!D;( JD -3 ;;', ) ## ;g. )(r.8/ ;) =f. UU/iJ-;;J X I DI, ## "lJ =- (I. '( (,,2 = (I. "t,z ## (10 1;m3) = /. '( ~2 1 N S X /D (. N ) ## (:1., 2tf8 x/D- -J& ) :::: ~, If! X JO f h 1- 13 1.18 1.18 For Table 1.3 verify the conversion relationships for: (a) area, (b) density, (c) velocity, and (d) specific weight. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 ft = 0.3048 m; lib = 4.4482 N; and 1 slug = 14.594 kg. (a) I it 1..: Thus) (/ .ft'")f(a 301f.>') L 2/1?1 ,,-] I-i ~ = 0, () q 29{) /H1 rnu//-'/0 -ft 2 bJ 9. '2'i{) - 2. +0 t!trJnvfrf fo /ffI :2.. II;) / Thus) mu/fipJ'j ## slugs/.ft.3 b!:J 57 IS-If E of 2. ;'0 CtJl'Jtlfrl ## -to Ie? / /I'n ~ (I!) / If- = (/ ## fj ) (~. 30'/; jJ)~ bIJ 3.0'le f - / -1-0 ## Thus.) muillpl!) Ills -I: 0 (d) /t11 cOl1vert /s. I JIz - (I !l ') (If. 't'l12 !!..) [ I Ii 3 3 l If 3 - l' -It 3 ) l ~. /j, ( 0, "3 () Iff) /W1 3 J -= TfJlAS) IV /57, / ;;;; IA If/pI:; 4 / b/R ~ b!:J /. 5'7/ }; -t 2 -10 t'e>ntlfY't fo #/;m3 /-/if /,/9 .J For Table 1.4 verify the conversion relationships for: (a) acceleration, (b) density. (c) pressure. and (d) volume f1owrate. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 m = 3.2808 ft; 1 N = 0.22481 lb; and 1 kg = 0.068521 slug. 1..1 q -- (a) ## Thus) m""/+ipllj tt/ .J.t / .5 J.. (b) I ~ ~ = (I ~3 1111 ') ## (0. oft> f/5:L/ \ ( slugs) [ "" T; ## (3. ZFO~)3 -f1:: 3 1m,3 . 1 040 x /0- 3 S l u ~~ f-t3 ## Th ~S.i m ul.f.i pJ'1 ~J/tt113 -1:0 S /u~/.ft 3. (C) h,!j /. qLfo E-3 to ~J1t/fri. I Ji :: /'I't1 ? ## (I !:!. ) (O,2.2lfgl ~)f tn1 2. l (3. lfOg) (M1. 2. l ft J 1. "=' '2. () g r i. I D -.2. f.t1b~ ;;'.Ogq Ik Thu5) m/,.{lfip/~ 1::-0 (d) / N/rrn l E-l fo ~~n()fYt / h / f.t :L, 3 == (I ~) [cg, 1.KOS/~:l= rn f.,( I t 35". 3/ fr' rlOl1Vfyt T h US) ifl':J 11 /5 b~ 3. 531 E+ I -1:.0 +(/ ft 3/s. ------------~~- -------- /-/5 /.2..0 1.20 Water flows from a large drainage pipe at a rate of 3 1200 gal/min. What is this volume rate of flow in (a) m /s. (b) liters/min. and (c) ft 3 /s? ( ()...) f./owrat e = -:2 757 ;<. 10 /i'Y7.3 .5 (b) Since / Ii fer = / [) -3t1"/1 2 /lowrfLte= (7.57 ;'/6- ~.3)(/o3///.er.5)({Po.s) S /H1 3 /'1?1/11 (C ) I I() W r (I. +. e. = (7 S 7 )( J()- ~ if 3 ) -I't J (3 S3 I X J0 :: 2. ~ 7 I-/~ 1,,;2 / ( t(.) A tank of oil has a mass of 3 0 slugs. (a) Determine its weight in pounds and in newtons at the earth's surface. (b) What would be its mass (in slugs) and its weight (in pounds) if located on the moon's surface where the gravitational attraction is approximately one-sixth that at the earth's surface? w.e i9 h i- .: ~. as.5 )(. 1.2 , (3 0 /uqs ) ( 32.2 ;:)== _o/~r;, 16 ,/Z'foN - (30 ( b) /h') shillS) ('t. Sf 5 J/A 9 S 14 )("I.E! -f,,)-= dtJts t}IJt- s.s = 3 () (30 ( /n1 ASS dep~;1d t!)1'1 ## JY'~ vihfitJl1ll / a ffrtu..J-if!)11 ) w.eijhi = s/uqS ) (32.~:Ef.. ) / fa/ /b ;,:2 2 1.22 A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Detennine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/S2. 9, 8/ 'I: () ft Is :J. ) - (3tJ.(P ## Jj. ) ( if. 0 ~) ((), 30'fg ; ; ) = 37.3 N 1-1:1 An important dimensionless parameter in certain types of fluid flow problems is the Froude number defined as Vlv'g'ii, where V is a velocity, g the acceleration of gravity, and r a length. Determine the value of the Froude number for V = 10 ft/s, g = 32.2 ft/s 2 , and r = 2 ft. Recalculate 1.23 the Froude number using SI units for V, g, and e. Explain the significance of the results of these calculations. In B 6 tI/lits / ;0 /.25" In ## JI uni-t-s: V:: (to ft )(~. '3IJJfr S ~):: 3.06 ft T t'l?1 ~;: 1',:g I ~ ## ::: (~+t:) (0. "3 04-g ~ ):: -Fe O. b I 0 y!~ v = a. 1.25 Th e. Va /lle D I in cle;enciel7i ## d im-et1sjt'J n less parl!met ev un i t ~1 sl-em. of -the IS 1-/8 1.2 4- The specific weight of a certain liquid is 85.3 lb/ft 3 Determine its density and specific gravity. d" ;0 -= - g5.3 Ii? .ft-3 5.2. 2.&'5 s I u 9.5 f-t3 1 fJ '32,2 .pc 56= I. @ If;l.O f~c 2.~5 5/,,?.5 k-i 1.37 /. fi- S/W9S ..ft.~ /, '25 1.25 A hydrometer is used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. (See Video V2.6.) For a certain liquid a hydrometer reading indicates a specific gravity of 1.15. What is the liquid's density and specific weight? Express your answer in SI units. 5G -= //5 (J ~D@'" C f /o/)o .k;' 1m 3 ## f== (I. /5) (I ()r;O :'3) 1150 h)?3 1- /q /.2 10 1 An open, rigid-walled, cylindrical tank contains 4 ft 3 of water at 40 of. Over a 24-hour period of time the water temperature varies from 40 of to 90 of. Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine how much the volume of water will change. For a tank diameter of 2 ft. would the corresponding change in water depth be very noticeable? Explain. l. 2~ /)1QSS of w~l:er = -V -tf x iJ 'fcc / 'io := p t '1~. (f~ (> Wheve /s the {/oh{rne and! 1he. deI15rfr:1. J/J1Ce.. -the. rnA$~ mU$1- Yefl1111M ~l1sfa)1i (/5 the -iempera.-tuye ehf/flqeJ -tI-)( ~ (I ) Ff~'11 ra6)e B. J ## /Hz o ~ r~"F = I. 13/ s~ TherekYt) (nil'! E$- (/)

/'

1p ()

= ( if /t.3 )( I, 9'1"
Vt)

.:!':!i~ )
.f-c3

I. y"j J ~:;:3
lumt:

If DIFb -Pi.]
.3

,:s
0. 0/ i I:,
.i<J

## 'I: 1/Ji L - If. "00 -==

The
chtlltfe Jil Wl..fey

.pt

cle;1Jt" 41)
O. OJ;~
:=.
71

"o/tI~j fo
== 5, '12 xlD
-3

Ai.:= a rea
7h'5 ~/lJ4I/ e-hl(Hge
tJ()l-lcet:l/;/~.

il-V-

..ft3
2-

(7f-1:)

Lf-

In def1h

## would n~.J. he iJel"!1

AI0,
Vfi!,,(!

,4 S/;1hf/lj d.:PkY(~i.

b~ "h.fa;HfA If ~I'~c"f,i ("J(I;hf lJ!-wphr Jr Iur,r fflilJey 1ltQIf4t11s/-J-!1' 11J1~ 'J du e -10 t'h.e /rtc.t tho! 1Jtele is SIP/II e IIHcem,id]l 117- -!itt! fi,Jlr1h ~/;1;ln(~111 /'9l1Y'e of 1Jte..re. +tv" 1It//l(es,l lit'!

for' .l1)

f-I/; II

ff;.(J ~()//,('h~Jt

'S

## SPfls/fl';~..fl':J 7}"j unc..ryitlin-J.t;.

/-20

/,27?

I
1.2 ~
A liquid when poured into a graduated cylinder is found to weigh '8 N when occupying a volume of 500 ml (milliliters). Determine its specific weight, density, and specific gravity.

(=-

w~i~ht
1/0/ tllYJ e

gN
.=

10. a

f=
S6

?!

c;.

/ra;<.

/~

:3

JL

/1113

1.81

hH

- J. ~3 x
1

/0

-k ~
11 3

57..

f
~o@
JfDC

/. b3 x / D

~'f.
;m .?l

/. to 3

/0

..fEg.
;m3

/- 2/

/,2Cj

I. '2. q The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 355 mL. The mass of a full can of pop is 0.369 kg while an empty can weighs 0.153 N. Determine the specific weight, density, and specific gravity of the pop and compare your results with the corresponding values for water at 20C. Express your results in SI units.

y=

v~/JlJf
{/p/um~

()+- I-/UIC;
t:J/ .fltlt'c/

(/ )

-h~/ we/fltf
wf,jhf

= maSS x

9- =

## -3L) (/0 / -3T /YYI3) =-

~:,-S- x/tJ

-(./YYI 3

Th u~

I-r~1t7

E%. (/)
3. "Z /II ~. 153 II

Cf77o!::! ;rna

tf 7 7013
r.8J~
oS;&.

~
1'm.3 -

rtf ~
j~o~

(J.

99/'

y
/J?'13

Ulaler

~t

20C

(see.
/.J

~.J/e
::

B. 2

J~
)

ApjJfHd,X

J])

oJ+z. iJ -

- '17 g'13.'3
/J11)

(Jt.z. ~

f'/t. 2 ~
1')n3

56

= 0. qqg 2.

jj etJll11l"n;;" ~f 1AlS~ Jltl/IIR.I " lOll/IV with 1ht)s~ ~y 11te P(J); sh()w.s 1Jt~.j iJ;~ ~~C;-hC 1A.)(',jhf~ c/tnS,fYI ifl1d ~eClhc' :Jr/tv,f, cf- iJre i",P are. all Sl'jhflfj Jp l<Jer 1JJlfn ine ~rre;;t~nd/~ J/tJlllfS Ibr UJt:der.

/-22.

/.30*1

1.30*

The variation in the density of water, p, with temperature, T, in the range 20C :$T :$ 60C, is given in the following table.
Density (kg/m') Temperature (0C) 1998.21997.11995.71994.11992.21990.21988.1

20

25

30

35

1 40

1 45

1 50

Use these data to determine an empirical equation of the form p = c, + C2T + C3T1 which can be used to predict the density over the range indicated. Compare the predicted values with the data given. What is the density of water at .42.1C?

To

S()/ve

1h:S

pr()~Jem use

POLRF6.

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit. ** ** for any order polynomial of the form: ** y = dO + dl*x + d2*x 2 + d3*x~3 + ... ** ** ***************************************************
A

Enter number of terms in the polynomial: 3 Enter number of data points: 7 Enter data points (X , Yl ? 20,998.2 ? 25,997.1 ? 30,995.7 ? 35,994- . 1
? tiO,992.2 ? 15.990.2

## The coefficients of the polynomial are: d2 = -4,.0953E-03 d1 = -5.3332E-02 dO = +1.0009E+03

X

f=== /00/ - O. OG"333 T - 0.00'1095 T:J. !Vote tl14t f (pJ'ecl'~fed) ~ l'n 9()OO Q9reemfl1t w;'1h f A t r = '1-2. / "C) ! = /00/- O.~S333 (Jf.Z. / DC) - (J. {)O tj.O?S (1f.2./ cc)
~

Tn US)

## Y(predicted) +9.9825E+02 +9.9706E+02 +9.9566E+02 +9.9107E+02 +9.9226E+02 +9.9026E+02 +9.8805E+02

(gJ~~h).

/-23

/,32

I
The density of oxygen contained in a tank is 2.0 kg/m 3 when the temperature is 25C. Determine the gage pressure of the gas if the atmospheric pressure is 97 kPa.

1.32

p= f)/U

/5'5

i Pa.
-

(4 bS )

-p

## (JCd/e): -1;, I fibS

1:. 4.rm
I

::

/g5 J.~

- rt71e ~ = 5? k ~

/.33

I
J.33 Some experiments are being conducted in a laboratory in which the air temperature is 27C. and the atmospheric pressure is 14.3 psia. Determine the density of the air. Express your answers in slugs/ft3 and in kglm 3.

P=fJRT
Tempera. fllYe,

0.00222

## / :: /0. Of) 222 SlIl9.s) ( c. R a

(s. /S X !,,g! ) ::
2

If)

.5LuS.l

1.14 1r<!33
In"
"

--:r~

l.3 If A closed tank having a volume of 2 fe is filled with 0.30 lb of a gas. A pressure gage attached to the tank reads 12 psi when the gas temperat.ure is 80 of. There is some Question as to whether the gas in the tank is oxygen or helium. Which do you think it is? Explain how you arrived at your answer.

1=
Sin ce.
~ 1= pre.sStlre
~~JUMFd

## W~/ji, t = tJ. go IJ, ~)( (lo/ume (';2.2. ~) (z. ft3)

1~~x/o
-3
St.(9S

.;:-t;3

( J2 T

I't: 7 )

fS/~
'"that:
(I)

b(
llR

~
.ft, //,,(jJ j

/ if-: 7 f.J'/a )

T =-

(2/,,7

Ii

;0:::
rr4'1'J?

7
3

12 R.

ttinc1

0511/9 ' (),R.

Thus;

./r()1'}1

Ff.(J J I;:'

-!he 9tif
s/tl1..:5

Is

f.9XY'l/n

## ::- 155'f X/~ 3

7. /2..
If

7./Z

/t3 =

*5' i.x M

-3

!/u~ H3

he /11,lm
,tJ -

r- - /, 21f2 X/I)

Aof

~mJJIIYJ51J1}

6/
/ rl

the -ban i.

-!7te

'1 q5
i-

/nell C.1I~...s

-tJ"e

## tlC/:t(o/ df!1>/~ 7h /I t 1it e

9t1S

/?1 uS

be

1- 2 5

A tire having a volume of 3 fe contains air at a gage pressure of 26 psi and a temperature of 70 oF. Determine the density of the air and the weight of the air contained in the tire.

1.3G

t==

R.T

.:

Jh.
I J1
2.

.ft: "L

(/7/~

3

~, "If)( /D

-3

s~

wei!JH ::- !

## s!,,:) ('32.2 ::) ( ~.f.t~

1-

2f.s.

/.37

I
1..'07 A rigid tank contains air at a pressure of 90 psia and a temperature of 60 oF. By how much will the pressure increase as the temperature is increased to 110F?

-P::tRT
J=oy a Y'lr/4 c.losed Jan./(
V~/vme

## -the "';, rnpS5

4nd

4Y~

'DI1"iR~Z.

,;fO

1=

~n5i:4nt-.

Thus",
(I )

/!rIPt7I ct. /.

(W/~ R etPI'I5rq"t)

-P, _ FL
T,
wht'f'e

7;..
Ii

## -A ~ fit) psia-) r;:: bO r -J- Jflt,D

7i::
-b

- S2.~ c ~.1

"nil

//()oF-+Jf6o = s-'lO~.
eJ

FY'~pr

ct. (j)
I .

## l<) (flJf~t.A.) = '18'. 7 OSLo..

l-l7

I. 3 i

-'II:

Develop a computer program for calculating the density of an ideal gas when the gas pressure in pascals (abs). the temperature in degrees Celsius. and the gas constant in J/kg K are specified.

"J .3X

;::';;1"

lin

,dtlt/ ~115

1::/RT

1=
{s / J1

"kr
7

=

-r-z/
=

## D. 727 Im-S ~ = u,727

1-3/

I. 2

I
J 042 The viscosity of a soft drink was determined by using a capillary tube viscometer similar to that shown in Fig. P 1.41 and Vidl'O V 1.3. For this device the kinematic viscosity, v, is directly proportional to the time, I, that it takes for a given amount of liquid to flow through a small capillary tube. That is, II = KI. The following data were obtained from regular pop and diet pop. The corresponding measured specific gravities are also given. Based on these data, by what percent is the absolute viscosity, J-l, of regular pop greater than that of diet pop?

Regular pop
I(S)

## Diet pop 300.3 1.003

377.8 1.044

sa

- t

1< /OD

}-32.

1.13
1. 43

I
equation for the pouring time in seconds was t = I + 9 X 102" + 8 X I 0 3,,2 with" in m2/s. (a) Is this a general homogeneous equation? Explain. (b) Compare the time it would take to pour 100 ml of SAE 30 oil from a 150 ml beaker at OC to the corresponding time at a temperature of 60C. Make use of Fig. B.2 in Appendix B for viscosity data.

The time, t, it takes to pour a liquid from a container depends on several factors, including the kinematic viscosity. ", of the liquid. (See Video V1.l.) In some laboratory tests various oils having the same density but different viscosities were poured at a fixed tipping rate from small 150 ml beakers. The time required to pour 100 ml of the oil was measured. and it was found that an approximate

(a..)

-I:.

=:

-t

'I /o"l.-u
J(

fT] == [i ]
m u 51have

[tf;<JoV [~
'

J
e.. /

9 X/OS -v
-t

2-

(I)

[3 x/oJ] [-.]
D~ X I D3J.:.
[ -3]

5/~c~ each +rn11 ;'n +he egutL.f:lbJ1 !1?"fs-t hftlle -t-he stlme d /1rJl'''''tM5 -tJte ~IJ 51-o",1-.s a..?petl r/n~ /rl 1J1e efllLa.:I:,clI

dllnen ~/pif..s .I l
[11.>< JD 1-J

## [)] :;; [TJ

[.1::]

-b-

7htl..5) w; 1h a. c.hol1"~ I;' Ut1/fs /he J/,,/tI~ "I 7h~ C(J)115-fz1l1i5 wPt// tI e..l1l1l1fe q ntl -t7J/~ I S 11~t:- tt j-enent / horno jen e(J)tI.J. ..(2gaa-i';;J . ;\1.0.
(j;)
Pr~m Ta /;Ie 8.2 /n A ppel1d1 x B (~r SAE:3'tJ ();/ @) Oc) -z/ = 2. 3 )( jtJ -,3 /Yn 2./s

## (-for 5A-E~!) ()//

~DC)

-V = 'I: ~ x
C/Xj//

/o-s

/m2-1s

l7f. (; )

i::-

T-

(2.3X/D-~)-t

:3.1/ s
@

(00 C

1+
I, 0'15

)-33

I. Lf4 I
1.44
The viscosity of a certain fluid is 5 x 1O-~ poise. Determine its viscosity in both SI and BG units.

/=
(/n
el

(5.>L/o-I(.,P~i~e)(IO-' ~~)=
p~/$e Frpl7? ~ 6/e ~ 2 /. If -l ## ::: (5 X- /D - .!:!.:.!.. ) ( :/., o~q )(./ 0 /1'11 /. 'is J 1.4S" The kinematic viscosity of oxygen at 20C and a pressure of 150 kPa (abs) is 0.104 stokes. Determine the dynamic viscosity of oxygen at this temperature and pressure. - .s vm'2. *1.46 Auids for which the shearing stress, T, is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain, 1', are designated as nonNewtonian fluids. Such fluids are commonplace and can exhibit unusual behavior as shown in Video V1.4. Some experimental data obtained for a particular non-Newtonian fluid at 80 of are shown below. T(lb/ft2)-.J~ 2.11 1 7.82 100 I. 18.5 L31.7 I 150 l' (S-I) 01 50 200 Plot these data and fit a second-order polynomial to the data using a suitable graphing program. What is the apparent viscosity of this fluid when the rate of shearing strain is 70 s -I? Is this apparent viscosity larger or smaller than that for water at the same temperature? Shearing Rate of shearing stress, strain, 1/s Ib/sq ft o 50 100 150 200 ## 2.11 7.82 18.5 31.7 ! 30+--~!--~i--~i--~~,--~i ~ ...' 20 U; = .~ 40 'r - OO~8 i -q.Oill5-~. +__+--_--+1_--:.1/fC-----1!----i g' 10 +----l---j~--i~--t----rl------l 1../ :. U) 0 ....- ..... ~~---+1---t---1i---------i1 50 100 150 200 250 Rate of shearing strain, 1/s I \ ~---------------------- /'lPf)f A-PfHAti,x B) fl+z.O@$ODF = 1,7Q/XID +1;'-) q,,~ 5/l1ct.. WA.-tev is a. Newt:r;nl41f riu/d 171J~ l/a/ut. 1.5
/11~/eprl1dt"t ,,{

Table. S.I I~

-G'"

1/0 .5

## TheiS", 17J~ t(l1KI1f)WfI nO!1-Newl:.t>Jltt1i-t /-/('ui/ hilS a mu(;.h /t'{Y''1fY VI:( J~ e. .

i .

J-3S

/.47

1A7 Water flows near a flat surface and some measurements of the water velocity. u. parallel to the surface. at different heights, y, above the surface are obtained. At the surface y = O. After an analysis of the data. the lab technician reports that the velocity distribution in the range 0 < Y < 0.1 ft is given by the equation

## = 0.81 + 9.2y + 4.1 x lOV

with u in ftls when y is in ft. (a) Do you think that this equation would be valid in any system of units? Explain. (b) Do you think this equation is correct? Explain. You may want to look at Vicko 1.2 to help you arrive at your answer. :J .3
(a)

U=

~.a/

## [Lr-]= ~.8il1-0.2][L] +- ft.JX}D~[L3J

E'ach ferm ,A 1he ezua.;fJ~1I rn liS f h4 V! the ~(Jrne dl fYlfUI5I!)IIS. Thus,) the ~/J~t"J1t &. f / m1l51: hAlle dln1tl1~'IJII~ "f. /. . T-; 2. dl':"'(AS/Pj,~ c f T-~ t:I /ld 11-. / )( 1t;.3 dl",eA.5/PlIs D f L-2 T~I Slh,t!. 7?te. t~I1.si::4I1b /11 '1h~ ~!U4.tr~JI hf(~e c/lmpIIS/~;'.s '1J1elr

r.

Yll/ues

JtI/I/

No.

## (b) E1Ji4tJP/IJ ~lIl1npt

e(JJl1d;i:/~)I.

he t!lJrrRd ;5/nCti! a.t fj=o /A.:: ~.8J tils ) a. ntJlI-,eYb J/A/we w}",h wDulel V{'D.laJ~ .fne. '~o-sJlp'l
NIJ-t t.Prrec-t.!

1-314

1.'11

I
1.-+1-1 Calculate the Reynolds numbers for the flow of water and for air through a 4-mm-diameter tube, if the mean velocity is 3 m/s and the temperature is 30C in both cases (see Example 1.4). Assume the air is at standard atmospheric pressure.

Ftf)t" wILier

a...t

~#

,h A-ppel1dJi

B)~

I:::
Re
_

9 '15'. 7 ;;;; 3
~

V D _ (rqs: 7

1!~J

(3

rrn
:a.

=10
B) :

00

/;r a t ~ ~-I:

## 30' C ( 4~m Ta, ble

8. If /n

4pperJdi)(
;<

f ::
Re
=

t. I (,fi

:!.

jA-::: I. 11.

ID - S

:s. .
752

1-37

/,.tIc:!

1. qq For air at standard atmospheric pressure the values of the constants that appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10) are C = 1.458 x 10-" kg/(m s KI:) and 5 = 110.4 K. Use these values to predict the viscosity of air at 10 C and 90 C and compare with values given in Table 8.4
in Appendix B.

( TT.

T-tS

T'-

T
lo 'e ,
-t" .),7

-t"

/J o. If I<

T= /O e.
fl. "fF8

;(10- )

( :1.83./51<)
.,. /I O.1f

S.Jt,- = %
-5' N ., = 1.71.5" 10
"".,'"

). 1'3. 15' k

From Table

B.It)/-'

T = '10'C
_

'10'C

-t"

;'7~. W :
3/,
;Z

31. -g. IS k )

(f.If!JgXIO-') ( 3(,~./!ik.)

Frc;m

==

## -5" .2.13)(.10 NoS

1I O. If

-:;;;; ,

/ -3~

/.~o-tl'

Use the values of viscosity of air given in Table B.4 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100C to determine the constants C and S which appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10). Compare your results with the values given in Problem l.lf'f. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form

1.5r)*

T + S C C and plot 'P'2/ Ii versus T. From the slope and intercept of this curve C and S can be obtained.) T 312
Ii

(!)

(J)

T
o
0;.0

(k)

I- (/V'S//tI1l.)
I. 7/ ;C If) - b/. 'i Z X 10 -6'
-(i

T~ [J<~(ljJ.,.s)]
:2. 6'f~ ~ /0 fj z. 7sf X If) 8 ~. 963)L /0 8

,173. IS"

J./i3./6
313.1!i
3~3.

'fi>
60
80
I()~

/;-

3S3./~

J.o 7 ;( If)
2../7.xJO

-:,-

373.lb
V.s.
8

-5

I~

Sh()Wn

b<-/ow.'

## ':i ::-:_~~==~ -==-~

~~~ Fi~ ~: ~ . ~~~;:~: j~~~=J~=::'~~-~J~~ :::::::r :.~.:~~: :-~:~:::-:.: ~-=~h:- .'.:...: =:.- :::. -=:=:: d:' ::~ =:-ir
=:-~~~:~~-=:::~~~:: =~::=:~::::- ~:==-

.::!::

## 3.0 X/{~f: ~~;-~cc;. ~

~~~,--: ~==-r~
::::l .... :~.-l

:1:: ::'::=:=::~ :::: -: ~/~l~::: 1"'-::;" : .: :~:.:- ---... ~: :!::::~ 7~ :.:t:::. J : .(- -:::!::
::j- (-.-~; ....

## .... ;:.: -::-:-

/. 50 jIi

(C~11 'i

5/~le. the dt-tA. P/Dt a..s flff approXJlt1l.te .rfrtli9Jtt ES' (/) C1i11 be. refrt!S'f111 kd "''I flh e8"'4..ti()~ of form !f::: b x. -t a..
wher-I!

!J

/V

To

obffllH

T3~ a 411d

) X"V T)
j,

.b ""'

lie I
po

tll1 d

a.N

.sIc.

use

LJNRFG J.

K************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares f it. ** ** for a function of the form y = a + b * x ** ***************************************************
Number of points: 6 Input X, Y
.) '273.15,2. 640E8 293.15!2.758E8 '? 313.15,2.963E8 ,:"J 333 . 15,3.087E8 ? 353.15,3.206E8 ? 373.15,3.322E8
?

a = +7.~~1E+07 b = +6.969E+05
X

Y
+2.6~00E+08

Y(predicted)
+2.6~76E+08

+3.3~~~E+08

2 = a. = C
Qi/(i

7.

JiJf/ X ID

1her-(~fe

s=

ID7 /(
5
4te
In

Th,Se.

[.It/lues

.kl' C f/11t1

91)t)d

tl1f'femfllt

tv/ii?

il4/tltS

## rivtl1 il1 Problem /. '11 .

/.5'/

I
1.51 The viscosity of a fluid plays a very important role in determining how a fluid flows. (See Vieko V1.1.) The value of the viscosity depends not only on the specific fluid but also on the fluid temperature. Some experiments show that when a liquid, under the action of a constant driving pressure, is forced with a low velocity, V, through a small horizontal tube, the velocity is given by the equation V = K/,.,.. In this equation K is a constant for a given tube and pressure, and JJ is the dynamic viscosity. For a particular liquid of interest, the viscosity is given by Andrade's equation (Eq. 1.11) with D = 5 X 1O- 7 lb s/ft2 and B = 4000 oR. By what percentage will the velocity increase as the liquid temperature is increased from 40 of to 100F? Assume all other factors remain constant.

I< )AIfoo
I<

ell
(2.)

## ': [b' _~~IOD IJ

)J-'DOo
5~lD

(3)

-'1

/.52#

1.52.*

Use the value of the viscosity of water given in Table B.2 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 DC to determine the constants D and B which appear in Andrade's equation (Eq. 1.11). Calculate the value of the viscosity at 50 DC and compare with the value given in Table B.2. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form In Jl

(B)

T + In D

and plot In Jl versus 11 T. From the slope and intercept of this curve Band D can be obtained. If a nonlinear curve fitting program is available the constants can be obtained directly from Eq. 1.11 without rewriting the equation.)

DIn

be t.Jr;flf'i1

Ih

the .{;,rm

tina

of

In..D

(I)

~J'Om

## 746ft!. 8.2 "

T ("()
0

T(k)
:173. IS
;'~3.1;

I/T(K)

it (J./.sk 1.)
-.3

3. b"l ;tID

I. 7K 7 .x' If) - J
/. (!)Ol

.10

.1.1f3 x1D3

x 10

-3

- I.. t/ob
- 7. -33 Y.
~70

/.Ib
~6

'3 I 3. IG'

333./6
35'3. I"
373.
),!,-

yo I ()o

## 3. ooz xlO 3 t2.152, .x' 10~. 'R~ .rlf)

-3

~ ~'G'" X lo-if

-7.

3.

S"1f. 7

x/0 - If
-~

-.I

2.81;-,;(10

- 7. c,'f'f -8.J7lf

A- plot of In!-

VS.

liT

IS

s hf){'()n be/f)w:

( Col1t)
/-'1'2

/. 52 ~

(CJ" It)
the dfti~
(/117
A

51,,'ce

1, (J)

## tlflr()x,mll te sl,.Ai,1J, i b~ ".!~d .fo refyr.sfrli 1hese ddt/.,

'11/

plat as
f)

To t)btlJ/H

/In'f'

lise

k-X?FI T,

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of t.he form y = a * e ' b*x ** *************************************************** Number of points: 6 Input X, Y
? 3.661E-3,1.787E-3 ? 3.411E-3,1.002E-3 ? 3.193E-3,6.529E-4 ? 3.002E-3,4.665E-4 ? 2.832E-3,3.5~7E-~ ? 2.680E-3,2.818E-4

a = +1.767E-06 b +1.870E+03 X +3.6610E-03 +:3.4110E-03 +3.1930E-03 +3.0020E-03 +2.8320E-03 +2.6800E-03 Y +1.7870E-03 +1.0020E-03 +6.5290E-04+4.6650E-04 +3.5470E-04 +2.8180E-04

Y(predictedl
+1.6629E-03 +1.04-18E-03 +6.9298E-0,* +4.84-82E-04 +3.5277E-0l,t +2.6548E-04

D =~::
~d

I. 7' 7 X /D -, NS I /1')1 23

13 -= b = I, f'J~ i< /0
i}ttrt.

/(
I! '10

So

~::

/.7~7

x/a

-6

-T

Ai

SOO{

(323,)5"1<)

;<=

I. 7'7

;(.

-, e /()

1370
iJ23, )b-

S.7~x)o

-it-

N.S//P1~

1-'13

I. 53

1.5 ~ Crude oil having a viscosity of 9.52 X 10- 4 Ibs/fe is contained between parallel plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force P is applied (see Fig. 1.3). If the distance between the two plates is 0.1 in., what value of P is required to translate the plate with a velocity of 3 ftl s? The effective area of the upper plate is 200 in. 2

I-'ll.{

/. 54
1.54 As shown in Video V1.2, the "no slip" condition means that a fluid "sticks" to a solid surface. This is true for both fixed and moving surfaces. Let two layers of t1uid be dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in Fig. Pl.54. The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress on the upper plate, and the lower fluid puts a shear stress on the botton plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear stresses. Fluid 1

iJl

= 0.4 N 51m 2

Fluid 2

f-02m/s..j

## n,r .f j{,lid '1j"

~r

FIGURE P1.54

I
f_" JU r 1TA C t.

h (~t J;;Op
1.

(6.L1 ~)(
mt

20-

1m1.-

T -b,p
;"";>-

~141""+'Ct

## "O~fI'\ ~14 r...(.,(.,

1.55 There are many fluids that exhibit non-Newtonian behavior (see for example Video VI.4). For a given fluid the distinction between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior is usually based on measurements of shear stress and rate of shearing strain. Assume that the viscosity of blood is to be determined by measurements of shear stress, T, and rate of shearing strain, du/dy, obtained from a small blood sample tested in a suitable viscometer. Based on the data given below determine if the blood is a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. Explain how you arrived at your answer.
T(N/m 2)

0.04

0.12

2.10 450

Foy

a-

Net.AJJ:()mQI1
;=;:'1' -th~

## .P/u/c/ in( ra.C/o of

tiAta., 9/Vt' 11

-t ilJ

du/dfj

15

C(!hISi::.tll1t:.

?dull,;

## (lV,s/h1~) O. ~/78 P.OI3~ o. ~//)71 ~.()()Io

noi.
tJ..

(/.0067

~.()Q5F

O.CIJ,5()

(),()()'f-7

~f1si""i "" ~ de're(Js~r q s the Ya.te t!;f shear/".,g stYII/n /n,yel/~l'!. Thll~ thiS F/w/d (;/tKJd) l,j ~ /7()I1- lIeu//;ol1l';' -fl t(/d. A- p/oi of 7hf! cltt(:a. .S .sh/)(,Qb bt!/ow. ;:PI" A. f/ewI:rUII~H 71 u,C/ 1J1~ C-/.tl"'II-e WIJ)I/I,( b~ .a si:y~",h t /J~e UJI17t I( IllJpt!! (If / f() /.

Th~ ra /:./0 IS

.,

"

## 1 - ,>.' i:-:;; ~~:~!:~: <:: ::: ::::..: ::

:;'t' . ~;::"

'"

.. ,1' I I .':

'I' ,

:::T::::F~::-:-::~:::;V:~:;:'~#,>:>

'

" ..

i.-j
' - -.... L-

I
!

l"~::i::lll
! I II

I
I

I
HI'

_-'-!,_ '.
-

.-'

r
:

ii'
I

':

,1 -If i, ._+-'

## .1: I -: " '1'--1-1-f--, I,.

H; ,

/0.0

ICO.(]

1.56 A 40-lb, 0.8-ft-diameter, I-ft-tall cylindrical tank slides slowly down a ramp with a constant speed of 0.1 ftls as shown in Fig. P1.56. The uniform-thickness oil layer on the ramp has a viscosity of 0.2 lb . S/ft2. Determine the angle, 8, of the ramp.

FIGURE P1.56

(I)

LJ

heve

a VI ~

## V l~ the. Ve.IDC.d"'1 of- -b(A..,k.. b" ~ Tn j(:..k: n t5S f)f i I I a. 'jt..,..

t)

t= (0.2 ~)(
F'V't?m l? ~ . CJ)

:.1 r )
#
.DOZ
D

'=..

WO Ib) ~"YJ

f7 -

(t{) ~2..)(:q:)(O.8..ft)2

SI n f)

= 6. J2.5'1

&

= ,. Z 2.

/-1.f7

/.57

I
I. '57 A piston having a diameter of 5.48 in. and a length of 9.50 in. slides downward with a velocity V through a vertical pipe. The downward motion is resisted by an oil film between the piston and the pipe wall. The film thickness is 0.002 in., and the cylinder weighs 0.5 lb. Estimate V if the oil viscosity is 0.016 Ibs/ft~. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.

## 2:f Verr " ... 1

nUS.)

=D
~A

't~

OW:.
A
,I)-

I'W
'

~
~

wkev!
aVId

rrDi

tA
_

T
P-

L=
.56

t-

(v e 1t'>C.:~)

( +ilm1hlc.l::lle.5s)-

fr

\\

f-

-th~t

1= (I'-

t )(1TDj)

/.5'8

I
)'

1. f) & A Newtonian fluid having a specific gravity of 0.92 and a kinematic viscosity of 4 X 10- 4 m2/s flows past a fixed surface. Due to the no-slip condition, the velocity at the fixed surface is zero (as shown in Video V1.2), and the velocity profile near the surface is shown in Fig. PI ~g. Determine the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress developed on the plate. Express your answer in terms of U and 0, with U and 0 expressed in units of meters per second and meters, respectively.

I
I

~ _ ~L _
U- 2 0

l( l)3
2 0

r~_---i
\ u

\~--i

I
o

\'----i

FIGURE P1.f>'B

?- 5(,/J'"loc~
(~:o)

dt.{
d!J

@ J=-O)

When a viscous fluid flows past a thin sharp-edged plate, a thin layer adjacent to the plate surface develops in which the velocity, u, changes rapidly from zero to the approach velocity, U, in a small distance, 8. This layer is called a boundary fayer. The thickness of this layer increases with the distance x along the plate as shown in Fig. PI.59. Assume that u = U y/8 and 8 = 3.5 V vx/ U where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Determine an expression for the force (drag) that would be developed on one side of the plate of length f and width b. Express your answer in terms of f, b, v, and p, where p is the fluid density.

151

r---.
f-f-'---~
\'

f~
-.1I==U

Boundary layer

8 ~11 == U~ ~ t (5 ""----=.::=---L--IL---_ _ _ _ _ x

_--__e I _-

_---r--- ~- ---~.---I.. ;

Plate width == b

tJ her~

dA--(I )

Clntl

l/ J
~3. (f)

t{nd

IJ -

0,571

bf V-zJ1.U 3

I-50

1.601'
0.08 14.43 The coordinate Y is measured normal to the surface and u is the velocity parallel to the surface.

## (a) Assume the velocity distribution is of the form

u = CIY

C 2Y)

and use a standard curve-fitting technique to determine the constants C I and C1 (b) Make use of the results of part (a) to determine the magnitude of the shearing stress at the wall (y = 0) and at Y = 0.05 ft.

(~) Use

n()nh;'e4r

## yejrl'.ss/~1'J progf'YIf'fl) such a,s

lind

SAS- NLJN,)

10 ()btllil'J
rtl&r/el.

u;eIHc/fl1i::s (,

let/si s1"nrt's
C
(~)

JiVfl1)

, = 153
1114t

s-'
1:=~ d;
du

.
SIJ1ce)

/f

~/J/)U/s

r=;-

(~
(~=())

t 3 C;z. :; l

## Thus) at- the wal!

Ai

/-51

1.6 I The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Fig. Pl.61. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocit)-" w. The torque :, required to develop w is measured and the vis. cosity is calculated from these two measurements. Develop an equation relating fl, w, 5", C) Ro and Ri Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.

~~~
FIGURE P1.61

Tor't ue;
t::J11

r,

due.

+()
T dA

~he"t;l1j sms.s
I~

/nneJ-

C!j/Jnc/fr

e!tltd..fr,

d
whi're.

'7: rr::.
~.
2-

d'T=
{J

J Ttit;
top View

## n d /-vrff lie. reg tI /re d to rtJ fa I: e ,nne", c'1/lntler i,S 2JT

J= 1</-1
POI'

ride
()

(J. "'"

C'j Ilndrr

leMi fi.J )

.2 TT R.t.''-

J. r
In

a Iln'ell!'

ve/oc./+:; distyibtl'l'/on
R'W L

fhe gap

T=/-

~ 7i R,~}. t

tV

Ro-RI.'

/-5'.2...

/.bZ

I
1.62 The space between two 6-in. long concentric cylinders is filled with glycerin (viscosity = 8.5 X 10- 3 Ibs/ft 2 ). The inner cylinder has a radius of 3 in. and the gap width between cylinders is 0.1 in. Determine the torque and the power required to rotate the inner cylinder at 180 rev Imin. The outer cylinder is fixed. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap to be linear.

Prl)/'/em /. " (, )

T =
W=

02'ff

R,.3 ))A- W
rev

:eo - /Ct..'
(; 80 !!.!. )(eillT ~ milt

'0 s

( ~ -ft)
120

S/f]ce

pouJey

=
==

## f()wer': (~tJif'fft'/h)(67T r;d)

178

~.Ib

/- '53

I.

(P3

1.63 One type of rotating cylinder viscometer, called a Stormer viscometer, uses a falling weight, 'lV, to cause the cylinder to rotate with an angular velocity, w, as illustrated in Fig. PI.6.3. For this device the viscosity, J.L, of the liquid is related to 'lV and w through [he equation 'lV = KJ.Lw, where K is a constant that depends only on the geometry (including the liquid depth) of the viscometer. The value of K is usually determined by using a calibration liquid (a liquid of known viscosity). (a) Some data for a particular Stormer viscometer, obtained using glycerin at 20C as a calibration liquid, are given below. Plot values of the weight as ordinates and values of the angular velocity as abscissae. Draw the best curve through the plotted points and determine K for the viscometer.
'lV (lb)
w (rev/s)

## Fixed outer cylinder

2.20 5.49

FIGURE P1.63

(b) A liquid of unknown viscosity is placed in the same viscometer used in part (a), and the data given below are obtained. Determine the viscosity of this liquid.
'lV (lb)
w (rev/s)

0.04 0.72

0.11 1.89

0.22 3.73

0.33 5.44

0.44 7.42

( Cl)

5;;'re
IJ

~:

K)4u.J

-th~ ~/()fe

~I

-the czJ

tis. tu

UlriJe

s/t:Jpe =
SO
fha..i

If)' =
.5 0 jJe

We/b)

tv

C~V)

k=

s ) (16. YeV

/<-(~)

(I)

fi,y -rJ,e :J/~~en~ dai:a. (.see p/Dt: ~11 f')(?x/; page) ('/?Q.5rd ,t)11 a /ul.ri S,!ftllres ,f,:t Df the d~~) I.J
S/CJj)e (J/,/ceni1):= O,.?9R

J~~
-tnel1

=:

3.13X//}_zJbs

it. ..

1<=
( h)
sJ()P~ (b"~e#

(),g9S Ib ...5
/'?v

## ;:P". the. un klJ~tVf1 filii (J d~-k..

tf}Jf

Gee. IJ/t)i GJI1 11t't.-t f4~~) the ~ legst, $8"II"S ~it ~I tH~ d/l,tA,.) IS S/Db.# (tll1KdtJuJl1 r- rill/g) = O,CJ6o/ 11:1'.$

~v

/-51.f

I, (P3

(~l1lt )
Thu~

/rpm
fluid) =

E"r.l/)
S/tJff!!

I
(lIlJillPlIJlI

tJ.

tJ (p ~/

Ib5

1\

-rev

/2.,

7 H,2. rev

,.0

/-5,

The following torque-angular velocity data were obtained with a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type described in Problem 1.61.
Torque (ft-lb) Angular velocity (rad/s) 13.1 26.0 39.5 52.7 64.9 78.6 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

1.6Y*

For this viscometer Ro = 2.50 in., Ri = 2.45 in .. and = 5.00 in. Make use of these data and a standard curve-fitting program to determine the viscosity ofthe liquid contained in the viscometer.

:I.. LJ.S-

ft-)
_

1'2.

~lT (~.'1~

ft) J (~It)
12.

## rJ. 1f-5 IJ,s -Fel.

/-57

I. 'S-

1.65

A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a O.l-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin as shown in Fig. PI.6S. Determine the torque required to rotate the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm. Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge of the rotating plate is negligible.
ili

Rotating plate

FIGURE P1.65

kYO'lUi)
pn

sfrfSSl'.J

do;= ,.
~ ntrt

tdA
dr,

d It.:
cJ

2.11" yo

Thel'5 J

C7J: "" T

Z.".. r d '"

"(=

ufl'!r. r
o

tlr

5;nce

T,: f<-

~ ) 1/ fl.t/

"r

fA.

## lIe/"'Jf.t J'5tY; h",-I-U/H (SlefijHye)

ellA _ V

'rW d;-I~T

-:: D. 0772

/1:. /t

I-58

I. ~ 7

J
1.(,1 A rigid-walled cubical container is completely filled with water at 40 of and sealed. The water is then heated to 100 oF. Determine the pressure that develops in the container when the water reaches this higher temperature. Assume that the volume of the container remains constant and the value of the bulk modulus of the water remains constant and equal to 300,000 psi.

~~

tnf4S)

YfMAll1S

ttPl1s~fJ

~.1I::1
/tJO
D

(..pl71.l-)
C.hlll1'1t2
111

/j

1If)/Ume

t1"~ 4-1' iJ

## ve)/um e 1"1 tva/-!'/'"

7h II~)

/, l''fb
I. '/27

sJuf,.S
.ft.J

5'::'

-/

'/ir, I, / z.

& = V
If
/11

dp d ~

~I/IJ UJS U.l/1J.. d1l- ::; 4 -v' 411 t:I. PI -.:::= fJp 1hAf- 1hf CJtIlH'I />Y'e> 5 ",y~ r-e'gwred. ..f-r> ~nJ;,.es.s the Iva..-tey bltJt. Ie i-h
110 I~ ft1e...
,'.1

tJ

/1'/1/11.)

t1f= - r;tJ~/~~()f~L'){-O.OO~75)
2.o3iJD
3

pst...

In a test to determine the bulk modulus of a liquid it was found that as the absolute pressure was changed from 15 to 3000 psi the volume decreased from 10.240 to 10.138 in. 3 Determine the bulk modulus for this liquid.

1.(o~

d~

z A -=

t:J, jOJ,

Ii'l,

rJ9i'S ;;,.
(

Ib

## 1t)2 In,7) /", ;l'l0 in.'

C',

/,iD't

I
1.tJ1
Calculate the speed of sound in mt,s for (a) gasoline, (b) mercury, and (c) seawater.

( Eg.
(a) f:by 7(is~l/ne,'

I,/Q)

I, Lf5

~I'm
s

1.70 Air is enclosed by a rigid cylinder containing a piston. A pressure gage attached to the cylinder indicates an initial reading of 25 psi. Determine the reading on the gage when the piston has compressed the air to one-third its original volume. Assume the compression process to be isothermal and the local atmospheric pressure to be 14.7 psi.

PC>t'

i~othermlJ/ ~&)mpY'ess/t:Jl1)

-Pl.'

..f',-.

= -fE
~.f

Where

(.'~

/ni.J-,i.d state..
~illie..

UI1A

f """

f/nAI

f!t Pf =~.
0/nc.e

f;.
~

f=

m4SS
J/t)ltll11

e.
/

1;.

1'h~reloye

= (3)[(:15 f-

'I.

:-

t (p-;e)

## =(i /9- 1'1. ~f'i

It 7 /

1.1 I Often the assumption is made that the flow of a certain fluid can be considered as incompressible flow if the density of the fluid changes by less than 2%. If air is flowing through a tube such that the air pressure at one section is 9.0 psi and at a downstream section it is 8.6 psi at the same temperature. do you think that this flow could be considered an imcompressible flow? Support your answer with the necessary calculations. Assume standard atmospheric pressure.

h,y

## 1"0 therMo / CHfiA'It

111

den~;I!:J

So

1},4.-t

-f, I, ---f,

-/;),

:-

P2~ ?z.. ~
)( I D 0

TAus

1.72.

J
1.72. Oxygen at 30C and 300 kPa absolute pressure expands isotherrnalIy to an absolute pressure of lZ0 kPa. Determine the final density of the gas.

For

/sofh~rma/
~. L

ex.ftlI15i()YJ )
u)),ere
,
"V

~.

...

!j

~~

::t =t!LJl'Jsft/tJt: ~
t, 4/ s fa i-e

SIJ

1h4t

t"'" ;'rll

Pi1#

I-

.fIn II / st:A..ie.

- 3.8/ ~3
/J?"I

/,73

J 1.73 Natural gas at 70 OF and standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi is compressed isentropically to a new absolute pressure of 70 psi. Determine the final density and temperature of the gas.

For

;'sen irop'c-

c~m?re~S/()11

--P
;O~

~t!/ns tQl1t

51) -thA-f

" p.-A
L

~.

::t

J}
1,*
-f-

tVhere

,,; 'V

## .f 'V .f.J'ntl/ sta.te .

~I

'I. 2S )( Jf)
C( J1

-,3

S h~f5

-ft:'a

c/

7f
~r

.....

-for

ft.R

IIJ (7 c; 7ii: a.

I
) (

If tf -:t:;"A-

I/l.

, ~

)
3

('I. 25

## ;I. / ()- ~ S htf..s

h3

{3. O'If;( j 0

sh",.liI~

~b IJ:

7(P5

(J)R

71:

7fD 5 oR - /f-IPt)

305 of

/.7 if

1.7ll--

Compare the isentropic bulk modulus of air at 101 kPa (abs) with that of water at the same pressure.

J:C; r a l r

y ~ I<. f
/=(; r
tva:te ".

## = (/, 'i-o ) (10/ x

,q
~, 15" ;< II)
9

1t'3~ )

Tr,; bJeo /, /, )

E,,::
Thu.5 )

## :1.)6;< It> "

Ev (WIJ.,-ter) _
v (cur)

Pa

I, Ifl

X. 1~5'"/}

I. 75"

'4' J

1.7.5' * Devel~p a -computer program for calculating the final gage pressure of gas when the initial gage pressure, initial and final volumes, atmospheric pressure, and the type of process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified. Use BG units. Check your program against the results obtained for Problem 1.70.

r-o Y

C/!)11?

pye5SIol1

e1 Y

ex..pQI1JIOII)

wheye h=/ -ky isotho-mal process) and lOr 1.st'l1frt'Jllc proc.ess. Thus J

?... = e04stoni.
It:::
.Jj'e,;{tc. helL-/: va.!:'"

where

/.'/1;

;:.-*

~.

= !i:.

/;.-P.

## if : (-J,:) "- f::

t.:
1hel1
~.

(/ )

ml1ss

Vt!)/~lI1e
~

~ = Vt

w he"e

v;,.)
l'..f.g
T

~) tire
/1)

Thus) Ir~m S~

'It. -A :: { a:eM Vf

)-k

( ~! 1:.t"" )
T

(2 )

t.Jhe Y'e
CaM

## if, = (~) -I. (~'j tt"J - ~t""

-t

(c~n It

175

itt

I
cls print "*********************************************************" print "** This program calculates the final gage pressure of **" print "** an ideal gas when the initial gage pressure in psi, **" print "** the initial volume, the final volume, the **" print "** atmospheric pressure in psi, and the type of **" print "** process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified **" print "*********************************************************" print input "Enter initial gage pressure in psi, Pi = ",p input "Enter initial volume, Vi = lI,vi input "Enter final volume, Vf = ",vf input "Enter atmospheric pressure in psi, Patm = ",patm pabsi=p+patm print:print "Enter type of process" print "0 Isothermal" print "1 : Isentropic" input pt print k=l if pt=l then input "Enter specific heat ratio, k = ",k
pabsf=pabsi*(vi/vf)~k

100 110 120 130 1""0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 3l.!-O

pf=pabsf-patm print print using "The final gage pressure of the gas is Pf =
+#.####~~~~

psi";pf

********************************************************* ** This program calculates the final gage pressure of ** ** an ideal gas when the initial gage pressure in psi. ** ** the initial volume, the final volume, the ** ** atmospheric pressure in psi, and the type of ** ** process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified ** ********************************************************* Enter Enter Enter Ent.er initial gage pressure in psi, Pi =ZS initial volume, Vi = 1 final volume, Vf = 0.3333 atmospheric pressure in psi, Patm = 1"".7

? 0

## The final gage pressure of the gas

lS

Pf =

+1.0~/E+02

psi

I. 7 G:.

I
1.7<; An important dimensionless parameter concerned with very high speed flow is the Mach number, defined as Vic, where V is the speed of the object such as an airplane or projectile, and c is the speed of sound in the fluid surrounding the object. For a projectile traveling at 800 mph through air at 50 of and standard atmospheric pressure, what is the value of the Mach number?

y
Co

~.h)e.

B.-3

In

~al'r ~
Thu.s

50-F

!v1I.G'r1 numblY -.

LO{P

1,77l
I. 11 Jet airliners typically fly at altitudes between approximately 0 to 40,000 ft. Make use of the data in Appendix C to show on a graph how the speed of sound varies over this range.

c = Ie R.r
t:;r 4< ::: lifO
C=
Fr~m

(EZ' I 2o)
If=- 17/t, 1i1/,
1

Clf1d

s/,,!! .t)~

'19. tJ Y T(~)
In

1a6/t: C. /
of-

4pp end':x

C
.50

at
-thl.;/;
s

tI/1

(J /

til o +-t

T= S'I. ~ C)

!fl;o :

5J9~

## ::: I / /!. .f.i:-

5;'17/ ;/tfl '" Cd /CU/4,tltPIfS CiJn De mtule -hr (JiJ,n~ dlf/ltlt!t'~ tin' -the ,es~/f/;'! 1raJh is :J"/1()W)f b~/ow.
Altitude, ft Temp .o F Temp.," R

## 519 501.17 483.36 465.55 447.74 429.95 412.17 394.39 390.3

c, fUs 1116 1097 1077 1057 1037 1016 995 973 968

-~...... ~1080 I~
1100

1120 r--,.-----,---;---;----;----:---:-~__,

;; g1060
(f) 1040

I .

I
1

## ~1020 .t--r--+--+I_--+-~-~--+I---!--l I 1 , ----+~~,__LI-_+_I____i ~1 .r----+---+--_+_

000

t---t---t---t--. .-

""-~--:-----1f---J!---L-...---l
1.'
I
I.

-1-

(f)

980 960

t----;---;---t---t---t---+---.......;.......:""~~---1
I
+-.---+----'----..:.---..:.---;--~_~---1

I'

r----

5000

10000'

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

Altitude, ft

I.

73

I
1. 7 R When a fluid flows through a sharp bend. low pressures may develop in localized regions of the bend. Estimate the minimum absolute pressure (in psi) that can develop without ' causing cavitation if the fluid is water at 160 OF.

pSI,'

pY{"$Stlfe (/t2for ,res'Sure. ## !=Or waiel" aiif. 7Lf (IIbS) /(p() df' (lj.~,." e~t",ls the ?;bJl8,j ,~Apptw:l/J(B) ir Thus/ 1.79 Estimate the minimum absolute pressure (in pascals) that can be developed at the inlet of a pump to avoid cavitation if the fluid is carbon tetrachloride at 20 c. Ca vi i-A.I/!)11 rnp'1 (pee tI r when fhe stlciion P;'(J$stlJle at- -tnt!.. pum,P inlet etttlA/.s the 1/a.,Pcr' fJY'es$ure. t;r ClJrhtm tei'('ac.J"Joy;d~ t2 2.0 IJ ...n IV = /3 /3 .Ie ~ R. (g,!;s) ## rn ; n /m J,I J?1 !f".Rssure Pa. (4.6S) /-70 I, So J I . ~D When water at 90C flows through a converging section of pipe, the pressure is reduced in the direction of flow. Estimate the minimum absolute pressure that can develop without causing cavitation. Express your answer in both BG and S1 units. ('C/vif4tl{)" nUl'j cc.CClr /n 111e Ct'''J/er9'/~~ sec..-i-Idn ~ pile whel1 -rhe. pr~55;,e tEf;aolS -th~ va.~J' fYe.J5'tlre. ;:-r/)/7'I 74lie B. 2 I;' I+!'ff"c/J( fj' ~r wA,ter a t ## minimum pre~suv~ ::' 7()./ --k.?c.. (q/'5) 9~ C.I 1;:: ## 70. / -h Po.... (ql,,,). Thu~ 1/1 sr tln,fs. 86 Hnifs I11lnlmuM .P'fSJare ## = f;(). J x J~ 3 ::.. )(/. lj5"1; )( / J- ~ fl,.{ ) ::: /0, 2 ps I.a /.31 I A partially filled closed tank contains ethyl alcohol at 68 OF. If the air above the alcohol is evacuated what is the minimum absolute pressure that develops in the evacuated space? 1.8/ f.iz 1.8Z Estimate the excess pressure inside a rain drop having a diameter of 3 mm. ().oo/5 /1n /-7f I. 113 I. r~ A 12-mm diameter jet of water discharges vertically into the atmosphere. Due to surface tension the pressure inside the jet will be slightly higher than the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Determine this difference in pressure. ## "Ft;/' erp,i J/bri/l"" fspe IIjure ).; SO ## 1(z~Ii/: cr(zJI.) -rnA i -t== 12 >' it; -.3 ~ 2: 12. 2 Ii Sur-Hlle ## 1'1V ex,t'SS f rfSSU re -ftHSIDIl ~'(,e:- cr 2. ~ 1-72.. /,8'-1 1. 'a Y. As shown in Vidl'O V1.5, surface tension forces can be strong enough to allow a double-edge steel razor blade to "float" on water, but a single-edge blade will sink. Assume that the surface tension forces act at an angle relative to the water surface as shown in Fig. PI ~~. (a) The mass of the double-edge blade is 0.64 x 10- 3 kg, and the total length of its sides is 206 mm. Determine the value of e required to maintain equilibrium between the blade weight and the resultant surface tension force. (b) The mass of the single-edge blade is 2.61 x 10- 3 kg, and the total length of its sides is 154 mm. Explain why this blade sinks. Support your answer with the necessary calculations. ## Surface tension force FIGURE p1.<64 (a. ) L F Vr+t '4 I ::.0 ~ X VW=Ts/n8 Luheye tow .Jt. ) (IJ, ZO~ ~ slqes ttJ :: (Y'(l blade Ql;1d ## T:::- a- ><. Jenfn, of. o. ## ( (), 10'1- ;( 10- 3-ka ) (U I I'tr./~.) = fr. 3~ ;( 0 }O-2 /In ) 5'111 ## :sin e- =- o. Lf-15 9 = :J... 4-.5 (b) For slnrle-edtje blade X '2J = uYld /yrl MAde d- " (~2.I.1 :: x: 10().DZ~1s, N ## -ka.J ('1. ~J I'M/~') f7 5111 ## e :: (vx. J enJ1n of. /,lode ) ~I;' ::- (7.3LJ.x/o- Z ## Ntm) (O.15LtM1) '51Y1 e It O. 0 I J 3 '5/n t>Y'aer +O~ h jq de +0 "-J./Da.i ~ -< T "SIn e. "StYlet.. rma)(Jf1'lUfn1 Value JoY" ~Ine IS \ I J'+- follows that '1.<.J > T St'n e and 'Sin9/<!-eciJe hlade w; II si"k. rn /-73 I. 8'5 I 1.1'\5 To measure the water depth in a large open tank with opaque walls, an open vertical glass tube is attached to the side of the tank. The height of the water column in the tube is then used as a measure of the depth of water in the tank. (a) For a true water depth in the tank of 3 ft, make use of Eg. 1.22 (with () = 0) to determine the percent error due to capillarity as the diameter of the glass tube is changed. Assume a water temperature of 80 oF. Show your results on a graph of percent error versus tube diameter, D, in the range 0.1 in. < D < 1.0 in. (b) If you want the error to be less than 1%, what is the smallest tube diameter allowed? (a.) ## The e;(ce~s he'jh t I h) CtlfA~ed bt 1h~ .sur~(t. ien>/~~ ,1 h= f:ipy- zo-~~ (E'Z. J.ll.) ## tr:: 0 tv; f;, D b =.z. R. 'oR h= 0-= 'fO- ## PY'If)I?1 7i.J,/~ B./ln A-ppendl)( B Jf.9Ix//J-3/bj.Pt Clnd rD 0) /Dy- r= ~t 'Z.2z. Jb/k~ WtJ.-tev Th~~ .fr.9m h ~f):: 1:1. (I) tf (Jf, tj I x: IO-J {(e>Z.lZ. -! ) )f.. fl. 1 q )( -3 J0 ## (,n.) ~,) D I 2. I ~, /';-1:: =. .D ( I'n.) 100 ~l~ error h ~J .5'.ft; 1ha.~ f) ## froW! eq.l 1-) D /0 e yr" y = 3.7&f x J -3 3 D(J'n,) x I D0 ( 3 ) A- plot. t>.f ~ eY'r~r V-(i"S(,/S t"'be ShtJWI1 "n 111t /1f~t I"a'je, C/'t:ll11et:er IS ( C!L;,/t. ) /-7Lf /. 8S- ( Ccr/t.) Diameter of tube, in. 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 % Error 1.26 0.84 0.63 0.42 0.32 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13 1.50 : I , I ## ... ... ... W 0 ~ 0 ## 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 ! I 1 I 1 , , I - I i '{ I i I i i ~ , 0.4 I i , ! , , i ..... 0.8 1 1.2 i , i I 0.2 0.6 ## Tube diameter, in. ## Values obtained from Eq. (3) " -- (1) For /ofo eyrpy ;;'PII1 Z. (3) t). /2b J= D-= /)(,'rJ.) ~./2.1D In. /-7S 1.H6 Under the right conditions, it is possible, due to surface tension. to have metal objects float on water. (See Video V \5.) Consider placinf, a short length of a small diameter steel (sp. wt. = 490 lb/ft) rod on a surface of water. What is the maximum diameter that the rod can have before it will sink? Assume that the surface tension forces act vertically upward. Note: A standard paper clip has a diameter of 0.036 in. Partially unfold a paper clip and see if you can get it to float on water. Do the results of this experiment support your analysis? cri.. I rrL grr 5 II X' I 0 -3 r.L ;-"'l. o. 0 ~ J '+ (n. S/nc-e ;st.andArd ~I:ee/ paptr c)lf IS hAS d/~met;('r ~f ". ~3" il1') wh/ch O.O'/'/- /n.) It sJ1()~J~ f/~4.t. iP f / I Vof v,' f ~ 111 I.S Ye s . Jess fr..a 11 ~/mpj~ e)l../Jtrirnmi A- J-7f6 J.37 I 1. ~7 An open. clean glass tube. having a diameter of 3 mm. is inserted vertically into a dish of mercury at 20C. How far will the column of mercury in the tube be depressed? 2 (}C&S ?rR ( ~g. j. 22 ) 3.00 X ID -3 1m 3. 0 0 1)')1 t'YY1 I. g$

An open 2-mm-diameter tube is inserted into a pan of ethyl alcohol and a similar 4-mmdiameter tube is inserted into a pan of watef. In which tube will the height of the rise of the fluid column due to capillary actton be the greatest? Assume the angle of contact is the same for both tubes.

1. gB

(Eg.

j,22.)

.J,.

(C/ / t~hp/ )

(If
~

1m""
IWIIW1

~ (tva tel")

## a- ( WA. tf'I") !"" ( ,,/tCh"/)

( 7. 3lf)( JD-~ f;,
(J,

= (;.2.81-/0-'). ~)('/.r{)Xlo3~3)(#MAI'IIA)

## ) (7. tlf X }f)3 ~3) (;). M1~

7 g7

/-77

The capillary rise in a tube depends on the cleanliness of both the fluid and the tube. Typically, values of h are less than those predicted by Eq. 1.22 using values of (J and for clean fluids and tubes. Some measurements of the height, h, a water column rises in a vertical open tube of diameter, d, are given below. The water was tap water at a temperature of 60 of and no particular effort was made to clean the glass tube. Fit a curve

1. ~~ *

to these data and estimate the value of the product (J cos e. If it is assumed that (J has the value given in Table 1.5 what is the value of e? If it is assumed that is equal to 0 what is the value of

(J?

0.25 I 0.20 I 0.15 1 0 . 10 I 0.05 h (in.) 0.133 0.165 0.198 0.273 0.421 0.796

d (in.) 1 0 . 3

l7o/n

t. ~.

I. ')."L.

-P. =

2 O-d-U:;S

e (-k);

'f(j'

C: e ( -f )
S

## d=l12. Thus; j.(J} 1..5 ()t the.

/cYm
(Z)

i,:
b=

b d'
d':::
4

J...
least

The ~I/ S /-III1't.; b) C41J b.c ()j,~/~et/ b'1 szuare''s fL't 6f 1J1.e, 911/"11 d ...-ba...

//I1t'l.Y

## (J.. Ql1d lid).

-P.
If. 0
'f~

(ft)

O.O!l~8

(). () 13 ?:;-

!Po 80
120
J.'fO

O. () /65'0

(). t)z27S'
(). b ~5"oK

(), 0"" 33

( CD!) t)

/-7'6

(C4;I1't)

To

"btfll~

11.5 e.

LJNREG 1

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = b * x: ** ***************************************************
Number of points: 6 Input X, Y ? 4-0,0.01108
'7 4-8,0.01375 ? 60,0.01650 ? 80,0.02275 ? 120,0.03508 ? 24-0,0.06633

rt,

C.L, 2.-

## Y +1.1080E-02 +1. 3750E-02 +1.6500E-02 +2.2750E-02 +3.5080E-02 +6.6330E-02

Y(predicted)
+1.1195E-02 +1.34-34-E-02 +1.6792E-02 +2.2390E-02 +3.3584-E-02 +6.7169E-02

Thus,

rr e~Se =

If

a
"L.)~z. If ~J)
'i-

_ (,<..799 x )0 If It

= 1-. 37 X jo

.3 lob

.ft

II

.3

0--= So {)3 Jt /0

/J,/fi

1hen
-.) fk
-Fe

Cc>J
alld

e ::
~

if: "17X/lJ

a =

=- o.g~r

.fi:

= J 1.70
Cos /.0
ClI1

If

B=o

-rhfl1

d
::'

rr=

'f,37X)O
/.0

.pt-

J..E

if, 37 XJO

3 --.. /.6
,ft

1.90

## Fluid Characterization by Use of a Stormer Viscometer

Objective:

As discussed in Section 1.6, some fluids can be classified as Newtonian fluids; others are non-Newtonian. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shearing stress versus rate of strain characteristics of various liquids and, thus, to classify them as Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. Stormer viscometer containing a stationary outer cylinder and a rotating, concentric inner cylinder (see Fig. P1.90); stop watch; drive weights for the viscometer; three different liquids (silicone oil, Latex paint, and corn syrup).

Equipment:

Experimental Procedure:

Fill the gap between the inner and outer cylinders with one of the three fluids to be tested. Select an appropriate drive weight (of mass m) and attach it to the end of the cord that wraps around the drum to which the inner cylinder is fastened. Release the brake mechanism to allow the inner cylinder to start to rotate. (The outer cylinder remains stationary.) After the cylinder has reached its steady-state angular velocity, measure the amount of time, t, that it takes the inner cylinder to rotate N revolutions. Repeat the measurements using various drive weights. Repeat the entire procedure for the other fluids to be tested. For each of the three fluids tested, convert the mass, m, of the drive weight to its weight, W = mg, where g is the acceleration of gravity. Also determine the angular velocity of the inner cylinder, w = Nit.

Calculations:

Graph: For each fluid tested, plot the drive weight, W, as ordinates and angular velocity, w, as abscissas. Draw a best fit curve through the data.
Note that for the flow geometry of this experiment, the weight, W, is proportional to the shearing stress, T, on the inner cylinder. This is true because with constant angular velocity, the torque produced by the viscous shear stress on the cylinder is equal to the torque produced by the weight (weight times the appropriate moment arm). Also, the angular velocity, w, is proportional to the rate of strain, dul dy. This is true because the velocity gradient in the fluid is proportional to the inner cylinder surface speed (which is proportional to its angular velocity) divided by the width of the gap between the cylinders. Based on your graphs, classify each of the three fluids as to whether they are Newtonian, shear thickening, or shear thinning (see Fig. 1.5).

Results:

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hl're to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

## Rotating inner cylinder Outer cylinder

Fluid

Ii FIGURE P1.90

(c On 't )
/- go

/.9'0

Solution for Problem 1.90: Fluid Characterization by Use of a Stormer Viscometer m, kg N, revs t, s

co, revls

W,N

## 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

4 12 24 20 24 30 20 25 40

## 0.20 0.49 0.98 1.47 1.96 2.45 2.94 3.43 3.92

From the graphs: Silicone oil is Newtonian Corn Syrup is Newtonian Latex paint is shear thinning

co = Nit
W=mg

1 2 4 8

## 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

2 2 5 10 10 10 10 10 20

/- 9 I

!. 'to

( c~I") t )

0)

## Problem 1.90 Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, for Corn Syrup

0)

--~~~~------------~l

## 4.50 ..,--.---4.00 3.50 3.00

2.50

-----------1
--_ .. _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - j

~-=~I
W=2.5~
0)

~ 2.00
1.50 1.00 0.50

2.50
------------_._---+---_. ---_.. - -

-- ------- --------..-----------1I

~ 2.00
1.50 1.00
0.50
+-~'-------~------~---------.-- ~

W = 12.80)

..

OJ,

OJ,

rev/s

rev/s

## Problem 1.90 Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, for Latex Paint

0)

1.20 1.00

---..-----1

-'1
------

z
~

0.80 0.60

+-------~----~-~----1
---,1tfI""'------- ~-- ----------- ----- - --.-j
. . . _-\

0.20 0.00 0.00 0.20 W

= 1046600
0.60

707

00 rev/s

0.80

J- 8'2.

I. 'f /

1.91

## Capillary Thbe Viscometer

Objective;

The flowrate of a viscous fluid through a small diameter (capillary) tube is a function of the viscosity of the fluid. For the flow geometry shown in Fig. P1.91, the kinematic viscosity, v, is inversely proportional to the flowrate, Q. That is, v = KIQ, where K is the calibration constant for the particular device. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the value of K and to use it to determine the kinematic viscosity of water as a function of temperature. Constant temperature water tank, capillary tube, thermometer, stop watch, graduated cylinder. Adjust the water temperature to 15.6D C and determine the flowrate through the capillary tube by measuring the time, t, it takes to collect a volume, V, of water in a small graduated cylinder. Repeat the measurements for various water temperatures, T. Be sure that the water depth, h, in the tank is the same for each trial. Since the flowrate is a function of the depth (as well as viscosity), the value of K obtained will be valid for only that value of h.

Equipment:

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations; For each temperature tested, determine the flowrate, Q = Vlt. Use the data for the 15.6D C water to determine the calibration constant, K, for this device. That is, K = vQ, where the kinematic viscosity for 15.6C water is given in Table 1.5 and Q is the measured flowrate at this temperature. Use this value of K and your other data to determine the viscosity of water as a function of temperature. Graph: Plot the experimentally determined kinematic viscosity, v, as ordinates and temperature, T, as abscissas. Results:
Table B.2. On the same graph, plot the standard viscosity-temperature data obtained from

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hu!' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

T
h

1
IIil FIGURE P1.91

/-93

I. f I

## Solution for Problem 1.91: Capillary Tube Viscometer

From Table B.2 T, deg C v, m"2/s 10 20 30 40 50 60 1.31 E-06 1.00E-06 8.01 E-07 6.58E-07 5.53E-07 4.75E-07

V,ml
9.2 9.7 9.2 9.1 9.2

Q, mils

## v, m"2/s 1.12E-06 8A9E-07 9.51 E-07 1.22E-06 7A2E-07 5.60E-07 5.10E-07

OA65
0.614 0.548

OA27
0.702 0.931 1.022

9A
9.1 v

50A
58.1 K, m"2 ml/s"2 5.21 E-07

=KlQ

## Problem 1.91 Viscosity, v, vs Temperature, T

1.5E-06
,......----------------~

I
1.0E-06
-I------'k-----~-

---------1

~ <

!
i
!

Experimental

E
5.0E-07
-I------~-----c--------'~~-------l

## [ - - From Table B.2: '

O.OE+OO

-I------,..------,------r-----i

20

40
T, deg C

60

80

/- 8"1

.2. I

I
2.1 The water level in an open standpipe is 80 ft above the ground. What is the static pressure at a fire hydrant that is connected to the standpipe and located at ground level? Express your answer in psi.

1>=

~~ -T-Po
J~

o,Pen

I~ =0 I

'T"l.

~'!J

## (8() .ft)(/I ItL

""~/),."

2.2.

I
2.2
Blood pressure is usually given as a ratio of the maximum pressure (systolic pressure) to the minimum pressure (diastolic pressure). As shown in Video \'2.1, such pressures are commonly measured with a mercury manometer. A typical value for this ratio for a human would be 120170, where the pressures are in mm Hg. (a) What would these pressures be in pascals? (b) If your car tire was inflated to 120 mm Hg. would it be sufficient for normal driving?

t= !'h
(a.)

For

/.20 ~

HJ :

p=
1'=

(I-3J X

r. 31 ~ J?.

::- ~,~2.

fjL
105

5/~ce

a.

~u f+; d J el1 t

## 30-35 -p5(,,~ I Z()ItH",.. tlJ

is

n"t

-fOr

/Jpr!114/

dr I VI!1j .

~-I

2.:J

I
2.3 What pressure, expressed in pascals, will a skin diver be subjected to at a depth of YOm in seawater?

t : ~~
4ft1, e

-to

1Ju t'ff., e
3

A = (.)

StJ

thllt
]

## ~::' (1 0 Ix. /o.-it.. )(lfom-a) = 40,/-;(. 10 r~,

N
~
-"L -

'1()'1"t/i

2.4

The two open tanks shown in Fig. P2.4 have the same bottom area, A, but different shapes. When the depth, h, of a liquid in the two tanks is the same, the pressure on the bottom of the two tanks will be the same in accordance with Eq. 2.7. However, the weight of the liquid in each of the tanks is different. How do you account for this apparent paradox?

-.-

..

.. c

_ .., _

Area = A

Area = A

J?'

lv'~'"' '
I; .....,.,
14. I,I

;=1) y fl!~ 1t/IfK ~ /flt tJ7e. I ;1Cj, ned wa //05,; 1h( pressure ()n the b" ~m i.s tlwt! fD fh~ we i,/I'! ".f -fl,e /J iJl1Q Ii The t-olumn t/J;'~(.f& ~iJ~tle -Ih~ bf)/Iotl1 as rlt~""11 iJ't 1h( cI(/SH~d Ild~ 111 71tt h11("~, 7h(s iJ the 'Am! w~'i)Jf AS thAI- ;'1' The /:(lI1K.
un"1it 1'ht ~fyAi9l1f 5idts. 711 uS 1 -fh~
i71~

t;.f-

+tt.llt~ I j the 54f'ne. In -the bl1it. WJ7"h th~ Ihc..JIH~R wAils Il1clJl~1ed w{.(lIs) t!l5 11IusfrA.hef lit 1ht' f,8tO-e.

..f-wo

A.

wa..-I:ey
-

Col""., 11

I', ()
Q
(J

X /b
3

tV ;;;":a.
IV

J, It. 3 tWl

Sid

## Thus) i l tv~bY W(I/f!.

V"etlAit-ftl CO/U"'''

In

## -h1< 'Ttlan()l1?f..k..t- -th ~

t()tJ

htI9h/:.s w()u/d be

hl~h anti.

1m 'Y~C,-ht41.

N'o.
,,2.-5'

2, Ii Two hemispherical shells are bolted together as shown in Fig. P2.9 . The resulting spherical container, which weighs 400 lb, is filled with mercury and supported by a cable as shown. The container is vented at the top. If eight bolts are symmetrically located around the circumference, what is the vertical force that each bolt must carry?

Cable

Sphere diameter = 3 ft

FIGURE

p2.Cf

'1 "..
p.-y
A,-.; \AI I+!

CI r-fA
AI

1Y1

h()#-fPfI1 hoi I
()f

## ~ "'" w-eijJJt af j,tlt/Dnt

hlJJf

sheJ/

/;1' ett"'jibri,,m/

L ~e"'hctl /
Thus)

g IX

f Ii

-r W#-j

1-

Ws
+

- O"u/f )(f D~

'04*) (f lJ~

('too /J,)

## =(8lf'l !,X ")(f) (3ft) ~ ~lf7 ~,)(~)(f)(Htf+ J,oo Ib

ferlO

1.6

)./0

I
Develop an expression for the pressure variation in a liquid in which the specific weight increases with depth, h, as y = Kh + Yo, where K is a constant and Yo is the specific weight at the free surface.

2.10

:!1-_v dr Q

( Eg . .2.4-)
Z

Le t
So -(heel:

-R. :: 1:0 -

d~ :-cli:

tind

Qh&i

d.;1

I
(Lont)
I

2.11. * In a certain liquid at rest, measurements of the specific weight at various depths show the following variation:
h (ft)
Y (lb/ft3)

60 70 80 90 100

## 107 110 112 114 115

o
10 20 30 40 50

70 76 84 91 97 102

The depth, h = 0, corresponds to a free surface at atmospheric pressure. Determine, through numerical integration of Eq. 2.4, the corresponding variation in pressure, and show the results on a plot of pressure (in psf) versus depth (in feet).

/11/////1'1'

(I)

## where CQI) ht. ;".teyrIl1e4 Ilvmprlcltl/y

depth -l,'.
t/.J/ns

!l.IlltlJ" (1)

171ft

~//~/I1J 1)f"oJrAIJ1.

(!Vof~: The. n"m,y/cil I /;'.ft"Y4;'1()~ elfl1 "Iso h< (1c(t!)rnp/lsju~4 1hroufh f'e;fq.J.e~ ~.se. of '/1Ie pY~9J1'''m T.R,lfPb"ro/).

~.J/ jIk

100 110 120 130 14,0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 24,0 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 33C 34,0 350 360 370 380

cls print "*************************************************" print "** This program integrates Eq. 2.4, numerically **" print "** using the trapezoidal rule to obtain the **" print B** pressure at different depths **" print If*************************************************" print dim p(11),gamma(11) n=11 dh=10 p(1)=0 for i=l to n read gamma(il next i data 70,76,84,,91,97,102,107,110,112,114,,115 for i=2 to n s=(gamma(1)+gamma(i) )/2 im1=i-l for j=2 to im1 s=s+gamma(j) ne)':t j p(i)=dh*s next i ' 'Print the results print print If h (ft) Pressure (psf)" for i=l to n print using "###.# #####.#"; (i-1l*dh,p(i) 390 next i

Th ~

## 1,1( j~ fed f'esu/.J-$~rye.!p()ncl/".7 P/()t of fa be/"w I 1/011, liS. tJlI1h the.. dfpTh. ~***********************************************~ ** using the trapezoidal rule to obtain the ** ** pressure at different depths ** * * ~c ** * * * * *' * * * ** * * * * * * *' * * * * * * ** * '* * '* * >I: * >I: * * * * * * '* '* '* '* * *10 1.2 Lt ## This program integrates Eq. 2.4, numerically ** 1.-1 (ft) 0.0 10.0 20.0 :30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 Pressure (psf) 0.0 730.0 1530.0 2405.0 334,5.0 4,34,0.0 5385.0 64,70.0 7580.0 8710.0 9855.0 1. o ~ O.B .!; Co Co. :J O. B ~ 0.4 Q. 0.2 0.0 0 20 40 Oapth, h 60 (ft) 60 100 ~.)2 "2. .12. The basic elements of a hydraulic press are shown in Fig. P2.12. The plunger has an area of 1 in. 2 , and a force, F I , can be applied to the plunger through a lever mechanism having a mechanical advantage of 8 to 1. If the large piston has an area of 150 in?, what load, F2 , can be raised by a force of 30 lb applied to the lever'? Neglect the hydrostatic pressure variation. Hydraulic fluid Plunger / ""-F] If. j..(')~(E. t:A. o/. ,3.o)b o.ff>Jj~cI -Ir:, the. Jevn- V'esl-{/f.s P1 P/un7fr" ~jI'ce,) F;) COtel ~f rI.42., 'SIn ce. ,Pt"'e SS{,{ r'e F; :.. tAl 1// 4 ncJ PJ5 foJ?) QI1t/ ('01 ## Fj = (?)(:6.o) = 2lfo II:; P-;...= plr 2 whe~e ? co~ . Is "The.. 1i1e t{V'e4S ()f pJu h 1f r i'e~fec.tJt/eI!1. SInce... 1=2A -the.. elMS ~n t ## -th i"'ou 9h tJu t 1h,,-/; 7h e {:, chq m be -yo ) :: 1+/ :50 2.. ## F: = ,401 6- t=; :2- ## - (/~~ I~.~) (2'10 Jb) / /11. 3Gj 000 1.1:, 2.13 A 0.3-m-diameter pipe is connected to a 0.02-mdiameter pipe and both are rigidly held in place. Both pipes are horizontal with pistons at each end. If the space between the pistons is filled with water, what force will have to be applied to the larger piston to balance a force of 80 N applied to the smaller piston? Neglect friction. ~ ~ fA-I !=s. = f A2 ThuS) I I ..... ~-IO i .~ 2. IS- I 2.15 What would be the barometric pressure reading, in mm Hg, at an elevation of 4 km in the U.S. standard atmosphere? (Refer to Table C.2 in Appendix C.) It t C( eleva. -tJt)1'/ C.:;' l'n 01 If J.m P= ~. / ~ (p X /0 If S-- :!2- ( Ir~m Ta b / e ## /1. Ppen dI xC) . S I H (. e. 1:> ==- ~~ ..:P... =~. J" ~ :I. 'D -::;-2- AI d' J3~;(,/~3..!:L AH'3 2. J(, I 2.1 ~ An absolute pressure of 7 psia corresponds to what gage pressure for standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psia? 71'.)(.- )Lf.7/:lf.: ::: -7.7 PSt: 2-11 2./7* *2.17 A Bourdon gage (see Fig. 2.13 and Video V2.2) is often used to measure pressure. One way to calibrate this type of gage is to use the arangement shown in Fig. P2.17 a. The container is filled with a liquid and a weight, W, placed on one side with the gage on the other side. The weight acting on the liquid through a O.4-in.-diameter opening creates a pressure that is transmitted to the gage. This arrangement, with a series of weights, can be used to determine what a change in the dial movement, (J, in Fig. P2.17b, corresponds to in terms of a change in pressure. For a particular gage, some data are given below. Based on a plot of these data, determine the relationship between (J and the pressure, p, where p is measured in psi? Bourdon Gage 'IV (b) (a) FIGURE P2.17 W (lb) (J (deg.) 0 0 1.04 20 2.00 40 3.23 60 4.05 80 5.24 100 6.31 120 7 rt, ~(J") ( IN hfY~ (I) Jj I;" p-, ) =o.()SZ2lii So fi,-."m R"'I' (j) 1> (~,;) 7.Cfb -p (f'~t.) Theta, deg. .:- o. 'II, e 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ## W,lb 0.00 1.04 2.00 3.23 4.05 5.24 6.31 8.00 ,Q W =0.0522 6.00 'Q) ~ 4.00 ~ 2.00 0.00 0 50 100 Theta, degrees 150 :L -1'2. For an atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa (abs) determine the heights of the fluid columns in barometers containing one of the following liquids: (a) mercury, (b) water. and (c) ethyl alcohol. Calculate the heights including the effect of vapor pressure, and compare the results with those obtained neglecting vapor pressure. Do these results support the widespread use of mercury for barometers? Why? 2.18 ## ( 1h C./luhn1 va.f~Y r(A.brn) : yJ.. + w fYt'St;I/Ye.) ( WI thou f VttfD Y' f Y~5.sU Y"e fJ'I/" ## (A. 6;J/'1) .. d' h he Jl'e. "V /,!A ## ftJY" 't'~.ss uY'e. f (It) F~". mtY'cur'j: = /OIx.JtJ 3 /'I ## - -I.(PXJD-l.. "",,:z. t111 -I N 101 )(.ID '3 tv ;;~ 133)( It) 3..J:L /I't?~ ## J"3 3)(. 10"! .J!.. (M.3 = 0,7511W1 t.b) (;r /.VA.-ter: It = /o/x./b 3 N -l. ;?H ## 1.77 xIt; .Ji. AM ,.,.,3 }J 1. 'i. 30 /)'Y1 /. )0 3 J:!.. ~ = ## /01 'J. I D -;;-~ 1. fo X/0 3 J:L /'tIA3 = I (). J (() = 311 /0,3 rm Jb.J.!:!... Por erf" J a /Coho/ : ttJ/;<.ID ;: 3# I/'H ## -"""i -5.'1J<'/~ ".".., - .. 11'H3 .{ /01 ~ )I.. 1'171"1.. ## 7. 7 If- .x. I 0 3 .!:L 7. 71f X I D3 31..3 Ilt1 I ;J.. "3 1??'1 /3,OI1?1 ## For mere u r!) Co/urn n btlY'tlmeiers -fhe effect. 01 IItLlt/Y is n f'r//qi bfe / tlnd t:h~ v$u/red he/9 hi 0/- The
/S

PWSf lI1"e

n1er(.11'!/

renstPnt:lb/e.

;;. -ra

:I. I q

2. II:! Aneroid barometers can be used to measure changes in altitude. If a barometer reads 30.1 in. Hg at one elevation, what has been the change in altitude in meters when the barometer reading is 28.3 in. Hg? Assume a standard atmosphere, and that Eq. 2.12 is applicable over the range of altitudes of interest.

( f'g.

:2. J:J. )

(Il

(2 )

n)
[] )

FDr
Tq,=2.89K)
(5

=
R.

f!).

00 "So

-P~
)

==

/(:;) Je Pc.

I::

"

&. = d
U//th

## = 2?7 .::!Ct I'J Ii Ie;. If( (:'8'7 *fl< ) (~. 00#;57) ~

9.tl ~
52.

) ::

f!J. I

q0

-p,::
.?".pm

011-,#

J,., =

f:;. = !~ ~ ::
-fhen
E'fJ3)
).f~ /(

- 1: J :: ~

~ O~~5tJ !fn

[( lol I () I

.t PL

~p~ )o.Ii~

( qo.i. .v~
101

y,/qOJ

-It.. Pa.

- 54-3 -

rm

2.20

2.20 Pikes Peak near Denver, Colorado has an elevation of 14,110 ft. (a) Determine the pressure at this elevation, based on Eq. 2.12. (b) If the air is assumed to have a constant specific weight of 0.07647 Ib/ft3, what would the pressure be at this altitude? (c) If the_~ir is assumed to have a constant temperature of 59 OF what would the pressure be at this elevation? For all three cases assume standard atmospheric conditions at sea level (see Table 2.1).

(a)

Ihen

L/; )

(abs)

-p -=
-

~ - tlJ,.

J.I/~. z ~l.
IO/.fo
ft1-

## (t). 67blf7 f;3)(;~

/lo.f.t)

J:!.

(o.bsJ

[(. )

2.21

2.21 Equation 2.12 provides the relationship . between pressure and elevation in the atmosphere for those regions in which the temperature varies linearly with elevation. Derive this equation and verify the value of the pressure given in

## r~bf.le c~ in Appendix C r an ;~evation of 5

fOf
-l-J

T - - R
~

fJ

dl:

Le t

1;~t

.ft,,,.

-},.::.O )

Thus)

i:
~
~

,p

=- -

1:,
/?

It
c.>

{Nf
di-

j"". 7:2 ~

(;(11

T= To..

-rs 7: .

?;.,

"7 i
1::

t:PY"

L . ~
::'

~ [- ~ 1m (iA-~~i
.1 h (J _ Rr4
0/

~ [ e. (To. -(3<) -h TJ
':JleLdu

&-r)
TA
L(

and

h~tn

$1 atd D-t e3 ~ a.:tIOH -P == ~ (I - ~)~ (~t.2.,2.) s. 'f 0 X I () If mr !!.1 _L -~~.-.-.--.=-.=.--.~---_--.J 1.-I<&. 2.22 As shown in Fig. 2.6 for the U.S. standard atmosphere, the troposphere extends to an altitude of 11 km where the pressure is 22.6 kPa (abs). In the next layer, called the stratosphere, the temperature remains constant at - 56.5 0c. Determine the pressure and density in this layer at an altitude of 15 km. Assume g = 9.77 m/s2 in your calculations. Compare your results with those given in Table C.2 in Appendix C. 2.2'2 h 1i = 22. ~ ..lPa, ## -r;:: - 5 '.5 C -r ;L 73. 15" = _ ## :; I (p. " 5' k . ## ~ 77 70,..)( IS-x If/1M - 11;(. , / [ (,1 S''l /WI ## tfk )(:l /1.. /, 5" /< ) )J ~ I I -k Pa. 1")./.x.JtJ 3 IV ::;;'l.. Lb/e. C.2 J~ A-ppeJ!1&//x. C) h rJ;. : J;1, II ~ pC(. and L-/7 :<.23 +-1 Elevation (ft) 5000 5500 6000 6400 7100 7400 8200 8600 9200 9900 2.23* Under normal conditions the temperature of the atmosphere decreases with increasing elevation. In some situations, however, a temperature inversion may exist so that the air temperature increases with elevation. A series of temperature probes on a mountain give the elevation-temperature data shown in the table below. If the barometric pressure at the base of the mountain is 12.1 psia, determine by means of numerical integration the pressure at the top of the mountain. Temperature CF) 50.1 (base) 55.2 60.3 62.6 67.0 68.4 70.0 69.5 68.0 67.1 (top) ## W; tb -the. .frmft ral", Yt. d~b... ## '9 W(11 fhe. ;tJ.J.e1rl/ rteAPE"iol. 'H B ~ . 2. '1 Ca i1 ## be eV/J/u4Iell J111h1fnc"l1~ tls/llj ***************************************************** This program performs numerical integratior~ ** ** over a set of points using the Trapezoidal Rule ** ***************************************************** ** ## Enter number of data points: 10 Enter data points (X , Y) /Jeff : '? 5000,1.962E-3 7 5500,l.942E-3 '? 6000,l.923E-3 ? 6y,OO,l.915E-3 '? 7100.1.899E-3 ? 7{,J.OO.l.894E-3 ? 8200.1. 888E-3 ? 8600,l.890E-3 '? 9200,l.895E-3 7 9900,1.898E-3 ## The approximate value of the integral is: +9.34S2E+00 SODoft So fhllt ( w/th ~ j :: 32.2. ft 111 11 (~Z. 2 ## tt. )(r. ~ t:) 3 ~-Ig 4/52. tlh4 ## R = 17/1, It., Jj,/sJu~. 42)<. ) ## 17/ to ft:/b I sIll 1--;< - O. 175"i.f. ( COl? (I) t. ) 2.231-1 ( COI71; ) :t.f Ie //()IUS -h--PIJ1 1;'1,(/) /() J1H ## 'A = /2.J PoJ L' a. - tJ,17S'1f. 7).,lIf ~ = (1'2. I ,s/a) == 10, Z PSI.'a. Closed valve 2.2 Y A U-tube manometer is connected to a closed tank containing air and water as shown in Fig. P2.2~. At the closed end of the manometer the air pressure is 16 psia. Determine the reading on the pressure gage for a differential reading of 4 ft on the manometer. Express your answer in psi (gage). Assume standard atmospheric pressure, and neglect the weight of the air columns in the manometer. ## I-- Air pressure = 16 psia T 2 ft (y ## Gage fluid 90 Ibfft 3 ) Water ,1 t Pressure gage ## FIG U REP 2 2\f- I~ (p ~ I~.1.. /i ## Ib .!.!!: /'t. 7 -:1.. '0/fLf r J-l'y,. J f -n.. . 2..) b7 r DSl. . + ( (p Z. -!ft:3 ) ( ~ f-t) ( I (J) 72.. -Ft."- 16)( / It J u..u 2. '/-. TT'I?, 2. ~. Z.2.5" J I Hemispherical dome A closed cylindrical tank filled with water has a hemispherical dome and is connected to an inverted piping system as shown in Fig. P2.2S. The liquid in the top part of the piping system has a specific gravity of 0.8, and the remaining parts of the system are filled with water. If the pressure gage reading at A is 60 kPa, determine: (a) the pressure in pipe B, and (b) the pressure head, in millimeters of mercury, at the top ofthe dome (point C). 2.2.5' + 3m Water 4m /SG=O.8 -12m Water RJ (a.) 1;; -I- [S G,)( ~:l.()) [3 ~) ~o (L/W1) :: 1>B ## 1>8 = ("o.J.p.. + (O.a)(r.II(//!.)(3",,)+ (r.c~~1D3;;'.)(z1'M) = (b ) /03 ~Pa, :: -pit 5f). ~2,0 (3hY1) 3 ## - k0 .k Pa. - (9. ~ D X ID .;~ ) (:! '"" ) I ! ~ )( JD ::: 3 N 1I?1'10 -It = ..pc: !'jJ j 3 N Bo.t. xH -;;'l- /'33)( J0 .!:L 11H'3 ) tI,230m! t>. 230 ml (la 3fW1,!:, ht'\ 2 30 1)1"1 /WI 2-2./ 2.2.(" Manometer fluid 2.26 For the stationary fluid shown in Fig. P2.26, the pressure at point B is 20 kPa greater than at point A. Determine the specific weight of the manometer fluid. ## Density = 1500 kglm 3 FIGURE P2.26 Le-/; r-",.,:: spe,l!,,, w-e/;ht t>11Y1~I'I()metel' fl"t" ..". dA = (SG)( ~ (fa :: -1=>13 - 1.Jr. D f!' hr' 3 'I- c. ## ) (,.) = (1.2) (IODD '*~)('l.81!f.. ) :: I I} i()()..!! ~ 3- = (iSt>o #!. )(Cj ## .81 ;,.) == J Lfj 7()() tA- = - ~ (2 hYI);- ~ ( 2m1) -t rB (~IW\) t. (n<ib J !!.~ :: - (I ') 8DI ;;., )('2.JIK) -+ 'Cr... (2,..) -t (I~ ,100;'3) (1. ... ) I'm 'O~ = 7/ J DO ;;3 IV 2. -2<. Z. 2. 7 I 2.7..7 A U-tube mercury manometer is connected to a closed pressurized tank as illustrated in Fig. P2.27. If the air pressure is 2 psi, determine the differential reading, h. The specific weight of the air is negligible. o Air 1'3"= 2 psi -'-, I 2ft Water t T = 13.6) ~ Mercury (SG '------' h 2ft -t-I 2ft t,~ ~ = '1 1 - #,.0 ( it + If (t) :: fa/r - tJ. 517 Ii ## '0JI.% 0 (If !-/J ~.J - ## = ( '2. f4J ) (If ./'.;) (/5. I,)({.2.lfAJ) - tz'If/c. ~:LO 2.-2. 3 2.28 2.28 A suction cup is used to support a plate of weight W as shown in Fig. P2.28. For the conditions shown, determine W. .. FIGURE P2.28 ## FOr etu; I; hrlUM 0+ WheY'fo ## f.o'rces ~I\ plo.;h-e. 1 } ## ~ ~ ~,A. A, 1$ ar~A of. c.up

a Vltl

P, (s
) ( (j.

&(

ne9a...4:\ve pr-tssur"e.

FY()(n

manomet-er
-

.QZ ULJ/Ov\ :
~ .f-i:) .:: 0

## ~z. D (1. ~ H) t (s G) ('0~t. 0

t, ~
"

oil-tO

[I. ~ ft

- (1I)(0.4.ft) ]
(E){Mft)]

btlt

~J uft -

-= - Cfcr ~ ~~
Tht.ts/ /-Yom t=~. c. J}

## OW " (q u :") (Tt ) ( O. 5'.f.r) 2.

=:

1 g. ~ IJ,

2-2..,-/

2.29 A piston having a cross-sectional area of 3 ft2 and negligible weight is located in a cylinder containing oil (SG = 0.9) as shown in Fig. P2.29. The cylinder is connected to a pressurized tank containing water and oil. A force, P, holds the piston in place. (a) Determine the required value of the force, P. (b) Determine the pressure head, expressed in feet of water, acting on the tank bottom.

+ t
2 ft 2ft

L
Tank bottom

3 ft

( a...)

For
I

.eblA~IL},rlilf'"
"P1~.5
L tP J1

FIGURE P2.29
(J )

\...C)nev~

## presslAV'~ ac..-tlnq f>~

1/-e.J.

-p,t+=p I \ .

p/~ror1. l-t'mat1t!1M-eber-

I_

1\

It - Ii)
d'2

I~ a.pp)/eH

## pY()ceSJ witt, rl"/c.h'tJYJ

femfJe,yr,tMl

IMVO/VC-

aM en~y In~YCIl.>e.

tJJ1

-141:/nJpy

cdo/d/Ylate.;;

fhf!.,
J~$/Ae-fJ.t.a1 ~I<f!fd" C~~I/~$,ti()'yI PYPC.ti!CS

()PI'ecw
ft-r(..

a5

l~dicak<J

-the.
70psitl.-

dlA~ ~

i5

/0 jJf i

I~

~f"1al"()Yl

lN7,.1D_1 ::
/ tlFr:Jf.

I'M

~uf

2.

::

J

1.

'2.

v3

4r

## VV;ded :: tl. '135 hr

~-136

5".118
Aerator column

Water is pumped from a tank, point 0), to the top of a water plant aerator, point (2), as shown in Video VS.S and Fig. P5.118nt a rate of 3.0 ft 3/s. (a) Determine the power that the pump adds to the water if the head loss from (1) to (2) where V2 = a is 4 ft. (b) Determine the head loss from (2) to the bottom of the aerator column, point (3), if the average velocity at (3) is V3 = 2 ftls.

5.119

FIGURE P5.118

(a)

w,-fh

==

12ff

==

't (J h.s

~ 62.'1-

## (3!f ) (JJ-H) :: 22"'15

tt; Ib (551~)
0
S

= '/-.08 hp

5"- /37

~.IJq
The turbine shown in Fig. PS.119 develops 100 hp when the flowrate of water is 20 fto/ s. If all losses are negligible, I determi~e (a) the elevation h, (b) the pressure difference across I the turbme. and (c) the flowrate expected if the turbine were J removed.

(:=--"-r~"~~~"--:::--

(I)

1
h

1
I
1

/(/ (,V,. L

0
-

P3

t
/ .:: ::--

CVB

0
/

1'4

## ~ .' ______ 12..in_ (-aJ,'

~---=.l..

'.' - . . . (2) ~~ i~ \

:. J
-/
Free jet -

-,' - - - -:I' -

(/)

2 S-5 li..J

(C)

[;"-/38

5. /zo

5.120 A liquid enters a fluid machine at sections (1) and (2) and leaves at section (3) as shown in Fig. P5 .12.0, The density of the fluid is constant at 2 slugs/ft3 All of the flow occurs in a horizontal plane and is frictionless and adiabatic. For the above-mentioned and additional conditions indicated in Fig. 5.120, determine the amount of shaft power involved.

t -7
-..r;--Section
Pl V1 Al

Pl = 50 psia V 2 = 35 ftls
1..------.

(1)

L (3)--1 .6 ~
P3

= 14.7
=

V3

psia 45 ftls

A3

= 5 in.2

=
=

FIGURE PS.12D

rAJIlri.

&j5.

-h>
2 )

## vir :: m 3 (!l S'htlff ;0

nef- in

+ ~2) _ n1
2. /

(fl. + I{ + fO i )
.) v <AI m.l. U).- n1J

(I)

S/nce
rn I UJ
V
-

2

( .

m1- + m3

I

'"

. (.,

V)

## IIf secfioYl (3)

+ n,3

(u-u ) ::
'2.

~-13'1

5./21
5.121 Water is to be moved from one large reservoir to another at a higher elevation as indicated in Fig. P5.121. The loss in available energy associated with 2.5 ft 3/s being pumped from sections (1) to (2) is 61 V 2 /2 where V is the average velocity of water in the 8-in.-inside diameter piping involved. Determine the amount of shaft power required.

Section (2)

HGURE PS.121

flow

## loss],: ;at; [!J(~-~)

FrtJVJ.-t

",

fj

(I)

the
\I
:::

v()/ul'He

flowrale

w-e
(2.5

obhl'n

If

bl

-=

;;:-i/Lf

{t7)

11- /!.i:!...
( 12 117.
fT

)z

7.162

fJ:.
.J

.
s-liIlH ner i"

-1'1-0

~.12

z..
(2)
6 in.

Oil (SC = 0.88) flows in an inclined pipe at a rate of S ft3/ S as shown in Fig. PS.l22. If the differential reading in the mercury manometer is 3 ft, calculate the power that the pump supplies to the oil if head losses are negligible.

12 in.

--+
3ft

L
-.
_"':::t . . ,::r,.~r

S" IIi'
~ =
.r
1-

ZS'5 J

1'1-

; ( : ft)

~-Jlf/

5.124

5.12'-1 The velocity profile in a turbulent pipe flow may be approximated with the expression

E.
Uc

(~)lln
R

where u = local velocity in the axial direction, U c = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe inner radius from pipe axis, r = local radius from pipe axis, and n = constant. Determine the kinetic energy coefficient, a, for: (a) n = 5; (b) n = 6; (c) n = 7; (d) n = 8; (e) n = 9; (f) n = 10.

5.129

## Force of a Flowing Fluid on a Pipe Elbow

Objective: When a fluid flows through an elbow in a pipe system as shown in Fig. P5.129, the fluid's momentum is changed as the fluid changes direction. Thus, the elbow must put a force on the fluid. Similarly, there must be an external force on the elbow to keep it in place. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical vertical component of force needed to hold an elbow in place with the experimentally measured force. Equipment: Variable speed fan; Pitot static tube; air speed indicator; air duct and 90degree elbow; scale; barometer; thermometer.
Measure the diameter, d, of the air duct and adjust the scale to read zero when the elbow rests on it and there is no flow through it. Note that the duct is connected to the fan outlet by a pivot mechanism that is essentially friction free. Record the barometer reading, H atm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. Adjust the variable speed fan to give the desired flowrate. Record the velocity, V, in the pipe as given by the Pitot static tube which is connected to an air speed indicator that reads directly in feet per minute. Record the force, F, indicated on the scale at this air speed. Repeat the measurements for various air speeds. Obtain data for two types of elbows: (1) a long radius elbow and (2) a mitered elbow (see Figs. 8.30 and 8.31).

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations: For a given air speed, V, use the momentum equation to calculate the theoretical vertical force, F = pV 2A, needed to hold the elbow stationary. Graph:
abscissas. Plot the experimentally measured force, F, as ordinates and the air speed, V, as

Results: Data:

On the same graph, plot the theoretical force as a function of air speed.

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click /tat' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Centrifugal fan

II FIGURE PS.129

5"-/53

s: /2 9

I (COli 'f

d, in. 8.0

## Hatm , in. Hg 29.07

T, deg F 73 Theory V, ftIs Fth,lb 0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 0 0.02 0.08 0.18 0.31 0.49 0.70 0.96 1.25 1.58 1.95 2.36 2.81 3.30

V, ftImin

## Experiment V, ftIs F,lb

Long Radius Elbow Data 0 0 1200 0.38 1420 0.51 0.79 1800 2160 1.05 2440 1.38 1.65 2700 2900 1.91 2.19 3100 3520 2.83 3.12 3750 3950 3.38 Mitered Elbow Data 1400 0.30 1780 0.55 0.74 2000 1.12 2300 1.44 2630 1.72 2900 3150 2.06 3360 2.38 3550 2.62 2.74 3620

0.0 20.0 23.7 30.0 36.0 40.7 45.0 48.3 51.7 58.7 62.5 65.8

23.3 29.7 33.3 38.3 43.8 48.3 52.5 56.0 59.2 60.3

P = Patm/RT where Patm = YHg*H atm = 847 Ib/W3*(29.07/12ft) R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T = 73 + 460 = 533 deg R Thus, P = 0.00224 slug/W3 A = rrd 1l 2/4 = rr*(8/12)1I2/4 = 0.349 ftll2

=2052 Ib/W2

(CtJl1'-/: )
5"- 15"1-

## Problem 5.129 Force, F, vs Velocity, V

4.0 3.5 3,0
Theoretical Experimental: Long radius elbow A Experimental: Mitered elbow
------~,---,------

2.5

.c

-_ 2.0
LL

## ----.. . --- ---------1 I

O. a -t-..e::::.---,------'""1r-----i------l

20

40

60

80

V, ftls

5"-/55

'-./ J

6.1

## The velocity in a certain two-dimensional flow field is given by the equation

V

= 2xti

- 2ytj

where the velocity is in ft/s when x, y, and tare in feet and seconds, respectively. Determine expressions for the local and convective components of acceleration in the x and y directions. What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity and the acceleration at the point x = y = 2 ft at the time t = 01

FroM
5:/nce

J!;j

(I:

~//~w.s

## .fr:,,, hie.. IIt/I)(./-/:y c/iIfn'hlli.;()J1 7 1J1fJ1 1114.1:

i=~f

a + zbfj

Thus) 1her-e tire no va. /1{ ts et(,{q/ -h> /~r()) -uud. wil/

tJ/
rlv~

t4 1111(/

( eJt~~fi:

k11t
I)a/wt'.s

a- =-0

.r;,r

4//

:to

N~ne.

6.7 For incompressible fluids the volumetric dilatation rate must be zero; that is, V . V = O. For what combination of constants a, b, c, and e can the velocity components

u v

= ax + by
=

ex + ey

w=O
be used to describe an incompressible flow field?

For-

CI n

/I,,/t/)

Ju.
~;(
-t-

Jtr

Tj""

~1Jt-o

o~-

lv/In

-the

Ve /C;c./-/!1
~tr

## d,.!J'.f,.; bl('t;{)~ r I i/el1

oW- _
-

;'1 =e

~t

-0

a. +e =

An incompressible viscous fluid is placed between two large parallel plates as shown in Fig. P6.8. The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves with a constant velocity, U. For these conditions the velocity distribution between the plates is linear, and can be expressed as

6.8

u
Moving plate

u =

ux. b
FIGURE P6.S

Fixed plate

Determine: (a) the volumetric dilatation rate, (b) the rotation vector, (c) the vorticity, and (d) the rate of angular deformation.

(a)
(h)

(/e>Jtlmett/c

d//a.. t~ tt4?JI

f'"11

te ~ ~ +
I

()fj

~i"

cW41:.

.=.O

--

,t:;,,.

(/e/~c./ry
~

'11 11 1:11

UJ~

## '" Wi! -/;..

(~_ dU ) = oJ< 0 'J

4ntl

## tv~ = .J. :2w

24)

V zb

Thus;

- 2b
=

V ~

.-'\

CC)

-S ::
"0

.b

'" U -{
(~t b,le)

cd. )

::

-r p;<. J!:J

otr

cJu

Thus)

(' =

[r b

6.9 A viscous fluid is contained in the space between concentric cylinders. The inner wall is fixed, and the outer wall rotates with an angular velocity w. (See Fig. P6.9a and Video V6.1.) Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear as illustrated in Fig. P6.9b. For the small rectangular element shown in Fig. P6.9b, determine the rate of change of the right angle 'Y due to the fluid motion. Express your answer in terms of ro, ri' and w.
(b)

(a)

FIGURE PS8

t<...: .5c

r; co !J
~-Y"','

thai:

alllf

S/"te

r= 0

## The nejal-i II~

rfjlJi- anjle

sifn

~./O

I
fl.l!) Some velocity measurements in a three-dimensional incompressible flow field indicate that u = 6xy2 and v = - 4 y2 Z. There is some conflicting data for the velocity component in the z direction. One set of data indicates that w = 4 yz 2 and the other set indicates that w = 4 yz 2 - 6 y 2Z . Which set do you think is correct? Explain.

To

Ju air u..,. 75
1"

Tt.

~w-

.= 0

(/)

J"lnce
-tlIfl1

~x

dU :; ts,!J 2-

II i1 II

~fJ

Jzr= - 3'1 i

IttJtn

::'0

Thus)

8'fJr -~d2.

c.

Z)

Ff "A-f", iJ

CZ)

(!fin

:::

i-c
(;I.;

()j,flJl)'

fdw- J 8!1
~r

1: d:J -

f '!J1.d ~ + +
1-

!1 )

w-=
:5et ~f

'ffj1: 2 _

":J 2.-J:

'(Yo) ~)

The

dA-bo.

(tvJ'-n-,

kt,'J) =0)

woui tA
tlflfllY

## -10 he fne ~ff'ec,t se i:: .

('-10

b. J I

I
6.11 The velocity components of an incompressible, twodimensional velocity field are given by the equations

u = 2xy

= x2

y2

## Show that the flow is irrotational and satisfies conservation of mass.

II

-the

t:.UJo-d/mfnSIr;I111/

.{jew
~;<

15

1~~()I::a..be,ntI/)

UJ =".J... (~V-

:e

,;J.

_ 17 Ju.)= ':J
f' ven.l

F;; r

1J1e.

ve /()Cit,

Ct 11

c/

71te

IS

## -r; Sllt;.s!::t ttP;1.serJ/ail4J1f "I eJu. Jtr_

~-;.
"t"

mass

P!J-()

-then

'./2..

I
6.12 For each of the following stream functions, with units of m2/s, determine the magnitude and the angle the velocity vector makes with the x-axis at x = I m, y = 2 m. Locate any stagnation points in the flow field.
(a) '" = X)'

(b)

'"

= -2x 2 + Y
~f ~~ ~fY'e/lrn fl.4 Hc..:hiP J1 J
tr-= -

~
d'X

l{'::

dt
~,

=x
J-,.",,) I

.
i

V-=-~ ::-~
~~

Th~s I

-4/1IJuJ.J ~.f::

-~
5Jn!c '" =0
p()/n I:
(j,)
Ft'y

>Co

C"a n 9 ":

z.

",I:.){:: C>

ClI1"
X

v:. 0

a--t

~::o /

tt

j+a9n4f../~;'

(!)~C.IAY.s

at:.

## =- ':J .::. ().

u. -= 0 cf -=

TtJ

J hM j

1r.:: 2-/I't1 I

~ ~ '!-x
D~

A 1:- )(. =

jlWl}

I:J;::

it ~11f)W5 fhA-/.

tA.:: I

(.f"d

1r= ~

0/

'-. , '3

I
6.U The stream function for a certain incompressible flow field is
'" = lOy

+ e-Y sin x

Is this an irrotational flow field? Justify your answer with the necessary calculations.

## ~'r 1'h~ /f"w -tD hfC

l;r()-ttLt:lo~a I

(S4'e

l:g.

1../2.)

W ~ = -L 2.
alt~

(~ - d!?~)-o ~/.

/z,r

f;,~
tA.-

## S.f:rerun .f.U)1c. t.,';rl (J I'veI'!

=-

~=

/0 -

e-~/';~
-:1

11"":: ThUj

J tf :: - e 7i
.sIn ~

~s ;(
-~ . alr_ - - e SIJIJ
~;(.

~()

OlA.
~j

=e

-':1

--/J1a;t

W~ ::' 1 1Jln"e
Wl;:O
I

( e-~jJ~
-r;1J':s
JS

l-

e s int.

-!j

='0

## an J'rroi:(L+r()~t:t1 flow -I,eid.

Yes.

~./'f

I
6.14 The stream function for an incompressible, twodimensional flow field is

IjJ = ay2 - bx where a and b are constants. Is this an irrotational flow? Explain.

Ql1d

#r the slrellln
IA.::

~1'I'~J1
CL

7 HI(J1 J

()If ~
~;(.

u-::: - ij:

=b

Thus;

S / n t. e

w~

(t{n/-es~

1:- 0 a =0) .

lO./5

I
The velocity components for an incompressible, plane flow are Vr = A,-l + Br- 2 cos f)
Vo = B,-2 sin 0

6.15

## where A and B are constants. Determine the corresponding stream function.

Fr~m

1he de/;;'/i,blt of th~ StYi'II/11 Iwnc,6/~n J ..,,... _ ..!.. dip .,,... :: _ _ dip
v~ -

Vt;

Or

So

tha.t.

## +OY' fhe velocity I cJl; -I ;:. Ft9 :- A- r T B

;r;,.
J~
;

c/Js'ft;'I7J,(.it~1/ fll/en,
-2

I-

~s

(/)

- /3}-

-2.

S;'11

&

( 2.)

Ii? Ie 9n1fe

I:'j'())
::

w/-ht

r-eSf~t-t:

to e
e ) da

to
+

~b-b,/~

Jd J{A+

8 }--/ e.~ s

.f. (r)
I

+0

fd if
If::
Thw5)

=-

fa

1-

I'.. fB)

13 j- - 'sin CI

~ (t) )
(.3) 1(l1d/lf)

.fo

.sa,tIS.f.!1

both

./;"gs.

where C ~ an

c~n.5itll1 t.

t,.I'

6.1 G,

## For a certain two-dimensional flow field

u v

=0
=

(a) What are the corresponding radial and tangential velocity components? (b) Determine the corresponding stream function expressed in Cartesian coordinates and in cylindrical polar coordinates.

(()..)

A i-

Vr=V~/na

(.5~e ti'llAY'e)

ve = V ~s
Cb)

Since.
u=

Jif
d':J

=0

v-= -~:::v oX
15

/t

C
is

n()t

~ f/,fnc I:ltJ~

l)

f.

I;j

wher-e.

Lf=-Vx: -fC
lin

Ii r

## b / IrA 1"':1 UJ1siol1i .

B

IIlsrJ) tui"ht

.x.:::

t.t!;S

'1=

- V f"UJS& fC

6.17

Make use of the control volume shown in Fig. P6.17 to derive the continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates (Eq. 6.33 in text).
Volume element has thickness dz

8
x

FIGURE P6.17

fo' +

f-V:' 0',4
cs
"......

"'0

( .E'S,

&,,)'1)

CV

J~ f ~ t/-tr
Cp-

cf
~nff"()/
oS /'(Y'ffu.es

(I)

Clnd

f~y,~ dA Cs

J/()/wme
or

( f V/. r
FrPR1

h'lwn

f ~J;h t.

( /J r,:

=
.

r, . .,. '4.f3
f)y

q.,JI'
2

## J.I' of tk) .". d(; d1:

v,.

- {t ~ - ~ r)(r- t)dGdl
C 2.)

~,/7

(con i)

~utfl"/N

~/

/nASS

,;.,

t) - d/ree:t";JJ

=
~~~____

(;~

~ ~e)

drd

09
~

~

~ (r 'J/j,.) -

v:

be,-",-"es

=- -

(II r

qr 2:S/11 e)

## fHl!.. S-f"flll11/iIlPS ihmllfk

-----7(----"':""-":"'-'

If=o

1he

()f' 1

In

I~

() :: ax z!J _ 'j3
j=

zv3x
sJU)Wi1

4( b)

~fel:c"h

## il1 1Jfe ;;jllr~,

4?=Y8-~ ,4 t 13 .x. =

()

':1:: I MI

.so tha..t

lfs ::
Ai

= 6

## I Mf~/s (per tlnd WJdtA)

3(1)'(0) - (0)

3 --

Ihus)
The.

ne1al-l~(' sI9n l~d,C4k.s inll';' the Iltjw /s IT()I'YJ rl ,h t .f.o Jett QS We /fPtJK ./rpm A Ie E

t-23

~.23

I
The streamlines in a certain incompressible, two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles so that v, = O. Determine the stream function for(a) Vo = Ar and for (b) Vo = A,-l, where A is a constant.

6.23

Prd)m

"the. de-h/1;fltPll

~= y Je
So

.J..a
~

0/

-the

.5.fr~(Jm knc.t'()'11 )

v-: (;;
;f '/:'//t)tuS

-= - ~

Jr

1/.~-t

:::'0

= f(r)
( I )

(A)

ht

~ = A;-

Jr

dlf :-Ar

## EIl1) with 1'I'.s/,ct

t:.

l-

fd", = -jArdY
'f =
JIoweVf') .sill~e (jl is

A:
A.

'2.

+ ~ (~)
htl1C.i./()1I lJl &1 It-

1/6t

## ,t; //"U/.! thL t

t.f = Where.

t!f2. f C
Uf1sMl"rl:,

I~

tin

Qrbifral''1

Cb) SJfn"/tlY'i':J)

-k.,.

~ = A- y-I
== -

fdtfor

fA-r-'dr
Y

tf = - A 1/1

+C

('-24

The stream function for an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field is 'II = 3x 2y + y For this flow field plot several streamlines.

6.24-*

The 12.~ ua.:tltJlJ Icy a ~.frellm/il1~ ,:S -h,fll1d'/''1 ~fh~ tjJ =~lJsizJl/i

/n

ffJe

## ejua.f::lon -Idr 1JIe offlllllll -func.t:j~l1. Thusl lew -t11e

./uHtittJ#

9/11el1 ~fre/l111
/ I:: ~ 11t)u)J

Lf =

inai

t1Je.

3i y +-b eStJd..tl(f)JJ c I

loS

'j=
kJh-ere
-rhe
XI
VIIY'I()/,LS
tl

t/J 1 + 3x"2

+0 t)hto/"

fbm,'/.!t "f ,jrrf'lIm//lJes.. I-J- Py",NIn? '1 eoord/n;ks ,,{ 1/'4Y'1(;~ Sfreqm/;d/ZS "?;//f)II/S

## Ct;IJ,st:""t 11r,III'.s erNI be Q~.sJ1 ned Iv If-;

{" yo

cq Jc" 14.

1:, ~

-':'00 cls

110 120 130 150 160 162 165 170 180 190 200 210

print "****************************************************" print "** This program calculates the X,y poin+.s for **" print "** various streamlines **" print "****************************************************" print dim y(4,) print "x y(Psi=l) y(Psi=2) y(Psi==3) y(Psi=4-)" for x=-10 to 10 for psi=l to 4y(psi)=psi/(1+3*x 2) next psi print using "###.# ###.#### ###.#### ###.#### ###.####";x,y(1)
R

,y(

2) ,y(3) ,y(4,)

220 next x

( C&>I'/t )

..:51-f"ell/l1I1~~

Tabu/alea

res", Its

4J1'~ 71?-t'11

-h'l'

..6tluw.

if = /;

21

~ If

## ol1d a... fltrt .sh"uJ/~" the

~***************************************************
:7:

## -5.0 -L,..5 -4.0 -3.5 -:3.0

-2.:'-

-2.0 -1. 5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

ylPsi=l) 0.0132 0.0162 0.020L,. 0.0265 0.0357 0.0506 0.0769 0.1290 0.2500
0.571~

y(Psi=2) 0.0263 0.032L,. 0.0L,.08 0.0530 0.0714 0.1013 0.1538 0.2581 0.5000
1.1~29

1. 0000
0.571~

:'. a
3.5
!

0.020~

## 2.0000 1.1429 0.5000 0.2581 0.1538 0.1013

0.071~

0.0530
0.0~08

Lj,. '-

r)

~.

:'

y(Psi=3) 0.0395 0.0L,.86 0.0612 0.079:) 0.1071 0.1519 0.2308 0.3871 0.7500 1. 71~3 3.0000 1.71L,.3 0.7500 0.3871 0.2308 0.1:)19 0.1071 0.0795 0.0612
0.0~86

0.1~29

~.OOOO

## 2.2857 1.0000 0.5161 0.3077 0.2025

0.1~29

0.1060 0.0816
O.06~8

:).0

0.0162 0.0132

0.0324 0.0263

0.0395

0.0526

5~----------~----------------------------------~ Legend
.~--E)Ps1-1

"

Ps1-2 Ps1-4

~---+I

Ps1-3

-1L-~

__

~~~

____

__

__

~~~

__

~~~

____

______

-6

-4

-2

o ~ (J ~ n13.

6.25* The stream function for an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field is 'I' = 2r l sin 38 For this flow field plot several streamlines for

Tile e$u ..b~n ;;" . <t st,~qm/;;'e "' HII"d b!l sellin.! /n t'he "illlt&t''' .,4:>1' 111e sfr~"m Alndlc" . TflIIs~ 'lIven sfrfl1lJ1 Itt/utt;,,, It 1<> //(lI<IS ## 2;-30$';" 3~ file fft"ai:IOI1 cf ... . strellm/lli.,

If=

IJ

r=//f
1-0 obb"j., a ibm//!!
where VPrt"ll.5

t"",f,,,,i

(Z

~i. 3 B

)~
"",/

epic/daMI)' f"lJe ~"rp;,~ks (t./;'"re JC=yc~se 'j= /-5 /"19) o-f yarlt'UJ sftepm//II~ ~//ows .

",.!J

()r

## be I/J5/fjlled-lt, shwm/Jites. ;1- ~r()Jrqm ,I"()I"

CQ/1

VII/lies

100 cls 110 print " ~* '~***~*********************************************', 1 20 pri nt " -..>1' This program ca lcu lates the x .y po ints for **" 1 30 print "** various streamlines **" 150 print "~****** *** **************************************** ** " 160 print 162 dim psi(4). , :C4J,y(4) 161.1 print" Psi"'1 Psi =5 Psi=10 P si;20 " 165 prin~" x y x y x y x y" 166 pi=l.I*at n( l.O) 1 67 date 1 . 5.1 0 .2 0 168 fo!:' i=1 t o 4 1 69 rea d psi(i) 1 70 n ext i 1 75 fo r theta=pi / l 80 t o 59 *pi/ l SO step Pi/45 180 for i""1 to J,. 18 2 r"'(psi(il/(2*sin(3 *thetaJ))-(1/3) 185 x ( i J"' r* cos (theta J 190 y Ci)=r*sinltheta l 200 n ext i 210 print u si ns " 1t.UIt M.UM II.UM *,UII II.UIt it,UM II.UII x( 1 ) .y( 1) ,x C2) , y(2) , x (3 ) ,y ( 3 ) .x ( 4 ) ,y(t... ) 220 next theta

It.UIt" :

( C{)t1 '-L

Tab,,/a.f(d Y-l'.sllih
The ~ fl'"ellm/J;je,.s

## ~r If ::: I; S; /~ 2CJ Cire 9 1tifJJ bellJw.

** This program cal culates the x, y point~o foy *)f' ** various streamlines ** ****************************************************
Psi=l y x 2.122 0.037 1.2/,),1 0.109 1.020 0.162 0.902 0.208 0.826 0.252 0.296 0.770 0.728 0.339 0.385 0.695 0./,),34 0.668 0.649 0.489 0.635 0.552 0.630 0.630 0.734 0.638 0.672 0.892 1. 235 0.802 Psi=5 y x 0.063 3.628 0.186 2.122 0.276 1. 744 1.543 0.356 1. 412 0.432 1.317 0.505 1.244 0.580 1.188 0.658 1.143 0.742 1.109 0.836 1. 086 0.944 1.077 1. 077 1.090 1.254 1.150 1. 526 1. 372 2.112 Psi=10 y x /,),.571 0.080 O.23/')' 2.673 2.197 0.348 1.9/,),4 0.4/,),9 1. 779 0.544 0.637 1.659 1. 568 0.731 0.829 1.496 0.935 1. 440 1.397 1.053 1.190 1. 368 1. 357 1.357 1. 374 1. 580 1.923 1. 449 1.728 2.662 Psi=20
x
y

~***************************************************

5.759 3.368 2.769 2.450 2.241 2.090 1. 975 1.885 1.814 1.760 1. 724 1.710 1. 731 1.825 2.178

0.101 0.29:: 0.439 0.566 0.685 0.802 0.921 1.04:) 1.178 1.327 1.499 1.710 1.991 2.422 3.353

5
0
0

## Legend oPsi=1 a Ps i=5 l>Psi=10 e> Ps 1=20

-1~~~~

__~~~__~~~~__~~~~__~~~__~~~~__~~~ 4 1 5 6 2 3
x

A two-dimensional flow field for a nonviscous, incompressible fluid is described by the velocity components

6.2~

u = Vo + 2y v =0
where Vo is a constant. If the pressure at the origin (Fig. P6.2') is Po, determine an expression for the pressure at (a) point A, and (b) point B. Explain clearly how you obtained your answer. Assume the units are consistent and body forces may be neglected.

B(O,})'

A(1,O)

Po
FIGURE
P6.2~

Chec.K ~

;U.

;'{

,?'/()uJ
J-

## is Ir'r~t(J.:I:r()~A/. 5 1Y1 c'e

~
LI ) (

2:

::.J..

(!.Jt' _ d
~;(.

/3"'.~.I2.)
b

an d lor fne rive" (le/~ctf'J c!tSfrlbU.bl()#.J ~::::.{) 1111# j~ =Z I ; f fr; II ~W.J thfi I- tU~:j:. O. Sinee I/~w i.5 nat / 'rr()ta it{;;14/ CLJl1noi ().ffJ/'1 the. i3ernou.lli .f!gU(:I:I~1I bet.Wtel1 an3 fw{) poi n 1s

In

the.

f/()w

lie/d.
1"he

## (a)5/I1~e 5.a me.

1/=0,
.5

~Y'19;11

and

p()/ni A t'/Y'e

{)IJ

the

frelJln //"e..

Th us)
= -P14
4'
(I)

..po
;r

"t-

~ 2,
:L~

At the Dr;'r1n
f.r~m E~.
(.b) ~/ ~ t
0)

~~~

15 Ij /Jot ~11 St'lh1e ~rrY?II/'11j/lle as tJJ"/9In ~o aff)::; Ber/')tJul// e!"lLt'~# betw~el1 13 pnd tJ. 10 Use the '1- wm~J1ent ~ Gu.lfY'; .e~tlA,t:'tJl1'): L) ~ -!...! = -<J u Jlf 7/)tr fAY Jtr)

r- (f!J

; ':J

[JIl" . ,. pi
)

pX +

; 'J

l'

) t

1fJ =0
=0

c,- 2'1

, ~,l7

J
b.Zl
In a certain two-dimensional flow field the velocity is constant with components u = -4 ft/s and u = - 2 l'tis. Determine the corresponding stream function and velocity potential for this flow field. Sketch the equipotential line 4J = 0 which passes through the origin of the coordinate system.

## k= "" -t11e lie /"Clf-rt

*
_

t~I7If'J"flfh J/vell
0)
J

~
p':;
~

=-i{-

J;< - .(,..

'7

{2

jd If

::-

f- 1/ d!1
-(-

7-

~ (,-)
( .3 )

If =- If ~

+; (x)
/AJ i fh

fd'l .: I
If

Z d;l.

+ .{ (!J)

=
/;ith

Z X. -r

I&. (j )
11 d

Th U5) -h

Sa

I: I'S 1'1

s s, (3) a
2;(

(If)

If,:
wher'e

-Lf!J -f-C

IS

till

fA..
'=

00

~~

@j 4-

v=

II p~
'lIve fI
(5")

Mf11POflfttt.s

E-i J;<.
J':;

=: -

!.-4> = - z

(~)

{,-30

t..27

In.f-e frio k

E ~ . (5 )

(,IJ

/tn

'('eoSfe t

f.j.y,
+

.f,;

/,f//I it

fd4 = f- ~dx
~ ::- - It-x t

~(!J)
( 7)

!ar!J)
-t

k+efYllk 13;,
OY'

(It,)

9:: - 2.)
'Sa f:/'5.f!:t

1Ij.(~)

-r

4('1.)
tlJtti {a)

Thus) -k
t.Jhfte

b()P,

7J;. :
0

1- /j

thlJ,i
b~Th

h>r'

=:

-"8 .

/'1TJl.}ev~v.;

/1

~/11"!

A-

411d []

t:(t'<l..

fie!},,+-, v~

p",joh,i.e, ~".$'frlYJ -Is "n1l~ Yes,,/-/:. il1d,ca.1-e.s va/"e ~I' r 1AJ/11i.J, /oS I'}()t de fined. a.. Ii- -t ~o t9:; 7T 17f,. -thAt sIT;..111 Ai-T~JI ry.. .: : 0 =1 e r="Jj ,A. ## f'llit o (!C UY$ a,t;

e==-lT

aHA

~,

31
6.3 r
It is known that the velocity distribution for two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid between wide parallel plates (Fig. P6.3 \) is parabolic; that is

## with v = O. Determinoe, if possible;o'the corresponding stream function and velocity potential.

-

FIGURE P6.31

--

To d e-t-ernll;,e

## -!he sireQI>1 hnc/.JoJ1

let

~=~ = [{ [I-(t)~]
an'; 111/efrg.fe
WIn,

YIZSf~C.1:

.fv.!:f

1-0

fdY! ::
If =
7/= -

f~[,-{t)jd,
0; [ :J -

3~:
Ij

]
f

J; (;( )
A.

J'f ) I.f lX =a

net

## I'UJ1c. t-/O~ /t).{ X

/t)

-/hit t

[{!1
where C /s

[1- ; (-/)Y+ c

an ar/n.ftor!:1 6!JJ1stal1t.

## Tc de.termJYJe. ihe /I~/tXrl"!:J ,()ifJ1-/;/~/ let: fA. = ~f 7{ [I - ({) 6)

::

I~ief"..tlie

PI J
=

wi f1t

Y'e~fect

-/;0

1:0 ob-l:(lil1

7:{ [, -

(%f-) d;<

1 ==
~,..or/; v - d!J -

L{
0

[;< - i)6;e] + i. t )
_.2D(X!1

+ Jo-fz(.!J}

h'J.

dJ
ve/oc./"ft1 ,Poi:.ent/q/ 17111"/:
IS

.x.

tlnd~.

====================~

desct"lues

## Thus) "there 15 not q fl1/j -'c/otd (" 17te .fl()w

/J(Ji

l'rrc;ill..-btJnql) .

6-35

6.32, is

## The velocity potential for a certain inviscid flow field

cP = - (3.ry 2

l)

where cP has the units of ft / s when x and yare in feet. Determine the pressure difference (in psi) between the points (1, 2) and (4, 4), where the coordinates are in feet, if the fluid is water and elevation changes are negligible.

5/;' Cf!.

is

1n~ 111)4.1 -/ie /4 1..5 de.sC!j but by A. I/e/{J"-fr; pot:ellt';'/ -fhe /I'H~/'r ro &a. t-II)H (J 1 01'1 d '111 ~ 13~".n~"//i -eJ/,la..t,tD~ ~11 be appl,;d beiweei1
.fwo pDlni:s.

tin (j

lit", s"

2..#-

Yt'2.

OJ

At

)(.= /

-I-i

'J = 2 /-i:
I

= -

{, )(2.) =

-/2.f:t:

'V'"r :: I

S

00

thll.. i::

## V;"2..: 4/'''' 'Pi 2.::: (-/2

J

1) z.. T('f +: ) =
2..

2- Z"(7) 2.

A- t

x =- ft

'J:::' if ft
=- ft:.

U2,= -b{If){Lf)

:# oS

1-i ::
So

-3(tf)4-r 3{JI)'l.=o
(_

1h4.i

~ 2..:"

f~ ~) ~

(p.33

6.33

Consider the incompressible, two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous fluid between the boundaries shown in Fig. P6.33. The velocity potential for this flow field is <p = x1 - y2

y'

(a) Determine the corresponding stream function. (b) What is the relationship between the

\
"r
/

discharge. q. (per unit width normal to plane of paper) passing between the walls and the coordinates Xf' Yf of any point on the curved wall? Neglect body forces.

1/;=0

z
x

FIGURE P6.33

(a.)

To qet.errm"e tf

1~t-e1rll k

(#

/h re.sfu,.1: .;.. !J

.;.. ob-blIH

fd tf = p.)(
J If _ '1r~ - ~ -

d!:J
(I)

## 'f:: Z.x!J + "Ix)

SIMi/III" /'1.1
So

o!J

~$-;: - Z ':J thAt Jd If 6"th IS if:== !Z!:J dx 2..x.!J + h l j ) '1111/ 11..) (2 I To sa./;i.si!;t ~ tll1e{ E$s. (/)
tf=:LXj+

C
ttf)II-f-/:qHt.

where C :: 0
C.b)

tln

ArlJilrl'lf'fj

S,nt.e tf=O

a/"nJ

!f=O
(3)

if =b)

Z)C'.:J

The

the

pqssin9 1hrf)U94 tll1fj stlr~ce +WD UlQlls) stich as .48 (see nfllre) I /:S

dischaY'~e)

t~
F1
.l3))

- 911

~ =0

6.3 Lf The stream function for a two-dimensional, nonviscous, incompressible flow field is given by the expression

!/J

= -2(x - y)

where the stream function has the units of ft 2 / s with x and y in . feet. (a) Is the continuity equation satisfied? (b) Is the flow field irrotational? If so, determine the corresponding velocity potential. (c) Determine the pressure gradient in the horizontal x direction at the point x = 2 ft, Y = 2 ft.

(a..>

-r; sa.t/s 4

,.;ne

C{)n II

i,," fl1
-t-

## eSti a.-/;I rd I'J)

p.JC.

fA

Ii !1

a.J!' =- 0
91,;~n)

F;;y

iJJe

:5l-rellh1

knc.-tI4Jn
2-

u=
So

qJf
P!j

fr s

v-=

-l!t aX.

=2 .It:

anc/

7Jte

~111"/~tJ/';'!1 elulJ.i/~J1

1.5

's4tls/;ed.
A

Yes.
.sfretlm IUnc.t:I()J!

71111 i

;v-

= -t,
t:~

bi!

!J -Ie :J"eJ~

1/= -

~J + ~ (;()
,,(

Since
,.b) The

## 11" IS I7tJt a. HtIfCi:.If!i"

Rnd

JJ

~er()

at The.

OrJif/ H )

-rr=-6 ':J
I3frn"u.JJi Rgu4f/oJt Ct/n he QPpJ/~~ hel:wten 4"!J +Wo POln+':' /f -I-h e f--/"w l.s J yo /"'(') i It i:t011" J. :s JJ''lCe..

t.v=J.(~V-_~)
i:2..
Jx " 'j

(Eq.h,JZ) ()

( 2)

6.3~

The velocity potential for a certain inviscid, incompressible flow field is given by the equation

4J =

2x 2y 2

(ih,3

where 4J has the units of m js when x and yare in meters. Detennine the pressure at the point x = 2 m, y = 2 m if the pressure at x = 1 m, y = 1 m is 200 kPa. Elevation changes can be neglected and the fluid is water.

SinCe

1h~

,fJ{)w

i..s
+

-J(Pith

.p,

I

)'~it11 II; J
~c$'J J ve J1 7. 'Z. ~:: Z;{ -2!J ~() Ai CI n fDI;' f Ie t (1)(1) ':: )(. =. I h7I (:oul u.. I -- If cI tf~ S :: ## !J =. 11m v-: :- ~ (I) 3. I tn,i :2.. (J)z 2..::- ('I ~ ),. " - /1112..$ '&

f()/~ t
~

:2

IA :: J.f (z)(z.) -

(/" p)~ -

,uA"Z.

s ...

::.

&'0. I ~

Pa..

6.37 (a) Determine the velocity potential and the stream function for a steady, uniform, incompressible, inviscid, twodimensional flow that makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal x-axis. (b) Detennine an expression for the pressure gradient in the vertical y direction. What is the physical interpretation of this result?

(ct,)

Pr'l?7
(iI/Pi

## 1::$5_ (,..80 anol /'.8/ tf ::~r C/ (.>< t4sol. -+-:J :s I;' 01..) (!='J. ~, 36) ## tf = 0- (;< OJS1o" + ~ S/11300) I ot.::: 30" ~ V-(~,8'b;( + ~.5'h~!1) (Ef. ,,80 ## Sin" /111' /!j tf = v (!f U;sd - x. sin~) t/ h a. ## fpr 0(.:; ;-" c If '" (bJ , ## v ('J ~j JiJ'- >< t'lt11l J /" :11/) .. l/ (~. ffU,J - O. S()(),( ) SJ~'{' If ~11~tI)J 1nd 1A.::~.f"Vp:;,.f)I?J Cll'ttl U. :: l:; cfi ~ 1,r..:: ~'::J ## V-:::. ~. 5"00 r;I itt e if ~ - t=IA fev J~ ## -R. ~ tl.1L -tJix ~ "the IIfr1-/CA. J .!J - d I y~dtolt (='9, '.Slb) 6 1) t:1 ## .1 -:: I[) (0 IT+ u ~Jr -r dt 4~.x 1r:=' &;115.fz1l, V- ## e.r + JAr E) P!1 dr anI! hi I in Clud #1):: - ~ or *~ -tJ 'r'f1jI.(JI:: /fJJ~ h'1d"~s-taI-(G ,Th/~ I~ nDi ~ ~l1r/,Y/$ln, Vt'.5u/-I: .sInce. -tJ, ~ ~ frn~/,( II; e$UI-/~11 Inti, c.al-e..s ~ f II- 1Ittrt.. loS no ehfll1'1e. 111 Vc. J~'-/:;'.!::J 1h~ eltlll-1pt' 111 pv-e.fS"Y~ Ii Slmpl 'J ~jtl e ..fa */he. We 19h f of fh(. ,fluId.; L: Po) a.. ## /Yld,C4.J.e.s jh4/- 1he pres.suve dJshi hU.J-,D~ 1.5 h fj d rt>.sta..J.ti. v4 y, a. 1-tt> n' ## 6. '38 The streamlines for an incompressible, inviscid, two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles and the velocity varies directly with the distance from the common center of the streamlines; that is Kr where K is a constant. (a) For this rotational flow determine, if possible, the stream function. (b) Can the pressure difference between the origin and any other point be determined from the Bernoulli equation? Explain. Vo (a) ~= _ J If 17"," =k y- En.f-e? ra te /dt{; - for :- 1,.lI} w/1h re.sfec.t. dr "y- if Sinct:. /t Iol/()ws 1ha:t :: 1<: r" - ;z. -r fIe) 11 - ? u; t.p _ ( ~ If =0 J.5 ntJ1.. a. fu 11 C. t /tJJ1 ()I a Cton S1:411 t . a;,d 1heye~ye. wher-e (j,) C Ilew IS ~= - J<;-6. +c an Js ## arb " va. V:J ohd "" + The l"()ta..tl()~IIJ be Therefore fne 13erl1t/uJJi o..pp);'ed betWteh --the.. oY/~/i1 a h d q 11 ~ pOInt J SI h ce These fo/nb QV }1{Yt 6)J1 The Same ~fr"etlm //l1e. Nt). (I?e.fer 1-0 d'SCtI$S'DI1 t'fS.sOCICll:t-tI tu/fh der/~IJ.I:I~h olE; Z. it>. ~7. )
CA nt10t

e~ U~&/DI1

'.31
6. 39

I
y

The velocity potential = -k(x 2 - y2) (k = constant) may be used to represent the flow against an infinite plane boundary as illustrated in Fig. P6.~t For flow in the vicinity of a stagnation point it is frequently assumed that the pressure gradient along the surface is of the form

ax

ap

= Ax

.. _._----

---_.-

FIGURE P6. ~9

where A is a constant. Use the given velocity' potential to show that this is true.

Fe>y

the

II

LA.. ==

~cP

a;.

- -2.~)!.
2. '" !:J
() CCtlrs

u)
(Z)

11"::Clnc!

tne.

S~JtJA.ft~11
-6fea , ':J.-

o~ =~b

pt!),~i

at the
/It;w

~r'.j In

...

;:';y

'this

1-kJO -

dlmt/l.s/~II/
1"

-ij.
Qnq

SUyfac.e.
1J.x.

r~)
tJ !:J

(:. ~>/o.)
So

(lIon?

-the.

(:;=.o)
dX.

v-= ()

1J,a. i
(..3 )

?l. :
u ': p;(.

/JU I

t-;..t)m

E1. U )

Z--k:X.

au.: -z/{
qnP(

Gg . (3)

beu;me.s

~ ::
PX

fi) (- Z

## Ie)/ ) r- z~) - IfJe G,x

where

Water flows through a two-dimensional diffuser having a 20 expansion angle as shown in Fig. P6.40. Assume that the flow in the diffuser can be treated as a radial flow emanating from a source at the origin O. (a) If the velocity at the entrance is 20 m/ s, determine an expression for the pressure gradient along the diffuser walls. (b) What is the pressure rise between the entrance and exit?

'.'fO

2m

~\

~-----

,.

-~~

-"",,~,

:~ran~

Flow

7m

~/Exlt

(Sf'e

Ta'ie ,. J

11 =2.0 ~~
1??'1

5(>

"/hILi:

-=

2.

rr y. 7rj,.::

2. rr

("2. hH)

(2t!;

?)

Pr~i'Yl

## /he. /3fYI/~ul/,' ~ lJ.4.;/:J()}1

-p -+ it 1"';-"2.. =
:50

~(Pl1slr1l1t:.
(I)

~ = -~ v;. ~ tJ;.

"y

I
-1-1.

~r

JJnc.e

'\

., ,..,.,.",
VI'":;

~1T'Y

Inel1

~ Y'

v;.

==

6.4 I An idealfliilcffiows betweenthe-inciined walls of a two-dimensional channel into a sink located at the origin (Fig. P6.41). The velocity potential for this flow field is

A
"

2n where m is a constant. (8) Determine the corresponding stream function. Note that the value of the stream function along the wall OA is zero. (b) Determine the equation of the streamline passing through the point B, located at x = 1,
Y

m = -In'

o FIGURE P6.4\

= 4.

(et)

( I )

## n fe~ t"rt .J.e.

~g ./1)

w/fh

fe/if
t>Y'

f ~ it;
:l7T
/t11~

r-e.s/ec.t:

to

Ir,

~6io/11

if=
~=
,

5/ nee.
Lf
is

-27T I -~ tPi'"
A

+ ~ f;")

oB

qj

= 0

(1. )

n()i

tu nc.+;~/1 01
~

r-

So

eS .f'l) bectJl1Us
!p:=.o

~C if:: ~ .:;,,,.

where
-So

J,j

~I1SiP"t . If /~&)

;;'1'

~~

It .3

~a-t

= -C.
/1"n So

n?1

qh"
( .b)

/jJ.:

(~~

-- )
I
&:.

(..3 )

At
f11e

8
I/Idw

I-tJ n ~:o;-

Pt II. i:

of tf if ~
fI1e

Possil'1f
t?'n

D.

1.5
.

4,nd there~re
IS

eg(J~biJ,J1~.f

(1.33 - ~ ).:211
=
/)?1

~1fS"olYl1

-

## (). 0 "SO 11'11

(~~

i)
1htl.t fAt!
,;Irflllf1 lilJfS

(fj/)

Ie.'

It
tlY'e

CtlIJ

## II/I ~"""'1I9I1t };heJ f'k~.sl'n~ 1hrlJtI&11 -!he "yiglit. )

be

seefl

/rom '&1.

(3)

6.42.

It is suggested that the velocity potential for the flow of an incompressible, nonviscous, two-dimensional flow along the wall shown in Fig. P6.4Z is = r~/3 cos !8

Is this a suitable velocity potential for flow along the wall? Explain.

:tl this ;5

suifaJ,ie ~ -fiJe C/!)rre.sp()ndln~ tfJ must hAVe. I/o/we fI/on~ the 1U1/1/ (s/nce -the tvll/I tnust tt:)rl"'''~}'~l1d --h -...L ~ If- ~ If Vj r JB =- d ;r;. - "3 r ~~.s"3 &
et

et u;IIsT:t!l1i

sfr~A/IJ/i"e).
(I)

reSfect

1:a B 10 ohtolH

jd if:: f

## .!j f-"~ c..S

,JIb

:
T

e
~ tr)
/I

If:: !- +/.8

~B

(2)

~. :: - 3 ~ r o5J :t:. e .3
I,

J:j

if =

r -; .5;'1'3

If

: S +

+;. (8)

(3)

## both E'Is, (2) an4 (.J) If:: f 1f~ SIn : B + {

where

is

an (/rb;~rlJr!1

e()nsbtllt.

A-JotJ? one se~b~n ~I fJu! wl//I; t) =0) Qnd tj;::: C. A-/()nf 1ne other set..-bo'n e::: a nil tp C. Th us) tp hils ~ c.~ n 5 1::11 n i va/we. a/f)!'''} ihe WtI/J and the 1/vel1 j)e/~c.;-h; t~)'fe I'rh q, j Ct/n b.e used -k y~tYese" t f~~ a/tJ"1 the Will/. Yes.

ft" if.3

6.43 As illustrated in Fig. P6.43 a tornado can be approximated by a free vortex of strength r for r > Ret where R, is the radius of the core. Velocity measurements at points A and B indicate that VA = 125 ft/s and VB = 60 ft/s. Determine the distance from point A to the center of the tornado. Why can the free vortex model not be used to approximate the tornado throughout the flow field (r 2: O)?

""......

". . . - ---

}
/

fA

t
R
x

---

-,.,.,....

./

/ I ,"".. I //~

FIGURE P6.43

Thus)
(:011(

ILl:

fA

~:

/zt5"
(Po

it
.5

Sf)

ina i
that:

Ie =/zS' fA
/G::
60;-/3

a.-t
J

13

~:

-:r )

..50

Th ere /r:;re

~/nce

/ ZS'

fiJ

.::.

Go

'B

/1-

f~//t9IPJ ~t
J 2.5"

## "k - fA =/{)() l-i

'A : :
I> 0

(/~O + fA )

fA.

~ '11.3

It

7h e hee
t/e/o~ifrt

vorte.(. the

1nrou'lhoJl.t

C/ln/Joi b~ tlsed .j." CljJpro,( i"'41:.e t<. /:or)'UIII'o /-ltJUJ .fle/d Since at:- r=o The
/;'f;';,/fe.

b~~me5

6.44 The velocity distribution in a horizontal, two-dimensional bend through which an ideal fluid flows can be approximated with a free vortex as shown in Fig. P6.44-. Show how the discharge (per unit width normal to plane of paper) through the channel can be expressed as

q =

cJ(1

where Ap = PB - PA' Determine the value of the constant C for the bend dimensions given.

= 0.5 m = 0.9 m
/

FIGURE PS.44

~A

= a:.
2..~

1<

~S:

7:
~

d-

-ve.e 2-J.

t
=

(~A" - 7Ijg8'- )

or

1<.
)

::

Thus
Of'"

tJp=

( ;~ - i~)
-k
('

t
Clncl

::

.b
a..

;;; - i~

')

iff I'
tJ,'1
hI'f
hwt

1he~eh"~

.
/,Q/th

c=

V2 jn

rY
I

J,

VTh

(),S'
/

r~

--

bl.

## V(ft; . .), - b-'f~

=-

~,S"oo m'I

{o, ~",,/"

6.45" When water discharges from a tank through an opening in its bottom, a vortex may form with a curved surface profile as shown in Fig. P6.4S' and Video V6.2. Assume that the velocity distribution in the vortex is the same as that for a free vortex. At the same time the water is being discharged from !he tanlc ~t point A it is desired to discharge a small quantity of water through the pipe B. As the discharge through A is increased, the strength of the vortex, as indicated by its circulation, is increased. Determine the maximum strength that the vortex can have in order that no air is sucked in at B. Express your answer in terms of the circulation. Assume that the fluid level in the tank at a large distance from the opening at A remains constant and viscous effects are negligible.

## FIG U REP 6 .4-S

,. b )
(14-

8.,,-l.r'Z..J
A-/r w/Jj

be.

_ J/ I sUCJC.et

/I1r;~

....L

P'fe.

~ J h en "'"

J::...

7.. ~

= - / -r-r: f' 1

.fr, ".

;- =- 2

it .

/ hws)

Ir I =

/01

-s

__

~B

6 . /fb The streamlines in a particular two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles, as shown in Fig. P6.1f{.. The velocity is given by the equation VII = wr where w is the angular velocity of the rotating mass of fluid. Determine the cir..... culation around .thep~~!!.~_~CD~ ____..._

r=

Pri- d-; - f ~ f
ABeD

FIGURE P6.Lf:b

j,

df)

-v;.

dl-

CD

Iv;.
lJA

fli'

(I)

A-13

/3,

Sln~e

7/j. =0
(7::

4ntl

fezi/'
tv
~I

~= CUr

d~

+0

fe,
t<)

E~. U)

be OJ) m e.s

a.. l. c/ e r{)

~L

t6.~7-

6.47 Water flows over a flat surface at 4 ftls as shown in Fig. P6.47. A pump draws off water through a narrow slit at a volume rate of 0.1 fe /s per foot length of the slit. Assume that the fluid is incompressible and inviscid and can be represented by the combination of a uniform flow and a sink. Locate the stagnation point on the wall (point A) and determine the equation for the stagnation streamline. How far above the surface, H, must the fluid be so that it does not get sucked into the slit?

..--------~ ....----t
H
-

4 fils

------------

t-I$~ 0.1 ttl/s (per foot of length of slit) FIGURE PS.47 t.f= t.f "'I)I ;;,f"In 7- Hew I If:sl~k. V - Ur SIj,em1 2rr~ !!!e 2.7/ 0) Thu.5; Cind ## ?If :' '"F dCJ ~ Y" - JIp CfJsB- (2..) ## - ~tp - -US/~e 1/;= I) the 1I-/c)fJ? willi J ~:: 0 ) ClI1r/ the s.fa9IJAiltf)H p"J/1i (jcc('{I"S wheY'{: 7/j. =0 .so 1111 t ..f~m Beg. t'/.) t; :: /YY1 .s Ql1d the .Jta91J~t,ol} fo/ni IS pn the teJlII/ t!), 007'f~ +t. -bo 1he f"lfl1t cl S//t. ( CfPl1 '-L ('-5/ t..47 I The IS ( COl? 'i ) si:fltll1llitOJ1 f~,~i (r = ~.t)()7~~ It) e :'0) the- e~t.iai:'4)H ~/ the cjk'1I1'1t/to~ ## c/ If Itt the. i.e,..o (E"'g.1) :so thAi (/Q/&1e sfr~t1mhi1~ i,s Sinle can b y=- rSln . (; W/I'I ffe 11 1he. .eJ Ii it. t/~1J 01 ## the. ~*,9/1I1-bP" sf"'~J1",J/1I e as !:J= P/u/e/ aboVe :::Va tJ.2 the. ;5i-dfn~I:'~11 sfrellml1l1e w;11 luJi b.( sucked 1~+lJ .:5/' 't. Tlte tn4;(imlAm c/,~tt1h,e.1 HJ ~y -Inc sl-otf/llhd,,,, s-trel/mJIi1e t;~Ctlr..s as c9 ~ 7T :s 0 ~ t H= tt2. s Z (If '{~) (Noi~: AI/ th~ ./It//d be/f)W -tne s-lA9nl( ttDI1 s+f"ellml,;'e must 111r()tl 9h the. .s//t. Thus) f,."m t4J#S~rJ/4t'4JH ~I mASs /-IV =- ,f-/()W 'f~ .$

,,iii)

/;i

~, ~ 250

.ft

wh ic..A

e-hec.k:.s

WI'fh

71te.

tll1swer a J,~lIe )

'-52

"'.!.f8

Consider two sources having equal strengths located along the x axis at x = 0 and x = 2 m, and a sink located on the y axis at y = 2 m. Determine the magnitude and direction of the fluid velocity at x = 5 m and y = 0 due to this combination if the flowrate from each of the sources is 0.5 m 3 / s per m and the flowrate into the sink is 1.0 m 3 /s per m.

':1

At pel~i. Pr IlI~H1 The )C.-tH.U A.~ Th( V e.\oc..; +-I:U dl.l" -h Th~ -two
e:t~~
11te
SOuVce

j.,,::

SMA

SOI4 VC.eJ

!:I1~\c..

a.v(

a.s

,G,llow.s:

i
::

{VY1 } A=

2lT

(r- z"",)

/#tl.

## (S' IW\ -l""" J

FoY' The

i)\ 1<fYV\

(1r~ ) A -=
;)0

W hev(
"I. ':

y-=

~'(2./M) "l.;{s3l-

~ 2~ ;;.,.

2..rY"

-i'hD.lt.

(V-y )
Th~s,

1.0 ~
A=
2iT

'rv:'
S"'i

C>.OZq~: ~
(A.j

1M

a.-i A
LA..

n~

\.~

-=

0.6\

~+

0.0"2.(05

~,

(0.

O"2.q~ ') ~

=- O.O\\f'i~
o.VI~

-tne

v=
T~e
V.\ 0 c. \

V2q

2.

## (O.02.qt)C!:! = O.Ol\O~ ~ S .. A \~ nevety"~

0 \ 4-q

+,
VA:

(I..t

f Lt~-t1rl = ~ ( o.

~'; 1.+

,
(0. 0 II 0

~) 2-

O. olg5

~ ~Lf-c

6. ~ 9

The velocity potential for a spiral vortex flow is given by = (f/2n) (j - (rn/2n) In r. where f and In areconstants. Show that the angle. a, between the velocity vector and the radial direction is constant throughout the flow field (see Fig. P6.~n.
::c

FIc;URE P6.1.f ~

HW

me

I/e /0'/"::1

p~ 1::e11 til:! I
~
~ .".;-

'II IIf H J

'1=Sln"ce
oord

~d
~I--100

:'

~
CtJscl.

or/> r 0& :I

f7
2.7rr

Ve y = I VI
A
~

V :-

r;. er

-1

+ ~
~

eB

"'\

-then
Cbs~:

"" V eJ-

IVI

7/;.

Y 1/j.1.

-I-

VB

1. 1

= /+

(..i2 )
.2..7T,...

1-

( _ ; , . . . ) 1.

Th US)
a..

;;, .,.

a.

rand

angle

01.

IS

Ct; J1 st:a n

t.

~.5"O

I
6.50 For a free vortex (see Vidt'tI \'(1.2) determine an ex-

pression for the pressure gradient (a) along a streamline, and (b) normal to a streamline. Assume the streamline is in a hor izontal plane. and express your answer in terms of the circu-

lation.

~B

5,;',,,,
..f-/d4 ,
's
(a.)

-me

';r"td'M"/

Ilow
(j )

I3fY'm~II;

f?l''(L-t'o;,
i:

,4/,1/1 u .ffru",I,Atf; (r-=- wnsf""i), ~ )j ~"sfq.1all'" 1).=0 $0 -tIIaf from '3.(11 w,111 1: + X.: = i!J11ls7:t1l1 f:. :z. i!,p/ls/-tt"f- .-In .. , press"" ,J C_:;h:lltf) I..'.e.) ## ..e ': ot9- "lretlml,i1~ 2-~ wi'" 10- =0 ## ({nil t-= cpns1:J,.f ~ 2. + i: -= ~"s.Jq"", .5. (,-S5" ~.s/ 6.51 Potential flow against a flat plate (Fig. P6.51 a) can be described with the stream function '1/ = Axy where A is a constant. This type of flow is commonly called a "stagnation point" flow since it can be used to describe the flow in the vicinity of y the stagnation point at O. By adding a source of strength, m, at 0, stagnation point flow against a flat plate with a "bump" is obtained as illustrated in Fig. P6.51 b. Determine the relationship between the bump height, h, the constant, A; and the source strength. m. y /' [ Source (b) (a) - fiGURE PGSI ## lj;= A-x ~ ..,.. For 1J,e. bump ## /h1 ;z.. ITt;; -- A }--lS/11 28 + (!!J ~7T the ~t:(l.1nlt tlOh .>G= 0) ~=/,. (B= ~) po,'"i will "cct/y Ai f-=-P..). FDy -the ~'L1e H o t.retlm Iu YlC- tl (11) ~~ z.!I :)111 oJ. V;=?ae = (JIn' , J if A-r qn :z.1T'r (' 1 ) J/f v::: e or- AI- 2.8 A Th e lOIn /;) B: r) r- =- t,) w/// be 0. .:;-t:a1I1tft f/~;, pOlni: Ir (J ) v;.. =0 ~ /)''Ue v;;.::: a i: ## -htJ~ jJo/n t:. Th us) Ir!Jm '1. o ::: A h C"$ 7T +

'.52

I
6.5Z The combination of a unifonn flow and a source can be used to describe flow around a streamlined body called a half-body. (See Video V6.3.) Assume that a certain body has the shape of a half-body with a thickness of 0.5 m. If this body is placed in an air stream moving at 15 mis, what source strength is required to simulate flow around the body?

2rrb

b=
EZ{,9'1

b=
wheye

rn

15

Sf-renJth) (JHd

iheve-/Cye

(/51f)(t',:;)
7.SCJ
/h12.

-S

(P.5'3
A body having the general shape of a half-body is placed in a stream of fluid. At a great distance upstream the velocity is U as shown in Fig. P6.S3. Show how a measurement of the dif ferential pressure between the stagnation point and point A can be used to predict the free-stream velocity, U. Express the pressure differential in terms of U and fluid density. Neglect body forces and assume that the fluid is nonviscous and incompressible.

6.53

FIGURE P6.S3

## !3ernrJulh' esuQ,.fl{)~ bei:ween A- ~ ()iPTxlI ;,

1;1:a.J = ~
It Is f
ql1d

7"

~t ~ 2.
+ 2.-

(I)

\I.: 2. It

='

2. ( /

e,,, s e +

!=.>' ) ;:2If

(~'t.

'./01 )

b (7T-B)
j-=

(E'g . tt..J()" )

05,-;.,
JT
2-

e
So

At

P()/~t

e.:.

7h1J.

t
:::-

t:= A
b 'h
.:

b(rr-I)
SliJ
2-

7Tb
2.
( :l )

r -:z..

7T

IJ

## f [;b . (2) ,rl.f-c)

7. ( /

E j. {,..

10 J

:flf feb

~ :2.: VClnd

+ 0 +

=iz.)
7.. ( /

1n~yt krt!

/rtJl11

J;g . (/)

-F]b.j =

fA

it

T/

+ :; ... ) -

r tJ.7p3

V '-

Thus)

6.54 One end of a pond has a shoreline that resembles a half-body as shown in Fig. P6.S4. A vertical porous pipe is located near the end of the pond so that water can be pumped out. When water is pumped at the rate of 0.08 m 3/s through a 3-m-long pipe, what will be the velocity at point A? Hint: Consider the flow inside a half-body. (See Video V6.3.)

15

m----J

FIGURE P6.sLf

lud.f -Io(!)d~ )

tf -= V- r-SJh B
.::50
QIIP(

"f"

(l2g.

(p,

97)

-that.

VB =- JIl-

~~

:::
:::

.51j"B

77 &;S e
)

.,. .

:tvJ.q,,~

Thus 41:
/

p~J;'

t A

e.::t:J

/-.:: IS'_

l..-B .:: 0
1/:.= r ~:

V+

AN(

~TT(JS)

( /)

!=or

4\

f/()w ra te
~ /-reng'/h J~

## /OI'JJ f Ipe ) the.

Sou rc e

(I:g. '.99)

then
V=
Z1T (S,,")

(P.37

-It M4
xl/)

{g,37 )( 10

;IJ4f

6.5.5*

For the half-body described in Section 6.6.1 show on a plot how the magnitude of the velocity on the surface, V., varies as a function of the distance, s (measured along the surface), from the stagnation point. Use the dimensionless variables V,I U and sl b where U and b are defined in Fig. 6.24.

oj, - TbU

On 1JJ~ Stlr/ttce,

6/
/-=

S/h
2.-1

e
{d.J).1

d5

=:

1((d;<)
!}

wIth

X ::.

t~s

ol1d

!1 =

Y'
-t
of-

5,;, 8-. It
til" S/nB d~
C(),s (}

~1/(JuJ.s ihpt.

d;(.:

## y- (- Sill b) db db = V' (~se) dB

ClitP

there~ye

ds ::

V r '2.(d e)

2.

+- (d yo )

l.

"V
Let
.::s~=

ds -::

~
=

r2-f-

(~)" de
1/6
So

sib
ds;;'

qncl
,

y1' :

7hA. t
~

V{rI'F+(UjZ
5111

de

(I)

r-r~m

E Z.

c.. /fJO
e
r
IS

-de
Th IA S)
'f}u..

dr~_

( rr- B)

C6'J

19

( 2. )

S/n'17

tire / e12jfh

s+

.5~=
O~cP='7T.

//;;1<)'"1- {~/- de
1T

"J lit 11

by
(3)

(e&r/t)

The. ve/oc; ~ .I ~ I (')11 -!he. .s",.fp(~ ~f. th~ hal/-b~J!1 CIt H WI"'I'Hl'11 111 11t~ ft,rm (!)b#//;"" #Om '1. /()/

".

b~

V~=

tis V

=-

D
tlif II

-r 2. I!fJs!, +
j---110

I ] [p,.) l-

~
tf. t. /~O)
,4- fY"()9f'(/ffI /t,y-

Thus I ~Y'
S""
.frpl'II

a..

7Jv't'fJ e )

".-1' 0111

he ~6kllle~ fr~",

el. (3 ) J
V""
1.5

V #- fj..Ptn
4.5

Ef

.flr).

CtlJ~lAla.J-/nJ
1}1e pYf),rlllfl

## V* tls a iul'1c.t.Jl)it fJ/ S'" f,;//()u}s. (Not.~:.I;,

c/e~J9n.kd
V' 41111 S'" QS

S.)

100 c:1""

110 120 130 150 160 170 171 180 190 200 210 220 222
22~

print "*******************************************************" print "** This program calculates the velocity distribution **" print "** over the arc-length of a half body **" print "*******************************************************11 print dim th(18),r(18),s(18),intgd(18),v(18)
pi=~.O*atn(1.0)

226 228 230 232 236 238 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360

n=18 dth=pi/18 s(l)=O. for i=l to n th(i)=pi-(i-1)*dth if i>l then goto 230 r(i)=1. drdth=O. goto 236 r(i)=(pi-th(i))/sin(th(i)) drdth=-(sin(th(i))+(pi-th(i))*cos(th(i)
intgd(i)=(r(i)~2+drdth~2)~0.5

))/sin(th(i))~2

v(i)=(1+2*cos(th(i) )/r(i)+1/r(i)~2)~.5 next i for i=2 to n sum=(intgd(1)+intgd(i))/2 iml=i-l for j=2 to iml sum=sum+intgd(j) next j s(i)=dth*sum next i print" Theta Arc-length Velocity" for i=l to n print using" ###.# ###.#### ###.####";180/pi*th(i),s(i),v(i) next i

(con't )

to.55 W'-I

(~I1t.)

TObU/ofed

da-ta..

(Jlla

A.

fie-/:.

~f

## -the cf4-itA. tire

gnifH be/tJl().

** This program calculate::-. the velocity distribution ** ** over the arc-length of a half body ** *******************************************************
Theta 180.0 170.0 160.0 150.0 140.0 130.0 120.0 110.0 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 Arc-length b 0.0000 ) 0.1751 0.3527 0.5352 0.7255 0.9269 1.1437 1.3811 1.6464 1. 9495 2.3052 2.7366 3.2814: 4,.0079 5.0539 6.74,87 10.14,19 21. 54,87

******************************************************~

..s

Velocit.'}T V5 0.0000 ) U 0.1739 0.3444 0.5078 0.6611 0.8013 0.9257 1. 0322 1. 1192 1.1854 1.2306 1.254:7 1.2588 1. 24,42 1. 2134 1.1693 1.1159 1.0577

1.5

.......

~
...c
U
~

::>

r
1.01-

>0

.,
c::

>

0.5 h

Gl Gl III
~

...c
III

c::

Gl

E ...c

0.0

-0.5~

____

____

I~

__

~~~

__

~~

__

~~

__

~~~

____

~i

____

____

10

15

20

25

Dimensionless erc-length.

sIb

Consider a uniform flow with velocity V in the positive x-direction combined with two free vortices of equal strength located along the y-axis. Let one vortex located at y = a be a clockwise vortex (1jJ = K In r) and the other at y = - a be a counterclockwise vortex, where K is a positive constant. It can be shown by plotting streamlines that for Val K < 2 the streamline IjJ = 0 forms a closed contour, as shown in Fig. P6.56. Thus, this combination can be used to represent flow around a family of bodies (called Kelvin ovals). Show, with the aid of a graph, how the dimensionless height, HI a, varies with the parameter ValK in the range 0.3 < ValK < 1.75.

".5''''

----L-l----t:--",.L1---x

--

_7/

(I)

e ,&.

(/) Illul
2-

## yk: H~. tttUP..f,f)fl

(I)
( 2.)

(.!j -t j)
t;,y
A

(-* -I)).
:Jlec;';;~1fJI va/1ft ~I Va./k 1=1.L2) ~11 1)(: S'tJ/tleA b'1 ~ +r/~j tfnll err~r :)o/(.('h{;11 /0 t'6-klfl HI),. 5 IPme -itJ/;ulak4 till/ties Alit( the
~6?rre~ff)I1I"i1j'

tjl"R,lJ1J tJre

w;'th

rl9 II t

A4nd Side

be de term/ned frf!)fYJ Fg. '.IOC, .h:J I/Q/"Ie ~.... -/"/It.. Cfl1d CtPmlflY'e ~f E$. to. It) ~. (See -& J,1e. J,(, IDw. ) -:. C!J. ZSo ~ [(4)' - IJfa h O. 2~9 r (!>.l~) fJ 2. 0.25"'1 ~. t).2'Z 25"2 o. 2S"I. ~ O. 25"3 0.25"0 use Thus) ~ ~ a., D.ZS3 al1c/ -thickness - 2J. = 2. (".ft)(~. 25"3) 3. a'l- -fi: 6.58* Make use of Eqs. 6.107 and 6.109 to construct a table showing how (ila, hla, and rJh for Rankine ovals depend on the parameter n Val m. Plot h versus n Val m and describe how this plot could be used to obtain the required values of m and a for a Rankine oval having a specific value of rand h when placed in a uniform fluid stream of velocity, V. rl cauf w h{)Y~ Itl1fl1t ()f. the hody I~ Z), tlnd the W/dth IS z~. /r;r tt J /vtl1 /l'p/ue e>f 'IT 7/tt, //1'11, F'f. (P. /07 Cfln b~ Jt!)jtJed /r,y .i/a / dlU{ Ef. ,./tJ/f CIII1 be .s~/i/fd ("SJ~.f 4n ~ ceY'l-ft:Iff)d jJYtJcetlu~) kr ~/~. The Yllt-/o ~/-i Mn 1Jtel1 be dekrmll1f4. the ## jJr011"1I1')1 iDy Ck/~"lgl/111 t/a) of 7T V tJ.-/11?1 ~//()IVS. Ii- -A/a., "Nd l/J as t1 htnc-I:I()~ :00 c15 2.. 10 pc:int, "* *~: *:+ * *** ** * * * * ** ** * * ** ** * * * ** ** *** *:j: * * *:t. * * * * *:t: * * ~,: I' :L2'J print. "** This program calculates l/a, h/a, and l/h as a **" 130 p:r:'int "** f1.lnct,ie,n of pi*U*a/m fOT Rankine ovals :tic" 150 print. II ** *** **** **** * ********** * ** *>l:******ll: **:k ****:**:)1:0+ *' *:t:** * *''' 160 print 162 print "pi*U*a/m l/a h/a 1/h" 168 data 10.0.5.0,1.0,0.5.0.1.0.05,0.01 170 for i=l to 7 172 st.art.=O. 001 175 read a 180 la=(1!a+1)~.5 190 for has=start to 10.0 step 0.0001 210 ha=O.5*(has 2-1)*tan(2*a*has) 220 if abs(1-has/ha)<O.002 and ha>O then goto 230 222 next has 230 lh=la/ha 250 print using "##.#### ##.#### ##.#### ##.####";a,la,ha,lh 255 start=ha 260 next i ** '" ## Tabu/pted dabJ.. a"d g/l/fl1 be/otV. I( pi,,-/:. ()f- lit. as ## a. .ffl11~t/~n Df 7T'Tr~/m1 tire ## r****************************************************** **' This program calculates lla, h/a. and l/h as a ** 1'* function of pi*U*a/m for Rankine ovals ** ******************************************************* !:i:tU*a/m 10.0000 5.0000 1.0000 0.5000 0.1000 0.0500 0.0100 10 1 ## l/a 1.01,,88 1. 0951" 1.411,,2 1. 7321 3.3166 1".5826 10.01,,99 ## h/a 0.11,,27 0.2632 0.8601" 1.301,,2 3.1022 1".1,,227 9.9538 ## l/h 7.3,*83 1".1623 1.61,,37 1.3281 1.0691 1.0362 1.0096 10 -2 10 -1 For (J) (2.) tA. f!6;U/d 6~ Rfll1KIIJe O{/4! ~//OWftl It; iAJl1H 1. tinA i. ## :spec.;!J(~d the IoJJf)wJn~ s.J..eps det:.fJl'InI!1e. ## /Yn and 4..: ## /7;.". a. 9Jvfl1 1.1.Jr. from -nte. gl"aph. ## d~i:.f~/7J'I1e 7J,e reSIJIN'd value t:Jf 7l[r1Z)m (....3) tI~/I1.1 111/~ J/p/ue ~f 7rD"~ //1'11 ~h/cLtla;i:e 1~ +-1'{)1I1 Eg. ,. /" 7. W/1h 'the. VII/we of .ellt. c1eiermJ~e~1 tlnd ,R. :Jj>f'C,'tl p'd) dei:.frI11Ji1e the /,It} the '!I4/we !)f a.. LIf) 0;171 7T77a/,m Clnd a.. de tf}l'm,He'!.; /.5 -1r110WJ1/ Q 11 d lue 0-1 f t?11 ## /r;r ~ jlVfJ1 1/ the u1m /s f;.xe4. I/p/U(! 6.5"'f Assume that the flow around the long circular cylinder of Fig. P6.59 is nonviscous and incompressible. Two pressures, PI and P2, are measured on the surface of the cylinder, as illustrated. It is proposed that the free-stream velocity. U. can be related to the pressure difference /)./) = fJl - fJ2 by the equation u~c~ where p is the fluid density. Determine the value of the constant C. Neglect body forces. FIGURE P6.59 si:a.5n4. tlon = -P'2. + ~ 1., (I) r:,2:: .2.. -J: ;0 So (3 U:t) = -j-!, l! <. u: 1hey~~t"e )ffy~. r; c= V-f 6.60 An ideal fluid flows past an infinitely long semicircular "hump" located along a plane boundary as shown in Fig. P6.60. Far from the hump the velocity field is uniform, and the pressure is Po. (a) Determin~expressions for the max- V, Po imum and minimum values of the pressure along the hump, and indicate where these points are located. Express your answer in terms of p, U, and Po. (b) If the solid surface is the'll = 0 streamline, determine the equation of the streamline passing through the point () = n/2, r = 2a. ---- FIGURE P6.60 ( ~) ()1'1 ## ine suv-1ace cf' ihe hump) 1;. = 1:," ;/ l/ The. (/11 (I - J{. si.'-a)$1;" 8::0)

max.IYnU/?? pY"e.sst-ft"'e

Dec.fAY'S

0hef'e

~Y"

a..-t
0-#/

t9.:q 71;

4.-t 1'hese..

f~;n-l=s

1; (rm ~IJ(.)
rn, n I rn III rn
A

10 +

~! V'-

(ILt

t9 =(J

7T )

. .

f~t5S u Y'~

t71{5

!Dln t
:1h( J1e,14h~e
..JCI

1: (mlln ) :.s
(.b)

(4.-1: e:::
d/t'Pc.b()~ )

r)

## ;:;r un/form f/r;w

In

If:: -

r (I - f:~~).r ~ a
the
dey/vA-flO;' ~I g. ~.JI:;').

## d;5C"SS/~J11 as.s(!)~,ate'" w,f;.,

~-v-r(l- _ r'ttl

-a..)SII,B .

6.61 Water flows around a 6-ft diameter bridge pier with a velocity of 12 ftls. Estimate the force (per unit length) that the water exerts on the pier. Assume that the flow can be approximated as an ideal fluid flow around the front half of the cylinder, but due to flow separation (see Video V6.4), the average pressure on the rear half is constant and approximately equal to 1/2 the pressure at point A (see Fig. P6.61).

~----

u= 12ftls

.. FIGURE P6.61

-----

hJ.
~I?

'.2.~

t"t

!-o11"lJ/!
t.3

7nA.-t

-t:he drttj

C{
tA

.sec..i::/~J#J
Clrcw/(lY

(~twei'h 6)=0

C/J;'Jj(

,9=""J
17te.
~JU4.i:-/~'11

of

clj/lnt/fY'

7 1 ,,1('110<."'1
C)

DrP.J ~
;::;1" 1;,(:,

~ =
.j;.P4-t.

-1 t ep~t9
rrt)/n

",dB

-k>l'ce

6)n

me

hq/f ~ ~e c.ylln/fr

## <Per III'I//: lei1flh)

OJ

r::;.::- - z
(
Dill!.

j; ~s ~ ~ d t9 1T/z
e;:(
6:.. lib

t1t{e

/::0

SrrnlJ'Jel-rlj

~ =tJ.

f.s = ~
d.l1P< sinCe
V-J(..

-t

;! u ~ (; II1.fert's/-PII
I",
7r

If
1lt~

.51;' 2-!) )

rEt.
6-0

6,J16)

(Ire.

tPl1/~
h/of!

-brce ci(.(e
/

fh~ //PUlIJ,j

;:/,,/d

(VIII
2.

1/2.

h~hn 5!.f))
( Z)

1-;1 =

i
Chid

'IT

f -1;
'11lz
7T

(J -I

## 't .5/~ 1.f) ) cpse v... de

t-t;.sBdB == :5/"P

1!/z.

'1f/,

jf~3f}lIT

7T~

.: -j

('-70

~. ' I

{(!or;'i )
It
f,;1/()IIIS

t:XI ~
lV()f~

## .,0 U-za. (.3

slid /nciJcJi:-er %,.+ 1I1~ wlry J~ a c&all.!/ 'P4IFn.:; DI1 1J!e. c..rlOftlPy (,frpl1t h4/f) I'; tHe upst:re/lm c/1J'f'c:bf)I"'I. I-I-e>wevt~ (,Jhe It the -e .f.fe~1:.. of- t'lte Y'eIiY holf' of the ClfIJIfAel'" 6 tAJcPI1 Inib aC~ilJ1i (lit ct YPtd Flu,'d) -then fu,'ll be A net drtlj in til, dlYer;hD/f oI-f/lJlJJ.
It

a/,(&(

1ht

fl'/tK ""

{ig . . IJ~

## SInce. A-o ~ lJi)fo( 1),/-r ~n~

PA- :; - ""i! if
1ne.
~t

1-

/J@Jllt/iI~ P(~.5S{,4Y.f

w,l/ '1JJt..
~

4.

/:; : -

SC f'n .. /;.

~ >< Z

~ L

## t- ::: .1 Ii< 7.. If

1/ (2.a.){I) :: 1: fD u-

'1.

f:;.

= ~I
= _

+ ~lp. V-~ +
3

- ffrJ').~
[,.u I ~

-In e datA fJ I ~e 11 )

## t-; =7; (J.1~ ~: )(t2 ;~) 2(3 h)

fo-11

Consider the steady potential flow around the circular cylinder shown in Fig. 6.26. Show on a plot the variation of the magnitude 'Of the dimensionless fluid velocity, VI V, along the positive y axis. At what distance, yla (along the y axis), is the velocity within 1 % of the free-stream velocity?

6.62*

-:~
I.J./on,
D

-the

!1-I1;(JS

f 1I1e.

~e/I!)c.;ff1)

V,

## 1I'j..=O So th4t The m4'}fJrl-~de. i...J e!/IAI -fa /118/' J I;;Ut!..

- V- (/ + ;-:)

SIn b

(Pt. ~.JIG')

(a=:) r;::f;j)

/+

/+

/ (-1:)~

100 110 print "* * * ***-*- * *- *- * * * * *-* * * *- ** ** * ** * *' *:t: *- *- *- *- *- *- ** * * * * * * * * * * *:1''' 120 print "** This program calculates t.he velocit.:,r profile **n 130 print fI*:j( on the +y-axis for flow ar()und a cylinder **" 1~0 print. !! **:t:or. *:0: ** * * ** * * * *- * * ** *)\: ** *:I::;j: * *- * *;~ * *- ** * *- * ** * *)1: *;1: *:t." 150 print 155 print " y/a V/U" 160 for ya=1.0 to 10.0 170 u=1+1/ya~2 180 print using "##.## #.####";ya,u 190 next ya

( UJ:'J

t)

t. -72.

(C4'JI'/t)

da,ipS(Jfl1

(j

a.

## ** on the +y-axis for flow around a cylinder ** **************************************************

y/a 1. 00 2.00 3.00 4:.00 :).00
E,.OO 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

**'

~*************************************************

## Thi:: program calculat.es the velocits profile

**

V/U
2.0000 1.2500 1.1111 1.0625 1.04:00 1.0278 1.0204: 1.0156 1. 0123 1. 0100

2.0~--------------------------------------------------------,

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

11

y/a

6.63

The velocity potential for a cylinder (Fig. P6.63) rotating in a uniform stream of fluid is

= Ur

(1 + ;:)

cos 0 + ;n ()

where r is the circulation. For what value of the circulation will the stagnation point be located at: (a) point A, (b) point B?

FIGURE P6.63

(1

(a.)

(.I:, )

II I /"f' r;

~/l1t

/3.)

e. S~j ('::

371'
2..

7TlIa

S;'n

A fixed circular cylinder of infinite length is placed in a steady, uniform stream of an incompressible, nonviscous fluid. Assume that the flow is irrotational. Prove that the drag on the cylinder is zero. Neglect body forces.

6. b Lf

D"fl~

: F; : -

f. 1's

:J.rr
eeS(J

~ de
tf

fs :: ~ + -it [/2(1 -

S/~~f))

( Eg. ,.

"I, )

[
=
s,~ (;}
. 3

f.
f
C>

27T

Css t7 dB

2.7r
S I j,

~ ~ ~s e dB ~

J2.
o

lT

=0

## if f.o Jj DW5 ih(l. -t.

Drlt j = 0

_.

Repeat Problem 6.~4 for a rotating cylinder for which the stream function and velocity potential are given by Eqs. 6.119 and 6.120, respectively. Verify that the lift is not zero and can be expressed by Eq. 6.124.

6. ~S

27T

Dr-tl') '"

F;,. " - [
~ITI

CfJSI9 a. dt9

t = -fo +

1.2.('

( / - if

. ~~
5111 l7 of-

2f1s/nB

7r~ TJ

I
u

,ll

lrr

C!JS
2'Jr

de '"

sin

17].
~
3
3

=0

1. :;IM"'~

Cilsede- "

J
0

2T
'="0

z1/

DY'a.~

=0

,.17"

5/~e de =
3

J ~:iH
)

e de .de "

i s/~"e
"jJ

## J-t !cIJoW5 1h().-t.

~-71

6." ~

A source of strength m is located a distance etrom a vertical solid wall as shown in Fig. P6.G,b. The velocity potential for this incompressible, irrotational flow is given by
<P = 4n {In[(x -

e)2 + y2]

## + In[(x + e)2 + y2]}

(a) Show that there is no flow through the wall. (b) Determine the velocity distribution along the wall. (c) Determine the pressure distribution along the wall, assuming p = po far from the source. Neglect the effect of the fluid weight on the pressure.

~e-i
FIGURE P6.l,.~

(A)

= ~rJ
~x.
::

S/~Ce. )

## Ix 1., [ ex -;./"+ ~.]

2 ( x-~

)
"J..

(~_). ) ~ -t ~
2. ()(11.)

QYltA.

~ f. n [l;<. 1-1 ) ~ j ~J =
Mt

ex -rQ )
2

';l.

+-.!:J'l..

It 10 /J()WS 1tll. t
U:
-Jf7r

[2. ex -.e )

C;{ -t..e )

J
o

Thus theye
)

IS

o/f!)IJJ
1r=
/AJa 1/)
~tfi

Wa

IJ

(b)

Tn!

l/eJ~c~+j

V. w- :. 7T

Slhce

dlj

Cln d

U)I'th

the.
t1?1

## (il v'f? '"

[

tie 1t:)'/~
+

ftJ

leI''':'' ~ /

7/=

'fTr

4 ~ ( x-}) '2-r!:J 2-

(x+J)l. + ~ ~

z~

/)

( c.~J1't )
'-7B

( 2)

( ~)

!=; y

Ir~m ih(!.

1;) =f;;
+

Qh

V ~ ().

Th us J

-PO _ -Pur 7 - 7
whey-e.

V;
2.d
1.J4/})

## fw- l".s the fyeS5Uye ai the

.s~

1h4i

PJ,r:: ~ -

-1! VIu-

'J.

A long porous pipe runs parallel to a horizontal plane surface as shown in Fig. P6'(.1. The longitudinal axis of the pipe is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Water flows radially from the pipe at a rate of 0.5 IT ft 3 /s per foot of pipe. Determine the difference in pressure (in lb/ ft2) between point B and point A. The flow from the pipe may be approximated by a two-dimensional source. Hint: To develop the stream function or velocity potential for this type of flow, place (symmetrically) another equal source on the other side of the wall. With this combination there is no flow across the x-axis, and this axis can be replaced with a solid boundary. This technique is called the method of images.

6.t. 7

sou.,.,e )

/s
.sh~wn

~ .".".

2n

1"''2-

rnea.suJI'ed

;".I!)fYJ

## -fne SOl.{r,e. W,"th

the. C.tJOJl'dIl1~/e

/n
r?.:

fi9ure
X"2.+ {'j_3)2.
/ ()Wtt"

C/ lui

t'2.:

sou rre )

so -inA. t

l' = ~ f..en [x
u=
()X

~r

--the.

C!t9mblnt'c/
2

S(U(Y"ces

+ (!j-3

2.><
)(2

and

()

[ ;("Z

(~-:3) 2.]

-+ (f;j-3)
2)(

l-

;;;<

)(2.+

(:;'1"3) 1-

/1:.

/0//"w.s -thai

WII/I) '1

=0,
=

Vw-

= u

n;; (-X-'2.
't )

1/

=0

and

lf

--r-i..q- )

( Con

At

f()Jn

A)
VW-A

x.:.

Jj.

It)
Jf- 7T

find

wJ1'h
Lf

/'YY1

=-

0.57'

O. SIT

t;ta. [

(~Pt.)
2.

## (If- -Pi:) '1. + 9 -PI:.

J-_~

-2.)
:ft
S

.2 5"

At- p{)/n t B)

x. =0
V'/(r/3

an d

=0
~

irtJm

the
1>13
5

/3ern()ulj i
Vt.crB::
:L~

-+ -

Or

~-~ =
::

J..L
2

VWA
Jb)

.2.

(~2.IfH3 :L (32. 2 ~ )

(3.

fE)

.2-

## O. OOG> 2t> psf

25'S

6.68 At a certain point at the beach, the coast line makes a right angle bend as shown in Fig. 6.68a. The flow of salt water in this bend can be approximated by the potential flow of an incompressible fluid in a right angle comer. (a) Show that the stream function for this flow is I/J = A r2 sin 28, where A is a positive constant. (b) A fresh water reservoir is located in the comer. The salt water is to be kept away from the reservoir to avoid any possible seepage of salt water into the fresh water (Fig. 6.68b). The fresh water source can be approximated as a line source having a strength m, where m is the volume rate of flow (per unit length) emanating from the source. Detennine m if the salt water is not to get closer than a distance L to the corner. Hint: Find the value of m (in tenns of A and L) so that a stagnation point occurs at y = L. (c) The streamline passing through the stagnation point would represent the line dividing the fresh water from the salt water. Plot this streamline.

source
(a)

(b)

FIGURE P6.68

(a)

f;r

1n~ 1lve~

$f-rtam fun(.:f/~A) ## = A- r 2$;"1 '2 e9if=-o

~,(
(JHP.

a/tin,

().=()

B-=-rr/2,
(!,(JI'I

lP=o ,
be

replac.eeA lv/Tn. a. "5&/;" b~Jllu'"y't 4/(!)A1 4Jh,;;'h the Sfrefll?f -Iunc.-tItP~ r1tJJr bt ~n$hnf. 7}J/5 b"u.;;tdf(Y"~ .j;;rmJ ~ Y"lint tlJllfJe. Allit 1'nff'e,/rJle Ink! sf-reAm ful1(...I-,D /I Cfln b" U$~~ fD yefr~.sfnf ft4~ JJ4' ~ YO/ill! qrtfle ~rl')er.
B,. 17'/2.
(J:;)

5'/1'l'~

11::::'

1 r

a..b

t9:: -rr/'l,..
1;-: :: 2 A

r Uls7T

=- ZA-r
1')?1

Zvr
To
J~ I;Cr-t (L ~fL
Ct

~ 1-1t7"lVbf)H

"lrr

## = 11';.1 (~tp" 't

b-B2..

( CfJl1't)

2. hL

- 2.7rL

/n1

tjJ= A-r2.s/~'2.B -t
CI n a.
IA-Jl' th

g ()

rrn =: If rrA-L"l.

## ljJ= ,A-;-2Sln 28 T lAL!'e

The
~4/ue "l /jJ 41- the. SJ.afnaf/~~ ~Int (r=L) G::: tr/z ) J~

'&/ A L2
= ,4L
Th'-lJ)

;J (JVax 'it

-t

l.(.

~x .,. V ~!J
T

dtr

## Jtr) - a!1 d (JU ~"t

~
~-z..

dIA. ax
-t

v- d ~
d':J'L

JI.(.)

~ [ d (~ 1. tr ]X. ~X'L

"1

V-)

d ( ~ 't (,.(
o}('L

d'1. '-<.

)J

(3)

'8~ cJe//","/-,()i1

f~:~-r-;
Re-wr;te
Et(.3}
~

~v-

;;I..L

r;j,-/;g/h
)

- ,X
C>
~t:

-+

v-

& '""i

e'"

a>< - ~

(j,,)

( If)

7[ at
~7..

(o~

ax. - J;

dU

~!J 'I.

b-87

(P, 7/

01

## pqyen thR SI'S

~ fiL = J!}
CtV1

In

Erg.

(If)

lor

t
(S)

D f~

d~ tit

tA.

afr
a"><.

-r7.J'"

h.(~ ;0 J.x2..
be

+~

d'f. )
J.!:J 2.-

The I eli

f:J

icJe

of

~ Z.(5)

expyessed a. s
IS

f'slJe' G!.lf.S)

-Dt

t.J here

the

~teyab:;r

D ()

1hf!

mtJfenid
~h

Dt

de f"iva tille

Th e rl ~ h 1:; ha J1 d

s; eJ

t.

E ~ . (5)

b-e

ex.pYessed as

-v
where
-V =)L~

V2. ~
So

thai

E''!. tG")
.z
QJ1c/

~"11 b~

tdr/fltH I~

nfz :: Dt
Fo y
a.

-V

l7~
J

1'Jt:n{//~C.()u..s
-

.{/uid
Df:
-=0

-zj=a J

111

Thu Cq.s-t!

D f1:-

Th us ) -{O.,..

a..

fwo- ttllmpI151OA4J

+/~w

I){

On

Ji1~ompt~.s5aJ/p

-In e.
as t't

c.hal1/1
f?1 ()

/H

the.

## /-Iu,'d j)rut,cJe is -,.fl"o.

lies

ih Y'~"9h the..

!..jaw It'eld

~.72.

I
6.72
The velocity of a fluid particle moving along a horizontal streamline that coincides with the x axis in a plane, two-dimensional incompressible flow field was experimentally found to be described by the equation u = x 2 Along this streamline determine an expression for: (a) the rate of change of the v-component of velocity with respect to y; (b) the acceleration of the particle; and (c) the pressure gradient in the x direction. The fluid is Newtonian.

(~) From

-the

C4Jni./~ul'-f!:t e8ua.tl~~)
c;u

ox.

"1'

~V'"'-o ~ -

.so tn~ t:

tv

in

u. = )(

:z..
-;LX
(/)

## ?;tr _~ ~:: oJ<

A/so) ~g .II)

Cal-(

btl ;".f.@9Y'4ftM

OJ,-i-4/~

Jel 11'"
SIHce the
X-fiX/J

=is
Jo

J- z~ d!1
z)(:; +
0.

1r::: -

f-l)l.)
o;tiJ

## .s/-Ytlll'l1/Jhe) r=o 4/"11, "this

(J/I1~

theV'ekl"t.
(b)

(;<)::: 0

-tit. t:
-zx';j

'1r

'.73

6. 13 Two horizontal, infinite, parallel plates are spaced a distance b apart. A viscous liquid is contained between the plates. The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves parallel to the bottom plate with a velocity U. Because of the no-slip boundary condition (see Video V6.5), the liquid motion is caused by the liquid being dragged along by the moving boundary. There is no pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Note that this is a so-called simple Couetle flow discussed in Section 6.9.2. (a) Start with the NavierStokes equations and determine the velocity distribution between the plates. (b) Determine an expression for the flow rate passing between the plates (for a unit width). Express your answer in terms of band U.

T"
b

Ii' I

1/ >t

It

77 7

7 I

7 I I I n-X

J:/ )(~d

pJ ..-le.

(a.. )

7JJz
..50

)2.k,

_
-0

1hd
'j=D
fA. ='0

U::: C,

j -t Cz.
C/ ==];
V

At

TheYekre J

u.-= V and
fA..

!J
=

(1:,)

c;::

f
0

u (I) d:J

J;

f~ ':J d::;
0

E~f j,
2.
0

Vb
2..

where

'6

## is 111 e. flDwra te per unit- WIdth

r;.71f

I
6.74 Oil (SAE 30) at 15.6 C flows steadily between fixed, horizontal, parallel plates. The pressure drop per unit length along the channel is 20 kPa/m, and the distance between the plates is 4mm. The flow is laminar. Determine: (a) the volume rate of flow (per meter of width), (b) the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress acting on the bottom plate, and (c) the velocity along the centerline of the channel.

(k)

1-~)( Sln'~
all1d

I (tJ/,i. ~
I

~tr)
-r

~;<.

(Eg.

b.J2!i"J.)

lA.. :- -

').)A

-.......

op aX

;f

~k a ':1 -

~ ~x

eE (Z!1 )
~ ('1)

Ot..r

a.x

-=0

## and -theY'e kwe

Tj,x. ::

At- the boll-om pia ie) '1 =-,,. ) (/11 d S il1 C(! ~ ~x. ......:\.. =: 61' (-R,):: (ZO;<I03.1Y.-a)(Z'(JO~'/YYI) L'jJ<
;. /WI

::

- J

(C )

(2.81

xlO

-If

~)

## (Z)(Z)( IO-3M-{ ')

- D.

105

fD75

I
6.75 Two fixed, horizontal, parallel plates are spaced 0.2 in. apart. A viscous liquid (J-L = 8 x 1O-3 lb s/fr-, SG = 0.9) flows between the plates with a mean velocity of 0.7 ft/s. Determine the pressure drop per unit length in the direction of flow. What is the maximum velocity in the channel?

Tn r.(5)

~ i ..

= 1. If 2 ~z. p.,,..It::

'3 ::: 2:

(P-b) 0.7 5 =

I.05

tt S

6.710 A layer of viscous liquid of constant thickness (no velocity perpendicular to plate) flows steadily down an infinite, inclined plane. Determine, by means of the Navier-Stokes equations, the relationship between the thickness of the layer and the discharge per unit width. The flow is laminar, and assume air resistance is negligible so that the shearing stress at the free surface is zero.

3)1. = 3
w/th
7/':0
J

S/11

d...

the

UJoyd'l14.t~
J

~'1s/-em
1l1e

Sh"Wh

t..cr::O

and

#()fl1

eLJl1tinuif!J e.tJtl4:i:IOH ~
()

froM -the

eJ/

## ,it the hjUye

() = _ i j
fJ.x.

1'1}
(f

Slit

+j

dZu

d!J

(I)

2-

A-/~o) s Jj.,{~ there /S 4(. free slwface there CtiIfMt. be a. pre.ssf.lY-e,. jYrJdlent Ih the X-dlY'ecf/~H So -h.c.i: E..e -= 0 Qut/ E'I. (I) L.1L, axCqh
De.
wrt 7T~11

I/lS

( Z)

6:,-1'3

(P.77
Direction of flow

6.77

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows be-; tween the two infinite, vertical, parallel plates of Fig. P6.11. Determine, by use of the NavierStokes equations, an expression for the pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Express your answer in terms of the mean velocity. Assume that the flow is laminar, steady, and uniform.

~h+h~
FIGURE P6.17

With the ~f'dtn4~e .j,/.stem ~hf)UJn t<. = 0) W- = 0 C(lId .frt!Jm 111e UJni/nu/f!:1 (Aa.I::/~J1 ; : ; = o Th liS) rr"m 11te !/- UJmjJDJ1bl'"i of -the Nllllley-SlDk~.s -ejtlal-ID;"~ (EI ~.1Z.1h)) tul1Jt ~:J -= -J)

ez

-h -f3

Jp

+;-

cJ 2 tr
d;<'2.

(I)

## S/I1C~ 'fhe ,"~~stlye is I'}()t a h(J1(:.-b~n be wl"iHeJ1 IJs d 2 v- _ .p

01 .x.) '1'

1/)

C/l11

(t.Jhe~e

P =

# +;03)

-tlfi'L -/ol1d
dt.r:: d.JL

J:;1!)f)1

of

1,.

s'f/7J/nelr~
(2)

~if1/d.s

~r =c

r o.t:

/nff?rp/-en P X T C,
x=
(J

( Z)

.j~

Thu5

w/1'J-,

v
'!hai

V= 2:h
~
'4!:J -

## (me~Yl veJocj~ ) 9ivel1 <!- = J..E -I.. "2.

3 /'-

r..78
6.78 A fluid of density p flows steadily downward between the two vertical infinite, parallel

plates shown in the figurefor Problem 6:17. The flow is fully developed and laminar. Make use of the Navier-Stokes equation to determine the relationship between the discharge and the other parameters involved, for the case in which the change in pressure along the channel is zero.

See.

Problem

to. 8 3

where

J5

Z=

'2.

p-l3

.f = P':J !.e

+/,q.
~

Thus)
3~g 2.. J

~ +/J - "to

-It.

CJp =

TY

-3

2.

11. -fJ

!=b~

':;

=0

## (lIo/:e: Jj,(! ne!ah;,~ SI'!), iJ1dlC4ks -fh4t 1Ite d'l"e"tJ(/n ~( IIf)W

l?1us t: b.fl
d"wnw~lIeI

.f.o

create.

6.79 Due to the no-slip condition, as a solid is pulled out of a viscous liquid some of the liquid is also pulled along as described in Example 6.9 and shown in Videu V6.S. Based on the results given in Example 6.9, show on a dimensionless plot the velocity distribution in the fluid film (vIVo vs. x/h) when the average film velocity, V, is 10% of the belt velocity, Vo.

en

( 3)

(Lf' )

r",.,,,,
tlnll

e1.(3)

eZ.

(If)

V. ~ J.

~''U1

~VD

(J J:..~

2.7

wr, HfH
1_

a.S
J

3S

(f. )
I
I

27 [~ ) +

## A pia+- ~ f. -tn(! I/~ /Oc./-hJ c/I'flt-vi 6/.(.J-/~1'I

xlh

o
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

vNo
1.000 0.744 0.514 0.312 0.136 -0.013 -0.134 -0.229 -0.296 -0.337 -0.350
1.500 ,---,----,---r--...,.--,----,-..,---,----.----. ! i 1.000
<>0 0.500

f'...

l_
~.,........,.-...,....."....--,

0.000

-1--+--+-+--~

lr-....t-..,. i

-0.500 -I--......!-I--L._.L...--L-~!----l_..l.---L---L--I

___~"...__-I---t--4----l -I~~:...-;Lj.

0.5 x1h

~ Calculated from

~-~~------------'

Eq. (5)

G,.FO

An incompressible, viscous fluid IS placed between horizontal, infinite, parallel plates as is shown in Fig. P6.80. The two plates move in opposite directions with constant velocities, VI and V 2 , as shown. The pressure gradient in the x direction is zero and the only body force is due to the fluid weight. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to derive an expression for the velocity distribution between the plates. Assume laminar flow.

6.80

FIGURE P6.80

RPr fne
Sa

:steel h iod

c~l1di .J-IDt1~)

=")

w-:: 0 ,)

p,l(.

tit:.

1:111"

! :: 0

J(.,)

e'l"lttJol1S

## In.f-e1rll 6,p;' t!J.f-

Gr

d zf.,( d!J 2.
(I)

.:.

u)

7Ie/cis
J
of ("2.
( 2.)

U:- ~

:J= 'J

0)

u.. =--L{

c
F;; r
=.

J.

=- - V ~
~o

b)

fA.. '::

V,

1ha t

V;=C,h-~

c=
I

u; -t u;. ) u..= ( b

t;J

"

Two immiscible, incompressible, viscous fluids having the same densities but different viscosities are contained between two infinite, horizontal, parallel plates (Fig. P6.E,J . The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves with a constant velocity U. Determine the velocity at the interface. Express your answer in terms of V, 111 ~ and 112' The motion of the fluid is caused entirely by the movement of the upper plate; that is, there is no pressure gradient in the x direction. The fluid velocity and shearing stress is continuous across the interface between the two fluids. Assume laminar flow.

6.81

Fixed

plate

FIGURE P6.81

the. spec/hed C~lId;'tloIf.SJ 7/::: 0 ; w-:::0.l if. :'0j QHIiI Ix. =oJ -Se> '/hat the x- ~mf()nMt of th~ IVallier-5fDkes -esaa:l:loHs (E?fJ. ',/Z711) -hI- e/they fht! up~Y tJr IOIVIY laffer vedtlces t.o
/=r;r
-

dzu

d!J

':0

(I)

J,.

I.nk~rA:ti"lt

~I

E S.
tJt~

(/)

fj/e/ds
e/fhev
J alJ"'Y".

u=A-~ -f8
fA.)

h ;c h '1 Jiles
the

lIe/f)c/-ht dt.sfn~ktIDN
'j:= 2 -'.) '"

it

r",
W

## uppey /4. reY' atI

= Z7

.so

/ha.:t

B -: V - A, (2.1,)

U I -::

B2Z

=0
Jl'eier.s +0 the
JOOty

JaY-iV'. Thus)

AI

( ':J - 2

t..) +- 7J

tlnu

fA 2.

= A'2,

~
Jo
.::

AI:

'J='{

U, ::: U2

1ha-l:

AI (~-Z.h) + U

AI. --{
(c'()n

",...

A:z - -A I

't )

(z )

( CI)I1'i )

S/~(e

## 1h(. lIeJ()C"-ht chs'frJ'blll:lDh IS /'~elll' '11 e~c.h Jtl~er

5he~Y'/n, ~fYi.s.s

he
Is
a J1 eI

"f-..

L':Jx

-jA.

( J u. .,. Ii J ~)x

tr)::

/-

.u. .i!::
d!J

L; ~ /-1 A,
laf'
the
)tJWdy

/tl'1fY'

Li

":!

jJ,. A
~ .z.

2.

",... ., =ft, -

## Co,.J.,a -I: lit

PI A, -=)tz. A

I-

liz. -

l:!-~

~,

6.82 The viscous, incomp.r0:Jslb1e flow between the parallel plates shown in Fig. P6.8~ is caused by both the motion of the bottom plate and a pressure gradient, iJp/iJx. As noted in Section 6.9.2, an important dimensionless parameter for this type of problem is P = -(b 212 p.U) (iJp/iJx) where p. is the fluid viscosity. Make a plot of the dimensionless velocity distribution (similar to that shown in Fig. 6.31b) for P = 3. For this case where does the maximum velocity occur?

Fixed plate

u
FIGURE P6.82

U ': ~

(dP) 2 ~ ':f t
Jo "'1}t1A..i:

-t

~L

At

t.< :'

Cz. ::-

v:

A -I:

C, :: -

/)..1"

.J. (lj") b _ ~
~;< /

u -

[,r

(1 - ~)
'::J

,
SII1C<)

t I

(I)

## h"'- ('?i') P=-ii rr ~

Can

1:1 . (I)

b<

wr/ffel'1 as.
];
~

u. ... - -p(t)(l-)-f7
IJ/$( 2.) p/oi 6/ -this sh()wn. On VI! / ~(..; ## +rt chsf(; b/.( -tIC ';" loy P =- 3 p4.J<! . ## -h1t!. .ft, / /() u) I n' , , - 100 u/U 1 1.17 y/b 0.1 1.2 1.28 1.33 0.2 0.3 0.4 ..,--.,--,...---,-\---,..--,----r--,--;-\-,--,-I----r--,---'I,--;-1 - , ## 1.32 1.25 1.12 0.93 0.68 0.37 , To ## 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 ## It~:~1 I! ~ O. 6 +---+-+-+----+----+-----j---I----l----tl---i~..... ~d~-----r--T!-----j 0.4 +-+--+-+-+--+-+-+--1--+,-+-----+----i--1'l}l-tI, --j 0.2 +-+----+--+--+----+--+---+---t----t--t__ -t-~--r-::~-,r--:-I--j 0-l--...I....-...I....-.L.....-.L.....-j---!l.--J----1--L---'-=:;.l..---,----,---,--; 1 0.8 t:tl~~j;~t:r:[' JI=JI=JI=I!=rI=L ~i I! I i 1 , 1 0.5 1 u/U 1.5 ## Calculated from Eq. (2) with P =3. L-____________________________________ i de. krrrlJ~.c. whp,,< fh{ )114)(1I1U011 V )0(, I ~ DC'" C ..O" c/,/ft.r-tl1tI4+-t!.. E'!. (2) ~-..L Cll1d .sei .b eS~AJ ~ 'ty~. .= 0 Thus" ~'J ClntA. WJ d .(1A-1v) 1-;, 0[1. (J. ) - 1] - J. b J,a P= 3 =_3 c{(fA./v ) dey So [i (2 i-1ij - = ~ -InlVr ~ .. 1 "I"" 3 &'-/0/ 6,83 A viscous fluid (specific weight = SO Ib/ft3; viscosity = 0.03 lb . s/ft2) is contained between two infinite, horizontal parallel plates as shown in Fig. P6.S3. The fluid moves between the plates under the action of a pressure gradient, and the upper plate moves with a velocity U while the bottom plate is fixed. A V-tube manometer connected between two points along the bottom indicates a differential reading of 0.1 in. If the upper plate moves with a velocity of 0.02 ft/s, at what distance from the bottom plate does the maximum velocity in the gap between the two plates occur? Assume laminar flow. u= 0.02 ftls Fixed plate ## '~~_. m_BB~ ~ .1= r = 100 Iblff FIGURE P6.83 MCI;(llnt.f/YI ## ve/oc,1t:t ltI/// 4'JCCllr ## at cllS-h}fce ~ntf tJl1t~e Thus) ( J) For rnanofYItte.,. ## (St~ h~lJrt 1:0 r"IhtJ) ~+ ~f Ah - '(1 f .An ) Ah gD = f1. t, - 1'2. ~ ('0}t - ~ = (J A-Is 0 J ()O it 11 .ft'3 l:! ) ( I' 6. J 2.~. 111.) -O.I~7-~ _ Ih .ft. +t- ox. JP :: .p, - R'l. O. /(P7 ( 4=t;2. 1'-' ## (01')1. 12. ,'\01. lb = (). ~3LJ H3 I. 0 I~' 12. ,'..,. Shaft 6 . S1+A vertical shaft passes through a bearing and is lubricated with an oil having a viscosity of 0.2 Ns/m 2 as shown in Fig. P6. g'r. Assume that the flow characteristics in the gap between the shaft and bearing are the smne as those for laminar flow between infinite parallel plates with zero pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Estimate the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is turning at 80 rev Imin. 75 mm ~"'i" ## FIG U REP 6.84- dF== "t'dA The -bOY~ ue ~)\I\ 1.5 (). ## 'yce d r ac.+'~j d~++eyet,.hal ~vea.) dA-=- vi.Rc1e J due. +0 Tr.2dB L C$e E'

+1;
.J

ijll'.iC!

Il.t

VI'~t.)

cI~ ~ y.
l

d F :: y. 'J. r.1 d 8 l.
~ neAyil1j styes s.

().Iheve

IS

tne.

Thu S J
(I )

1oJT"

d8

:1.11"

r/ t ;

u= lJ.:t. b

Th us) from

E Z . II J

## J= 2iTr/"r;-)f. = = ),11 (0. 015 {0.2

m1

Y
rm

0.355 N

6.85 A viscous fluid is contained between two long concentric cylinders. The geometry of the system is such that the flow between the cylinders is approximately the same as the laminar flow between two infinite parallel plates. (a) Determine an expression for the torque required to rotate the outer cylinder with an angular velocity w. The inner cylinder is fixed. Express your answer in terms of the geometry of the system, the viscosity of the fluid, and the angular velocity. (b) For a small rectangular element located at the fixed wall determine an expression for the rate of angular deformation of this element. (See Video V6.1 and Fig. P6.9.)

de

1 '"

c.~Jihdf(

Jen,1h

## t .... sheanng s+ress

(ill)

The -torgue W~'c.~ must be. o.ppl,fa +v out(lv CLfIJ~dtf 10 ovevco",e 1k.t
kY,e du~

## 1v tk~ S~~4v(n, J1-l"'ts.s IS

(see .r,9u~)

d~:: ~ d F

=
ITT"

Y" (t ~ .Q de)
::: ;2:".,.

= ~ ~ 1:"..Q

de
(I )

J"
I. n the 3(). P

'fb'

tJ [ de

n ro 2. '-'" l!..

t:: F' Lt
1::: YQ G Z.
(J)

d..Y: : :
db

Y"l.'

11

+0 Ho ws

-hia+-

~.fS

I
(j,)

FYtJln E'fj.
~
/i;~

t,,18

P_~

- "K

## 01.( '+ 0'1

1h(

j Jt1ea r'

J,ifr;bu .j./~'1J
__
Z/~

u.= - r;~
~l-{

Y.'-y-. () L
V-

J,

__

Fb"
I/nll
6

b
v -.b

V.::.()

## /h~ lIe!a..f/,t~ ~J1n indtC4h.! -/n"t;- iJt~ ()rt9J11~/

rl911t ClIt9/~
.Ihf)IINI

I;'

Fitj,

P', 'f J,

jJ

IhCretl..slh~.

6. 8~* Oil (SAE 30) flows between parallel plates spaced 5 mm apart. The bottom plate is fixed but the upper plate moves with a velocity of 0.2 mls in the positive x direction. The pressure gradient is 60 kPa/m, and is negative. Compute the velocity at various points across the channel and show the results on a plot. Assume laminar flow.

The

ve/o(;/t-!1 d/sfr/i1U";'OH 5

'iIi/eM

b~ the egt{~bt)~

=V
~
)

me
u=
so 1ha i

J
+

~~) (:;2_

b!1)

9111iw dA:U I

(~.:J. ;')
(tJ. ()t)SI'm

u = 'fO!:f +
tv/lh
U.
111

O. O()S!:f -

:/J)

fm/5
t(

## whfn !:J i~ I;' 1)t1. If pr0tjY4m as 4 I-ttl1c;bl)d bf f:J fO//()lQs.

100 110 120 130 140 150 155 160 170 180 190

cis print ,,******* *** **** ******** ** **** ***:+ *************** :t-* * II print II ** This program cal culates t.he veloci t.y prof il e * i l l print ,,** for Couette flow **" print "**************************************************" print print." y U(y)" for y=O.O to 0.0051 step 0.0005
u=40*y+78900*(0.005*y-y~2)

## print using "#.#### next "}t

#.####";y,u

( CtPn't. )
[;,,/;II/ated dak.
4Hd A.

## p/tJi ()f- the dlLia. a;e

!}/vf'J1

j,e/()w.

*************************************************w ** This program calculates the velocity profile ** ** for Couette flow ** **************************************************
y

0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0035 0.0040 0.0045 0.0050

u(y) 0.0000 0.1975 0.3556 0.4742 0.5534 0.5931 0.5934 0.5542 0.4756 0.3575 0.2000

* 10- 3
5r-------------------~~----------------

________------____

3
E

0.1

0.2
u

0.3
(m/s)

0.4

0.5

0.6

b-lo7

6.~ 7

Consider a steady, laminar Bow through a straight horizontal tube having the constant elliptical cross section given by the equation:

x2 y2 a 2 + b2 = 1 The streamlines are all straight and parallel. Investigate the possibility of using an equation for the z component of velocity of the form
w=A (1 - -a2 b2 as an exact solution to this problem. With this velocity distribution what is the relationship between the pressure gradient along the tube and the volume fiowrate through the tube?
Fr(Pin C/hd

X2

y2)

## '/he descl"I,iJt/It 1)/

-the pJ"()b/{'m,)

U=O) V-':0

Ix- =0)

ur:j: I(t),

the. C4?l1ilnU; f~ eg tilt tl,,;n li?tl;~~~J' -II1,d Jur.:::.o. w;f1.t 11use CbI1t/;f/~;'nJ' The iE -CtPmp~pl1t of 1ke NIJII/e}l"-J~".s .e!(J,d,()H.s (Ef. h, IZ 7c.)

rePtlte s -16

(Lur ~;(Z.
"Z

1-

~J ~

"Zur)

( I)

)(,'2..

';/"2..

al: + 6'3,

=I
,

Thus) the
~11

pr()t~secl
5

veJoc,'-ht
the

d'SfYI

btl I-IO~

d,' +, f!JIt

/J1 ce

011

bt)LlHdtli'fj

0": A

tt

Th/s
Carr

b.e used as

#)

t.J)

d 2 W-""
_ Z,4

d2 W-::P,x'z
I

_;(,4

7..

o!J'Z -

.bz.
(2)

~llows

1H4 i:

~ J-t

- - l AJ<. /

(-f.
G-108

j,~ )

( coni)

d4=-di.d':J

T
h

-t--

QV1d

## 1Y1 e re fr:, roe

,4:

zeD 1ra...b

!="rom

EZ(2)

~ =- Lf # C) Tr4b ~t

(-jy. i-~)

6. ~ g

A fluid is initially at rest between two horizontal, infinite, parallel plates. A constant pressure gradient in a direction parallel to the plates is suddenly applied and the fluid starts to move. Determine the appropriate differential equation(s), initial condition, and boundary conditions that govern this type of flow. You need not solve the equation(s).

D/';:kYPII~,(/j

~.

/;J J

e .t"ce,Pt
Q

7Hc t- : ; :# 0

## (.5,;'a:.. iHe .f'14L.) 1.5 ~J1sl-ea",).

Ihvs J

1. '. IZ 1 r?/ws-t
HII

'nclwde

tHe.

## IOCQI aCce/enJt:lo~ i:t'r""'.J

tlre:

1Jte

,/ov(lY'l1ln f

d,.,ch~J4hlf'j -ef""iJt9Xs

( x-

d/Ye(.-htJ~)

0::-

_ Jp
d!}

- fii:a

0: -~
dZ.

J:n, +, q'j
/3f)t/ J1 r/II,.!}

&;11t/J '..j.,p#

k=o

.ft:,y-

~r ,I'll

!:1
~(j

C4'JnQi .fioll5 :

u=o

h>r

!f=~~

-k>y t

6:,-/10

6.89 [t is known that the velocity distribution for steady, laminar now in circular tubes (ei ther horizontal or vertical) is parabolic. (See Vidl'Cl "\'6.6 .) Consider a IO-mm diameter horizontal tube through which ethyl alcohol is flowi ng with a steady mean vclocity 0.15 mls. (a) Would you expect the vcloci ty distribution to be parabolic in this ease? Explain. (b) What is the pressure drop per unit length along the tube?

(a)

C hec.K

Re =
flow /; ) IJm/;'" r (} Hd PIIY" /JoFc.. y~j .

= g

## (/.I~ ></0- 3 yt,~)(t? /~f' )

(0. o;,lJ"") "

IV S7 / ,
;m

p.er

ml

j
'--1 1/

~.

'10

6.90 A simple flow system to be used for steady flow tests consists of a constant head tank connected to a length of 4-mm-diameter tubing as shown in Fig. P6.90. The liquid has a viscosity of 0.015 N . s/m 2, a density of 1200 kg/m3 , and discharges into the atmosphere with a mean velocity of 2 m/s. (a) Verify that the flow will be laminar. (b) The flow is fully developed in the last 3 m of the tube. What is the pressure at the pressure gage? (c) What is the magnitude of the wall shearing stress, Tn' in the fully developed region?

_ _ _ _IIIIIiiI_m

Diameter = 4 mm

\.

3m---I.!

FIGURE P6.90

(C<. )

Check:. Re'fIJ~/"s

hum ber::

Re::: !- V (2~)
/'"

(h)

/7;r

/qmlfJRY

/-/f)W,;

v=
SInce

K)4

J!..2.Ae
,.l.
0

(1;3-

1;, /sz)

J

=
B' (
0.0/5

)
::-

= J'1t

..e ~

vi

## ~:) (2 '; ) (3/IH)

/~o.le. ~

(0.0:' If I'M) 1

(c )

7Ij. :'0 I

50

tha. t

4he/

w/fh

v;,"'i::.z V
Lrr = .< y/

/ tJhf"-e.

V is the

me4n ve/oci"l:'J

(-

f"1-)
(2 ~ ) ( (). 0 I fj ~.. ')
If
(0.00
Z
ij. IYI1 )

ThuS)

(~" l Lri-)w./I

o.t:

## the. wall) r= F2}

-

-\- ~ ': 1R

~O.O-z. m'I

f&.-1/2

1--'_'1_,_ . . .1

6.91 A highly viscous Newtonian liquid (p = 1,300 kglm 3 ; J.L = 60 N . s/m2) is contained in a long, vertical, 150-mm diameter tube. Initially the liquid is at rest but when a valve at the bottom of the tube is opened flow commences. Although the flow is slowly changing with time, at any instant the velocity distribution is parabolic, that is, the flow is quasi-steady. (See Vidt-o V6.6.) Some measurements show that the average velocity, V, is changing in accordance with the equation V = 0.1 t, with V in mls when t is in seconds. (a) Show on a plot the velocity distribution (v: vs. r) at t = 2 s, where v: is the velocity and r is the radius from the center of the tube. (b) Verify that the flow is laminar at this instant.

(a) [;.,,-

## ~rAj,~II' veloci-fJ dl;.fy"bH-h~ II

3: =
't;q).

J- (f)1(I)

:5,'""C! ~IIK:: 2. V

~=tV[I-(~Y"]
V= 6.1t ) 0.-1: i=15"~~111'1 :::- 1StmM1 . Thus)
2..

~ = 2.
AVz

(I - 178 r). )

2.s

V = O. 2~
(J)

1i- ': o. Lf
(m/s) r(m)

## pl{)t (;f -hi;.; ve/~(,;frt d/~Jy"butl()'"

0.075 0.065 0.055 0.045 0.035 0.025 0.015

0.000

0.100 0.185 0.256 0.313 0.356 0.384 0.400 0.384 0.356 0.313 0.256 0.256 0.185 0.100 0.000

0.1

I
,..,~,
" ,

0.08 ~

## 0.06 0.04 0.02

o
-0.015 -0.025 -0.035 -0.045 -0.045 -0.055 -0.065 -0.075

0 t-------t--T------t----t-------I

-0.02 -0.04

t----t--T---+-~)--t-______j

i V ,I i~
, !

'

-0.06~!

i
I

## ~:.:ooo 0;" o~oo o~oo o~oo o~oo

vz(m/s)

(b)

o /'e-

f-Y D -

== '.5

6,. () NJ
h1'I~

2..J{)t;

Flow

J".s

14m/naY')

(a) Show that for Poiseuille flow in a tube of radius R the magnitude of the wall shearing stress, TTl> can be obtained from the relationship

6. ~ 2

I(Trz)wall!

4JlQ nR3

for a Newtonian fluid of viscosity Jl. The volume rate of flow is Q. (b) Determine the magnitude of the wall shearing stress for a fluid having a viscosity of 0.003 Ns/m 2 flowing with an average velocity of 100 mmls in a 2-mm-diameter tube.

( Q..)

Vi- = ~t"
a~d

[I - (~]']
V 1.5

1H~

rn el#n

ve Jocl+'"J )

/f /o//{)II)S

0lJ.-= _
~r-

'fVr
/C2.

Th US)
CIII d

a. t

tHe
Lrr

( "....)
";" "ftt

- _ willi Tit 2

'f~V Ie

cP ::

(0-~L./I
(b )

=
If (0.003

## ~ )(0. Joe> !!f)

"Z.

( 0. 00 2. ,.,.. )

= /.20

Fa.

6. 'J3

An incompressible, Newtonian fluid flows steadily between two infinitely long, concentric cylinders as shown in Fig. P6.~3 . The outer cylinder is fixed, but the inner cylinder moves with a longitudinal velocity Vo as shown. For what value of Vo will the drag on the inner cylinder be zero? Assume that the flow is laminar, axisymmetric, and fully developed.

Fixed wall"-,..

G'tua 6,;'1:/
CA.pplles
JJ1

t. ./Jf7 J
The.

## wh'Gh WIIS 'ec/e/~ptd ~Y' flnnu/lir reJI()n. ThUll

fl"w
+ C%

111

clrcuilfY

-lubes)

~ = ;. (~) r~
With .b()"i1dtJr~ U)H(J/f;()J1S It fe>1/()w.s tnAt:
(

C,

in
=0)

J-

(t)

y.

=~) -v;
+

tlnd

yo ::.

rz)

~.:: ~ )

~ ) ~2
1.0

c,

i Y1 t;;

Cz
( 3)

( U) ~~ '{;
~"
C '::::
I

Z.

Co,in

1-';.7- C.

..-

## SUh frac.t E~ . (Z) 1',./J11'1 E$J3) Ie CJbl:~u~ ## ? Of) (r,.z- r;') c, 2~ The w,'j / be reY'o ## Lri- -:: I M. (~T Jr COIf:/ Vi-) y w;fJ, v;. ;: a if I"/I,,ws tha i rr / :::)k (c.~n 't. J Vi: or ) ~.93 I D,t~/eY{1ntJ~l:e ~$.

OJ

w;tn

NSfec.t

t:cJ
~
J-

J ~ _ -L
So 1h1l

- ;1.1<-

(..e)I-''''' 0r
+

(Z-'ttr.,,~&(~:)r .. ,
"rd ey

~i

r.: r..

Thus J

1/1

021'

## ./0 r ih e c/Y'II? .fD be ~eY'o -L (ll. ) r. + ~ - ~ (# )(~.7.-y;; 2.)

.I

; z-

/.

An infinitely long, solid, vertical cylinder ot radius R is located in an infinite mass of an incompressible fluid. Start with the NavierStokes equation in the () direction and derive an expression for the velocity distribution for the steady flow case in which the cylinder is rotating about a fixed axis with a constant angular velocity w. You need not consider body forces. Assume that the flow is axisymmetric and the fluid is at rest at infinity.

6.'14-

~(I-l/j-)

Pi'll!

frt)h1

the

t"t

10 IIt) w.s

'1h I(. t.

r
I

al--

+ -

d~

pC;

+ -=0
~z..

~l-i-

loy s tflld~
Ht)w

Y.ftluce.s
I

io
+~

o = - ;.

ae

)~

Due.

fo

the

S'lmme tl''1

::::"0

o -p
.so tJu. t
-L~

dB--

Jf-o

(r ~?)I

VB
/-'1..

=0

ti)Zt/j;

~",2.
4

1--;;;:
iul1c.i'f!)Jf

Jv;, _ ~
"f

}-~

=0
Cllf1

( I)

S,nce

/05

be

e)(.pY'~.ss(?d 4

d (;-I./j;) _

c, y

.405
So

I-

## -~ eO) ~ ~ 0) (s,;'ce f/tI~d IS ai r~si O-t 1~/;;lIf~)

C, ;: o.
"'i~

1ha i

T h US)

ve'::

Cz.

.;Jince

ai

;-=-R / v: a -= RtV) /f

A viscous fluid is contained between two infinitely long vertical concentric cylinders. The outer cylinder has a radius and rotates with an angular velocity w. The inner cylinder is fixed and has a radius ' i ' Make use of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain an exact solution for the velocity distribution in the gap. Assume that the flow in the gap is axisymmetric (neither velocity nor pressure are functions of angular position () within gap) and that there are no velocity components other than the tangential component. The only body force is the weight.

6. qs

'0

(I)

( See

PY'(),bJeh1

W,th The. hOUY1dIlYf:J ~j.fd~ f,;Jt.5 t- =Yi,' ) ve.= 0) 4J.1 til r =:. r: V; :: Y'. U) (s~e fijll'e ~Y' hOia.t:IOI1)) it: kl/()ws. 0;
C7 ()

+-ff)1?1

~ b'

C1)

tna t .'
D::
~w=

c, r;..
.2..

"f-

eZ.
1"".' '-

(, Y'"
.2..

-to

C:J.,

2W

/-

-r:z.. o
/-

C:2. :::

.so

1n1l.:t
1/:::G;

r-tU
IrW
..... :a.

2r.. ~ I.

t.

1";10

1- (/- !i.~

or"

v:= (7

(1-

%2-)

[ I

r/]
1-2-

h" ()

,- //7

6.96 For flow between concentric cylinders, with the outer cylinder rotating at an angular velocity w and the inner cylinder fixed, it is commonly assumed that the tangential velocity (ve) distribution in the gap between the cylinders is linear. Based on the exact solution to this problem (see Problem 6.95) the velocity distribution in the gap is not linear. For an outer cylinder with radius ro = 2.00 in. and an inner cylinder with radius rj = 1.80 in., show, with the aid of a plot, how the dimensionless velocity distribution, ve/row, varies with the dimensionless radial position, r/ro' for the exact and approximate solutions.

(I)

/;1'

fh~

e~a(,.J S/)/U.l:,t~11

(see PrIJf,Jem

~
ClIJe!

rtc.J
::

(/ -

1=b~

~.I.)

[I -

!lJ
f-ao
V't>

i" 15')

It.

f;AJ
rf)Y

119

..
sh~WiJ

....

r;.::

## (1- !.:':) ...."

1/ MAt;; := 2... Ot)

[I - ~':(lr1 Yo
/n .

(2)

I,g 0 In
t:1l"e

"

jY'A.'ph

beID"V. Npte

d;f./e'fll('e he-/;w~eJ1 the eJC.ac.t Q"d a.ppf'l'ilml.fe .sc/U:tlt9fl.S,'(;'Y' thIS srntJ/ JA..p wid-t'Jt. FtJr 1111 ,rA&'"C4i purft'Jt.s ho11t :5tJ1u.r'/f)Jl/s HII on 1/te SJhf)e C.UVlltl shpwl'J.
Linear

~.J; -h:tY~

S~I11~

## k;u J4. fpP{

IJ

VII Juel

I'JI(

II

1:tt-.1e

",/r.w
0.000 0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000

Exact Yo/row 0.000 0.131 0.260 0.387 0.512 0.637 0.759 0.880 1.000

r/ro 0.900 0.913 0.925 0.938 0.950 0.963 0.975 0.988 1.000

## ::::: .~_._. __.__1 ___~ _ ~

~ O.9401--~ ------.-.0.920 \/-------- .. --'---'-0.900 y - - - - - f - - - - - - \ 1.000 0.500 0.000 Vf) Ir;,w

a 960

-- .------:/-------------

().97 A viscous liquid (p. = 0.0121b . s/ft2, p = 1.79 slugs/fe) flows through the annular space between two horizontal, fixed, concentric cylinders. If the radius of the inner cylinder is 1.5 in. and the radius of the outer cylinder is 2.5 in., what is the pressure drop along the axis of the annulus per foot when the volume flowrate is 0.14 fe Is?

Check

Re'flll';ds

iJIIl1'Ibtr

1-0 JeternufJe

R ~
(!

I.. V iJ"
)"-

Whev-e

Di. ::

:l. (';; -

ft)

Q/I1

v::-

1T

(~).-ft..1.)

Thus)

=
3'1,Q
S/~ce

:J. (1,7t;

13)

:-SI#.)
flow I~

12. 111

<

2100

h
IJ

[I _

l)

'7 /(/~5

(tJ.l) '1-+

[t -

91
::=

==

6.';7'f

(J:J)

(2.)
tJ-l'.j

I"

f:.,p +he

'f2.

b::J

b%
D.]S3

cp; rid
t:>t

y.

g;uJ.

(0,0/)

reductIon

/11

/00 :-

## :2. 1,7 0/0

;tit; ie 1Hlrl- t;,e lYeJfH( of e t/P 11 ~ t/f V1 S/'hfl/I un Ie Q!()jIf f -tlt~ kJe Cef1ffrJJ~e h II~ t:i ~';II; tC~Jllt e~c.-t t!Jn tke f/otJmde
b ~/ 2.7

7. /
7.1 The Reynolds number, pVD/I1-, is a very important parameter in fluid mechanics. Verify that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, using both the FLT system and the MLT system for basic dimensions, and determine its value for water (at 70 0c) flowing at a velocity of 2 m/ s through a 2-in.-diameter pipe.

fJ-VD
~

## (FL- If r 2 )(I. T-)(L)

FL- 2

rOL~T~

. /=;;;-- wa..t:er at
r
LJ

(M L- 3 )(LT-,)(LJ
ML

10

tJc)

_1,-' ;V.s -

Qnd

M~LD

TD

/m 2

Cj77.

g ..k,.

/YYI~

(Ta b/e

## 13. 2 ,,, AppendlJ( B) .

7-1

7.2

I
7.2 What are the dimensions of density, pressure, specific weight, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity in (a) the FLT system, and (b) the MLT system? Compare your results with those given in Table 1.1 in Chapter 1.

. p = fr~S5UYe:" .../arce. are a.. .::: tv(liltj ~ = spec; lid. we/rift .:: Wlllt vi/tune L.~

. 13 -

HL T ...:.
L..3

-2-

/-1 T 1- Z
;1.1

MLT L

-2

'

-.

T2..

. ()/ILT T

/.

-2.' ;;L_2..

-I

M LT

(a)

1ft

r:T=

## the. FtT ~'t.skmJ

J= L -If T
t=L2
2-

(j,)

/11

the.
ft1L-'

!VJ L r .5Lf.sffm)

3 I~ HL-

p;
J

r2.

FL- 3
FL-

2 ~= ML-

r- 2

0-::-

M T -

;"

-.

FL- 2

/-=

ML-'T- I

7-2

7,3

1
7.3 For the flow of a thin film of a liquid with a depth h and a free surface. two im,E2rtant dimensionless parameters are the Froude number. V/V gh. and the Weber number, pV 2h/cr. Determine the value of these two parameters for glycerin (at 20C) flowing with a velocity of 0.7 mls at a depth of 3 mm.

'f;h

. -

6,7 "5

/WI
i

j (r.81 Cf-z)(O,OtJ31M)
(/ "2 fDo
,

If. 08

f- V 2.h 0-

## Je !!-a )(CJ. 7 ~)~ ~. ~t)3

.33 )I.)D-,2. - "
tm

trn )

2 9. 3

7,Lf

The Mach number for a body moving through a fluid with velocity V is defined as V / c, where c is the speed of sound in the fluid. This dimensionless parameter is usually considered to be important in fluid dynamics problems when its value exceeds 0.3. What would be the velocity of a body at a Mach number of 0.3 if the fluid is: (a) air at standard atmospheric pressure and 20 e, and (b) water at the same temperature and pressure?

7. Lt

(t:?-)

V :: (),3
c

!=or
So

tllr

tit-

20De
tJ.

111 a. t

=3Lf.3. 3
T)

!!!1
S

( Tq6J~

e. if

J;'

//ppfnix /3 )

V-=
c.b )

3 (3'f3. 3
I

::

/03
t!!1.
S

I'm

Pol"

at to DC

c :: /'1-8'/

(Ta.6/e 8.2

111

/t,pfrld/~ 8)

## V = ~, 3 (/'f~ / c;t) 7-3

'flfLf ff!1. s

7.S

I
7.5 At a sudden contraction in a pipe the diameter changes from D j to D 2 The pressure drop, !::.p, which develops across the contraction is a function of DJ and D 2 , as well as the velocity, V, in the larger pipe, and the fluid density, p, and viscosity, /1. Use D J , V, and /1 as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters. Why would it be incorrect to include the velocity in the smaller pipe as an additional variable?

?
n&m

== FC

the. pt.'

-tlJe~rtm) &,- 3 = ~

dlmfl1"M/ess
b
C

fClYl/metfYS

l1)

~ t/Md?

a:

I-rC=O

-2

+~,../:,-:2c=o

- j, + C

='0

1t

~ jJ"w.s

ih" i

a. : / ~ .h:: -

1J1fY'~ f"r~

TT.=
I

/JI. /),

V/,

t::..

## {, heck. d"';)fn.sltJfJs u~/n, 1/4 L 7 ~'Iskl11 : IJ.t DJ ~ (ML-1r-Z)(L)

v)<-'

( L I-i) ( HL-JT-)

.:...

M"LoT o

.'. ok.

11;::

'11),

((,

V;a
.b
2 ':0

## L (L)Q. (LT-jb (FL- r) c.: rOL~rf)

'i'"

c=o
~ +b -).C=o

-.b + c
I

(.=-1

h=c

c=o

7r..
2

Dz. D,
7--'1

7. s

( CC)/I t: )
1:S

7Tz
'{?,y

Obv/~usJ'1

cilmfnslol'I/ess.

## 7T3~ /,1 V (F L - 1fT 2) ( L) Q. ( L7 - ') b ( F 1.. - 2. T) C ~ poL~ T

I+G
=-0

7T3.'

((.

I-

-If +a -r j, -2C. =0

:l-b -t-

= 0
f/HP(

(Ie"
1h-eJ'e{o~e.

T)

11

~J/f)tIIS thai

et

= I) h = I; c =- -/

77:= t-D,V 3 ~ . . Chec,/c JlmpnSIIJIJS us/nJ fv1 1.. T .5lfskm .' 4/), 11 (Mi.- 3 )(L.)(LT- ' )
( .
~

-d

MDI/TD

., tJ/t..,

Th US)

## ~Yrhn~ /f!;J -rr

eg U(J..;tt"J'} )
~_

wheY't Vs
,j .sh"u Id

/s

7r

2..

jtn4

## J/ey pi fe.. Since

Vc

.5

=(!j )2. V
/)z.

lis

(lot inrie(Jf}1deni of ~ I P2) I1J1A J/ til1d 1heYe~tt! no t be /11c,luded. Q~ tJYI /l1depeY1deKi lJav,able.

7-5

7.6 Water sloshes back and forth in a tank as shown in Fig. P7 .6. The frequency of sloshing, w, is assumed to be a function of the acceleration of gravity, g, the average depth of the water, h, and the length of the tank, Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using g and as repeating variables.

e.

FIGURE P7.6

w=. T- '
FY-"rn
1/,t. p,' +11 eo rem) 4 - 2 -=. Z d J'me 11's Ibn less paY"'!'t.eYs Y'e!",'red. Use 3- ann L a.s Y'.ep~(J.h;'~
.b
6

vaY'ltJ/JJe.s) Thll5)

and

(,f;,r L)

z+

h)/~ws

b = y'z

Chec..k

, Dk

Fo yo "TTl.:

## 7r'}.. := ?1 d L (L T-t. ) a:.(L.).b == / + a+b = t;

- 'l tL '::'0

q IJ

)(.. b L() T

tJ

7.7

I
7.7
It is desired to determine the wave height when wind blows across a lake. The wave height, H, is assumed to be a function of the wind speed, V, the water density, p, the air denand sity, Po' the water depth, d, the distance from the shore, the acceleration of gravity, g, as shown in Fig. P7.7. Use d, V, and p as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of pi terms that could be used to describe this problem.

e,

## ___ ..~+_H___~t_____________ ~_~~~~_V_.~

'1

#= L
F;."111

V'= LT- 1

f -=

FL -"r

fa.:

FL-

If

rl-

d::'

L
Use

d J ~ 411" I

the 1/ fh et>YftJ1 J

7- 3
a

= Lf
/I b;
C

, Thus)
=

tT, = II d
(L ) ( L J(;.

## (L T -I) b (Ft - 'f T ~)

~=o

F ()L" TO
( hI" F)
(~r L ) (.{".,. T)

a... rb - 'Ie

=-0

- b

-f"Z.C =0

Cl=-/
I

oJ

1,=0 J C=6 I

anti

ThftelCte

1r~J:t.
d
oj, '/J~{lSi.:J
tTl.:::

dJMtns/on/ps...5.

fa. a4. tr b t
I
-f C

## [FL -'I r7) tl.. ) fA. (LT-1 ) b (FL -IfT~) t: = =0

- If -t- a. -t-b - 4- c
2-b-r2C

POL TO
6

==0

## (~r' r ) (full' '-) (,fr,'(" T)

((!6)n 'i)

7-7

7. 7

( c~I1'i)

til'll'

e::{S

J;r

7T/)
-rr

a
-

=-I) b= 0)

C=o

,50

That.

1';3 -

cr
).

/;,. 7T'f:

11"'f:;-

d da. f
-

J, / '

c
(.for t) (-hf' L)
(f;r
C ::
0
)

## {LT--z)(L)4.(LT-'jh (pL- lf r2-)c=. fDL()T"

C'.::. 0

/ -r

A. ~h

t.t- c.

=0

-2. -b

"1"2(.-=0

T)

,,
I

01<

H _ ).. d - r

(Ia.

f')

ft

d..)

~)
V'"

7-3

:-:--:s--:::;:S-:-:-~-::-::::-

t
H

Water flows over a dam as illustrated in Fig. P7.~ . Assume the flowrate, q, per unit length along the dam depends on the head, H, width, b, acceleration of gravity, g, fluid density, p, and fluid viscosity, J.L. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using b, g, and p as repeating variables.

7.S

f---b-l

'f

~ L 2. , - '

Jf:: L

j,..:.

;= L ,-2 1=
vt/n 'af;/es

FIGURE

P7.~

Pi -'111-

f=- FL-2.r
Use..

FrtJn?

Vlnd

Th(Js~

bJ 31
and

as

relea-if h:J

2 -f

:2.)

Co .-:

pOL TO
0

c=-O

(.for ;:)

## a... -t-b -LfC

-I-L C

=0
'::0

- / - z.b

(:ky L) (lor T)

'p3~ J ~
C heck
d/~en~/~M

'J

us,;' j

1'-1 L T .5't:,f.em.'
, ()/<

77;.-- JI 6

t:

/,

## (L)(L) ~ (LT-z).J(,t=t-'fT-a.j c. ~ FOL

C=o
I-t- ~ rb -tfC =0

oro
(J::,r r)

- 2-b -rl. C

=0

thy (.ky

L)
T)

a =-1) b ::())
11: 2..
1'.5 () b 1/ J ~ ~.50

= b1-1
7-Cf

## dt'm !14.5IPI') Jess

7.8

(~I1'i )

113=)<- b j f (FL -2. T) (J-) (J- T-j /, (;=-L -If-T 2) c --= pOLO TO
Co
#I.

a.

"

-I-C

=0

(,k,- F)
(J;y L)
(oCy T)

-). 1"

t{

-t.b -tfc-=o
=0

/ - 2b-r 2 c.

## :t.t- 10 IltP4IJ thai

3

= - ~)
I/Iz
~

= - 1z .)

c= -J

n=
o//rnel1~/i;f1J

/'1
ML T
s"'f~.J-em.'
-

u5iny

?:
f:,9Iz

if 'lz..f

(I1L-'r- ' )

(L)3/z(I..T-V'IZ (M[3)

11

()L.I tJ)-o

" ())(

7. 'f I
7. 'l
The pressure rise , !:J.p, across a pump can be expressed as tJ.p = f (D, p, ro, Q) where D is the impeller diameter. p the fluid den sity, (j) the rotational speed , and Q the flowrate . Determine a suitable set of dimensionless param-

eters.

-2

II .fellows 1h~t

tZ

= -2) b' -/ , _ 4p

C.

= -2

qnt/

111trehte

## . . Tli- D'(o4J' CheclL. dl mel15l()11S IlSin, NI-T slfskm

t1p

..'. bl<.

D,/,tcJ'

Mf. -'T-'"

(L) Z (J..,J:')(r~

(L 3r)(L.),''(;:rr)b(rJ C : rLOT"

n; = rP D"'/4J c
.b=o
31''' ~b =0

I
:U f",11.ws 1hai
.
Checir
dimenSIOns

(;;,~ ,t)
(f"y '-) (Tor T)

-1+2/'-C.=0

a. =-3I b = 0, c" -/ ,

4n4 1h'",/(,re

1r;z CD
D0p,)

- cp

D34J

## 1151;', Mt..T ~'fsJ..em

"
.: OK.

L"T-' _ == NDLDFo
(L)3 (r-')

7-1/

7. /0

I
7. 10
The drag, ~, on a washer shaped plate placed normal to a stream of fluid can be expressed as
ill = f(d" dh V, fl, p)

where d, is the outer diameter, d2 the inner diameter, V the fluid velocity, f1 the fluid viscosity, and p the fluid density. Some experiments are to be performed in a wind tunnel to determine the drag. What dimensionless parameters would you use to organize these data?

~ == F
rrlJ)tn

"-, tlno

-= L

## dz. :d: L V ' : : L T,-~

)A =-

FL _aT

tJte. p/ fhet7r'rm J

=3
d,
tl

V4ntl"/e~. Thus)

d,)

V;

""

~ft'a,6/11~
pV

rr;.:
(F) (L)
(4

Al

j/

F"L ~ Tfj
(/;,,,.. F)
(-ICY' L..)

/-t-C=O

a.+h -Ifc=o
-.b-+2.C=o

(.fey
tJl1t/

T)

## 11: r;,//PI(I$ihll i ## /<..=-2.; },=-2, C ='-/ ; 1T:~ I 1here'ye 0/ VI' NtT ~lfs-t-em : MLT (L) 2. (LT-') (I1L-3) -2 ChecK ql mfl1SI;'ns ~ d/' VZ; 71..' .z. "'SlfJ.!) :::::: NIJttJTO . .. ()I<. 712 = d;L d, V c c ## (L )(L) tZ (LT -') b lfL - 1f T 2) C1 =0 /-t-a ## + b - 1Jc. =0 .b +:J..c ':;0 7-12 7. 10 .zt -Iol/e;lVs 1h1l t t:l. :: - I; .b = ole:: 0 tI/I t/ 1heY'e /:;"e. 17:=~ 2. d, tJh Icn IS ObV/()VS/; til tnf'I1.5I(J/Jlpss fOr 7?3: IrC .::a - J. -t t( (~r )=") -t./J -ifc :: 0 =lJ (.j;,r L) / -.b -+ 2.c ("'yo T) 11:= .3 d, Vj1 .: ~k II) S IhC(!; I-V d I"- I~ (J a. I sirJl1dtrtl dl ~pn~/~l1less PtlrqmebY' rnOYe ## (Re!;//J"lds num bt!}") E 3. (I) AJould Comm t)l11':1 be. ex-tressed (Z) As h,y til? tI (Z) AS cfJmfl1,sIOl1et /Jllq !t1Si.s Ij ~f1C'erl1pd I ,=;s. (J) qre .fJgu/llalen t" . ?-/3 7. 1/ I 7.11 Under certain conditions, wind blowing past a rectan- . gular speed limit sign can cause the sign to oscillate with a frequency w. (See Fig. P7.11 and Video VY.6.) Assume that w is a function of the sign width, h, sign height, h, wind velocity, V, air density, p, and an elastic constant, k, for the supporting pole. The constant, k, has dimensions of FL. Develop a suitable set of pi terms for this problem. FIGURE P7.11 tv: r- I b:.L -4t=L V== LT- f= r-L-'tr 7. .,k';FL PY'611?1 1'nt. p/ 1I1eorem '-J = 3 pi hn?lj YeZUlyptJ/. Use b.J ~ tin,!;; 11.5 repea.-t,Hfj INIYlable...s. Thu;~ tJ; ::- tv j, a. V f; C ## (T -I) (L)tO. (L r-jh(rL "''fT~ c: Pi- "TtJ a C=:.o -t J, - i.fC 0 - I - j, i"lC. J =0 ## (tor r) (/:,y L) (Joy T) t t /-oIJIf}IJI..$ #fa
C he("k
c/"YlfI/S/()I1.5: fA) b

a: I
(

## j,:. -I) C:. 0 ) CI If a 1htre ~re.

1Ti= V
V-'::

wb
(

T- 1 ) L) . . :. . L() TO
(L,J)

,: 01<..

7T; - h j,Ow
(! =0

v b/

J -t

r2-)(.=. pOLO TO
(~y F)
(~Y'

a. +b- c. =0
- .b "i"Zc.. =0

L)

(,(oJ" T)

7- 1'f

7 1/

(tt!)l1t)

/=;r TT3:
1T3::

~ J/~' Vb f
h (

c:.

FL-'I

r ).) C = toL T
0

iJ

-1 -r Zc.

=0

:Ii

~/jf)Wj

1;J"i

a -= - 3)
-k

173
-4<
),3V'/~

= .b'V'1
.
=
HL'1. T Z

## Ch~CK r/;mel'l~PII.s ~ Slh..J ML T .s'l~klt1f I'

(L')(LT-,)2(HL-3)

- fi1 ~ L ~ T :. Dk.

7-1S-

7.12-

I
1.12. The flowrate, Q, of water in an open channel is assumed to be a function ofthe cross-sectional area of the channel, A, the height of the roughness of the channel surface, c, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the slope, So' of the hill on which the channel sits. Put this relationship into dimensionless form.

(p::' L3 T- 1
FYO/YI

Thus)

,4 tlnli

I(.

E+Z4-tb=c
- I - 2 J,

=D

a. :' - 5"/'f
~
1-

## b:: - I/z. 1 a,,1 1Ite"'~ fo,re.

--=-.(/)......""",,==-

A5"/'fff

Check
.: 01<

I -t2.&L-tb

1J,p f

a ':=

- 2..b
-

0
D

(toy
1'ltfre

L)

1/4,)

b = (:)) Ii 11 ~

(rfr~ T)

f;,1I'e

- -e 1T.2IJ

t>bv/~I4.5J:J
-SC)
Jj

## d,me"s/t!JJ1/eS'J. Th( 17l1vd f,' ~m dun tl1SJ~IIJ fSS. 7ft us)

r.A

Ij

7-/(II

7.

/3

I.U Because of surface tension, it is possible, with care, to support an object heavier than water on the water surface as shown in Fig. P7.!3. (See Video V1.S.) The maximum thickness, h, of a square of material that can be supported is assumed to be a function of the length of the side of the square, e, the density of the material, p, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the surface tension of the liquid, 0'. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem.
I' {' -I
~);fit~~8 i{Fm>4');~I~1

T
~=f(.J.)

()

1)

(/')

..,0-)

-l=' L l='L ;=
Fy~rn the

1=I--'t,2-

d=

Lr- 1
.f.fr/Y1J

p/

1he~Y'em)

b-- B ::. Z fi

Y'R11J1rnl...

t)

ffJ

(lI1d

6;

## (t.. )(L)~(l..T-~) b(FL- If

'-t-~-+,b-,+c..

r2.)
0
=0

c_'

rfJLD(-

C! :::
- 2.b +2.. c.. .:= ()

a=-')

j:.o)

e:&J,

(/1111

171tJrt"re

/=by 7Tz....'
7T"J.- =

-It flt=7
~

rr t d !

IJ

c:.

/ -+ C

j='tiO

:=

0
=0

=0
)

a:-z. )

l,-:-/

## c.=-/ ) t/htl there{;r<.

rr
j.~t
If'!'J;'~

/vtt.. 7
0'

J, 2#f

= (L 7.)0. 1- ){ML- ~ )
Z

## ~'Is/e1l1 ( fo1 7- "L.. )

.-:. M ~L 0 T

..

-f:=

cf (t-f-it

7-17

7.Jlf

7.J 4 As shown in Fig. P7.14 and Video V504, a jet of liquid directed against a block can tip over the block. Assume that the velocity, V, needed to tip over the block is a function of the fluid density, p, the diameter of the jet, D, the weight of the block, 'lV, the width of the block, b, and the distance, d, between the jet and the bottom of the block. (a) Determine a set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. Form the dimensionless parameters by inspection. (b) Use the momentum equation to detennine an equation for V in terms of the other variables. (c) Compare the results of parts (a) and (b).

FIGURE P7.14

(a)

V = -f

(t)

DJ

~) b; d )

r- L

-1f T -a.
J

1nt. ?/ 1htJ)rem

B/f

j';S?eVr/DI1

h:,y 11,

'-3 :

D:: L
3

t:p,J
p,'

=f
-krrns V)

b d: L

cJ -=

r ~tIJJY'ed .

(tDI1Hlil/;'..1

## 11i = V D f:G '~

US/IfJ

(L 7-')(/...) ({ r:~~T~)

"," rot!'

Check

I1LT:

Vb
H,r
aha

Y.l
=:

=
b

71., ....

J~~

11". z-

lor 17j
rr,3::

D
tT) tire oJ:, JlI ~u.s 1':7 c/; men~/lJl1less .

cJ

til1lt

b,,"In

1T~ tll1'{

50

171(1,,.1:

t= cl

= t:tJ (-;.)
7- 18

(I )

7. I tf I

( 6PJ1 ~ )

f:y-IP""

u ;.;.

sh(Jwlt

C9

!f

dA =-

L F"

f
7h H~j

1'-4.. _
V)<-- frJ-

## _lr--a.)(L) -.: (L 7-1 ) ( Mt.-',-')

fHL

M"L()T

tJ

, CJK..

ff; r ~

(CtP,rltJ/'1I;'J

=i

b) :

whIch JJ obvifJ('(sb

dlme~~~oll/tS.5.

Tn u~,

ti~ef({) V;So
0)

Fr~m 13"1.

if ,f:,;I" WJ 1),a1: -kr A. ?J v(~ re&flefr; and VI~t~5Ifr/ if 1At! v(eI(I+'1/~ Ii dou~/ed -t1te.. l...rlS5l1fe) wal he dCtlb/fd.
tJ)

r:

7;3 1
7.1 ~ The pressure drop, Ap, along a straight pipe of diameter D has been experimentally studied, and it is observed that for laminar flow of a given fluid and pipe, the pressure drop varies directly with the distance, between pressure taps. Assume that Ap is a function of D and e, the velocity, V, and the fluid viscosity, fl.. Use dimensional analysis to deduce how the pressure drop varies with pipe diameter.

e,

fJ I'

=-

f. (/)/ J) ~)t)
L
J

At=-

I=L-'J..

D-'

}-' L

1-;

FL-'-r

s- 3 =.l pI.' 17rms ye$tlIYed. Bt{ II1:5fec.l-u;H) -foy -n; (CtP)1.Jqil1lhj A.p): 7r= /l.f>J) I /' V ::!: ## (I=L- )(L) --.: (FL- 2 T) (LT-') rOL~To ChecK. uSln~ ML T : Af b !'" Y (I,/}L""7- 2)(L) . 11 6 LO TD .: 01<. (Mt..-'r-')(LT-') FDy -n; (CtPnltlil),n,')' 1Tz = Oblli()usJlj dlmeY/51()J1less. Thus; (I) LJfb ~V =1(1. ) D So shfrll1fJ1t af rn us i ## 1Jte pY'()/'iem) LJ p oC 1 be t).f. the ~rl'Y1 1J14i 4f D == k )'IV whfll'e I{ 1.. D IS c50me tons/:QJ1t. I -D' 2. It ## 'thus JcJ/ow~ 1hot for a. !lIVen lteloci~. 7-23 7.11 I /Cylinder I. [q The viscosity, /-L, of a liquid can be measured by de. termining the time, t, it takes for a sphere of diameter, d, to in a vertical cylinder of settle slowly through a distance, diameter, D, containing the liquid (see Fig. P7 .19). Assume that e, \~~~ ,>-<Gf'" Sphere = fee, d, D, /-L, ~'Y) where ~'Y is the difference in specific weights between the sphere and the liquid. Use dimensional analysis to show how t is related to /-L, and describe how such an apparatus might be used to measure viscosity. rYllfl1 1ht f/ 1heOYflf1) , - 3::, 3 { ,) (f:t..- a) (L) ## 7Ti ( tlPn hi11 IIi.J 1: ) : 1T: ,- i: L1a d. - . ,)A. -! ( FL -2. T ) Che,k. f;, r USlhj MI-T: -t Ar d ~ (T ) (N C 2T-2.~IL) ~ ( "-1. L-'T- ' ) 11;. (CSJI11rti/11;'j D).' 11'1. =~ "bVIDUS).!1 dlmf"si~I1J~5s ## (~fPn ft/ IJlIH .J ()6111~U6/~ J.) : - t:i1T.3- L Thus, dlmtl1s/o,,/es.5. If. hied tjeemef,. ~ ## -I::lJoa_ rf,(O ft) r d.;r d.. -/:Llad.= C ~ J:s e.,11 :, -/-aM:i ) ~r )A- == ~ 0.. !J /I -f ::: {!, Mt ## ~"s.f-a",.. + ~ 1" a f.1 ~ eJ. 3 e()'l1 e fr.!:J. ## Tit ~sI .fr,.". )A. = ~ Dr-/: Ilt.e e,1I,s.f.II/1-t (, talt b'J ~a/,'b'aJ'f)')( w,1lt ~/Ul" ,/ ~iI~lJ)n Ih5eP5rh. {P, Th C, ~ h,w II fh( VISCOS,'-#, ~ I D 1/1(r fl tI' CD Ok-t. hL dt-/:e YlrJt /I'e '" ih Y'OtJj h 4 IYl eQs II. llem P4 ~I- 1'1u. -f.IMt! -t: Ii! t.pnjuncf,f)'x L<Jl7h. Et. (J) , be at.termlt1'(,p{ A 7- 24- 7.2.0 I C 1.40 A cylinder with a diameter, D, floats upright in a liquid as shown in Fig. P7.20. When the cylinder is displaced slightly along its vertical axis it will oscillate about its equilibrium position with a frequency, w. Assume that this frequency is a function of the diameter, D, the mass of the cylinder, m, and the specific weight, y, of the liquid. Determine, with the aid of dimensional analysis, how the frequency is related to these variables. If the mass of the cylinder were increased, would the frequency increase or decrease? /Cylinder diameter = f) i' w::.T Fr~'" -1 D=L 1/1e p/ 1heD~~W1, 4 -3 = I;' 'f'ec.;f-rD~tJ . 8'J 71:= I Check.. ,: OJ( S/~Ce- -there JJ . ",,1, / it. p/ -/-en"" ;~ P~IIDWS 1h14:t: where W -D ~:: J'" Is C Thus) ~"s1-aHf . tv= CJ) vr tn1 ## Fr~m p,i$ reSHli /f ~1/~klJ tnoi:. /f tv w/Jl decrease.

,j

incy-ease"

7-2~

7.:lJ/f:

*7.21 The pressure drop, ap, over a certain length of horizontal pipe is assumed to be a function of the velocity, V, of the fluid in the pipe, the pipe diameter, D, and the fluid density and viscosity, p and p,. (a) Show that this flow can be described in dimensionless form as a "pressure coefficient," Cp = ap/(0.5 p Vl) that depends on the Reynolds number, Re = p VD/ p,. (b) The following data were obtained in an experiment involving a fluid with p = 2 slugs/ft3, P, = 2 X 1O- 3 1b s/ft2, and D = 0.1 ft. Plot a dimensionless graph and use a power law equation to determine the functional relationship between the pressure coefficient and the Reynolds number.

## V, ftls ------j------_._._.__ . _-_. 192 3 11 704 17 1088

20

1280

(c) What are the limitations on the applicability of your equation obtained in part (b)?

(a. )

r +- (~
=:

DJ

f; f< )
I

I.Jp=

PL-1.

Y=LT-

D=L

FY'1'1I

fh(

p/ theDre m J 5"- 3 ::

## 8~ ';,spec.. .hc if .fc>r 7T,.)

-rr. = I
Che (.k
U'SIII'j

/,v:z.

A. P

-==
:.
l-

11 LT ~'I.5.J-er11 : Ap ML-1r-Z.
IV,," ==

Ok..

(Hc3) (LT-j
-

TT2
us,;"

=~
,#--

fJ VD

(PL- lf ,2.)(LT-1){Lj

( FL.-Z.
I

T )

)

MLT S'lsiem :

:. OJ::.

( /vi

L- '

7-

1 )

Thus)
~

IV
i..s

J1p
2.

"

aJit

unk.hOUJH

o.G"" Ct:ln b~

inc.-Iude d

.6. P

c;.

1;,r)

eli-II(

t ::

/:.YJ:>

=-

## (~~)( ) r / (", ok 3Y (D. -M:..i

1...>< 10-.1 I~'),..

(DD

e)ATa~U/4-k-~

valtleJ
tire
Ll p, psf

/01" Cp
Show H
Re 300 1100 1700 2000

C/J!fP.

Re

1J,e 4 .. t-a
v, ftls
3 11 17 20

be /,u; .
Cp 21.3 5.82 3.77 3.20

## 192 704 1090 1280

.....

;g
~

25.0 -r---------~---__. Cp = 638 Re- 1.00 20.0 f - - - - - ' \ - \ - - - - ' - - - - - - - -..:g 0. 15.0 +---~'-------------l ~ () 10.0 f----~ .........~~-.. . .. - - - - - - - - - - 1
cQ)

## 5.0 1 - - - - ~----=----iiOiiiiiii,;~~---.... 0.0 +----,---...,.-----,.---...,.-----1

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Reynolds number, Re

{hlL

Y'e

/d,o '"Sh, f
~3'8

,j
[1)

c~
(C)

Re

BII.sep

"11

1he

tI~rJ46Jej
1h...

Ust-d

1nL ern;/y./ca I
a pp/" c..

"I... ,.,,-

rA 11'i&.

300

## < Re. 5...

200D

ND1:.e.: 41-thPI(tlh

he.. VI//,&I ""b/de -fh/J rtJJ191 re1/,(!-h .s-hflu/I( /lot- I:u.. ex. t:/'"#..fJdlal:e' loe,~"1f 1he rlll'lfe ()f d~ta used.

-me

efut/~11 I71JfhC

?-1.7

7.22 The height, h, that a liquid will rise in a capillary tube is a function of the tube diameter, D, the specific weight of the liquid, y, and the surface tension, (J. Perform a dimensional analysis using both the FLT and MLT systems for basic dimensions. Note: The results should obviously be the same regardless of the system of dimensions used. If your analysis indicates otherwise, go back and check your work giving particular attention to the required number of reference dimensions.

Us/;"

~= PL- 3 CT= /=t-FrtJm The P": the()rem I 1./--2 = .z pL'tertnJ 8'1 InSfec..ttDII) for iTj (~ni4i/1liJ, -l) :

-i

P/... T ~fjstem : -= L .D == L

11i=:f
/.5
OJ,V'Dt/S!y dt'/nfnS/onJess.
( cDnt:olnln,

;r

tlnd

rr) :
FL -/

{= ~ (a-a;.. )
USlfl'~ ULT ~'fJkm .-1,. L D-' L

/.J/tJ,o~,), '!here

~= ML- 2 ;-2.

0-=

r-2.
tJJ1/Y

a.fftll Y'5

f() be

.3 reierel1((!..

dl;'fI1S/~~)

=~

p,'

## krl71s rP~l4;ye,f. 91;1

krms tjye obv/ousl!:! dJ mens/on/esS. (/:,) /="0". the dL.J:.a fivel1 1-4bltl"ktl va/U(ls for H-/b) l1/b J ~t1~ a y~ ShbtJIlt btl ow. I
h/b 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.35 H/b 0.833 0.833 0.417 0.417 0.238 0.238

A/I

~.f. 1h~ p/

1=~(i)4)
.{Ib
-

## fib 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0

,----------------~--------

..c

--

"0.10

## H/b = 0.0833 (h/br 1OO

--

"
--

I
I

o
0.00 0.20 h/b 0.30 0.40

All
"~t

J~sf"cA,()'1I
iI-ep~nd
obl-ttll:'~,(

61-

1He.H

IJ

H-/b d"e.s
Df. H-/b

Is

41'1 d

4{)t1f

## t;,~ plDt 01 ihe da.ttl.)

lAS

0...

pllwev- law-

u,4,. .f/D YJ

h = 0.0933 1:

1+

('-Pc.)- I."

7.2,Q A fluid flows through the horizontal curved pipe of Fig. P7."2.Q with a velocity V. The pressure drop, !1p, between the entrance and the exit to the bend is thought to be a function of the velocity, bend radius, R, pipe diameter, D, and fluid density, p. The data shown in the following table were obtained in the laboratory. For these tests p = 2.0 slugs/ft3 , R = 0.5 ft, and D = 0.1 ft. Perform a dimensional analysis and based on the data given, determine if the variables used for this problem appear to be correct. Explain how you arrived at your answer.
:;;::;ft2 )

v - >L---_I--.

5 - 3 = 2. I"
(C4'nt:III#lny

~-,,--""'---

1::('1"/71 S

ret"'/r(#~;

V)

fJ

J)
1
'1-

## i) == f d= L -l:: L V= )..7- 1= t=L-lf r /=1""111 the fi -fh-e~Y.flY1) ~-3 = 3 p/ 1-~"I?1~ r~1"I;p~,

()..

1/;,1(

#h.
-

'lie/tis

1 (~) ~)
prDf IJ -t:!:/ pe
::-

(b)

For-

## ~;m'l lari+!1 be f-w~ell tn "de I arrti

d +. Y1,Ak

d"",_

4", fA

VI'M

WItH d""

.JL V8~

Thus )
and

dMA. -/,."," - ( - X -5 d

v: 1IfJ-

V-F Y7

7V

= Yfr9~

Jf. 02

-r:

## The fr'~dl~-I-JDn elua.-t1fPn J".$Jj = ~m1 fV1. hl !'WI V,,; h~ 7- so 7. /1.11- 7.44 The drag on a 2-m-diameter satellite dish due to an 80 km/hr wind is to be determined through a wind tunnel test using a geometrically similar O.4-m-diameter model dish. Assume standard air for both model and prototype. (a) At what air speed should the model test be run? (b) With all similarity conditions satisfied, the measured drag on the model was determined to be 170 N. What is the predicted drag on the prototype dish? rtit) I=rtJhI ## E~. 7.19) Re'lJ1fJ/ris number slm; 14r1Tfj IS Y'eglJiYfl'i. Thus, ~ lJ.... v .... whey!. -VD -z/ I.J ## the dt'sh clJtlrneteY". It ~//"WJ 1f14t ~:~.12. V 7/ ~ 1m and w/n, ~ /v = / ~ = ( 2. )/~~ ~-m) = ".,., ~. J.j IYYI ( ~ h Y' /WI (g~ ~~ hI" )2. 17D tV (tVote Th_+ I!) :.,/j1Yr! Ii-, -IJ,ti.s pJ'tJb/eWl) 5/~(e I....fJm The. CJJtI(ltf,,,'yj of Re'lI'1()Jds nwm My S/ffll/tll',.-ffj) v'll v,; = D; ID~ ThiS IS nrt rrue 111 ,ln~ra /. ) 7-S/ 7. '15" I The pressure drop between the entrance and exit of a 150-mm-diameter 90 elbow, through which ethyl alcohol at 20C is flowing, is to be determined with a geometrically similar model. The velocity of the alcohol is 5 m/s. The model fluid is to be water at 20C, and the model velocity is limited to 10 m/s. (8) What is the required diameter of the model elbow to maintain dynamic similarity? (b) A measured pressure drop of2.0 kPa in the model will correspond to what prototype value? 7.45 ## Foy //()W In a. c/(Jsed C6ndtJ/f; De,PtfldfHt pi I-e,m f (-i', ; 7! ) vAYJahJe. I ~ (Eg. 7. 10) ## T-;r 1J,/,J fJIlY/-lcu/lJr Py()b/fn? the deppndent pJl'~.sSfA~ c!r'~f) Jj1>J So -!hilt The ## Deoey, cleft t pi f~rWJ .: r IV2. 1J.fJ ## ,4/so, the. ~h(JY'(Jcifn~f;c, lel1f/h hV flaw through c/ lame-H. v) 0 J So 1ha-/; lJ.f _ IV:z. - a. q{)D e/b()w IS the J. D) ,oVD) I~ d'lMIIIlJIc.. :!J/~/"jarl+!1) ;'11H ~ j)~ = ~~ & v VAH D"" =: 'i.P (/;/;/e B. 2)I (lib),- /. ~)/ So 4Hd thAt :: If 9. i ( Con 1m IW1 Ii ) (b) W,''/H same Reynolds number fer /nodel and pr~iol.fjpe.J a J1cJ tv ,'tH jeomefr.h 'sl m; )4 y;-I:J (tv h IC ~ I mpllec, ThAt fAM /Dtm = t / D) -t11e., 1ne A,p1)M 1/1')'\ (.) 2. V Mt ~ { ..0 y'" 7-53 76 I 7.4 ~ For a certain model study involving a 1: 5 'scale model it is known that Froude number similarity must be maintained. The possibility of cavitation is also to be investigated, and it is assumed that the cavitation number must be the same for model and prototype. The prototype fluid is water at 30C, and the model fluid is water at 70 0c. If the prototype operates at an ambient pressure of 101 kPa (abs), what is the required ambient pressure for the model system? ## for naurie. number ~/m;J(JI'I+'J) V-*, -: V JfW\ "i~$0 -hrAt
(WIt;.. j:'Mt)

ViT
OJ

V; V!;
=
n()mbpy slmtlay,fr:J )

I="tPr

C(l{//I-~f/~1I

## (-p". - ?v- ttf'l = (1-;. - p~ )

-t(hI\ V""l.
It
.f.o J/ow-s ~t

if V4.

(1'.". - tv-)Itt\
use
~f

& ~

2-

V.,..

J.

(AJ lJ r.,. -, v

afJfl m,k/J1~

## '""1. ll) (-fr - P ... L... =

7- It- (tj.-fJ-)

(Z )

SD,2

-A Pet

(a/'o5)

7-51(-

7.0/-7
7.47 As shown in Fig. P7.47, a thin, flat plate containing a series of holes is to be placed in a pipe to filter out any particles in the liquid flowing through the pipe. There is some concern about the large pressure drop that may develop across the plate, and it is proposed to study this problem with a geometrically similar model. The following data apply. (a) Assuming that the pressure drop, Ap, depends on the variables listed above, use dimensional analysis to develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. (b) Determine values for the model indicated in the list above with a question mark. What will be the pressure drop scale, APm/Ap?

Prototype
d-hole diameter = 1.0 mm D-pipe diameter = 50 mm ,u-viscosity = 0.002 N . s/m 2 p-density = 1000 kglm 3 V-velocity = 0.1 m1s to 2 m1s

Model
D = 10mm ,u = 0.002 N . s/m2 p = 1000 kg/m3

d=?

V=?

FIGURE P7.47

fa)

## Llp=/{d;D)t;f;V) J.p=- p L-2. do:: L D=- L f<:: FC2.T

Fr~rJ1 the. pi theoJIPm, 6,- 3= 3 pi dlinen.5li)l14/ ~1')41'f.si.s ';jltld.s

t= FL-'tT
Y'e~UI rrd;

'2.

V= L Ta..

+--e t-rnS

tI ncJ

~
(b)

fJV:z.

=r ~ (.!L fX! D) ~

Foy ~/~,I~Y;+!J)
cI D~:: 15 w in 1n ~ fA a,./:a

cl"...

cJ ".,... :

0= 0

O. lOO""'hH

~ } J0 wS

ThtA. i.

::

~-

## D.50Dlf fr~ ID.O~

7. 'IS ,
7.4 8 At a large fish hatchery the fish are reared in open, water-filled tanks. Each tank is approximately square in shape with curved comers, and the walls are smooth. To create motion in the tanks, water is supplied through a pipe at the edge of the tank. The water is drained from the tank through an opening at the center. (See Video V7.3.) A model with a length scale of I: 13 is to be used to determine the velocity, V, at various locations within the tank. Assume that V = f (e, ej , p, j.L, g, Q) where eis some characteristic length such as the tank width, j represents a series of other pertinent lengths, such as inlet pipe diameter, fluid depth, etc., p is the fluid density, J.L is the fluid viscosity, g is the acceleration' of gravity, and Q is the discharge through the tank. (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem and the prediction equation for the velocity. If water is to be used for the model, can all of the similarity requirements be satisfied? Explain and support your answer with the necessary calculations. (b) If the flowrate into the full-sized tank is 250 gpm, determine the required value for the model discharge assuming Froude number similarity. What model depth will correspond to a depth of 32 in. in the full-sized tank?

Fr()h7
'f), e..

7 - 3 ~ If
fj/~/d.s

q
Thus
I

V.12. _

- ~

(1.1.:

Q z. ) }.:r:J )

(J)'ht2.::.

are

)/.'/YYI :. ~.

CD 2.
I.J

J-m.
Clhd

"

'n2_

## QM-i J:r()(n -fhe Jllst sirn//4ra-~ re2t1/remetit

0

V;::.

V;111'\ oj 1M2.

017;"

(j)nn ==

-e

~ )~ ft??1)1M1 I-

~
J.

## Ir~pt 1he cSec.,r1JJ1d SI'm',/4rl '-J-!1 Y-l''jtl l remeJ1.i With

0""
Cp

= (b
.J-

Fz.

5//?ce --these iwo yeg u l'remett b aY~ / 11 et)J1rJ/~ t I'tIoJ/~ws /n(i= 1he s;'m;/4f,'-!:J V-e~tllremell+S CtU1J1ot b-e 5~'= 15h e'd. 1/()

(COI11: )
7-510

Ge (!)me t Y"J C.

SI

I.~

-t;,f).-t

() I'"

r
-fn~1:

j.'#H _

). ,R.~ j..

_.-L
J3 .

SO

Thus)

## (d efth )17J(}del ::: (

=

IF )(depTh ~y.-b,-t!Jpe
(/~) (:12 in.) = 2 -b
I

In.

7- 5 7

7.49 The pressure rise, Ap, across a blast wave, as shown in Fig. P7.49 and Video V11.5, is assumed to be a function of the amount of energy released in the explosion, E, the air density, p, the speed of sound, c, and the distance from the blast, d. (a) Put this relationship in dimensionless fonn. (b) Consider two blasts: the prototype blast with energy release E and a model blast with 11l000th the energy release (Em = 0.001 E). At what distance from the model blast will the pressure rise be the same as that at a distance of 1 mile from the prototype blast?

f--d----!

Ii FIGURE P7.49

(a)

/J
fj ==

P= .f ( E') f)

c)

F L- 2.

E';' F L
I

f ==

d)

f:L-'I T ~

a

S - 3:: 2 PI

jJc2..

..1P

= CP
I

(E) /,c2.d 3
E c.. "Z.d 3
If

(j,)

iiI" ~/~aanry

## E"... ~h)I C~ d;,

/4I/'fh

~::.! J

f c~ =- C I
1:
tfll1 d
()t>

J:::

'=~ cl 3

E".,

IE : : ~. I 0"., = (c,.
OtJ

;n,

cI ::
(I ;tHi )
3

I )

d 11M
p/ed/~fro'"

= 0. /OtJlYtZL,

## Ju/'th 1'hi.5 ~/ml'J~rl'+~ re~/n'l"ernfl1t

.I2Jua tliJ'i I~ .Ll -Pht1 =- Ap fJC'" f~ c,,:

-th~re

hre.
LJf~= L1

## ~.:: ~, 100 11111.:

?-S8

7.

So
7, !;-/)

The drag, qv, on a sphere located in a pipe through which a fluid is flowing is to be determined experimentally (see Fig. P7.50). Assume that the drag is a function of the sphere diameter, d, the pipe diameter, D, the fluid velocity, V, and the fluid density, p. (a) What dimensionless parameters would you use for this problem? (b) Some experiments using water indicate that for d = 0.2 in., D = 0.5 in., and V = 2 ft/s, the drag is 1.5 X 10- 3 lb. If possible, estimate the drag on a sphere located in a 2-ft-diameter pipe through which water is flowing with a velocity of 6 ft/s. The sphere diameter is such that geometric similarity is maintained. If it is not possible, explain why not.

-v
. Sphere

G~

Wf)h1

the fi fhfl)Yetn) 5"-~: 2 dll'n el1 ~;'tJl1d / 411 ~ / '1 " j (11 ~ / d,J

## ft' ffrhJJ r"gu/ld'd, t/hd a.

,&

(j,)

The s/;rn'/",./f.7

rf~"ll'emt'lI-1:

/J

- f)-*1 - D
O. "2 I)", (). 5"' /n.

d'm _ d

=
Z

-I./:

d =

0,

e ~-I:.

(I"e'jlllf('d dltfhleffr).

## 7 hus, the P f!'dlc.tle/n

7-S"f

7.

SI

7.51 Flow patterns that develop as winds blow past a vehicle, such as a train, are often studied in low-speed environmental (meteorological) wind tunnels. (See Video V7.S.) Typically, the air velocities in these tunnels are in the range of 0.1 mls to 30 mls. Consider a cross wind blowing past a train locomotive. Assume that the local wind velocity, Y, is a function of the approaching wind velocity (at some distance from the locomotive), U, the locomotive length, height, h, and width, b, the air density, p, and the air viscosity, J-L. (a) Establish the similarity requirements and prediction equation for a model to be used in the wind tunnel to study the air velocity, Y, around the locomotive. (b) If the model is to be used for cross winds gusting to U = 25 mis, explain why it is not practical to maintain Reynolds number similarity for a typical length scale 1:50.

e,

(0..)

V -: .p (~ ,1.1 J,; b) ~ jJ-) -It 1. V==LT- 1 V= LT- 1 J.:' L J" -= L J, == L f= FL T From 1he. pi. tneoV'em 7 - 3 .:: '+ fl' -i-noms Y'egu'-y~tI. I d /meYls/~yJa I aM a I ~ ~J:S ' !j' eIds

11 fV'

=' r-L-1. r
rA-

Q rt pC,

~ 4 ( ~ ) .t )
<:

T~ us The ~jl1l" 14y,:f'j reg UI Y'fm ~11.+.s aye. ;.;' _ j. h~ .! t:'tK 11M! Tl~:= t- h l/ TIWf -;,., --It,.. h ~jG==..,..====-)4 __

0/)

## T~e. pred;".J-loJ.. ZJ)..~-/'Ii>~ V - VM\

1".5

V=-1Z.

( 1) 5/~ce

1rg/,., Cind -the (Ur In 'hH Wlj1'd tunnel kJ~u/~ b< pYac.1-,"c.4 l1!t -tn~ same (I'WJ~! )),*~p..)) /t +olloWJ +rom tn"e IIHi 5Jm/lt(Y/+; vezu/yemen:i.. CWn,cl-1 ,J --f1.u ~ey"oldj nurn},.er)

1he den,j~

ant< VljC"SI~

## at- tHe Ci/'r f/OWIHfj 4rouI1d

The

111 ~t
nu~) w/-fh V::- 2. S /1'n /s
Th/~ Ca J1
e::(

If
/Wt

::('-A ) U
-ttA4of

/eJ1j1n Scale. of

1:50

C/;1(:/

w;1h

## ~ ::- (sO) (Zmf/s) = ~ Z~ ~/S

ye'SlJlrf'd mfJael t/e/~;-f!J ,,5 rnuch be Ct. c h ~ ; v -e a' / h '171 e !AI ",i d

'1heve-hY(' ,"/l1ul111JtI""

Is ntrt PytAc..+/~/ Iv
I

## hl9he.r lhal1 i:. I,.( 11;-1e. / Ci n d /Yr1l1lrl';"/~ Re'tho/d..s

1.5

+t90

Slfnl"/arl+Y. Th<

## v~J&II;eel rn od(l./ v-e!oc'+Ij

h 19 h .

7.52

I
1.5l
An orifice flowmeter uses a pressure drop measurement to determine the flow rate through a pipe. A particular orifice flowmeter, when tested in the laboratory, yielded a pressure drop of 8 psi for a flow of 2.9 fe /s through a 6-in. pipe. For a geometrically similar system using the same fluid with a 24-in. pipe, what is the required flow if similarity between the two systems is to be maintained? What is the corresponding pressure drop?

A-5sllm~
Wh rre.'
Ao

cp = + ( 4p)

d) D) f;;')

Q'" /iDlUya,te.:' L~ r-') LJ p "'" pressure dr~?::: t= C 2) d ~rl Ii (~ c/t'lfIhlef;,r-': L) D"", I'lpe c/,itlnetfr'= L ) !N .r/~/d df"~i-I:J:::: FL -'lr",,; I/Iul )AN +lwlO vis~sH!:J =- FL -2 T.
I

1=

d=

L T-2.

rDL~TO

a. dlme'hSltJnaf

=t.

tlH&./

dna/'1siJ

'jle'J.s

~ = ~(1;)"~)

9s / rJi,) '1)

4/so)
So

Vd,,"~
'h1J
fAltr" 11f = V

Vhh

=
7

V"g.H
t:{ut;!

g~= ~

ri

## #1tI4 / )J. :::1. 'l-

= V(d)"'
-

(3(),-,..ph)

:=

J./.

;1.~pJ,

a'ncl

d,1t"
Ji-1t'J'I

t
~

d~:(W)

({ ) (I ~ in.)

::

~. 00 ~n.

As iIlu strated in Video V7.2, model s are commonly used to study the dispersion of a gaseous pollutant from an exhaust stack located near a building complex. Similarity requirements for the pollutant source involve the following independent variables: the stack gas speed, V. the wind speed, U, the density of the atmospheric air, p, the difference in densities between the air and the stack gas, p - PJ' the acceleration of gravity, g, the kinematic viscosity of the stack gas, II ... and the stack diameter, D. (a) Based on these variables, determine a suitable set of similarity requirements for modeling the pollutant source. (b) For this type of model a typical length scale might be 1:200. If the same fluids were used in model and prototype, would the similarity requirements be satisfied? Explain and support your answer with the necessary calculations.

7. S ~

v=

L i-I

if ~
-theoytm se t

1.. , - 2.

;;=

FL -1f T

2
I

## f-f.s ::i F C'+T4

~ //t)UlJ. ~r~/7t the pi.

D= L)

--thAi 7-3 Jf- j:>;' ffrrn; 4r~ Yi'p/,I/ypd. CinA/1~/.s fjlf,ld...s .:::!...) ~) 2:2.) Clnd ~ I r . L ~L. ~ j. 0. J I I' .

/+
tfs
J

dU':'fI1SIt)n~/
a..

~5j,;)t!
J.I
0::: :

r- pI ~ ~ II
I:)

~rrn5.

rJ"'~

'In~

511111/111'1 r!:l

I/",.

Z7,m

~M1"11
and

D~ = V.D

Vitti 2
Y;:-DItIf

=-

retJIJll'emfl17::l Z

dD
~eC&>I1"

St1I?1t.

OJ

tll1c{

## the. W1I1t1 ..fulllfel

Uh/!,ftSSII}'I1ft/

~I'"

the

medel 1"l1d

p~/()f!lpe.

1/1

r pr~Pfrh'e.s
TI1/1SI

w//J be
'$. e/) #~ IRe dll~ ~ ",., ?llIe"" :: (20 It) J! 5" V ( tf -It) ## Ttterefr;rf) al IoU) Sfted /I""., :: S (ZtJ mph) =- /o~ mph aHa af 11t9h 6,~ed 00 fhg-f the ~ :: S (q~ IWIP),) : tfb() trrtp h /Oornp;' fo 'f.>7J mph mode / vel!)c in, Y'~11ge /s ,41 i/Je 1111,/1 vel()clfzt IH the WJ~tI 1-uJ1fJel e(f)/)1pr~ss~b/)'+!J ,,,f the Qir W()u! tI . .6ft1r,t -to be~me 411 lin'(JY'k~t titclr;r/ 14JherftlS Cbmpressllllllf,; l.r /Jot: /n7'p~yfy,l1t -fi,y 1fte pYbfoftjpe. nlt/S, ine ht'ql?er l/e/~cii-!1 y;oe!tl1retl ~r 1ke ff1()tie/ wf)IIld /Jot be$UJ14j,/e. "v~.

7. 57

I
7.5 7 If the un pressurized wind tunnel of Problem 7. 5~ were replaced with a tunnel in which the air can be pressurized isothermally to 8 atm (abs), what range of air velocities would be required to maintain Reynolds number similarity for the same prototype velocities given in Problem 7. 'S{,,? For the pressurized tunnel the maximum characteristic model length that can be accommodated is 2 ft, whereas the maximum characteristic prototype length remains at 20 ft.

11m
Ib1

~ J":!. ::
)A~

t-E
~

~ ::~

fnt'!

--;:::I't T
f'

V
I til'ld

/1 )

## :1=. =~11 S I:n i1 t

~=J:..
tl'fYJ

fJ

L-
I) -

tt7'1 - ft'l?'1
( ass tJml;' 7 )J1YI -:::.; )

~ - 1'1f'OI:4

.:f...J;.. V

where. p /.s
0{f'Y"Ilf-eS ) J

'l,'6-mf!)~phfr'~ pr-e.sswY'<' (PY't'SStll"e at: tJ)""h PY'oto tljpq and ~ Is !f?.5SUY'f t:>f ~jJf't'ss('d fli}- In the Wll1d -ftt11t1el.

ror tm =af>
Thus J 4t
CH1t1

==

/.2;-

/11'1

/fJl.J

.sIted
~ ::. I, Z ~ (2~

mph)

= Z 6' /W1 ph

'If

hlfjh
1)1(.

s?~ed

There ~rel

//2.5"trnph.

## dis mph ..fr:,

?s~

I
The drag characteristics of an airplane are to be determined by model tests in a wind tunnel operated at an absolute pressure of 1300 kPa. If the prototype is to cruise in standard air at 385 km/hr, and the corresponding speed of the model is not to differ by more than 20% from this (so that compressibility effects may be ignored), what range of length scales may be used if Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained? Assume the viscosity of air is unaffected by pressure, and the temperature of the air in the tunnel is equal to the temperature of the air in which the airplane will fly.

7. Sg

l1/,fhJl1ty

## slm; 1f/f'lf!1 ) ~ Y:" ,R~ ~ I- v.1

,)1-i11 /-

So

th,,1:
fin

):
fir

i,,"

~ ~

~~~

1:.
~s.f.tI/Ji femppnr/uYe.
J

(f)

Icle~J "as)

? =;,e~
1m,

IJnd w/1H

or
(fntl

## :E.. = e,,,.s fa 11 t f -p _ -4~-

5 ~ . (J)

CttI1

he 411'/#e 11 tI.s
V

);fIIf _ 1;)

)
t;y the

- t..

al1d

w/fH

J.4f4 -

f;o/~fa.)

V k Pa. ) ~

(/ 3()().k 1-

j~

(/oJ-IGfl )
fa. )

J
( / j; (), 2)

## CJ, Ot,/f 7 to t). 0'17 I ,

7. SCf

I
1 Stf
Wind blowing past a flag causes it to "flutter in the breeze." The frequency of this fluttering, w, is assumed to be a function of the wind speed, V, the air density, p, the acceleration of gravity, g, the length of the flag, .e, and the "area density," PA' (with dimensions of ML -2) of the flag material. It is desired to predict the flutter frequency of a large = 40 ft flag in a V = 30 ft/s wind. To do this a model flag with = 4 ft is to be tested in a wind tunnel. (a) Determine the required area density of the model flag material if the large flag has PA = 0.006 slugs/ft2. (b) What wind tunnel velocity is required for testing the model? (c) If the model flag flutters at 6 Hz, predict the frequency for the large flag.

W= 7- 1

V= L7-1

1= MC 3 !=' /...T-1.
= cf (~

l;;'L

fA':: NL-2.

l. -

</hllf- /11

9 J3).

7htl5~

/:;7

t.J.

## (3) 4-M.P( (If)

sam e .

7.72.
7.72 Flow from a Tank

When the drain hole in the bottom of the tank shown in Fig. P7.72 is opened, the liquid will drain out at a rate which is a function of many parameters. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the liquid depth, h, as a function of time, t, for two geometrically similar tanks and to learn how dimensional analysis can be of use in situations such as this.

Objective:

Equipment:

## Two geometrically similar cylindrical tanks; stop watch; thermometer; ruler.

Experimental Procedure: Make appropriate measurements to show that the two tanks are geometrically similar. That is, show that the large tank is twice the size of the small tank (twice the height; twice the diameter; twice the hole diameter in the bottom). Fill the large tank with cold water of a known temperature, T, and determine the water depth, h, in the tank as a function of time, t, after the drain hole is opened. Thus, obtain h = h(t). Note that t ranges from t = 0 when h = H (where H is the initial depth of the water), to t = tfinal then the tank is completely drained (h = 0). Repeat the measurements using the small tank with the same temperature water. To ensure geometric similarity, the initial water level in the small tank must be one-half of what it was in the large tank. Repeat the experiment for each tank with hot water. Thus you will have a total of four sets of h(t) data. Calculations: Assume that the depth, h, of water in the tank is a function of its initial depth, H, the diameter of the tank, D, the diameter of the drain hole in the bottom of the tank, d, the time, t, after the drain is opened, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the fluid density, p, and viscosity, J.L. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using H, g, and p as repeating variables. Use t as the dependent parameter. For each of the four conditions tested, calculate the dimensionless time, tgl/2/Hl/2, as a function of the dimensionless depth, h/H. Graph:
On a single graph, plot the depth, h, as ordinates and time, t, as abscissas for each of the four sets of data.

Results: On another graph, plot the dimensionless water depth, h/H, as a function of dimensionless time, tg l / 2/H 1/ 2, for each of the four sets of data. Based on your results, comment on the importance of density and viscosity for your experiment and on the usefulness of dimensional analysis. Data:
To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click her~> to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

r
H

L
iii! FIGURE P7.72

7-- 82-

7.72.

## H for small tank, in. 8.0

h, in. Big Tank with T 16.0 12.0 8.0 4.0 0.0 Big Tank with T 16.0 12.0 8.0 4.0 0.0

t, s tg 1/2/H1/2

=57 deg C
0.0 9.2 20.0 33.8 57.0 0.0 45.2 98.3 166.1 280.1

## h/H 1.000 0.750 0.500 0.250 0.000

=20 deg C
0.0 9.0 20.3 33.0 57.2 0.0 44.2 99.a 162.2 281.1 1.000 0.750 0.500 0.250 0.000

Small Tank with T 8.0 7.0 5.0 3.0 1.0 0.0 Small Tank with T 8.0 7.0 5.0 3.0 1.0 0.0

=57 deg C
0.0 3.1 9.5 18.2 30.1 41.4 0.0 21.5 66.0 126.5 209.2 287.7 1.000 0.875 0.625 0.375 0.125 0.000

= 20 deg C
0.0 3.0 10.0 18.1 32.5 43.0 0.0 20.8 69.5 125.8 225.9 298.8 1.000 0.875 0.625 0.375 0.125 0.000

7-83

~,,'t

## Problem 7.22 Water depth, h, vs time, t

t:

..c:

18 16 14 12 10 8
6
4

-------~--~-==-----=~J
~ -~ ~--I
.
i

## --.-. Small tank, T = 57 deg C

-------~:------~

Small tank, T

2 0

+----~-..:----~~--_r--.---1

20

40
t, S

60

80

## Problem 7.72 Dimensionless Depth, h/H, vs Dimensionless Time, t*(g/H)"O.5

1.20 - , - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

1.00

------~-------------~~------I

I
I
--I

0.80

- .. X

:c

J:

0.60

_I I
i

= 57 deg C

## Small tank, T = 20 deg C

0.40

----------'--

0.20

-l-----+--~,.,----+-----l

I I
I

0.00 +----+-----1--__'*----1

100

300

400

t*(g/H)"O.5

?-9'1

7.73

## Vortex Shedding from a Circular Cylinder

Objective:

Under certain conditions, the flow of fluid past a circular cylinder will produce a Karman vortex street behind the cylinder. As shown in Fig. P7.73, this vortex street consists of a set of vortices (swirls) that are shed alternately from opposite sides of the cylinder and then swept downstream with the fluid. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shedding frequency, w cycles (vortices) per second, of these vortices as a function of the Reynolds number, Re, and to compare the measured results with published data.

Equipment:

Water channel with an adjustable flowrate; flow meter; set of four different diameter cylinders; dye injection system; stopwatch.

Experimental Procedure:

Insert a cylinder of diameter D into the holder on the bottom of the water channel. Adjust the control valve and the downstream gate on the channel to produce the desired flowrate, Q, and velocity, V. Make sure that the flow-straightening screens (not shown in the figure) are in place to reduce unwanted turbulence in the flowing water. Measure the width, b, of the channel and the depth, y, of the water in the channel so that the water velocity in the channel, V = Q/(by), can be determined. Carefully adjust the control valve on the dye injection system to inject a thin stream of dye slightly upstream of the cylinder. By viewing down onto the top of the water channel, observe the vortex shedding and measure the time, t, that it takes for N vortices to be shed from the cylinder. For a given velocity, repeat the experiment for different diameter cylinders. Repeat the experiment using different velocities. Measure the water temperature so that the viscosity can be looked up in Table B.l.

Calculations: For each of your data sets calculate the vortex shedding frequency, = Nit, which is expressed as vortices (or cycles) per second. Also calculate the dimensionless frequency called the Strouhl number, St = wDIV, and the Reynolds number, Re = pVDI/-L.
w

On a single graph, plot the vortex shedding frequency, w, as ordinates and the water velocity, V, as abscissas for each of the four cylinders you tested. On another graph, plot the Strouhl number as ordinates and the Reynolds number as abscissas for each of the four sets of data.

Graph:

11&

FIGURE P7.73

S/de

IIJeW

7.73

I
Results:
On your Strouhl number verses Reynolds number graph, plot the results taken from the literature and shown in the following table.
St
0 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 Re <50 100 150 200 300 400 600 800

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

## Solution for Problem 7.73: Vortex Shedding from a Circular Cylinder

T, deg F 70

b, ft 0.50 Data from Literature Re 8t 0.00 50 0.16 100 0.18 150 0.19 200 0.20 300 400 0.21 0.21 600 0.21 800

## t, s 13.2 19.9 24.5 30.1

00,

cycles/s
0.758 0.503 0.408 0.332

00

= Nit =Q/(by)

8t

## =ooDN and Re =DV/v, where

v = 1.052E-5 ft A 2/s

7-8'

7.73

( C<Jn't)

## Problem 7.73 Shedding Frequency, ro, vs Velocity, V

1.S
1.6

--r-------;-----~-----------,

1.4 1.2
~

.. -

..__._-----_. __._-.. _ - - - - - - _ . - - - - - - - - - - / -

--I

u ~
8

~ 1.0
O.S

----~~--___:;iI""""'-------J

+-~---------~-+--------;;;,;L------t-:...

------lI

## 0.6 0.4 0.2

+-------'-----/--~-___;;;;O..=-_::7'~---.~
- - - - - - - - - - - - - ----II
~~-=----

V, ftls

## Problem 7.73 Strouhl Number, St, vs Reynolds Number, Re

0.25

0.20

en

0.15

. _._.__._---_._---,---_._----------\I
!
j
I

0.10

0.05

~-~-,--_4--~--~~
0 200 400
Re

I ---1

1_

I

0.00 600
SOO

1000

7-87

7.7'/-

7.74

## Head Loss across a Valve

Objective:

A valve in a pipeline like that shown in Fig. P7.74 acts like a variable resistor in an electrical circuit. The amount of resistance or head loss across a valve depends on the amount that the valve is open. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the head loss characteristics of a valve by measuring the pressure drop, 6.p, across the valve as a function of f1owrate, Q, and to learn how dimensional analysis can be of use in situations such as this.

Equipment:

Air supply with flow meter; valve connected to a pipe; manometer connected to a static pressure tap upstream of the valve; barometer; thermometer.

Measure the pipe diameter, D. Record the barometer reading, H.tm , in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. Completely close the valve and then open it N turns from its closed position. Adjust the air supply to provide the desired f1owrate, Q, of air through the valve. Record the manometer reading, h, so that the pressure drop, Ap, across the valve can be determined. Repeat the measurements for various f1owrates. Repeat the experiment for various valve settings, N, ranging from barely open to wide open. For each data set calculate the average velocity in the pipe, V = Q/A, where is the pipe area. Also calculate the pressure drop across the valve, 6.p = T'mh, where T'm is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. For each data set also calculate the loss coefficient, K L, where the head loss is given by hL = 6.p/y = KL V2/2g and T' is the specific weight of the flowing air.

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations:

= 7TD 2/4

Graph: On a single graph, plot the pressure drop, 6.p, as ordinates and the f1owrate, Q, as abscissas for each of the valve settings, N, tested. Results: On another graph, plot the loss coefficient, K L , as a function of valve setting, N, for all of the data sets. Data:
To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click II/'re to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

T 1
h

Water --""--',,

,-:--

Free jet

II FIGURE P7.74

D, in. 0.81

T, deg F 70

h, in. N

Q, ft"3/s

~p,

Ib/ft"2

V,ftis

KL

## =2 Turns Open Data

9.20 6.50 5.04 0.235 0.195 0.169 47.8 33.8 26.2 65.7 54.5 47.2 2 2 2 9.95 10.21 10.54

## =3 Turns Open Data

9.40 6.33 5.01 3.62 1.92 0.479 0.386 0.341 0.289 0.214 48.9 32.9 26.1 18.8 10.0 133.9 107.9 95.3 80.8 59.8 3 3 3 3 3 2.45 2.54 2.57 2.59 2.50

## =4 Turns Open Data

9.35 7.65 6.01 4.32 3.24 2.62 1.85 0.98 0.827 0.767 0.691 0.578 0.504 0.456 0.391 0.283 48.6 39.8 31.3 22.5 16.8 13.6 9.6 5.1 231.1 214.3 193.1 161.5 140.8 127.4 109.3 79.1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.816 0.777 0.752 0.772 0.762 0.752 0.723 0.731

## =5 Turns Open Data

3.03 2.37 1.79 1.39 0.97 0.64 0.897 0.799 0.701 0.618 0.517 0.426 15.8 12.3 9.3 7.2 5.0 3.3 250.7 223.3 195.9 172.7 144.5 119.0 5

5
5 5 5 5

6.p

=YH20 *h

## =6.p/(pV2/2) where V =Q/A =Q/(n*D2/4)

KL
and p = Patm/RT where Patm YHg*H atm

R T Thus, p

## =1716 ft Ib/slug deg R =70 + 460 = 530 deg R

=0.00223 slug/ft"3

## Problem 7.74 Pressure Drop, ~p, vs Flowrate, Q

60 50
N

40
--------~-

<

.c 30
<l

--+-N=2 ___ N = 3
~

c:
20 10 +-----__ 0 0 0.2 0.4
A
..

-.-N = 4 --e-N=5

~--~~----~~~4----~
0.6 0.8
Q, ft 3/s

## Problem 7.74 Loss Coefficient, KL , vs Number of Turns Open, N

12 10
8
...J

,----------------.
----

I--+-N=2

I.N=3 I&N=4

4 2
0

,_------1I

I---e-N=5

. 2

7.75
7.75 Calibration of a Rotameter

Objective: The flowrate, Q, through a rotameter can be determined from the scale reading, SR, which indicates the vertical position of the float within the tapered tube of the rotameter as shown in Fig. P7.7S. Clearly, for a given scale reading, the flowrate depends on the density of the flowing fluid. The purpose of this experiment is to calibrate a rotameter so that it can be used for both water and air.

Equipment:

Rotameter, air supply with a calibrated flow meter, water supply, weighing scale, stop watch, thermometer, barometer.

Experimental Procedure:

Connect the rotameter to the water supply and adjust the flowrate, Q, to the desired value. Record the scale reading, SR, on the rotameter and measure the flowrate by collecting a given weight, W, of water that passes through the rotameter in a given time, t. Repeat for several flow rates. Connect the rotameter to the air supply and adjust the flowrate to the desired value as indicated by the flow meter. Record the scale reading on the rotameter. Repeat for several flowrates. Record the barometer reading, Halm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law.

Calculations: For the water portion of the experiment, use the weight, W, and time, t, data to determine the volumetric flowrate, Q = Wht. The equilibrium position of the float is a result of a balance between the fluid drag force on the float, the weight of the float, and the buoyant force on the float. Thus, a typical dimensionless flowrate can be written as Q/[ d(p/Vg(PI - p))l/2], where d is the diameter of the float, V is the volume of the float, g is the acceleration of gravity, P is the fluid density, and PI is the float density. Determine this dimensionless flowrate for each condition tested. Graph: On a single graph, plot the flowrate, Q, as ordinates and scale reading, SR, as abscissas for both the water and air data. Results:
On another graph, plot the dimensionless flowrate as a function of scale reading for both the water and air data. Note that the scale reading is a percent of full scale and, hence, is a dimensionless quantity. Based on your results, comment on the usefulness of dimensional analysis.

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hue to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

t

o
~

FiGURE P7.75

7.75 I

d, in. 1.40

V, in. A3
1.50

## Hatm , in. 29.05

T, deg F 78

Air Flow Data SR 14.6 21.5 28.1 33.6 39.2 44.8 50.2 55.9 63.1 68.6 73.5 76.2 Q, W3/s 0.229 0.321 0.413 0.491 0.564 0.644 0.714 0.798 0.888 0.973 1.05 1.08 (Q/d)[p/(Vg(PrP ))]1/2 0.142 0.200 0.257 0.305 0.351 0.400 0.444 0.496 0.552 0.605 0.653 0.671

Water Flow Data SR 13.1 18.5 24.2 28.2 37.1 45.7 52.6 W,lb 6.52 8.01 7.02 7.81 8.20 9.21 8.19 t, s 19.9 17.7 10.4 10.1 8.4 7.5 5.7 Q, W3/s 0.0053 0.0073 0.0108 0.0124 0.0156 0.0197 0.0230 (Q/d)[p/(Vg(Prp))]1/2 0.103 0.143 0.213 0.244 0.308 0.387 0.453

P =Patm/ RT where Patm = YHg*H atm = 847Ib/W3*(29.05/12 ft) = 2050 IblftA2 R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T = 78 + 460 = 538 deg R Thus, P =0.00222 slug/ft A 3

7-'12

7. 75"

.!! M

-= a

<

0.1

I-+-Air

i--waterll

0.01

0.001 10 SR 100

## Problem 7.75 Dimensionless Flowrate vs Scale Reading

0.8 0.7
!::!
~

-r--~-----~---~--~'----i

-------------\

0.6
Q.

---JIP------ - ---~---1

..s Cl

rc

0.5

,-~----~-----jI
--;---~--------I
-I-~~__'_~~~C---~~_+_~~~-----:

"t:I

-+-Air

--Water

## 0.2 0.1 0.0

) '~_W""------------'-'------~-_j

i ,
~------

'--~--------------~-i

-t----,.-----..,----;-----t-----\

20

40
SR

60

80

100

1-93

a, I

I
8.1 Rainwater runoff from a parking lot flows through a 3-ft-diameter pipe, completely filling it. Whether flow in a pipe is laminar or turbulent depends on the value of the Reynolds number. (See Video V8.1.) Would you expect the flow to be laminar or turbulent? Support your answer with appropriate calculations.

Re == ~ = ~D

## If Re >t/-ooo fhe flow

oS

is

iI/rbI/lenT, The

correspondinq velocify is

5 .fi~ Re 11 - ('1-000)( 1."J XIO- oS ) _ 0 0161 Ii V- D 3 ft -, Mo.sf likely Ihe veloc/fy will be greQter Ihan this

t:8'J

furbfJ/en! flruv.

8,3

I
8.3 The flow of water in a 3-mm-diameter pipe is to remain laminar. Plot a graph of the maximum fiowrate allowed as a function of temperature for 0 < T < 100C.

VD -Q For laminar flow Re:= -V ~ 2.100 J where V-7f Thu.s} fhe maximum ~ is gil/en by Re : : (fk)D = ifQ =2./00 or Q= ~/OO 71' 1/ /)
11
71'11 D
J

ll'D2

J.l.f1.

if

or
Q == 20/00 :(O,003m)p = 7!9S
v, m /s a, m /s 1.79E-06 8.86E-06 1.00E-06 4.9SE-06 6.S8E-07 3.26E-06 4.7SE-07 2.3SE-06 3.6SE-07 1.81E-06 2.90E-07 1.44E-06
2 3

f/

where 1/-=::~

Qlld

r;~

## WHh valves of 1/ {rom TabJe B,z we Obtain

T, deg C

o
20 40 60 80 100

Flowrate vs Temperature

## f;: 6~/Re =t'l//.5o o ;::;

(0,/ //'}./4)
;LO Ff

O,O~27

.so thai

6, If fI :: 0,01/-2.7

or
8,19

V :::

2,01

J:l
oS

I
X.J q A viscous fluid flows in a 0.1 O-m-diameter pipe such that its velocity measured 0.012 m away from the pipe wall is 0.9 m/ s. If the flow is laminar, detennine the centerline velocity and the flowrate.

## For /omif/or flow in a pipe

u(r) =
-rJ..
I ,,{lSI

Vc[I-(--lJ J where
2.

## D=O./m aIJd IJ.:::O.8~

r ==
or
II -

1m - O. O/2m == O.03Sm
~

cd

O.B S -

hi _ 1/

Vc -

[1_ (2 (o.o3Sm))]
\. O./Om

Vc - "

I Sqf!L
s

*D'J.

rO.5 'Ie)

## fro. 1mi' (0.5)(1.89

1') ==

7. 'fZx 10-

.If.

g-/6

8.20
8.2.0

I--I~-

- - 0.5 m

-!

Oil (specific weight = 8900 N/m\ viscosity = 0.10 Ns/m 2 ) flows through a horizontal 23-mm-diameter tube as shown in Fig. P8.20. A differential U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure drop along the tube. Detrmine the range of values for h for laminar flow.

t~
h

tor

Iamii'J4r

where

## the maximvm h is for Re::: ~/oo.

Hence, v(oO').3m) ( a'lOONlm') 9.8/ IfJ /.s2. 2100 ::

e: : r~. Thv~

flow

Re ~ 2./00; or
flJe milJiI!JvlIJ

e.:f- 5 )./00
h is h::: 0 (no
1/(11) and

HenC8J
A

P -:: It -f:J. -: :

0.5/11

0.0305 0.0'-3 HI

Dr
A

fl :::

## From m4nomeler equal ions:

" of 0 (H of h) - S G ~Hzo h -

t H::: f:;. J or

## Ap:: {J,-/2.::: (SG ~2.0 -r)h

Thvs = h
J.

3 OJ If. 00 N /m"

(7 (9 8ooN/m3) - 8900/1//11 3 )

::: O.50qm

Hence

o ~h ~ 0.50Q!YI

8-/7

8.2/

J
S.21 A fluid flows in a smooth pipe with a Reynolds number of 6000. By what percent would the head loss be reduced if the flow could be maintained as laminar flow rather than the expected turbulent flow?

1;
_

hL /(J1b
"hL -IVI'b

{I,m
+Ivrh

## If the flow is laminar

If the flow is furbf)lenf with Re :::to()() (lAd "* :::(), then fro", fhe ltlooJ)' charf (Fi,. 8,2()) ~vrb:: 0,035
Thvs
J

_ L /fJ'"

0.035

hl.-I

lJrh

## The heqd/oss would be redvced Dy

(hLturh -hL/41l1 )/h/.tU,.~ == /-0.'186
If:!

O,S/If,

or

5/,11-70

8.22

I
SG
=

0.87_[1

Oil of SG = 0.87 and a kinematic viscosity v = 2.2 x JO - 4 m:! / s flows through the vertical pipe shown in Fig. PB.22. at a rate of 4 X 10 - 4 m 3 / s. Determine the manometer reading. S.22
h.

el). :::==--='--'-

P. c::4 m
FIGURE PS.22.

--

20 mm

SG = 1.3

(I)

(2.)

ThusJ
Combine Eqs.
(~) and (3) fg

## where ~:: SGtrlHJ.O:: 1.3(fl.811$)=12.7/f ~ and h =h- h:J.+jJ or h,.+h, :: hfi (3) ## I,-P,. = Ap ::;-'O(h 1 +h) +rm h :: (om- o)h - 01. qive ## Lf3.7 ~ = (l2.7J1.-8.53)1$ h - (8.5.3 ~)(1-IIJ)

or

h::

18.5

8.23
8.23

SG = 0.87_[1

(2}.::=~_

Determine the manometer reading, h, for Problem 8.22 if the flow is up rather than down the pipe. Note: The manometer reading will be reversed.

ics4m

20 mm

FIGURE PS.23

- r-

1h,

~Cr'
tQ
2rm
(I)

..

'SG = 1.3

(z)

Fr()m /flan()mefer

considerafion.s III - oh, -I- d;n h - rhz =- III J where Om == s~ ~,.o =/.3(p.er ~)=/2.71f ~
and 172 =i+h-h, or h2-+ hi

=J+h
(3)

Th(Js,

(1,-1,.
or

-==

Af == ~(h2.+h,)- ~mh =

-

/I/.q

{2.)e ' - -

h=-/8.5m

## Nofe: Since h<o the man()llJeler is displaced

/n the direcTion 0flfXJS,-le Ihal sbowlI in fhe ofl9inal ft'yvre.
(I).

-;:::=-

1 J
'S.5m

8-20

8.24 For Problem 8.22, what fiowrate (magnitude and direction) will cause h = O?

Prob. 8,22, AI=- (%-(f)h-(f'l Thvs) with h =0) Af::: - (fi af}d
From

Q=

=0
=

## Note fhqf ~fJ :J:0J but Q=O .since Af+rJ:::o

8,25
8.25 The kinetic energy coefficient, a, is defined in Eq. 5.86. Show that its value for a powerlaw turbulent velocity profile (Eq. 8.31) is given by a = (n + 1)3(2n + 1)3/[4n4(1l + 3)(2n + 3)].

dll

## From Err,S, 86)

QlJd 1/ [/

0( -

_ eJ u 3rJIJ AV V
2

I

IX

v- (n+l)(zn+/J
:l \/
-

2.n

Yc

(0)

J

i-3d. = : v/'
J

## JaJ,j/l =2 71'S~tr) -j ]"I'r dr = 271' R"V,/S[I - y]ydy

r=O

y~o

(I)

Let x::: J - Y so thai y = I-x and dy =-dX J Hence 1.3 0 ~ J.:: [1_y]=11y dy =-Jx~(J-X)dx =J(X n

+/

-X7f

)dx

y=o

x~1

- n+-3 X

- 2n+3

X 2n+31 n

X=I

x=o
(2.)

(ntll (1.fJ+l'1

## 'l-n+' (n+3) (2I)f3)

8.26
~.Z6 As shown in Video V8.3 and Fig. P8.26, the velocity profile for laminar flow in a pipe is quite different from that for 1.0l<r----_L turbulent flow. With laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic; with turbulent flow at Re = 10,000 the velocity profile can be approximated by the power-law profile shown in the fig- .!.. ure. (a) For laminar flow, determine at what radialloaction you R would place a Pitot tube if it is to measure the average velocity in the pipe. (b) Repeat part (a) for turbulent flow with Re = 10,000.

## Turbulent with Re = 10,000

.!!... = 11
Vc

- .!..1115
R

0.5

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ -1- _ _ _ _ _ _ _

0.5
/I

1.0

V;
FIG U REP 8.2.6

## For lam/nor or furbv/enl (low Q ~ fJV::: 1TR'J-V:: fUdl] =[U(~llrdr)

a) LQtrJinor flow: R

=27Tf urdr
r::O
2.

2-

2-

Thus) V==t\{
0

==

271'\f~- ~]

== 71'4 Yc

I

-%
r;

9;ves

==

='

R
I

O.707R

b)

Vi

7TR 1 V: 27TVc

Sr[l-ftolr

==

## 27TR2.'Vc J(.f)[J-(f)] 5d(f)

0

LeT y:= I - (f) .so -fha-f (f) :: /- y and d. (f) ;: - Jy ThlJ's >:=0 I
7T

::: 21lR'"

:=

21!R2.\f
2.

## .f(YIi- - yVs) 1)1

0

y- [.5

_/

Vc '6 - It J = 271R Vc

(').C) 7&
~ 9ives
==
O.7S0

Or

if Vc hr ~ := #- '" [1- f
V=

t.s

U:::

v':: 1* the
or

e'!vQfitJn fof'

f '"

O.7SO so

fh4"/

t'

8.27

8,27 Water at 80 of flows in a 6-in.-diameter pipe with a ftowrate of 2.0 cfs. What is the approximate velocity at a distance 2.0 in. away from the wall? Determine the centerline velocity.

V=

II =

*(.f2.

2.0"

## fO" ::; /0.2 s so fhaf Re::; r

.J..

PI

VD

::

(JO.2.{i)

(Aft)

9.2-6 )\/0-6

if

-E

=S.5/ X/rr

The flow is /()rbu/enf with ~::: (J - t )n) where n';; 8.3 (see
Thvs, (see Example B. If)
:J.n'Vc ::= (n+l)('-fJtJ)

Fiy. S.I )

## 7-(8.3)':::: (8.3.1-/)(2X8.3+/) : O.8Jf2

or _ IO.2~
Ve O.BJt.2.

= /2./ :s
.L

ff

/llso)

af r= 3ifJ.-2.0in. =/.Oil'),)

u::::Vc(I-f)fI:/:2.1 s

fi.(J-;~~~)= .

-L 8.3

J/.S#

8.28
8.26 During a heavy rainstonn, water from a parking lot completely fills an 18-in.-diameter, smooth, concrete stonn sewer. If the flowrate is 10 ft 3 /s, detennine the pressure drop in a 100-ft horizontal section of the pipe. Repeat the problem if there is a 2-ft change in elevation of the pipe per 100 ft of its length.

(b) W/{h

f/fJW Vfh/I/ ~ - Z/ :

ff so fhat
:::

(c)

/'/3 psi

## Wi-Ih flow downht11 .F2. - Z, :- 2ft s() fhQf

.lJ{J:;:: (62~ffo)(-1.fI) (II{.'J~?-)+ 0.266 *'=
:=: -

0.10/ psi

8.zq r
Carbon dioxide at a temperature of 0 C and a pressure of 600 kPa (abs) flows through a horizontal 40-mm-diameter pipe with an average velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the friction factor if the pressure drop is 235 N/m 2 per lO-m length of pipe.

8.2 9

8.30

I
8.3:0 Water flows through a 6-in.-diameter horizontal pipe at a rate of 2.0 cfs and a pressure drop of 4.2 psi per 100 ft of pipe. Detennine the friction factor.

= 0.0300

8-2.5

8.31

I
-T
h
7,-

8.31 Air flows through the 0.108-in.-diameter, 24-in.-long tube shown in Fig. P8.3J. Detennine the friction factor if the flowrate is Q = 0.00191 cfs when h = 1.70 in. Compare your results with the expression f = 64/Re. Is the flow laminar or turbulent?

.l..
Water

./"77;

(I)
Air

I
I

0.108 in.

24 in.

_r-- FIGURE
P8.~1

--I
V
(2)

L.L

..LJ.

i'

""...!.L + Z

\/,2

2p

(I)

where

'Z,:: 2'2

fJ2. =: 0

~::O

and

A~~

V::: v.2. =

!i
A =

f ( 0'11

O,OOlql 8

oS

ff)2.

= 30.0

{i

## fJl = -fpV2(1 + f-Z-) or 8. e'l=;. (0.002.38 S~~)

*-

[If f (-o.~o~~Jl30.0~)"

or

f =0.03 2.~

e Note~
1.57)(

IO~~ ~2.

## = /72-0< '2. 100.J -fhe fl()w is lamifJar

47-e :::
1'1

1720

6'1-

:: 0.0372

8.33 J

8...33 Detennine the thickness of the viscous sublayer in a smooth 8-in.-diameter pipe if the Reynolds number is 25,000.

O.s = U. we obfain

51/

IN

fw =

V '8 V

ea

and

u. 4 ==
r _
05 -

yJ
D

'>I

w::

D1 'I

## Si~ce LlfJ == D "i"pV

I

f1.

V
(I)

Va vD ) or

SD

l1e Ye

1tr

From Fi9. 8. 20} for a smooth pipe with Re:: 2.5)( IO~ f == 0,02'1 Thus) from ,{.tl)

2,5XIO'"

## sf' (R.~-I) = O.OO2.Jf3 fI

Vo.

O")./f

8-27

B.3#-

I
8.34
Water at 60 OF flows through a 6-in.-diameter pipe with an average velocity of 15 ft/s. Approximately what is the height of the largest roughness element allowed if this pipe is to be classified as smooth?

Lei h = rov9hness heiqhf. Thos} h =4 J where O:S::: with u~ =( "; )~ and?;::: e . Since AI' -== f-! ieV:l. we obflJin '>- - pfV2 --IT V (w - 8 or U., -Va

%i

5;

## For a smoofh pipe wilh Re = from h9' 8,2 0 f ::: 0.0125

ThV.5, U = (- O.; IZ5 (/s!j) or - . 5.fi.z,) 6' = .it. = .5 ( /,2/X/O oS
:s

ift:::
='

## {/s fj. ){j.:;~ = 6.19 x/Os we obtain

//J./X/O .s

O. 593 ~
/'02x/ri~ ff

o.sq,3

-=

8-28

8.3.5

8.35 A 70-ft-long, 0.5-in.-diameter hose with a roughness of e = 0.0009 ft is fastened to a water faucet where the pressure is PI. Detennine P I if there is no nozzle attached and the average velocity in the hose is 6 ft/ s. Neglect minor losses and elevation changes.

~~~:------~~~(~
(I)

D=0.5 in.

. = 70ft

0)
0.000'1 If = 2.16 X/o-z.

(~fJ)

f= 0.052.

Hence} from

Eft. (j)
/2.

fJ, '"

(0.052) (;;'ff)

ff

{1.91f

## ~"1f ) (6#/' '" 3050 ~ ~ 21.2.ps;

8- 2. 'I

8.36

I
8.36
Repeat Problem 8.35if there is a nozzle of diameter 0.25 in. attached to the end of the hose.

a-+1.
(I)

: D=o.5 in.
.2.

~
(~)

=70 ff

D =: 0.').5 in .

## Jff+* +II = Pr +fi +Z2. +(

Iii

where Z6h I V,=V;61f, fz=O and V,. ::: Y!& =V.I (.Q..) -'6 f1 ) (z/"::: 2. '1-11 lil D~ \~ s .s
(I)

Thus, It =(V/+{-t V:L)~ =-t p(v,.:/. +fl V'") r 'Ih . o.oooqff -2rrom Fi,- 8.20 WI D = (0.5 ft) =2.1& x/a
and

Re=-=
1/

Vb

(6 f1 )(0.s 0)
oS

/.2/ x10-

-rr 5

!F

=2.071</0

weobfaif)

(:::O.052

1', := i

(I.9'1

## S~~$)2.'f fj-/ +(0.052) (~:) (6!1f) ## =36 oq I$. '" 2.5.1.j}.

Note: To lI'Jainfain the same flowrale wdh fhe noy-zle aHocherJ QS compared fo fhat wlthouj fhe nO"i2/e (see Probe 8.35) the pressure mvsf be increased from 2/.2 psi 10 25.1ps,:

~-30

8.37 "J
8.37*
The following equation is sometimes used in place of the Colebrook equation (Eq. 8.35): iteration procedure to obtain f. Plot a graph of the percent difference in f as given by this equation and the original Colebrook equation for Reynolds numbers in the range of validity of the above equation, with e/D = 10- 4

## 1.325 = [In[(e/3.7D) + (5.74/Re o.9 )]F

for 10- 6 < e/ D < 10- 2 and 5000 < Re < 10+ 8 (Ref. 22, pg. 220). An advantage of this equation is that given Re and e/ D, it does not require an

## Lei ..of == fapp-f

fapp
/.:3 25

where

fap,:- approximafe

reSfJ/f

ohI4/iJe.d

(rum

## ..J..... = -2.0 log[~ +M. 1(f 3.7/) Re1(f

J
2-

Thvs with
J

== IO-1f
5

these become
.s.7~A )11

fa

=.

and

pp

[In (2 10X/0 -t ,

/.3'-5

Reo ~

W
For
:'00 120 130 1i!-0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 2i!-0 250

= -2.0 loq
Sx/O ~
Fapp
3

[2.

7()x/O-.s -I8
J

Re

where

f ca Icv Iate an"I p/1 07 IOOA:: ana f are obtained from qs. (I) and (2.)
~ 10
Wq-s

t:Vr]

(.1)

J00 ( fqpp - {)

## Proqram P8fI=.37 shown be/ok!

used f()r

!he cQ/cu/afions.

cis print "**************************************************" print ,,** This program calculates the difference **" print "** between the friction factor given by the **" print "** Colebrook equation and that given by the **11 print "** approximate formula provided. The Cole**" print "** brook result is determined by an iterative **" print "** routine. **" print "**************************************************" rr = lE-i!Re = 2500 faprox print " R e f f - faprox, %" for i = 1 to 16 Re = Re*2 faprox = 1.325/(log(rr/3.7 +

8-3/

8.37 I (con't)
260 fp = faprox 270 goto 290 280 fp = f 290 f = 1/(-2.0*log(rr/3.7 + 2.51/(Re*fp~0.5))/log(10) )~2 300 if abs(l - f/fp) > 0.000001 then goto 280 310 diff = ((f - faprox)/f)*100 320 J,?rint using "#.###~~~~ #.###### #.###### +#.###~~~~II;Re,f,faprox, diff ~30 next i ************************************************** ** This program calculates the difference ** ** between the friction factor given by the ** ** Colebrook equation and that given by the ** The Cole** ** approximate formula provided. ** brook result is determined by an iterative ** ** routine. ** ************************************************** Re f faprox f - faprox, % 5.000E+03 0.037505 0.037961 -1.216E+00 1.000E+0~ 0.031037 0.031138 -3.233E-01 2.000E+0~ 0.026101 0.02605~ +1.809E-01 ~.OOOE+O~ 0.022286 0.022196 +~.017E-01 8.000E+0~ 0.019319 0.0192~1 +~.0~7E-01 1.600E+05 0.017026 0.016985 +2.397E-01 3.200E+05 0.015290 0.015295 -3.227E-02 6.~00E+05 0.01~032 0.01~077 -3.176E-01 1.280E+06 0.013179 0.0132~6 -5.091E-01 2.560E+06 0.0126~3 0.012713 -5.513E-01 5.120E+06 0.012332 0.012391 -~.7~8E-01 1.02~E+07 0.012162 0.01220~ -3.~99E-01 2.0~8E+07 0.012072 0.012100 -2.298E-01 ~.096E+07 0.012027 0.0120~3 -1.362E-01 8.192E+07 0.012003 0.012012 -7.108E-02 1.638E+08 0.011992 0.011995 -2.875E-02

(f - fapprox)1f vs Re

0.6 0.4

'to'to-

~ 0

0.2 0

III

r\

Co

## -0.6 -O.S -1 -1.2 -1.4 1.E+03

...

V
l-<

j,;"

..-.

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+OS

1.E+09

Re

8-32.

8,38 T
6.38 Water flows at a rate of 10 gallons per minute in a new horizontal O.75-in.-diameter galvanized iron pipe. Determine the pressure gradient, 6.p / e, along the pipe.

:=

/0

It .s

Thvs - Ji _

V-

0.02.2.3 s

II -

:tI. (0.75
J{-

-r;:-H )2. -

7.')..

.tt
;s

Af::

f -t t pV2.
-If

where si"ce

Re :: til::
y

7.27J}

1.2/1.10--:s

(~2.fl) S f+

::: 3. 76}( /0

D

e;-".s II)

fhal

f:: 0.037
2-

ThvSJ

## II; ( I-N~ 1{3 --'11'1 in.~)

= 0.2/1 psi/II

~-33

8.

if!

I
8.41 Air at standard temperature and pressure flows through a l-in.-diameter galvanized iron pipe with an average velocity of 8 ft/s. What length of pipe produces a head loss equivalent to (a) a flanged 90 elbow, (b) a wide-open angle valve, or (c) a sharp-edged entrance?

I

TnlJS WI1'1
.I

-L.

<J L

75 Thus

## 0.0005 (f =(//12. H) :: O.~06

J

t.ef ::

(see Table 8./) we oblain f:: 0, 0'15 Fi 9 8.20) kJ.. (/2- f-l) =1.85ZKi. or 0) 90' elbo'l} : k;. :: 0.3 or i~(J::: o.S56Fl oO-S (, . b) qlohe valve: K:: 2. or ie'l =3. 70 If c) sharp en/ral)ce: KJ.::: 0,5 Of is'f,=o.q2.6If

.s

8.4-211 18.42*

Water at 40C flows through drawn tubings with diameters of 0.025, 0.050, or 0.075 m. Plot the head loss in each meter length of pipe for flow rates between 5 x 10- 4 m3 /s and 50 x

10-' m.1/ s . In your solution obtain the friction factor from the Colebrook formula.

orwdhi=lm,
For
artWn
2.

V= :!l~2 Thus,
~

hL= fl ~
6

(::r/= ~~~'(I)
(2.)

or

0.0015

IUbil1tJ &~ or

-B'::
co

## ",m ~ 1.5XIO- m -6 I.S~ 10 ) where D ~m

f)lso}

Re:: y# = 1T~~
lhil'JillJU/fJ

1f(6.S8XIf)-7~) D
OCCbrS for @1II1i'J

- Q

or fie =1.9'1-x/06

(3)

Nofe: The

f?e

## and D/lJllx. Thus,

Relhin =/Jllfx/o" ~.~~~If = /2/100 rfln98 01 pqrameler.s considered. Hence, from Ef. (8.35)

The flow is

## 1ff ' Thvs for

J

-L = -2 0

100 [If.o.sx/o-7 +
J

Re

2.5 J 1

vr]

(fl.)

~ .so x10-'1f-3 and w/lh D=: o. 0 2.5 rn O. OSO m J or 0.075 m de fermine Re frofll 1. (3); f from '1' ('S'~
I
J

.5 xIO-~ ~ :s. Q

B-.3Lf

8,1f2"

j (conll)

and hI...
100 110 120 130
1~0

frOfh El(.O). These resvlls are calculafed and plotted below. (h. -::hJ.. (QJ D), See Pro 9ram P8# '1-2 sh()lIIn be/ow.

## 150 160 170 180 200 210 220 230

2~0

250 260 270 280 285 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370

cIs open "prn" for output as #1 print#l, "**********************************************" print#l, "** This program calculates the head loss **" print#l, "** as a function of flowrate and pipe dia- **" print#l, "** meter, using an iterative scheme to **" print#l, "** determine the friction factor from the **" print#l, "** Colebrook foxTrlula. **" print#l, "**********************************************" D = 0 for i = 1 to 3 D = D + 0.025 rr = 1.5E-6/D print#l, " " print#l, using "For D = #.###:!t m with e/D = #.##:!t~~~~l!;D,rr print#l, " Q. m3/s Re f hL. m" Q = 0 for j = 1 to 10 f = 0.02 Q = Q + 5.0E-4 Re = 1.94E+6*Q/D fp = f f = 1/(-2.0*10g(rr/3.7+2.51/(Re*fp~0.5) )/log(10) )~2 if abs(l - f/fp) > 0.0001 then goto 310 h = 0.0826*f*Q~2/D~5 print#l, using II #.#:!t#~~~~ #.:!t##~~~~ #.#### #.##:!t~~~~II;Q,Re,f,h next. J next i

********************************************** ** This program calculates the head loss ** ** as a function of flowrate and pipe dia- ** ** meter, using an iterative scheme to ** ** determine the friction factor from the ** ** Colebrook formula. ** ********************************************** For D = 0.0250 m with e/D = 6.000E-0:,
Q, m3/s 5.000E-04 1.000E-03 1.500E-03 2.000E-03 2.500E-03 3.000E-03 3.500E-03 4.000E-03 4.500E-03 5.000E-03 Re 3.880E+04
7.760E+0~

## 1.164E+05 1.552E+05 1.940E+05 2.328E+05 2.716E+05 3.104E+05 3.492E+05 3.880E+05

f 0.0223 0.0193 0.0178 0.0169 0.0162 0.0157 0.0153 0.0150 0.0147 0.0145

hL, m 4.718E-02 1.629E-01 3.384E-Ol 5.702E-01 8.563E-Ol 1.195E+00 1.586E+00 2.028E+OO 2.520E+00 3.062E+OO

8-35

8. ifZ"
For D

= 0.0500 m with e/D = 3.000E-05 Q, m3/s Re f hL. m 5.000E-0~ 1.9~OE+0~ 0.0261 1.727E-03 1.000E-03 3.880E+0~ 0.0222 5.873E-03 1.500E-03 5.820E+0~ 0.0203 1.208E-02 0.0191 2.021E-02 2.000E-03 7.760E+0~ 2.500E-03 9.700E+0~ 0.0183 3.017E-02 3.000E-03 1.16~E+05 0.0176 ~.189E-02 3.500E-03 1.358E+05 0.0171 5.532E-02 ~.000E-03 1.552E+05 0.0167 7.0~2E-02 ~.500E-03 1.7~6E+05 0.0163 8.717E-02 5.000E-03 1.9~OE+05 0.0160 1.055E-01 = 0.0750 m with e/D = 2.000E-05 f hL. m Q. m3/s Re 0.0289 2.516E-0~ 5.000E-0~ 1.293E+0~ 0.02~~ 8.~83E-0~ 1.000E-03 2.587E+0~ 0.0222 1.738E-03 1.500E-03 3.880E+0~ 2.000E-03 5.173E+0~ 0.0208 2.897E-03 0.0198 ~.313E-03 6.~67E+O~ 2.500E-03 0.0191 5.975E-03 3.000E-03 7.760E+0~ 9.053E+0~ 0.0185 7.876E-03 3.500E-03 ~.OOOE-03 1.035E+05 0.0180 1.001E-02 0.0176 1.237E-02 1.16~E+05 4:.500E-03 0.0172 1.~95E-02 5.000E-03 1. 293E+05
PROBLEM PSIlI"f-2.

For D

.J 1:

Ul

en
.J

oc(

III

J:

D=O,0.50m

o
D= 0.075 m
-1~__~____~______~__~____________________________~~

1 2 3

FLOW RATE.

(M3/S)

5 3 ''10-

No Ie fhe

sfl'on9

dependence of hI. on D.

g-36

g,

if]

J
8.43 Air at standard temperature and pressure flows at a rate of 7.0 cfs