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CHAPTER 12

Bank reconciliation
Contents
 Bank reconciliations
 The bank statement
 Procedures for performing a bank
reconciliation
 Reconciliations on a computerised system
Bank reconciliations
 A bank reconciliation compares the
balance of cash in the business's records
to the balance held by the bank.
 Differences will be errors or timing
differences, and they must be identified
and satisfactorily explained.
The bank statement
 Sent by a bank to its short-term receivables
and payables (customers with bank
overdrafts and customers with money in
their accounts) itemising
 The balance on the account at the beginning of
the period
 Receipts into the account
 Payments from the account during the period
 And the balance at the end of the period.
 These statements may be produced monthly,
weekly or even daily depending on the volume
of transactions going through the account.
Proforma bank reconciliation
Example
At 30 September 20X7 the debit balance in the cash book
of Wordsworth was $805.15. A bank statement on 30
September 20X7 showed Wordsworth to be in credit by
$1,112.30.
On investigation of the difference between the two sums,
the following items were established.
(a) The cash book had been undercast by $90.00 on the
debit side.
(b) Cheques paid in not yet credited by the bank
amounted to $208.20.
(c) Cheques drawn not yet presented to the bank
amounted to $425.35.
We need to show the correction to the cash book and
show a statement reconciling the balance per the bank
statement to the balance in the cash book.
Answer
Example
Answer
 The difference between the opening bank balance at 1
February per the cash book of $922.22 and the opening
balance at 1 February per the bank statement of $1,057.62
CR is explained by the cheque number 800119 which was
recorded in the cash book in January and presented on 7
February.
Reconciliation
Example
 At your firm, Precision Products, a new trainee has been asked to
prepare a bank reconciliation statement as at the end of October
20X7. At 31 October 20X7, the company's bank statement shows
an overdrawn balance of $142.50 DR and the cash book shows a
favourable balance of $24.13.
 You are concerned that the trainee has been asked to prepare the
statement without proper training for the task. The trainee prepares
the schedule below and asks you to look over it.
 The trainee says that he was not able to reconcile the
difference completely, but was pleased that he was
able to 'get it down' to $1.50. He feels that there is no
need to do any more work now since the difference
remaining is so small. He suggests leaving the job on
one side for a week or so in the hope that the
necessary information will come to light during that
period.
Tasks
(a) So that you can show the trainee how a bank
reconciliation ought to be performed, prepare:
(i) a statement of adjustments to be made to the cash book
balance
(ii) a corrected bank reconciliation statement as at 31
October 20X7
(b) Explain to the trainee why it is important to prepare
Answer

(b) (i) The company's records should be updated for the bank correct
balance.
(ii) Errors should be identified and corrected as soon as possible
(iii) A better understanding of such timing differences will help managers
to improve their cash planning.
Example
You have been asked to prepare the monthly bank reconciliation as
at 30 November 20X6 for your company Mentor Trading Ltd. The
company's bank statement shows a credit balance of $1,698.50
and the cash book an overdrawn balance of $460.50.
During your investigation you discover the following:
• Overdraft interest of $24.60 in the bank statement, not yet
posted to cash book
• Cheques issued amounting to $1600.40 not appeared on the
bank statement
• A cheque received for $1906.00 was posted in the cheque book
for $1609.00
• Bank charges of $25 were incorrectly posted to the wrong side of
the cash book
• A cheque for $120.60 was paid in, but has, not yet been credited
on the bank statement
Tasks
(a) Prepare
(i) a statement of adjustments to be made to the cash book
balance
(ii) a bank reconciliation statement as at 30 November 20X6
(b) Give two of the most common reasons why the cash
book balance and the bank balance may differ.

(b) The most common differences between the cash book


and the bank statement are timing differences and
errors. The most common timing differences are due to
unpresented cheques.
These are cheques which have been issued by the
company and recorded in the cash book but have not
at the date of the bank reconciliation reached its bank.
Quiz
1 What are the three main reasons why a
business's cash book balance might differ
from the balance on a bank statement?
2 What is a bank reconciliation?
3 What is a bank statement?
4 Why are cheque numbers shown on the
bank statement?
5 What are the two parts of a bank
reconciliation statement?
1 Reasons for disagreement are: errors, bank
charges or interest, timing differences (for
amounts to clear).
2 A bank reconciliation compares the balance of
cash in the business's records to the balance
held by the bank.
3 A bank statement is a document sent by a bank
to its short-term receivable and payable
customers, itemising transactions over a certain
period.
4 Cheque numbers aid identification of the
transaction, the amount would not be enough.
5 (a) The adjustment of the cash book balance
(b) The reconciliation of the cash book
QB 20
Your cash book at 31 December 20X3 shows a bank balance of
$565 overdrawn. On comparing this with your bank statement
at the same date, you discover the following:
A cheque for $57 drawn by you on 29 December 20X3 has not yet
been presented for payment
A cheque for $92 from a customer, which was paid into the bank
on 24 December 20X3, has been dishonoured on 31 December
20X3.
The correct bank balance to be shown in the statement of financial
position at 31 December 20X3 is
A $714 overdrawn
B $657 overdrawn
C $473 overdrawn
D $53 overdrawn
QB 21
The cash book shows a bank balance of $5,675
overdrawn at 31 August 20X5. It is
subsequently discovered that a standing
order for $125 has been entered twice, and
that a dishonoured cheque for $450 has
been debited in the cash book instead of
credited.
The correct bank balance should be
A $5,100 overdrawn
B $6,000 overdrawn
C $6,250 overdrawn
D $6,450 overdrawn
QB 22
A business had a balance at the bank of
$2,500 at the start of the month. During the
following month, it paid for materials
invoiced at $1,000 less trade discount of
20% and cash discount of 10%. It received a
cheque from a customer in payment of an
invoice for $200, subject to cash discount of
5%.
The balance at the bank at the end of the
month was
A $1,970
B $1,980
C $1,990
QB 24
Your firm's cash book at 30 April 20X8 shows a balance at
the bank of $2,490. Comparison with the bank
statement at the same date reveals the following
differences:
Unpresented cheques 840
Bank charges 50
Receipts not yet credited by the bank 470
Dishonoured cheque not in cash book 140
The correct balance on the cash book at 30 April 20X8 is
A $1,460
B $2,300
C $2,580
D $3,140
QB 25
Your firm's bank statement at 31 October 20X8 shows a
balance of $13,400. You subsequently discover that the
bank has dishonoured a customer's cheque for $300
and has charged bank charges of $50, neither of which
is recorded in your cash book. There are unpresented
cheques totalling $2,400. Amounts paid in, but not yet
credited by the bank, amount to $1,000. You further
discover that an automatic receipt from a customer of
$195 has been recorded as a credit in your cash book.
Your cash book balance, prior to correcting the errors and
omissions, was:
A $11,455
B $11,960
C $12,000
D $12,155
QB 26
Your firm's cashbook shows a credit bank balance
of $1,240 at 30 April 20X9. Upon comparison
with the bank statement, you determine that
there are unpresented cheques totalling $450,
and a receipt of $140 which has not been passed
through the bank account. The bank statement
shows bank charges of $75 which have not been
entered in the cash book.
The balance on the bank statement is
A $1,005 overdrawn
B $930 overdrawn
C $1,475
D $1,550
QB 27
Which of the following is NOT a valid reason
for the cash book and bank statement
failing to agree?
A Timing difference
B Bank charges
C Error
D Cash receipts posted to payables
QB 28
The bank statement at 31 December 20X1 shows
a balance of $1,000. The cash book shows a
balance of $750 in hand. Which of the following
is the most likely reason for the difference.
A Receipts of $250 recorded in cash book, but not
yet recorded by bank
B Bank charges of $250 shown on the bank
statement, not in the cash book
C Standing orders of $250 included on bank
statement, not in the cash book
D Cheques for $250 recorded in the cash book, but
not yet gone through the bank account
QB 29
The cash book balance at 30 November 20X2
shows an overdraft of $500. Cheques for
$6,000 have been written and sent out, but
do not yet appear on the bank statement.
Receipts of $5,000 are in the cash book, but
are not yet on the bank statement. What is
the balance on the bank statement?
A $1,500
B $500 in hand
C $1,500 in hand
D $500 overdrawn