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HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Explain with reasons:

ASSIGNMENT

1.

In the preparation of hydrogen in the laboratory from granular Zinc, why the following acids cannot

be used 1) Conc H 2 SO 4

2) Conc. HCl

3) Nitric acid

2.

Explain why the density of ice is less than water? Or why there is decrease in volume when ice

melts?

3.

Why hydrated barium peroxide is used in the preparation of hydrogen peroxide instead of the anhydrous variety.

4.

Phosphoric acid is preferred to sulphuric acid in the preparation of H 2 O 2 from barium peroxide

5.

Statues coated with white lead on long exposure to atmosphere turn black and the original colour can be restored on treatment with H 2 O 2

6.

A solution of ferric chloride acidified with HCl is unaffected when hydrogen is bubbled through it, but gets reduced when zinc is added to same acidified solution

7.

When fused calcium hydride is electrolysed, hydrogen is liberated at anode

8.

A small amount of acid or alkali is added before electrolysis of water.

9.

Hard water is softened before use in boilers

 

10.

Soft water lathers with soap but not hard water.

11.

The melting points and boiling points of D 2 O are higher than those of ordinary water.

12.

Common salt is less soluble in heavy water than in hard water

13.

Hydrogen peroxide can act both as oxidizing and reducing agents

14.

In the manufacture of hydrogen by electrolysis of water small amount of acid or alkali should be added.

15.

Water extinguishes most fires, but it does not extinguish petrol fire or sodium fire

16.

Water is a liquid while H 2 S is a gas at ordinary temperature

17.

Water containing Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ ions does not produce lathers with soap

18.

Why should a bottle of hydrogen peroxide be cooled before opening

19.

Presence of water is avoided in the preparation of hydrogen peroxide from sodium peroxide

20.

A mixture of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide with a copper (II) catalyst is used as rocket fuel

21.

Hydrogen peroxide is a better oxidizing agent than water

 

22.

Hydrogen peroxide reacts with bases

23.

H 2 O 2 is stored in wax lined amber coloured bottles

24.

A small amount of phosphoric acid or glycerol or acetanilide is added to H 2 O 2 during its storage

What happens when:

1. Concentrated caustic potash solution is spilled on granulated zinc

2. Calcium hydride is treated with water

3. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with potassium dichromate in presence of sulphuric acid

4. An alkaline solution of potassium ferricyanide is reacted with hydrogen peroxide

5. An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide is treated with barium hydroxide

6. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with potassium dichromate in presence of sulphuric acid

7. Silver oxide is treated with hydrogen peroxide

8. Acidic solution of potassium ferrocyanide is treated with hydrogen peroxide

9. Calculated quantity of sodium peroxide is added to ice cold solution of sodium dihydrogen phosphate

10. Sodium chromite solution reacts with H 2 O 2 in presence of NaOH

11. Ozone reacts with hydrogen peroxide

PROBLEMS:

1.

Aqueous solution of an inorganic compound (X) shows the following reactions.

(i)

it decolourises an acidified KMnO 4 solution accompanied by the evolution of oxygen

(ii)

It gives brown precipitate with alkaline KMnO 4 solution with evolution oxygen.

(iii)

It liberates iodine from an acidified KI solution

(iv)

It removes black stains from old oil paintings

Identify (X) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i) and (iv)

2.

Calculate the mass of H 2 O 2 present in 600 ml of 10 vol hydrogen peroxide solution.

3.

10.2g of pure H 2 O 2 is heated strongly till completely decomposed. Calculate the volume of oxygen evolved at 27 o C and 740 mm pressure.

4.

25 ml of hydrogen peroxide solution were added to excess of acidified potassium iodide solution. The iodine so liberated required 20 ml of 0.1 N sodium thiosulphate solution calculate the strength in terms of normality, percentage and volume.

5.

Excess KI and dilute H 2 SO 4 were mixed in 50 ml H 2 O 2 . The liberated iodine required 20 ml of 0.1 N Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution find out the strength of H 2 O 2

6.

Find the degree of hardness of a sample of water containing 12 mg of MgSO 4 (mol. mass 120) per kg of water.

7.

One litre of a sample of hard water contain 1 mg of CaCl 2 and 1 mg of MgCl 2 . Find the total hardness in terms of parts of CaCO 3 per 10 6 parts of water by mass

8.

A 5.0 cm 3 solution of H 2 O 2 liberates 0.508 g of iodine from acidified KI solution. Calculate the strength of H 2 O 2 solution in terms of volume strength at STP.

9.

Calculate the hardness of water sample which contains 0.001 mole of MgSO 4 dissolved per litre of water

10.

Calculate the degree of hardness of a sample of water containing 30 ppm of MgSO 4

11.

30 ml of a ’10 volume’ labeled solution of H 2 O 2 after acidification with dil H 2 SO 4 required 30 ml of N/10 KMnO 4 solution for complete oxidation. Calculate the percentage of H 2 O 2 in the solution.

12.

An aqueous solution of an unknown compound (X) gives the following reaction.

(i)

It gives brown ppt with alkaline KMnO 4 solution

(ii)

it forms HCl and evolves O 2 when reacted with Cl 2 gas

(iii)

it liberates I 2 from an acidified KI solution

(iv)

it gives orange yellow colour with acidified titanic sulphate solution

Identify (X) and give the chemical equations for the reactions (i), (ii), (iii)

9.

In Bosch’s process which gas is utilized for the production of hydrogen.

1) producer gas 2) water gas 3) coal gas 4) natural gas

10.

Under what conditions of temperature and pressure the formation of atomic hydrogen from molecular hydrogen will be favoured most?

1) high temperature and low pressure 3) high temperature and low pressure

2) low temperature and low pressure 4) low temperature and high pressure

11.

Given colourless liquid will be determined whether its water or not 1) by smelling 2) by tasting 3) by phenolphthalein 4) by adding a pinch of anhydrous CuSO 4

12.

The melting points of most of the solid substances increase with an increase of pressure acting on them. However ice melts at a temperature lower than its usual melting point when the pressure is increased. This is because

1)

ice is less dense than water

2)

it generates heat

3) chemical bonds break under pressure 4) none

13.

Consider the two reactions

(X) H 2 O 2 + H 2 S ® S

H 2 O 2 acts as 1) oxidizing agent in both X and Y

+ H 2 O

(Y) H 2 O 2 + O 3 ® 2O 2 + H 2 O

2) oxidizing in X and reducing in Y

3) reducing in Y and oxidizing in Y 4) reducing in both X and Y

14.

Free hydrogen is found in 1) acids 2) water 3) marsh gas 4) water gas

 

15.

The adsorption of hydrogen by platinum is known as 1) Hydrogenation 2) Reduction 3) Dehydrogenation 4) Occlusion

 

16.

Which of the following adsorb large volume of hydrogen gas 1) Colloidal solution of paladium 2) Finely divided nickel 3) Colloidal ferric hydroxide 4) Finely divided platinum

17.

In para-hydrogen spins of the electrons are in the

 

1)

same direction but those of the protons in opposite directions

 

2)

opposite directions but those of the protons in same direction

3)

same direction and so also the spins of the protons

4)

opposite directions and so also the spins of the protons

18.

Decomposition of H 2 O 2 is a first order reaction. A 16 volume of H 2 O 2 of half-life period 30 minutes is present at start. When the solution will become one volume.

1) After 60 min. 2) After 90 min 3) After 120 min 4) After 150 min

19.

Water boils and freezes exactly at 100 o C and 0 o C respectively, find the reasion for it from the following 1) water dissolves anything however sparing the dissolution may be 2) water is a polar molecule

3)

boiling and freezing temperature of water were used to define temperature scales

4)

liquid water is denser than ice

20.

Fentons reagent is 1) SnCl 2 + HCl 2) AgNO 3 + NH 4 OH 3) CuSO 4 + NaOH 4) FeSO 4 + H 2 O 2

21.

Phosphates are used as water softening agents because they 1) stable complexes with anionic species 2) precipitate anionic species 3) form soluble complexes with cationic species 4) precipitate cationic species

11.

4

12.

1

13.

14.

15.

4

16.

17.

4

18.

19.

3

20.

4

21.

3

I Group Alkali Metals

Assignment

Explain with reason

1. 4Li + O 2 ® 2Li 2 O 2Na + O 2 ® Na 2 O 2 K + O 2 ® KO 2 Why the number of oxygen atoms combining with each metal increases

2. Lithium resembles magnesium

3. Lithium in solution is the strongest reducing agent among alkali metals

4. Alkali metals have low ionization potentials in their periods

5. Alkali metals are prepared by the electrolysis of their fused salts and not by the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of their salts.

6. Alkali metals are good reducing agents

7. Alkali metals are not found native in nature

8. Sodium is less reactive than potassium

9. Alkali metal salts impart colour to flame

10. Sodium carbonate gives in alkaline solution when dissolved in water

11. Standard solution of NaOH cannot be prepared by direct weighing

13.

Sodium is stored under kerosene oil

14.

The addition of NaOH solution to a solution of ZnCl 2 produces a white precipitate which dissolves on further addition of NaOH

15.

Calcium Chloride is added to NaCl is the electrolytic manufacture of sodium

16.

On exposure to air, sodium hydroxide becomes liquid and after some time it changes to white

powder

17.

Sodium carbonate can be manufactured by solvay process but potassium carbonate cannot be manufactured by the same process

18.

Chemical reactivity of alkali metals increases from Li to Cs.

19.

Lithium forms normal oxide, sodium forms peroxide and other alkali metals form super oxides when burnt in excess oxygen.

20.

Lithium halides are partially covalent

21.

Though Li + ion is the smallest among alkali metal ions, its conductivity in aqueous solution is less than that of Cs + ions

22.

The softness of Group IA metals decreases down the group with increasing atomic number.

23.

Sodium metal can be used for drying diethyl ether but not for ethanol.

24.

Sodium hydroxide cannot be stored in glass stoppered bottles.

25.

Commercial common salt becomes highly damp on keeping

26.

A sodium fire in the laboratory cannot be extinguished by water

27.

Alkali metals blue colour to ammonia solution the solution also possesses strong reducing nature.

What happens when

a)

NaOH is added drop wise to AlCl 3 solution till excess

b)

Sulphur is boiled with NaOH c) White phosphorus is boiled with NaOH

d)

Hot concentrated caustic soda reacts with iodine

e)

Bromine is mixed with cold dilute caustic soda

How will you prepare

a)

sodium cabonate from sodium chloride.

b) Washing soda from ammonium chloride

c)

Chlorine from sodium chloride

d) Caustic soda from sodium chloride

e)

Baking soda from washing soda.

5. The standard reduction potential of Li, Na and K are –3.045 V, -2.714 V, and –2.925 V respectively pick up the best reducing and best oxidizing agents.

6. The lattice energies of LiF, NaF, KF, RbF and CsF are 1039, 919, 817, 779 and 730 k J/mol respectively.

(i)

How do you account for the gradual diminishing values

(ii)

Which of the fluorides do you expect to be least soluble.

7. Arrange the following with proper explanation.

(i)

KCl, KBr and KI decreasing solubility in water

(ii)

LiCl, LiBr and LiI decreasing order of covalent character.

(iii) Li 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 increasing order of thermal stability

8. State whether the following statements are true or false. If false give the correct statement

a) In group IA of alkali metals, the ionization potential decreases down the group, therefore lithium

is poorer reducing agent.

b) The softness of IA group elements increases down the group with increasing atomic number.

c) Sodium amalgam is better reducing agent than hydrogen

d) Sodium carbonate is a constituent of fusion mixture

e) All alkali metals when dissolved in liquid ammonia form blue coloured solutions

f) Potassium is used in photoelectric cells

g) Na 2 CO 3 cannot be converted into NaHCO 3 by passing CO 2 through its solution

h) Lithium carbonate is thermally most stable.

i) Sodium bicarbonate is more soluble in water than potassium bicarbonate

j) Super oxides of alkali metals are coloured and paramagnetic in nature.

k) Alkalimetals have body centred cubic lattice.

l) Water glass is another name for sodium silicate.

Arrange the following in the order asked against each.

1. Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + increasing ionic radii in water

2. Li + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + increasing molar conductivity in water

3. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

4. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

5. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

6. LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH increasing basic nature of hydroxides

7. LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH increasing thermal stability

8. LiCl, LiBr, LiI increasing covalent character.

9. LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr, CsBr increasing ionic character

increasing reactivity with water

increasing reactivity with water

increasing melting point

10. LiH, NaH, KH, CsH increasing stability of hydrides

11. LiF, NaF, KF, RbF, CsF increasing solubility in water.

12. NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI increasing lattice energy

13. NaF, NaCl, NaBr, BaI increasing melting point.

Predict the chemical reactions.

1. White phosphorous is boiled with strong solution of sodium hydroxide in an inert atmosphere.

2. Sodium carbonate is added to zinc sulphate solution

3. Anhydrous potassium nitrate is heated with excess of metallic potassium.

4. Chromic salts are heated with sodium peroxide.

PROBLEMS

1. ‘A’ is a binary compound of a univalent metal. 1.422 g of A reacts completely with 0.321 g of sulphur in an evacuated and sealed tube to give 1.743 g of a white crystalline solid ‘B’ that forms a

hydrated double salt ‘C’ with Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . Identify ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’

2. Identify A, B, C and D give their chemical formulae.

a) A + NaOH +

b) NH 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O ® B

c) B + NaCl ® C + NH 4 Cl

d) C ® Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + D

Heat

¾¾¾® NaCl + NH 3 + H 2 O

3. From the reactions given below identify A, B, C and D and give their formulae.

A(aq) + Zn ® B(gas) A(aq) + NH 4 Cl ® D(gas)

A(aq) + C

Heat

¾¾¾®

4. Complete and balance the following equation

a) P 4 + NaOH + H 2 O ® Na 2 HPO 4

b) S 2 O 3 2- + I 2 ®

c) CuSO 4 + Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O ®

+

+ Na 2 SO 4 +

d) KNO 3 (s) + KS ®

+

+

e) KO 2 + H 2 O ®

+ O 2

f) NaOH + I 2 ®

+ NaIO 3 + H 2 O

5. A certain compound X imparts a golden yellow flame and shows the following reactions.

(i)

zinc powder when boiled with a concentrated solution of X dissolves and hydrogen is evolved

(ii)

When an an aqueous solution of X is added to an aqueous solution of stannous chloride, a white

precipitate is obtained first which dissolves in excess of solution Y Identify the X and write equation for reactions at steps (i) and (ii)

alkaline to litmus and gives 19.7 g white precipitate Z with barium chloride solution. Z gives carbon dioxide with an acid. Identify A, B, X, Y and Z

7. When 16.8 g of white solid X were heated, 4.4 g of acid gas A that turned lime water milky was driven off together with 1.8 g of a gas B which condensed to a colourless liquid. The solid that remainedY dissolved in water to give a precipitate Z. The precipitate effervessed with acid giving carbon dioxide. Identify A, B, X, Y and Z write down the equation for the thermal decomposition of

X.

8. a) A white solid is either Na 2 O or Na 2 O 2 . A piece of red litmus paper turns white when it is dipped into a freshly made aqueous solution of the white solid

(i) Identify the substance and explain with balanced chemical equation

(ii) Explain what would happen to the red litmus if the white solid were the other compound.

b) The solvays process can be represented by the following scheme

Identity A, B, C, D and E

9. An unknown solid mixture contains one or two of the following. CaCO 3 , BaCl 2 , AgNO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 , ZnSO 4 and NaOH. The mixture is completely soluble in water and the solution gives pink colour with phenolphthalin when dilute hydrochloric acid is gradually added to the above solution, a precipitate is formed which dissolves with further addition of the acid what is/are present in the solid. Give equations to explain the appearance of the precipitate and its obssociation.

10. The compound ‘A’ gives golden yellow colour to the bunsen flame. It is highly hygroscopic and when kept in an open vessel it turns to white solid ‘B’. ‘B’ gives a gas ‘C’ with dil. acid. C on passing into lime water gives milkiness which disappears on passing excess C. Identify A, B and C and give reactions.

11. A weak dibasic acid ‘A’ which exist only in aqueous soluton forms two series of salts B and C with NaOH. The salt B is very stable to red heat. Another salt C on heating gives again B and gas D. The gas D reacts with ammonia at high pressure and temperature to give urea. Identify A to D

12. 0.347 g of a metal (A) was dissolved in dilute HNO 3 . This solution gave red coloration to a non luminous Bunsen burner flame and on evaporation gave 0.747 g of metal oxide (B). (A) also reacted with nitrogen forming a compound C and with hydrogen forming D. On reacting 0.1590 g of D with water a gas E was evolved and a sparingly soluble compound F is formed which gave a strongly basic solution and required 200 ml of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid to neutralize it. Identify the substances A to F and explain the reactions involved.

13. Identify A, B, C and D give their chemical formulae.

a) (A) + NaOH

b) NH 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O ® B

c) B + NaCl ® (C) + NH 4 Cl

d) C ® Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + D

Heat

¾¾¾® NaCl + NH 3 + H 2 O

II group Alkaline Earth Metals

Explain with Reason:

1. Berylium chloride fumes in air

2. Berylium chloride is acidic when dissolved in water

3. Barium ion Ba 2+ is poisionous yet BaSO 4 is given to patients prior to taking stomach x-ray. Why it is safe to use BaSO 4 internally?

4. Alkaline earth metals are weaker reducing agents than alkali metals

5. Alkaline earth metals are harder than alkali metals

6. Magnesium oxide is used as refractory material

7. Solubility of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals increases from top to bottom in the group

8. Sodium chloride is added during electrolysis of fused MgCl 2

9. Alkaline earth metal salts are less soluble than the corresponding alkali metal salts

11.

Alkaline earth metals do not from monovalent ions

12. The atomic radii of Mg is smaller than sodium.

13. Salts of alkaline earth metals are diamagnetic in nature

14. Anhydrous calcium sulphate cannot be used as plaster of paris

15. Anhydrous magnesium chloride is prepared by heating MgCl 2 .6H 2 O in a current of dry HCl gas.

16. Beryllium shows covalency where as other members of the family shows electrovalency

17. Solubility of fluorides and oxalates of alkaline earth metals increased from Be to Ba.

18. Melting points of calcium halides decreases in the order of CaF 2 > CaCl 2 > CaBr 2 > CaI 2

19. Ba(OH) 2 is much stronger base than Be(OH) 2

20. Be and Mg donot give flame colour whereas other alkaline earth metals do so

21. Anhydrous calcium sulphate can be used as drying agent

22. In the manufacture of Mg by carbon reduction of MgO the product is cooled in a stream of an inert gas

23. Lithophone is a better white pigment than white lead

24. The hydroxides of alkaline earth metals are weaker bases than those of alkali metals

25. The crystalline salts of alkaline earth metals contain more water of crystallization than the corresponding alkali metal salts

26. The reaction between marble and dilute sulphuric acid soon stops

How will you prepare the following? Give chemical equations.

1. Magnesium oxide from magnesium sulphate

2. Gypsum from lime stone

3. Plaster of paris from gypsum

4. Barium chloride from barium sulphate

5. Magnesium from sea water by Dow process

6. Anhydrous MgCl 2 from MgCl 2 . 6H 2 O

7. Barium Chloride from barium nitrate

8. Calcium nitrate from calcium sulphate

What happens when

1. Burning magnesium is introduced into a jar of CO 2

2. Water is added to calcium carbide

3. Magnesium is burnt in air and the resulting product is (a) treated with water (b) treated with HCl

4. Barium nitrate is heated strongly

Give the names and formula of the compounds

1. Compound of Ca used in setting fractured bones

2. Compound of Mg used as purgative

3. Compound of Ca used for production of acetylene

4. Compound of Ca, C and N used as fertilizer.

5. Compound of Ca which liberates hydrogen on treating with water.

Arrange the following in the order asked against each.

1. CaCl 2 , BeCl 2 , MgCl 2 , BaCl 2 , SrCl 2 increasing ionic character

2. BeCO 3 , MgCO 3 , CaCO 3 , BaCO 3 increasing solubility

3. BeF 2 , MgF 2 , CaF 2 , BaF 2 increasing solubility

4. Be(OH) 2 , Mg(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 , Ba(OH) 2 increasing basic character.

5. BeSO 4 , MgSO 4 , CaSO 4 , SrSO 4 , BaSO 4 increasing solubility

6. Cal -2 , CaCl 2 , CaBr 2 , CaI 2 increasing melting point

7. Be 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ increasing hydration energy

8. BeCO 3 , MgCO 3 , CaCO 3 , SrCO 3 , BaCO 3 increasing thermal stability

State whether the following statements are true or false

2.

The hydration energy of Mg 2+ is greater than Ca 2+

3. Reaction between quick lime and water is an endothermic process

4. Magnesium burns in an atmosphere of CO 2

5. Burnt gypsum has no setting property

6. Calcium bicarbonate is known in solid state

7. Barytes is a mineral of magnesium

8. BeH 2 is an ionic hydride

9. BeCO 3 is thermally unstable compound

10. Gypsum is used in the manufacture of ammonium sulphate

11. Alkaline earth metal carbonates can be dissolved in water in the presence of CO 2

12. Like Barium sulphate magnesium sulphate is also insoluble in water.

13. Marble is another name of gypsum

14. Beryllium and barium compounds are poisionous

15. In the electrolysis of fused calcium hydride H 2 is liberated at cathode.

16. Mg(OH) 2 is more soluble in water than Ca(OH) 2

17. Organic compounds can be prepared from calcium carbide

18. Lithophone a white pigment is a mixture of BaSO 4 and ZnSO 4

19. Be 3 N 2 is volatile where as the other alkaline earth metal nitrides are non volatile.

20. Mg(OH) 2 is used as an antacid under the name milk of magnesia

21. A mixture of MgO and MgCl 2 is known as sorel cement

22. MgCl 2 .6H 2 O on heating gives anhydrous MgCl 2

IInd Group

1. A solid X when heated a colourless gas which does not support combustion is evolved. The residue is dissolved in water to form Y which can be used during construction and white washing when excess of CO 2 is bubbled through the solution of Y, Z is formed. Z is heated gently and X is reformed. Identify X

2. 0.3 g of magnesium ribbon was placed in a crucible and heated with the lid until the magnesium began to burn fiercely. At the end of the experiment there was 0.45 g of the white powder left show that this result does not agree with the equation. 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g) ® 2MgO

3. Two metals A and B belong to the same group of periodic table. Metal A forms an insoluble oxide MO but soluble sulphate MSO 4 while metal B forms a soluble oxide and insoluble sulphate. The hydroxide of metal A is soluble in NaOH. While hydroxide of B is insoluble in NaOH. Name A and

B.

4. Metal nitrate (A) on heating decomposes leaving a residue B which goes into solution with dilute HCl and treated with potassium chromate solution to get yellow precipitate D. Identify A, B, C, D

5. Calcium burns in nitrogen to produce a white powder which dissolves in sufficient water to produce a gas A and an alkaline solution. The solution on exposure to air produce a thin solid layer of B on the surface. Identify compounds A and B.

6. Complete and balance the following equations.

a) Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 ® MgCO 3 + ……… +H

b) MgO + CaC 2 ® Mg + ……. + 2C

c) Be(OH) 2 + NaOH ® …… + H 2 O

d) BaCO 3 + H 2 O(steam)

e) BeCl 2 + LiAlH 4 ® ……. + LiCl + …….

f) CaO + C

2 O

Heat

¾¾¾®

+ CO 2

Heat

¾¾¾®

in air

high temp

¾¾¾¾® ………… + CO

High temp

¾¾¾¾® ……….+……….

N

2

7. Element A burns in nitrogen to give ionic compound B. Compound B react with water to give C and

8.

A

colourless and transparent crystal of a compound ‘A’ burns with apple green flame. When ‘A’

treated with some soluble sulphate, produced a white solid is which is extremely sparingly soluble in water. The compound B is used in the manufacture of a paint known as permanent white. When ‘B’

is strongly heated with coke and CaCl 2 followed with water gives the compound A. Identify A and

explain reactions.

9.

Hydrogen reacts with hot calcium metal to give a hydride. Give the formula of hydride. The hydride reacts with water evolving hydrogen. What would be the other product of their reactions. Write the balanced equation for the reaction.

10.

A

colourless crystalline solid X is deliquescent in nature is obtained from kieserite. It loses 6H 2 O at

 

150

o C and becomes anhydrous at 200 o C. On strong heating it gives white residue and a suffocating

 

gas. X can be used as a purgative. Identify X

11.

There are two metal carbonates A and B which are insoluble in water but soluble in acetic acid with the evolution of CO 2 . When potassium chromate is added to their solution, ‘A’ gives a yellow precipitate which gives pale green colouration to the flame test. The precipitate is filtered out. The filterate is treated with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . White precipitate is formed which gives crimson red colour in flame test. Identify A and B and also give equation for the reaction involved.

12.

On treatment with cold water, an element A reacted quietly liberating a colourless odourless gas B and a solution C. Lithium reacted with B yielding a product D which effervesced with water to give a strongly basic solution F. When carbon dioxide is bubbled through solution C a white precipitate

G

is formed, but this redissolves forming solution H by passing more carbon dioxide.Precipitate G

effervesced with hydrochloric acid and gave deep red flame colouration. When G was heated with

carbon at 1000 o C a caustic white compound I was formed, Which when heated with carbon at

 

1000

o C gave a solid J of some commercial importance. Name the substances A to J and explain the

 

reactions with balanced chemical equations.

13.

When a white substance A was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid a colourless gas B was evolved, which turned moist litmus paper red. On bubbling B through lime water a precipitate C was formed, but passage of further gas resulted in a clear solution D. A small sample of A was moistened with concentrated hydrochloric acid and placed on a platinum wire and introduced into a Bunsen burner flame where it caused a green flame colouration. On strong heating A decomposes giving a white solid E which turned red litmus paper blue. The sample of B was dissolved in water and made upto 250 ml in a standard flask. 25 ml aliquots were titrated with acid and required 20.3 ml of 0.0985 M HCl. Name the compounds A to E inclusive and give equations for all these reactions. Calculate the gram molecular weight of A.

14.

Compound A is slightly soluble in water and its solubility decreases with increase in temperature. ‘A’ is highly soluble in water in the presence of ammonium sulphate. On heating ‘A’ at 120 o C the weight, of the compound decreases by about 15.7% forming a compound B but on heating to 200 o C the weight loss is about 21% forming a compound C. Compound B can be converted to A but not C by hydration. B is an important compound used in making statues and in plastering the fractured bones. Name A, B and C and explain the reactions.

EXPLAIN WITH REASON

III Group

1. Although aluminium is above hydrogen in the electrochemical series, it is stable in air and water

3.

Cryolite is added to alumina in the electrolytic manufacture of aluminium

4. Anhydrous AlCl 3 fumes in air

5. Alum is used in setting muddy water

6. It is necessary to purify bauxite ore before it is subjected to electrolytic reduction.

7. Boron tribromide is stronger acid than boron trifluoride

8. Boron and aluminium halides behave as Lewis acids

9. Pure alumina cannot be electrolysed

10. Aqueous AlCl 3 solution behaves acidic towards litmus while that of NaCl does not

11. Aluminium forms [AlF 6 ] 3- ion but boron does not form [BF 6 ] 3-

12. AlF 3 is a high melting solid while AlCl 3 is a low melting volatile solid

13. Aluminium becomes passive in concentrated nitric acid

14. Aluminium chloride forms a dimer while boron trichloride does not form a dimer.

15. Aluminium metal is frequently used as reducing agent in the extraction of chromium and manganese

16. Aluminium generally forms covalent compounds

17. Anhydrous aluminium choride cannot be prepared by heating hydrated AlCl 3 6H 2 O

18. Aluminium vessels should not be cleaned with cleaning agent containing washing soda

19. Duralumin is used in aircraft industry

20. The hydroxides of aluminium and iron are insoluble in water however NaOH is used to separate one from the other.

21. Boron has high m.pt and b.pt

22. Boron does not form B 3+ ion

23. Aluminium cannot be prepared by the electrolysis of aqueous solution of its salt

24. Fine aluminium powder when exposed to air becomes hazardous.

25. B(OH) 3 is an acid, Al(OH) 3 is amphoteric and Tl(OH) 3 is basic

26. Boron never forms compounds in unipositive state but Thallium is quite stable in unipositive state

27. The pp - pp back bonding occurs in the halides of boron but not in the halides of aluminium.

28. Molten AlBr 3 is a poor conductor but aqueous AlBr 3 is a good conductor of electricity

29. The B-X bond distance is shorter than the sum of the covalent radii of boron and halogen (X)

30. Certain metallic oxides are reduced with aluminium rather than with carbon.

31. Boric acid can be titrated against sodium hydroxide using methyl orange as indicator only in the presence of polyhydroxy compounds like catechol

32. Aluminium sulphide gives foul odour when it becomes damp. Write balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

33. Arrange the following ions in order of their increasing radii Li + , Mg 2+ , K + , Al 3+

Starting from boric acid how would you prepare. (1) Boric anhydride (2) Boron trichloride (3) Boron trifluoride (4) Boron hydrides (5) Ethyl borate (6) Meta and tetra boric acids

How will you obtain 1) Anhydrous aluminium chloride from aluminium 2) Anhydrous aluminium chloride from alumina 3) Potash alum from aluminium sulphate 4) Anhydrous aluminium chloride from potash alum 5) Borax from colemanite 6) Boric acid from borax and colemanite 7) Boron from boric acid 8) Aluminium chloride from aluminium sulphate 9) Aluminium sulphate from potash alum. What happens when 1) Excess of caustic soda is added to a solution of aluminium chloride 2) Dry chlorine gas is passed over hot mixture of aluminium and coke 3) Water is added to aluminium nitride

4) Borax is heated strongly 5) Sodium hydroxide is added to potash alum 6) Ammonium hydroxide is added to potash alum 7) Potash alum is heated strongly 8) Anhydrous aluminium is heated strongly 9) Boric acid is heated 10) Hydrated aluminium chloride is heated 11) Alumina is heated in a stream of sulphur monochloride vapour and chlorine 12) Aluminium is heated with hot concentrated sodium hydroxide 13) Aluminium is heated with carbon and the product is hydrolysed 14) Aluminium is heated with nitrogen and the product is hydrolysed 15) Aluminium is treated with dilute nitric acid. 16) A mixture of aluminium fillings and iron oxide is ignited State whether the following statements true or false

1)

Aluminium is ionic in all of its compounds

2)

Aluminium is the third most abundant metal on earth

3)

All the Al-Cl bonds in Al 2 Cl 6 are equivalent

4)

Potash alum is water soluble and ionizes in aqueous solution to give three types of ions

5)

The basic nature of the hydroxides of group B(IIIA) decrease progressively down the group

6)

Thermite is a mixture of alumina and iron

7)

Ultramarine is an artificial blue pigment

8)

Aluminium hydroxide is soluble in ammonium hydroxide

9)

Gold Schmidt thermite process is used in the extraction of aluminium

10)

Al 2 O 3 can be converted to Al by passing H 2 over it

11)

Borax when heated with ammonium chloride forms ammonium ………

12)

Boron dissolves in hydrochloric acid

13)

Al 2 O 3 is water soluble and gives Al(OH) 3

14)

H 3 BO 3 is monobasic acid

15)

Boron halides possess resonance structure.

16)

Many gems contain Al 2 O 3 .

17)

The maximum covalency of aluminium is 4

18)

TlOH is a strong base

19)

Jeweller’s Borax is Na 2 B 4 O 7 5H 2 O

Give the formula of the following:

1) Panderinite 2) Corundum

6) Turquoise 7) Felspar 8) Colemanite9) Cryolite 10) Mica

3) Rajorite

4) Alunite

5) Jeweller’s Borax

Arrange the following in the order asked against each:

1) BCl 3 , AlCl 3 , GaCl 3 increasing ionic character. 2) BF 3 , BCl 3 , BBr 3 increasing Lewis acid character. 3) BCl 3 , AlCl 3 , GaCl 3 , InCl 3 increasing Lewis acid character. 4) Li 2 O, BeO, B 2 O 3 , CO 2 increasing basic character. 5) B 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , Be 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 increasing acidic character. 6) LiCl, BeCl 2 , MgCl 2 , AlCl 3 . Decreasing pH of the aqueous solution. PROBLEMS

1. Identify A and B in the following reactions Colemanite + A ® Na 2 B 4 O 7 Na 2 B 4 O 7 + B ® H 3 BO 3

2. An inorganic Lewis acid X shows the following reactions.

(i) It fumes in moist air

(ii) the intensity of fumes increases when a rod dipped in NH 4 OH is brought near to it

(iii)

An acidic solution of X on adding NH 4 Cl and NH 4 OH gives a precipitate which dissolves in

NaOH

solution

(iv) An acidic solution of X does not give a precipitate with H 2 S

Identify X and give chemical reactions in steps i to iii

3. An inorganic compound A shows the following reactions

(i)

It is a white solid exists as dimer and fumes in wet air

(ii)

it sublimes at 180 o C and forms mononer if heated to 400 o C

(iii)

it aqueous solution turns blue litmus to red and gives a white precipitate with AgNO 3 solution

which is soluble in NH 4 OH

(iv) Addition of NH 4 OH and NaOH separately to the solution of A gives a gelatinous precipitate

which is, however soluble in excess of NaOH Identify the compound

4. A certain salt X gives the following tests.

(i)

Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus

(ii)

On strongly heating it swells to give a glassy material

(iii)

When concentrated sulphuric aicd is added to a hot concentrated solution of X white crystals of

weak acid separates out. Identify X and write down the chemical equations for reactions at steps (i)

(ii) and (iii)

5. The metallic salt XY is soluble in water When the solution is treated with NaOH solution, a white precipitate A is formed. This precipitate is soluble in excess of NaOH solution to form a compound B. When this solution is boiled with solid NH 4 Cl, a precipitate of a compound C is formed. An aqueous solution of XY upon treatment with BaCl 2 solution gave a white precipitate D which was insoluble indilute HCl. The salt XY forms a double salt with potassium sulphate. Identify XY and give equations for reactions

6. A white precipitate B is formed when a mineral A is boiled with Na 2 CO 3 solution.

(i)

(ii)

The precipitate is filtered and the filtrate contain two compounds C and D. The compound C is

removed by crystallization and when CO 2 is passed through the mother liquor left D changes to C

(iii)

The compound C on strong heating gives two compounds D and E

(iv)

E on heating with cobalt oxide produces blue coloured substance F

Identify A to F and give chemical reactions for the reactions at the steps i to iv

7. A white crystalline compound A swells up on heating and gives violet coloured flame on Bunsen flame. Its aqueous solution gives the following reactions

a) A white precipitate with BaCl 2 in presence of HCl

b) When treated with excess of NH 4 OH, it gives white gelatinous precipitate. The white precipitate dissolves in NaOH and reappears on boiling with concentrated solution of NH 4 Cl

c) It gives yellow precipitate with cobaltinitrite solution identify the compound (A) and explain the reactions.

IV GROUP EXPLAIN WITH REASON

IV GROUP

IV GROUP EXPLAIN WITH REASON
EXPLAIN WITH REASON
EXPLAIN WITH REASON

EXPLAIN WITH REASON

1. Diamond is the hardest substance but graphite is soft in nature.

2. Diamond is a bad conductor

3. Diamond is used as precious stone

4. Diamond (impure) is used as abrasive

5. C-C bond length in graphite is shorter than C-C bond of diamond

7.

Graphite is good current of current

8. The hydrolysis of CCl 4 is not possible but SiCl 4 is easily hydrolysed

9. Alkanes are more stable and less reactive in comparison to silanes

10. Gaseous fuels are better fuels than solid and liquid fuels

11. CO 2 is gas while silica is solid.

12. Carbon acts as an abrasive and also as a lubricant

13. Diamond is covalent yet m.pt is very high

14. Carbon monoxide is poisonous

15. Carbon never shows coordination number greater than four while other members of carbon family show coordination number as high as six.

16. Solid CO 2 is known is dry ice

17. CO 2 is sparingly soluble in water but its solubility increases with increase in pressure.

18. CCl 4 does not act as Lewis acid while SiCl 4 and SnCl 4 acts as Lewis acid as well as their aqueous solutions are acidic

19. CO 2 is an acidic anhydride while PbO 2 is basic anhydride

20. Silanes are few in number where as alkanes are large in number.

21. PbBr 4 and PbF 4 do not exist but PbCl 4 exists

22. Germanium and tin are reducing agents while lead is an oxidant

23. SnCl 2 is solid but SnCl 4 is liquid

24. Tin vessels are not used for packing is cold countries

25. SnCl 2 gives white precipitate with HgCl 2 which turns grey later on but SnCl 4 does not

26. A piece of tin foil is added to SnCl 2 solution for preserving it

27. Lead pollution is caused by car exhaust

28. Radioactive materials are shielded by lead blocks

29. Draw the structure of cyclic silicate (Si 3 O 9 ) 6- with proper lebelling

30. Write down the structure of C 3 O 2

31. SiF 6 2- is known but SiCl 6 2- is not why?

32. What is the importance of ultra pure elemental silicon. How is obtained?

33. How far do you agree with the phenomenon concept of inert pair effect? Justify your answer.

34. The first ionization energy of carbon atom is greater than that of boron atom whereas the reverse is true for the second ionization energy.

35. Diamond is very hard while graphite is soft.

36. CO 2 is an acidic anhydride while PbO 2 is a basic anhydride

37. Silicons are few in number and alkanes are large in number

38. Silicon carbide is as hard as diamond.

39. A statue coated with white lead on long exposure to atmosphere turns black although the original

colour can be restored on treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

40. When dilute solution of bismuth salt is added to sodium stannite solution, black precipitate appears.

41. (SiH 3 ) 3 N is a weaker base than (CH 3 ) 3 N

42. Predict whether the following molecules are isostructural or not explain the reason for your answer.

(i) N(CH 3 ) 3 and (ii) N[Si(CH 3 ) 3 ] 3

43. Carbon dioxide does not support combustion but a burning magnesium ribbon continues to burn in it.

44. Dilute HCl is preferred to dilute H 2 SO 4 for the preparation of carbon dioxide from marble.

45. Sn 2+ and Fe 3+ cannot coexist in the same solution.

46. CCl 4 is used as fire extinguisher but not CS 2

47. Tin is used in making solder.

48. PbO doesnot dissolve in H 2 SO 4 while SnO is soluble in H 2 SO 4

49. Alkali cannot be stored in a Sn or Pb Vessel.

50. Alkanes are more stable than silanes.

51. Which among the following halides is coloured and why?

53.

Sn 2+ (aq) may also be written as [Sn(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ , this ion is acidic by hydrolysis write a possible equation for this hydrolysis.

54. If you have to dissolve lead (II) oxide PbO, which acid you will choose.

55. Explain why the reactions with hydrochloric acid and sulphur dioxide show the oxidizing nature PbO 2

56. Carbon and steam are heated.

57. Silica is heated with CaF 2 and conc.H 2 SO 4

PREDICT THE RELEVENT BALANCED CHEMICAL REACTIONS

1. Tin is heated with concentrated nitric acid.

2. Pb 3 O 4 is treated with nitric acid.

3. Carbon dioxide is passed through a suspension of lime stone in water

4. Carbon dioxide is passed through a suspension of calcium sulphate in aqueous ammonia

5. Passing SiCl 4 vapour over molten aluminium

6. Stannous Chloride is added to mercuric chloride

7. Red lead is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid

8. Red lead is treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid

9. Carbon monoxide is passed through sodium hydroxide solution

10. Stannous sulphite is treated with sodium hydroxide solution.

11. Write the balanced equation for reaction of Al 4 C 3 and CaNCN with water

PROBLEMS

1. A colourless solution contains a metal nitrate. A little solution of sodium chloride is added to it when a cloudy white precipitate appears. How you will be ascertain about the metal ion?

2. An aqueous solution of a salt (A) gives a white precipitate (B) with sodium chloride solution. The filtrate gives a black precipitate (C) when H 2 S is passed into it. Compound (B). dissolves in hot water and the solution gives a yellow precipitate (D), on treatment with sodium iodide. The compound (A) does not give any gas with dilute HCl but liberates a reddish brown gas on heating. Identify the compounds (A) to (D).

3. Identify A and B (compound/reaction condition):

PbS

Heat

¾¾¾® A + PbS

in air

B

¾¾® Pb + SO 2

4. Starting from SiCl 4 prepare the following in steps not exceeding the number given in parenthesis (give reactions only)

(i) Silicon (I) (ii) Linear silicon containing methyl groups only (4) (iii) Na 2 SiO 3

V Group

1. Explain with reason

1. Why oxygen is a gas phosphorous is solid.

2. A bottle of liquid ammonia should be cooled before opening why?

3. Formation of ammonia from its elements at constant pressure is accompanied by decrease in volume. Explain.

4. Ammonia is a good complexing agent than phosphine. Why?

5. Ammonia is a liquid with high boiling point but phosphine is a gas with least boiling point among the Vth group halides. Explain.

6. Bond angle in ammonia is greater than phosphine why?

7. Commercial N 2 is passed through copper chips kept in ammonia solution for removing oxygen.

8. Nitrous oxide supports combustion more vigorously than air.

9. Burning of magnesium in NO continues while burning sulphur in NO extinguishes.

10. Nitric acid acts only as an oxidizing agent while nitrous acid can act both as an oxidizing and reducing agent.

11. NO becomes brown when released in air.

12. Pure conc. HNO 3 is colourless but on long standing turns yellow in sunlight.

13. Red phosphorous is denser and chemically less reactive than white phosphorous.

14. Red phosphorous is less volatile than white phosphorous.

15. Though HNO 3 is stronger than HNO 2 the H 3 PO 2 , H 3 PO 3 and H 3 PO 4 are approximately have equal strength.

16. PCl 5 is ionic in solid state and conducts current in fused state.

17. Noble metals like gold and platinum are in soluble in mineral acids but dissolves in aqua region.

18. The experimentally determined N-F bond lengths in NF 3 is greater than the sum of the single bond covalent radii of nitrogen and fluorine.

19. Though the electronegativities of nitrogen and chlorine are equal, chlorine is more reactive than nitrogen.

20. Nitrogen and bismuth donot form penta halides.

21. Why quick lime rather than fused CaCl 2 , P 4 O 10 or H 2 SO 4 is used to dry ammonia.

22. PH 3 is weaker base than NH 3 .

23. PCl 5 is known but PI 5 is unknown.

24. Dipolemoment of NH 3 is greater than NF 3 .

25. NCl 3 is unstable explosive substance but NF 3 is stable.

26. NF 3 do not hydrolyse but NCl 3 hydrolyse

27. In the hydrolysis NCl 3 liberates ammonia but PCl 3 do not liberate PH 3 .

28. Copper dissolves in HNO 3 but not in HCl

29. NO 2 is paramagnetic and brown colour but N 2 O 4 is diamagnetic and is colourless.

2. Give relevant equation with conditions for the following preparation

1. NO from nitric acid

2. Nitric acid from air

3. White phosphorous form bone ash.

4. Ammonium sulphate from gypsum, ammonia and CO 2 . State with balances equations what happens when

1. Calcium phosphate is heated with a mixture of sand and carbon.

2. White phosphorous is boiled with strong solution of caustic soda.

3. Elemental phosphorous on heating with conc.HNO 3

4. Calcium carbide is treated with nitrogen.

5. Water is added to calcium cyanamide.

6. Cl 2 is passed through liquour ammonia

7. Gold is treated with aquaregia

9.

Nitrogen is obtained in the reaction of aqueous ammonia with KMnO 4 .

10. Tin metal is boiled with conc.HNO 3

11. Very dilute nitric acid on heating with zinc or magnesium.

12. Phosphorous is treated with an acidified CuSO 4 solution.

1. NO is acidic oxide.

3. True or False

2. N 2 O is diamagnetic

3. NO 2 is paramagnetic

4. NO is the anhydride of nitrous acid.

5. N 2 O 5 can be prepared by the dehydration of HNO 3 with P 4 O 10

6. The covalency of nitrogen in N 2 O 5 is four.

7. Sodium Bismuthate is a reducing agent.

8. Antimony has no oxyacid.

9. Aluminium can reduce very dilute nitric acid to ammonium nitrate.

10. The modern process for the manufacture of nitric acid is Birkland and Eyde method.

4.Match the following

1. Laughing gas

a)

phosphorous acid

(i)

strong dehydrating agent

2. Nitrous anhydride

b)

hydrazoic acid

(ii)

strongest acidic oxide of N 2

3. Anhydride of nitric acid c)

ammonia

(iii) reducing agent

4. Anhydride of HPO 3

5. Acid hydride of N 2

6. Basic hydride of N 2

7. Dibasic acid

d) nitrogen trioxide

e) nitrous oxide

f) nitrogen pentoxide

g) phosphorous pentoxide

(iv) explosive

(v)

(vi) good supporter of combustion (vii) least stable oxide of N 2

good complexing agent

5. PROBLEMS

1. A mineral popularly known as apatite is used to prepare a fertilizer which provides phosphorous element to the soil

(i)

The fertilizer is obtained by treating apatite with sulphuric acid

(ii)

When heated with silica and coke it yields white phosphorous and calcium silicate.

Suggest formula for apatite and explain the reactions i and ii

2. An aqueous solution of gas X shows the following reactions.

(i)

It turns red litmus to blue.

(ii)

When added in excess to a copper sulphate solution a deep blue colour is obtained.

(iii) On addition of ferric chloride a brown precipitate soluble in dilute nitric acid is obtained. Identify X and give equations for ii and iii

3. A compound A on heating with excess caustic soda solution liberates a gas B which gives white fumes on exposure to HCl. Heating is continued to expel the gas completely. The resultant alkaline solution again liberates the same gas B when heated with zinc powder. However the compound A when heated alone does not give nitrogen. Identify A and B. Give equations.

4. A compound X on heating with NaOH liberates a gas A which gives brown precipitate when passed through alkaline solution of K 2 HgI 4 . The aqueous solution of gas A turns red litmus to blue and dissolves AgCl precipitate. Identify A and give equations.

5. A colourless inorganic salt (A) decomposes completely at about 250 o C to give only two products B and C leaving no residue. The oxide C is a liquid at room temperature and neutral to moist litmus paper, while gas B is a neutral oxide. White phosphorous burns in excess of B to produce a strong white dehydrating agent. Identify A, B and C. Write balanced equations for the reactions involved in the above process.

7.

(i)

An inorganic iodide A on heating with a solution of KOH gives a gas B and the solution of a

compound C.

(ii)

The gas B on ignition in air gives a compound D and water.

(iii)

Copper sulphate is reduced to the metal on passing B through the solution.

(iv)

A precipitate of the compound E is formed on reaction of C with copper sulphate solution.

Identify A to E and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps i to iv.

8. Gradual addition of KI solution to Bi(NO 3 ) 3 solution initially produces a dark brown precipitate which dissolves in excess KI to give clear yellow solution. Write chemical equations for the above reaction.

9. A colourless solid A liberates a brown gas B on acidification, a colourless alkaline gas C on treating with NaOH and a colourless non reactive gas D on heating. If heating of the solid A is continued it completely disappears. Identify A to D.

10.

An inorganic compound A when heated decomposes completely to give only two gases B and C. B is a neutral gas, fairly soluble in water and itself decomposes on heating to two different gases D and E. A when treated with NaOH gives another gas F which turns mercurous nitrate paper black. After some time the gas F ceases to evolve, however its supply is restored by treating the residual solution with zinc powder. Identify A to B and give necessary equations.

A non metal X on heating with caustic soda liberates a gas B and forms a compound C in solution. The gas B on burning in air forms rings of fumes and can reduces the CuSO 4 solution to copper metal. The compound C is also a reducing agent and can reduce the silver nitrate to silver metal in acid medium. Identify X, A and B. Give equations.

A compound A on heating liberates two gases B and C. C is neutral oxide and is liquid at room temperature. B is a non reactive gas and when passed over heated calcium metal gives a white powder D. D when dissolved in water liberates a gas E which turns the red litmus to blue and when

passed through copper sulphate solution a light blue precipitate which is formed initially dissolves on passing excess gas E and gives deep blue colour. The solution F remained after liberating gas E by dissolving D in water when exposed to air a layer of white solid G is formed on the surface of solution. Identify A to G give reactions.

A colourless water soluble solid X on heating gives equimolar quantities of Y and Z. Y gives dense white fumes with HCl and Z gives dense white fumes with NH 3 . Y gives brown precipitate with Nessler’s reagent and Z gives white precipitate with nitrates of Ag + , Hg + and Pb 2+ , what is X

(i) A gas X when passed over red hot cupric oxide is oxidized to a reacting gas A along with another

neutral gas B by reducing cupric oxide to copper

(ii) The gas X when passed over hot platinum gauze is oxidized to another gas D along with the

formation B.

(iii) D when exposed to air turns to brown gas E which gives an acid F when dissolved in water in

the presence of oxygen.

(iv) When copper turnings are added and heated the gas D is liberated with dilute solution and E is

liberated with concentrated solution of F. Identify A to F. Give equations.

When a mineral acid A is heated with copper turnings a brown gas B is liberated leaving behind a green residue C. The green residue on strong heating gives the same gas B again. The gas B when dissolved in water in the presence of air gives the same acid A. Identify ABC give reactions.

P 4

Identify A to D.

What will be the maximum decrease in volume when 5 ml of N 2 is sparkled with 15 ml of H 2

An unknown inorganic compound X gave the following reactions.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

burned in

¾¾¾¾® A

limited air

¾¾¾® B ¾¾¾® C + D

2

H

O

boiling

(i)

The compound X on heating gave a residue, oxygen and oxide of nitrogen.

(ii)

An aqueous solution of compound X on addition to tap water gave a turbidity which did not

dissolve in HNO 3 .

Identify the compound X and give equation for the reactions i, ii and iii

19. A soluble compound of a poisonous element M when heated with Zn/H 2 SO 4 gives a colourless and extremely poisionous gaseous compound N which on passing through a heated tube gives silvery mirror of the element M. Identify M and N

20. A solution of white solid (A) gave white ppt. (B), with water. On treatment with HCl the ppt. (B) produced (A). When solution of A was treated with sodium stannite and NaOH, it produced a black ppt. (C). With conc. H 2 SO 4 the compound (A) produced a colourless gas (D). The gas is soluble in water and its aqueous solution produced a white precipitate E with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 but no ppt. With Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . Identify A to D and explain the reactions involved.

21. A white hygroscopic powder A reacts with cold water with a hissing sound to give a compound (B), (B) forms a white ppt. With barium chloride in acidic medium and gives a white amorphous ppt. C with neutral AgNO 3 . Comound B can also be obtained by heating orthophosphoric acid. Identify A, B, C and write relevant equations.

22. A waxy crystalline solid (A) with garlic smell is obtained by burning white phosphorous in a stream of air. (A) reacts vigorously with hot water forming a gas (B) and an acid (C). Gas (B) has unpleasant odour of rosten fish and is almost neutral towards litmus. When passed through CuSO 4 solution gas B produced a black ppt. D. Identify A to D and explain the reaction.

6. Multiple Choice Questions with only one answer

1. Sodium nitrate decomposes on heating to give

O 2

2. By heating a mixture of ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate we get

1)

N 2

2)

3) NO 2

4) Na 2 O

1) ammonium nitrate 2) NaNH 4 SO 4

3) nitrogen

4) nitrous oxide

3. The compound which gives a mixture of two gases on heating

1) NaNO 3

2) NH 4 NO 2

3) Pb(NO 3 ) 2

4) NH 4 NO 3

4. Nitrous oxide is prepared in the laboratory 1) combination of nitrogen and oxygen

3) reduction of nitric acid

2) reduction of NO

4)

thermal decomposition of NH 4 NO 3

5. Which of the following is used to dry ammonia

1) conc.H 2 SO 4

2) CaO

6. Explosive hydride of nitrogen

1) N 3 H

2) N 2 H 4

3) P 2 O 5

4) anhydrous CaCl 2

3) NH 3

4) N 4 H 4

7. It is recommended that ammonia bottles be opened after cooling in ice for some time. This is because

1) it brings tears to eyes

3) it is corrosive liquid

2) it has high vapour pressure

4)

it is mild explosive

8. Which one of the following is not an acid salt

1) Na.H 2 PO 2 2) NaH 2 PO 3

3) NaH 2 PO 4

4) Na 2 HPO 4

9. When NH 4 OH is added to copper sulphate solution blue colour is obtained due to the formation of

1) Cu(NH 3 ) 4 SO 4

2) Cu(NH 4 SO 4 ) 2

10. By adding P 2 O 5 to HNO 3

1) a precipitate of yellow colour is formed

3) oxide of nitrogen is formed

3) Cu(OH) 2

4) CuO

2) phosphorous gets free

4)

ammonia is evolved

11. Phosphorous is manufactured by heating in an electric furnace the mixture of

1) bone ash and coke

3) bone ash, silica and coke 4) bone ash, NaCl and coke

2)

bone ash and silica

12. Nitrolim is obtained by passing nitrogen over

1) heated mixture of Al 2 O 3 and carbon

3) carborundum 4) heated aluminium

2) calcium carbide

1) N 2 O

2) NO

3) N 2 O 3

4) NO 2

14. Which of the following is used as anaesthetic

2) N 2 O

15. When ammonia is heated with CO 2 under pressure, the product is

1) NH 3

3) NO

4) NO 2

1) (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3

2) NH 2 CONH 2

3) NH 2 COONH 4

16. Percentage of nitrogen in urea is about

1)

70

2)

63

3) 47

4)

28

4) NH 4 HCO 3

17. A white precipitate will be obtained by the hydrolysis of

1) PCl 5

2) NCl 3

3) BiCl 3

4) AsCl 3

18. When treated with nitric acid which of the following liberates hydrogen

1) Zn

2) Cu

3) Mg

4) Hg

19. The raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid by Birkland and Eyde method is

1) Ammonia

2) Air 3) nitrogen dioxide

4) chile salt petre

20. White phosphorous may be removed from red phosphorous by

1) sublimation

2) distillation 3) dissolving in CS 2

4) heating with an alkali solution

21. White phosphorous reacts with caustic soda. The products are PH 3 and NaH 2 PO 2 . The reaction is an example of

1) oxidation

2) reduction

3) neutralization

4) both oxidation and reduction

22. The least basic halide of nitrogen

1) NF 3

2) NCl 3

3) NBr 3

4) NI 3

23. The bonds present in N 2 O 5 are

1) only ionic

2) only covalent

3) covalent and coordinate

4) covalent and ionic

24. Concentrated nitric acid oxidizes cane sugar to

1) CO 2 and H 2 O

2) CO and H 2 O

3)

CO, CO 2 and H 2 O 4) Oxalic acid and water

25. Skin becomes yellow in conc. HNO 3 because

1)

proteins are converted in to xnthoproteins

2) HNO 3 acts as a dehydrating agent

3)

Nitrocellulose is formed

4) HNO 3 acts as an oxidizing agent

26. Nitrates of all metals 1) insoluble in water 2) soluble in water

27. Which oxide of nitrogen forms a brown coloured complex with Fe(II) ion

3) unstable

4) coloured

1) N 2 O

2) NO

3) N 2 O 3

4) NO 2

28. Red phosphorous is made by heating white phosphorous in the presence of an inert gas at temperature

1) 60 o C

2) 200 o C

3) 240 o C

4) 100 o C

29. When phosphine is bubbled through a solution of silver nitrate is precipitated

1) silver

2) silver phosphide

3) silver oxide

4) none

30. PH 3 produces smoky rings when it comes in contact with air. This is because.

1) it is inflammable

3) it combines with nitrogen 4) it contains impurity of P 2 H 4

2) it combines with water vapour

31. Which gas is obtained when urea reacts with nitrous acid

1)

N 2

2) NO

3) N 2 O

4) NO 2

32. Nitrogen percentage is the highest in fertilizer

1) ammonium sulphate

2) CAN

3) Urea

4) Calcium cyanamide

33. Which of the following properties of white phosphorous are shared by red phosphorous 1) it phosphorescences in air 2) it burns when heated in air

3) it dissolves in CS 2

4)

34. Arsenic is detected by

it reacts with NaOH to give PH 3

1) ring test

2) Lucas test 3) Lake test 4) Marsh test

35. Liquid ammonia is used as refregirant because 1) it has high dipolemoment 2) it has high solubility in water

3) of its basicity

4)

it has high heat of evaporation

36.

The yellow colour often shown by nitric acid can be removed by

1) bubbling air through warm acid 3) passing ammonia through acid

2) boiling the acid 4) adding little Mg powder

37. Which of the following nitrogen oxide is mixed anhydride of nitrous and nitric acids.

1) NO 2) N 2 O 3

3) NO 2

4) N 2 O 5

38. Which of the following nitrogen oxide is a white solid

2) NO 2

39. PCl 5 is kept in well stoppered bottles because

1) NO

3) N 2 O 3

4) N 2 O 5

1) it is highly volatile

3)

it reacts with oxygen

2) it reacts readily with moisture 4) it is explosive

40. Anhydride of HPO 3 is 1) P 2 O 3

41. Phosphate + conc. HNO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 Mo O 4 soln. ® yellow precipitate. The composition of yellow precipitate is

2) P 2 O 4

3) P 2 O 5

4) PO 3

1) (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 .Mo O 3

O 3

2) (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 .12Mo O 3

3) (NH 4 ) 2 PO 4 .12Mo O 3

4) NH 4 PO 4 .Mo

42. Which of the following can not be used as a phosphatic fertiliser

1) super phosphate of lime

mineral

2) phosphatic slag

3) ammonium phosphate 4) phosphorite

43. Concentrated nitric acid reacts with iodine to give

1) HI

2) HOI

3) HOIO 2 4) HOIO 3

44. Which of the following is a tetrabasic acid

1) hypophosphorous acid

3) metaphosphoric acid 4) pyrophosphoric acid

2) orthophosphoric acid

45. Nitrous anhydride is

1) NO

2) N 2 O 3

3) N 2 O 4

4) N 2 O 5

46. Covalency of nitrogen in nitric acid is

1)

0

2)

3

3)

4

4)

5

47. When concentrated nitric acid is heated it decomposes to give

1) oxygen and nitrogen

2) nitric oxide

3) oxygen

4) nitrogen dioxide and oxygen

48. In P 4 O 10 the number oxygen atoms bonded to each phosphorous atom is

1) 2.5

2)

3

3)

4

4)

5

49. When Bismuth chloride is poured into large volume of water, the white precipitate produced is

1) Bi(OH) 3

2) Bi 2 O 3

3) Bi 2 Cl 8 4) BiOCl

50. When ammonia is passed over heat CuO it is oxidized to

1) HNO 2

2) N 2 O

3)

N 2

4) NO 2

51. The CN - ion and N 2 are isoelectronic. But in contrast to CN - , N 2 is chemically inert because of

1) low bond energy

2) absence of bond polarity

3) unsymmetrical electron distribution

4) presence of more number of electrons in bonding orbitals

52. Which oxide does not act as reducing agent

1) NO

2) NO 2

3) N 2 O

4) N 2 O 5

53. Which of the following has three electron bond in its structure

1) nitrous oxide

2) dinitrogen trioxide 3) nitric oxide

54. Mixture used in Holme’s signal is

1) CaC 2 and CaCl 2

2) CaCl 2 and Ca 3 P 2 3)

CaC 2 and C 3 N 2

55. Blasting of TNT is done by mixing

1) NH 4 Cl

2) NH 4 NO 3

3) NH 4 NO 2 4) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4

4) nitrogen pentoxide

4) CaC 2 and Ca 3 P 2

56. The number of hydroxyl groups in pyrophosphoric acid is

1)

3

2)

4

3)

5

4)

7

57. The order of the boiling points of V th group hydrides is

3) PH 3 > AsH 3 > SbH 3 > NH 3 4) NH 3 < PH 3 < AsH 3 < SbH 3

58. Nitrogen can be purified from the impurities of oxides of nitrogen and ammonia by passing through

1) a solution of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 acidified with H 2 SO 4

3) alkaline solution of pyrogallol

2) concentrated HCl

4)

a solution of KOH

59. Which does not give ammonia with water

1) Mg 3 N 2

2) AlN

3) CaCN 2

4) Ca(CN) 2

60. Sodium nitrate on heating with zinc dust and sodium hydroxide gives

1) NaNO 2

2) NH 3

3) NO 2

4) N 2 O

61. Which one of the following is used as anaesthetic

1) NH 3

2) N 2 O

3) NO

4) NO 2

62. The best absorbent for ammonia is

1) water

2) H 2 SO 4

3) NaO

4) NaOH

63. When SO 2 reacts with nitrous acid the compound formed is

3) SO 3

64. The Nessler’s reagent contain the ion

1) H 2 S

2)

S

4) H 2 SO 4

1) Hg 2 2+

2) Hg 2+

3) HgI 2 -

4) HgI 4

2-

65. NH 4 Cl is used to clean metal surfaces because 1) it dissociates into NH 3 and HCl on heating

2) NH 3 forms a soluble complex with metal

3)NH 4 Cl forms a volatile chloride 4)

none

66. The vapour density of NH 4 Cl is almost half the expected value because it

1) is a salt of a strong acid

2) sublimes on heating

3) dissociates completely

4) none

67. In smoke screens calcium phosphide is used because it

1) catches fire easily 2) burns and gives soot none

3) forms phosphine which gives smoke 4)

68. A glass tube containing molten antimony breaks upon solidification of antimony due to

1) expansion 2) exothermic reaction

3) conversion of explosive antimony

69. Light blue colour of nitrous acid is due dissolved

1)

O 2

2)

N 2

3) N 2 O

4) N 2 O 3

70. Bones glow in the dark because 1) they contain a shining material

2) they contain red phosphorous

4) none

3) white phosphorous changes into red phosphorous

4) white phosphorous undergoes slow combustion with air

71. NH 3 gas can be collected by the displacement of

1) mercury

2) water

3) brine

4) conc. H 2 SO 4

72. The decomposition temperature is highest for

1) AsH 3 2) NH 3 3) PH 3

4) SbH 3

73. Glacial phosphoric acid is

1) H 3 PO 4

2) HPO 3

3) H 4 P 2 O 7 4) H 3 PO 2

74. Which of the following coagulates white of an egg

1) orthophosphoric acid

3) hypophosphoric acid 4) pyrophosphoric acid

2) metaphosphoric acid

75. Fuming nitric acid is

1)

conc. HNO 3 + NO 2

2) conc.HNO 3 + NO 3

3)

conc. HNO 3 + N 2 O 3

4)

conc. HNO 3 + NO

76. Phosphine reacts with copper sulphate solution to form

1) copper

2) copper phosphide 3) copper phosphate

4) copper phosphite

77. Which of the following is Schweitzer’s reagent

2) [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]Cl

78. Which of the following acids possesses oxidizing, reducing and complex forming properties

1) [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4

3) Cu(NH 3 ) 2 Cl

4) K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]

1) HCl

2) HNO 2 3) H 2 SO 4 4) HNO 3

79. Pearl white is

1) BiOCl

2) SbOCl

3) NOCl

4) AsOCl

80. Ammonium salts are oxidized in the soil to nitrite by 1) denitrifying bacteria 2) nitrifying bacteria3) ammonifying bacteria

81. Rain water some times contain NH 4 NO 3 because lightening in the sky causes the air to react and produce oxides of nitrogen and

4) nitrosifying bacteria

1)

H 2

2) NH 3

3) CO 2

4) noble gases

82. Antimony dissolves in aqua regia to yield

1) SbCl 3

2) Sb 2 O 5

3) SbCl 5

4) antimony nitrate

83. Which of the following is strongest base 1) AsH 3 2) SbH 3 3) PH 3

4) NH 3

84. The basic oxide is

 

1) N 2 O 5

2) P 2 O 5

3) As 2 O 5

4) Sb 2 O 5

85. When phosphorous is heated with conc.HNO 3 it reduces the acid to

1) NO

2) NO 2

3) N 2 O 3

4) N 2 O 5

86. Which of the following statements regarding nitrogen molecule is not correct 1) amongst the homonuclear diatomic molecules of second period thebond dissociation enthalpy is maximum for nitrogen molecule 2) amongst the homonuclear diatomic molecules of second period, the bond length is minimum for

N 2 molecule 3) Nitrogen molecule is paramagnetic in nature 4) Nitrogen reacts with metals and non metals at high temperatures forming ionic and covalent nitrides

87. Which of the following statements regarding phosphorous is not true?

1) phosphorous belongs to group 15 of the periodic table 2) the element phosphorous is obtained by heating rock phosphite with coke and sand in an electric furnace at about 1700-1800k 3) the formula of phosphorous is P 4 4) black phosphorous is the least stable form of all allotropes of phosphorous

88. Semiconducting form of phosphorous is 1) white 2) red 3) black 4) yellow

89. Which of the following statements regarding white phosphorous is not correct?

1) it is non poisonous

3) it has low ignition temperature 4) it is powerful reducing agent

2) it glows in dark

90. Nitrosonium ion is isoelectronic with

1) NO

2) CO

3) NO 2

4) CO 2

+

91. In the brown ring test of nitrate ion the compound formed is 1) [Fe(H 2 O) 5 NO] 2+ 2) [Fe(H 2 O) 5 NO] 3+ 3) [Fe(H 2 O) 4 (NO) 2 ] 2+ 4) [Fe(H 2 O) 3 (NO) 3 ] 2+

92. Which of the following equations is not correctly formulated

1) concentrated HNO 3 acquires yellow coloration due to the reaction 4HNO 3 ® 4NO 2 + 2H 2 O + O 2 2) Cu + 4HNO 3 (dil) ® Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2H 2 O + 2NO 2 3) 4Zn + 10HNO 3 ® 4Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 5H 2 O + N 2 O 4) P 4 + 20HNO 3 ® 4H 3 PO 4 + 4H 2 O + 20NO 2

93. The volume of ammonia gas obtained when 6 dm 3 of H 2 reacts with excess of nitrogen (all volumes measured at STP) would be

4)

94. Which of the following statements regarding metaphosphoric acid is not correct

1)

2 dm 3

2)

3 dm 3

3) 4 dm 3

6 dm 3

1) it is also known as glacial phosphoric acid

2) it is a transparent liquid

3) it is a monobasic acid water

4)

it produces orthophosphoric acid on treating with

95. The anhydride of orthophosphorous acid is

2) P 4 O 8

96. Which of the following equations is not correctly formulated

1) P 4 O 6

3) P 4 O 10

4) P 2 O 4

1) P 4 O 10 + 6H 2 O (cold) ® 4H 3 PO 4 3) PCl 5 + 4H 2 O ® H 3 PO 4 + 5HCl

2) P 4 + 20HNO 3

4) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 3H 2 SO 4 ® 3CaSO 4 + 2H 3 PO 4

I

¾¾® 4H 3 PO 4 + 20NO 2 + 4H 2 O

2

97. Which of the following statements regarding pyrophosphoric acid is not correct?

1) it is obtained by heating equimolar mixture of ortho and meta phosphoric acid at 100 o C 2) on boiling with water it produces orthophosphoric acid 3) on strong heating it produces orthophosphoric acid 4) it forms four series of salts eg:NaH 3 P 4 O 7 , Na 2 H 2 P 4 O 7 , Na 3 HP 4 O 7 and Na 4 P 4 O 7

98. Phosphorous acid has 1) one hydrogen atom attached to phosphorous 2) two hydrogen atoms attached to phosphorous 3) three hydrogen atoms attached to phosphorous 4) no hydrogen atom attached to phosphorous

99. Which of the following statements regarding N 2 O 4 is not correct?

1) the molecules of N 2 O 4 is planar 3) in liquid N 2 O 4 , NOCl acts as a base

2) the molecule of N 2 O 4 contains week N-N bond 4) the dipolemoment of N 2 O 4 is zero

7. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS WITH MORE THAN ONE ANSWER

1. White phosphorous (P 4 ) has

1)

six P-P single bonds

2)

four P-P single bonds

3)

four lone pairs of electrons

4) PPP angle of 60 o

2. Ammonium nitrate 1) is a fertilizer

3. Which of the following is/are acid salt 1) NaH 2 PO 2 2) NaH 2 PO 3 3) NaH 2 PO 4 4) Na 2 HPO 3

4. When concentrated nitric acid is added to phosphorous pentoxide

2) is an explosive

3)

gives N 2 O on heating

4) gives N 2 on heating

1) nitric anhydride will be formed

3) dehydration of nitric acid takes place 4) metaphosphoric acid will be formed

2) nitrous anhydride will be formed

5. Oxygen gas will be liberated along with an oxide of nitrogen, on heating

1) NaNO 3

2) (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7

3) Pb(NO 3 ) 2

4) AgNO 3

6. The compounds which does not leave any residue on heating 1) NaNO 3 2) NH 4 NO 2 3) Hg(NO 3 ) 2 4) NH 4 NO 3

7. The oxyacids of phosphorous that can be prepared by dissolving P 4 O 10 in water 1) H 3 PO 3 2) H 3 PO 4 3) HPO 3 4) H 4 P 2 O 7

8. The oxyacids of phosphorous that can be prepared by heating orthophosphoric acid 1) H 3 PO 3 2) HPO 3 3) H 3 PO 2 4) H 4 P 2 O 7

9. Ammonia cannot be dried by 1) H 2 SO 4 2) P 2 O 5 3) CaO(anhydrous) 4) CuSO 4

10. Which are correct for N 2 O

1) laughing gas air

2) nitrous oxide 3) not a linear molecule 4) good supporter of combustion than

11. (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 on heating gives 1) Cr 2 O 3 2) N 2 3) H 2 CrO 4 4) NH 3

12. Which are correct statements

1) NO is heavier than air

3) N 2 diffuses faster than NO 4) NH 3 can be used as refrigerent

2)

the formula of nitrous anhydride is N 2 O 5

13. Nitrogen (1) oxide can be produced by the 1) thermal decomposition of NH 4 NO 3 3) thermal decomposition of NH 4 NO 2

14. NO 2 can be obtained by heating 1) KNO 3 2) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 3) Cu(NO 3 )