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Unit- fuels & gases Various heat terms & their definitions: Heat: it is a form of energy and can

be converted to other forms of energy. Combustion: it is a phenomenon where a substance (elements such as carbon, hydrogen, or mixture of elements such as petrol, kerosene, LPG, etc.) combines with oxygen and reacts producing heat and light. C (carbon) + O2 (OXYGEN) = CO2 (carbon dioxide) +heat released Sensible heat: heat which causes a change in temperature in a substance is called sensible heat. Calorific value of a fuel: It is defined as the total quantity of heat liberated when a unit mass of fuel is burnt completely. For a solid fuel, it is expressed as cal/gm. or Kcal/kg. For a liquid fuel, it is cal/lt or Kcal/lt. for gaseous fuel; it is cal/cm3 or Kcal/ m3. Calorie: It is centimeter-gram-second (CGS) unit of heat. It is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm. of water through 1*c. [1 CAL = 4.186 JOULES] Kilocalorie: it is a larger unit of heat. It is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water through 1*c. B.T.U & C.H.U: (refer class notes) [1 B.T.U. = 252 CAL] TYPES OF FUELS USED IN CATERING INDUSTRY: 1. SOLID FUEL : COAL: it is used in boiler to produce steam. Coal/coke: it is charcoal used in tandoor to make chapattis and kebabs 2. LIQUID FUEL Kerosene: not widely used but may be used as a supplementary fuel. High speed diesel: it is used in oil-fired boilers & water-heaters. 3. GASEOUS FUEL LPG: it is used in most of the cooking ovens. 4. ELECTRICITY Electric oven, rice cooker, electric toaster for cooking, geyser for heating water, etc.

LPG & its properties: physical & chemical properties (refer class notes) Different modes of heat transfer: Conduction convection radiation (theory from class notes) conduction It requires a medium to transmit heat, through direct contact. Relatively slow process Conduction heat may travel in curved paths It warms up the medium through which it travels. Convection It requires a medium to transmit heat with movement of medium. Slower process Convection heat also travels in curved paths. It also warms up the intermediate medium radiation It can transmit heat without help of any material medium. Very rapid process Radiation heat travels ina straight line. It does not warm up any medium.

Gas burners: Bunsen burner, parts of burner, high pressure burner, low pressure burner (refer class notes) Safety precautions when using gas equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The equipment should be cleaned regularly, as gas contains sulphur , which corrodes metals Gas cylinders should be placed in upright vertical position and never in horizontal position. Cylinders & ovens should be placed in well-ventilated spaces. Inflammable material should not be kept near the gas bank. After the work is over, the gas regulating valve and the burner switch are kept in OFF position. Everyday burner heads should be removed and cleansed with steel wire.

Unit maintenance Role & importance of maintenance department: Hotel industry invests a huge sum of money on engineering equipment. Maintenance department aims at keeping all the engineering facilities in the best operation conditions. This department has two distinct areas of responsibility: 1. To provide utility services required for proper operation of electricity, hot water, steam, AC and other services. 2. Responsible for repairing and maintenance of equipment, furniture & fixtures in the hotel. Duties & responsibilities of maintenance department: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Maintenance of the building. Minimize the maintenance cost. Maintenance of the guest room, furnishing and fixture for overall guest satisfaction Contribute for the efficient operation of the other departments. Maintenance of equipment & repair. Budgeting & cost control. Minimize the energy cost of the facility. Renovation addition & restoration Building & safety operations Training of employees & undertaking special projects.

Organization chart of maintenance department: (refer class notes) Roles & duties of chief engineer: The chief engineer is the head of maintenance department. It has following functions to be performed: 1. Under a Civil engineer: repair & construction of buildings & roads, maintenance of plumbing &sanitation work, sewage treatment plant, etc. 2. Under a Mechanical engineer: repair, maintenance, & operations of boilers, diesel generator sets, refrigeration & ACs, swimming pool, pumps, tec. 3. Under an electrical engineer: repair, maintenance & installation of electric transformers, all electric motors, electric wiring, audio-visual equipment, etc. 4. Maintenance & control of spare parts through stores officer. 5. Purchase of new equipment through tendering, etc. 6. Look after the recruitment, training and proper placement of human power. 7. Coordination with other departments of hotel;. Other managerial functions of chief engineer: (refer class notes)

Comparison of preventive & breakdown maintenance :