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ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY MANUAL

I - B. Tech, I SEMESTER, ECE AND EEE BRANCHES (R13)

I - B. Tech, I – SEMESTER, ECE AND EEE BRANCHES (R13) GAYTRI VIDYA PARISHAD COLLEGE

GAYTRI VIDYA PARISHAD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN MADHURAWADA, VISAKHAPATNAM.

NAME:

REGD. NO:

BRANCH:

Certificate

Certified record of practical work done by Ms………………………………………………

of

first

B.Tech,

……………

Semester,

……………………… Branch bearing registered

number…………………… in the Engineering

Physics laboratories of Gayatri Vidya Parishad

College

of

Engineering

for

Women,

Madhurawada, Visakhapatnam during the academic year 2013-14. No. of experiments done and certified:

Lecturer in charge

Date

Examiners:

1.

2.

INDEX

S.NO.

DATE

NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT

MARKS

SIGNATURE

1

       

2

       

3

       

4

       

5

       

6

       

7

       

8

       

9

       

10

       

11

       

12

       

13

       

14

       
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ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

THERMISTOR

THEORY:

The name thermistor comes from thermally sensitive resistor. They are basically semiconducting materials and are of two distinct classes:

1. METAL OXIDES: They are made from fine powders that are compressed and sintered at high temperature. Mn 2 O 3 (manganese oxide), Ni O (nickel oxide), Co O 3 (cobalt oxide), Cu 2 O 3 (copper oxide), Fe 2 O 3 (iron oxide), TiO 3 (titanium oxide) U 2 O 3 (uranium oxide) etc, are the few examples. They are suitable for temperatures 200-700 K. If the temperature is higher than this range then Al 2 O 3 , Be O, Mg O, ZrO 2 Y 2 O 3 and Dy 2 O 3 (Dy :dysprosium) are used.

2. SINGLE CRYSTAL SEMICONDUCTORS:

They are usually Germanium and Silicon doped with 10 16 to 10 17 dopant atoms/cm 3 . Ge thermistors are suitable for cryogenic range 1- 100 K. Si thermistors are suitable for 100-250 K. After 250 K the Silicon thermistors will become PTC (positive temperature coefficient) from NTC. The resistivity and the conductivity of the thermistor are related to the concentration of electrons and holes n and p of the semiconductor though the relation,

(

) ………………

(1)

The concentrations n and p are strongly dependent on temperature T in Kelvin.

Where E a is called activation energy which is related to the energy band gap of that semiconductor. Hence, As temperature increases, the resistance R(T) changes according to the relation,

(

[

]) …………….(2)

Where R O is the resistance of the thermistor at absolute temperature T o . Here T o is usually the reference room temperature. B is a characteristic temperature that lies between 2000K to 5000K. The temperature coefficient of resistance is defined as the ratio of fractional change in resistance ( ) to the infinitesimal change in temperature .

………

(3)

The typical value of is about 0.05/K. It is almost 10 times more sensitive compared with

ordinary metals. Thermistors are available from 1Kto 1MΩ. Advantages:

They are low cost, compact and highly temperature sensitive devices. Hence are more useful than conventional thermometric devices.

Using eq. (2) at some constant reference temperature, say T O = 300K, the resistance will be

 

(

)

Where,

(

)

To make the expression to look like a linear relation to determine the values of A and B constants, take natural logarithm on both sides of the above expression,

……………………

(4)

The exponential curve now became linear. If we plot the variable , we will get A and B constants from the intercept and slope of the straight line.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the resistance R of thermistor at various temperatures (T), we can plot the graph and obtain the values of A and B. How to vary the temperature T? Using an electric heater we can change the temperature roughly from 30 to 60 . How to measure the resistance R? Using Wheatstone’s bridge. Wheatstone’s bridge principle:

The circuit shown here is a Wheatstone’s bridge and it consists of four resistors R 1 , R 2 , R 3 and R 4 ,

a galvanometer

(G) and a Battery (V). Suppose the resistance R 4 be unknown. The voltage applied to this circuit by

the battery is only to set up some current and

its magnitude has no importance, i.e. whether or 2V or 5V it does

not matter at all. Wheatstone bridge gets balanced, i.e. the Galvanometer shows a zero deflection when,

R R 1 2 G R R 3 4 V
R
R
1
2
G
R
R
3
4
V
the Galvanometer shows a zero deflection when, R R 1 2 G R R 3 4

TH 1

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T

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

Or

If the resistances R 1 and R 2 are equal, then the bridge will be balanced, i.e. the null deflection in Galvanometer, when R 4 = R 3 . If we choose R 3 as a variable resistor, like a decade resistance box, the unknown resistance R 4 will be equal to the resistance maintained in the box. Measurement of resistance of thermistor:

Here in this experiment we employ a 1K(at room temperature) thermistor. We form a wheatstone’s bridge with two fixed value resistors each of 1KΩ resistance along with a variable decade resistance box. Two arms of the bridge are formed by 1KΩ resistors and the other two arms, one with thermistor and the other with decade resistance box. The reason for choosing a 1KΩ fixed resistor. The sensitivity of measurement of resistance will be better when all the four resistors here are of same (comparable) magnitude hence the remaining R’s are 1Keach.

R 2 =1KΩ R 1 =1KΩ G T R B R T 1.5 V
R
2 =1KΩ
R
1 =1KΩ
G
T
R
B
R
T
1.5 V

Applications of thermistors:

1. They are used as temperature sensing elements in microwave ovens, heaters and also in some electronic thermometers.

2. Used as sensor in cryogenic liquid storage flasks.

3. Used as compensator for providing thermal stability to transistor based circuits.

4. Used in fire alarms, Infrared detectors as sensor.

THERMISTOR EXPERIMENT

Aim:

1. To study the variation of resistance of a thermistor with temperature.

2. To find the temperature (thermoelectric) coefficient of resistance (α) of the thermistor.

3. To determine I and B coefficients.

Apparatus:

Thermistor (1 KΩ), electric heater (max 70°C), 1.5 volt battery or a D.C. power supply, mercury

or benzene thermometer (0 110

resistors (1kΩ - 2 No.s), Galvanometer (30 0 30), resistance box (1 to 1000connecting wires.

), test tube containing insulating oil (edible oil / castor oil),

tube containing insulating oil (edible oil / castor oil), range), Formulae: ( ) R 1 =1KΩ

range),

Formulae:

( ) R 1 =1KΩ R 2 =1KΩ G R B 1.5 V T Test
(
)
R
1 =1KΩ
R
2 =1KΩ
G
R
B
1.5 V
T
Test tube with
Coconut oil
Electric heater
Thermometer

Procedure:

1. Construct the bridge according to the

circuit diagram (Maintain at least 1000

resistance in the Resistance box before

connecting the circuit, i.e. remove the 1000Ω plug key).

2. The 1 KΩ resistors are already connected

at the bottom panel of the board. Hence no

need to connect them again.

3. If a variable D.C. source is given instead

of a battery, set the voltage to 1.5 or 2 Volt with the help of a multimeter.

4. The bridge gets balanced (Galvanometer

shows “0” deflection) when the resistance of thermistor gets equal to that of the resistance box. Remove the plug keys of resistance box and find out the null point resistance.

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ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

5. Start heating the thermistor by turning on the heater switch on the board.

6. Measure the resistance of thermistor for every two degrees centigrade rise in temperature. Note the readings up to 60°C in steps of 2°C.

7. At each temperature bridge is not balanced initially and it shows some deflection. It can be made zero by adjusting the resistances in the variable resistance box. Tabulate the readings.

8. Remove the power supply or battery, soon after you complete the experiment. If you forget doing this, it will cause the galvanometer to deflect more causing damage to its restore spring.

Graph:

A graph is plotted by taking R versus T (K). This graph gives the value of α.

R

R

1 2 T 1 T 2 T in K
1
2
T 1
T 2
T
in K
ln R Slope = B in K -1
ln R
Slope = B
in K -1

Another graph is plotted between ln R and (1/T(K)). The slope of this graph gives B and its intercept on y (ln R) axis gives ln A from which A can be calculated. But it is not possible to find out the intercept from the graph. It can be done with the help of least square fit method as described in the Appendix. Use this method to compute both slope (B) and intercept (ln A) of the straight line. Here assume X as (1/T) and Y as lnR. The intercept C gives the value of ln A and the slope will give B (in K). From the intercept find out the value of A (in ).

Precautions:

1. Temperature of the thermistor should be

less than 70°C.

2. Thermistor must be immersed completely inside the hot oil bath.

3. Readings of thermometer must be noted without parallax.

4. Connections should be made properly without any loose contact.

5. Resistance must be varied quickly in the resistance box to get the null point within the 2°C intervals.

6. Battery must be disconnected immediately after completion of the experiment.

Viva-Voce Questions:

1. Where do you find applications of thermistor? Name a few of them. They are useful in temperature sensing and controlling equipments. Ex. Microwave ovens, Infrared heat sensors, Liquefied gas temperature sensors in cryogenics.

2. Explain the principle of Wheatstone’s bridge. In the bridge circuit, the potential at the two nodes across which the galvanometer is connected will be same when the four resistors R 1 to R 4 satisfy the relation

3. After obtaining the data from this experiment, you will have the values of A and B coefficients. Can you determine

the temperature of your body? I will provide you only a thermistor and a multimeter. If yes, describe the method. If No, justify your answer. Yes, it is possible. Suppose that you want to measure your body temperature. Just keep it in tight contact with your body (cover it tightly with skin). Use the multimeter to measure the resistance of this thermistor. After few seconds of contact with body, thermistor attains constant resistance. With the known A and B coefficients, we can measure the body temperature by substituting in (

)

( )
(
)
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

REFERENCES:

1. Physics of semiconductor devices, S. M. Sze, 3 rd ed, John Wiley publications, chapter 14, sensors, Thermal sensors, p.744-746.

2. The art of Electronics, Paul Horowitz, 2 nd ed, Cambridge university press, chapter 15, Measurement transducers, Thermistors, p.992-993

3. Electronic devices and circuit theory, R. Boylestad, 7 th ed, Prentice hall publications, Art. 20.11 Thermistors, p.837-838

4. Electronic sensor circuits and projects, Forrest Mims III, Master publishing, p.13, 46-47.

5. Advanced level physics, Nelkon and Parker, 3 rd Ed, Wheatstone’s bridge, p.829-834

BAND GAP OF SEMICONDUCTOR USING PN JUNCTION DIODE

THEORY:

PN junction diode is an example for extrinsic semiconductor. It can be biased in both forward and reverse directions. The current that flow through the diode when its junction is biased with a voltage V will be

(

)

With

 

.

Where,

 

V

=

applied voltage across junction

 

I s

= Reverse saturation current, a constant dependent on temperature of junction

η

=

a constant equal to 1 for Ge (high rated currents) and 2 for Si (low rated currents) Volt equivalent of temperature

V

T

=

=

, T = Temperature of junction in

 

Kelvin

A

=

area of cross section of junction

e

=

elementary charge =

C

D p(n) = Diffusion (electrons)

constant

 

for

holes

 

for holes and

for electrons

 

=

mobility of holes Diffusion length for holes (electrons) equilibrium concentration of holes (p) in the n type material

L p(n) =

p

no

=

 

=

n po = equilibrium

concentration

of

electrons (n) in p type material

n

i

=

= intrinsic carrier concentration (/cm 3 )

n i 2

=

B

=

a constant independent of T

E G

= Energy band gap of semiconductor

(in Joule) Acceptor ion concentration (/m 3 )

N A =

N D = Donor ion concentration (/m 3 )

The term I s is highly temperature dependent. The expression for it can be written as

(

)

(

)

(

(

) (

(

 

(

)

(

)

 

)

) (

)

 

) (

 

)

(

)

observed that the

mobility term in the bracket varies as . Hence,

………………………… (1) is a constant whose magnitude is in nano or pico ampere. Under reverse biased condition applied voltage V will be negative and hence the expression for current through diode will be,

Experimentally it was

(

)

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY Diode will have only the reverse saturation current flowing through it. The

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

Diode will have only the reverse saturation current flowing through it. The negative sign indicates that the current is flowing in opposite direction to that of forward bias. Hence the current I D through diode in reverse bias will be

(

)…………. (2)

Applying natural implies,

logarithms

on

both

sides

[

(

)]

(

) …………….

(3)

This is the equation of the straight line with ln(I D ) as ordinate(y axis) and 1/T as abscissa (x axis). ln(I 0 ) is the y intercept of the graph. If we plot 1/T versus ln(I D ) graph, its slope with x axis gives the value of (– ). By

knowing the Boltzmann constant k B we can evaluate the energy band gap of the semiconductor, similarly we can estimate the value of Boltzmann constant if we know the energy band gap of the given semiconductor. Applications:

1. We can use this to make a diode thermometer. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the reverse saturation current through the diode by varying its temperature, we can plot the

graph and obtain slope (–

).

Which diode is suitable for this? OA79, Germanium diode, used as envelope detector in amplitude demodulation circuits. Why this OA 79? Why not any other? Because reverse current variation is more in the case of Germanium than with silicon. Hence for a small temperature range of variation (30°C to 60°C), it is better to choose Ge diode than any other silicon diodes. If we want to do this experiment with silicon diodes, we must have an electric heater capable of giving temperatures up to 150°C.

How to vary the temperature T? Using an electric heater we can change the temperature roughly from 30°C to 60°C. How to measure the reverse current? Using a moving coil micro ammeter. Biasing the diode:

Use a constant voltage D.C. power supply or a battery to bias it in reverse direction. The voltage applied must be very low, 2 Volt. In case of an ideal diode the reverse current does not vary with applied reverse voltage. But in practical diode case, it increases with increase in reverse voltage. This is due to the increase of leakage currents across the junction with applied voltage. At room temperature, the reverse current may be small and different for same type of diodes, but it follows the equation (2). The values of I o may vary from diode to diode. Description of heater:

The heater contains an electric heating element attached to a stainless steel container holding some cold water. A test tube containing oil is immersed in the water bath. Oil is an insulator of electricity and hence it is used for heating the diode. This also provides uniform heating of diode. The diode with properly insulated connecting wires is immersed in the oil bath. Thermometer is also kept inside the oil bath to measure its temperature. We cannot directly insert the diode inside the water bath as tap water contains lots of minerals dissolved in it and acts like conductor. This will short circuit the diode. Useful data:

From the data sheet of the OA 79 diode:

Material of the diode is Germanium.

Maximum surrounding temperature is

60°C.

Maximum allowed reverse current through the diode is 60µA.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY BAND GAP OF SEMICONDUCTOR EXPERIMENT Aim: To determine the energy band gap

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

BAND GAP OF SEMICONDUCTOR EXPERIMENT

Aim:

To determine the energy band gap of the material of the semiconductor by studying the variation of reverse saturation current through given PN junction diode with temperature.

Apparatus:

OA 79 Ge diode, heater (max 60°C), thermometer, test tube containing insulating oil (edible oil or castor oil), power supply (2V D.C.), connecting wires, micro ammeter (0 - 50 µA) and a voltmeter or multimeter.

Formula:

Reverse current through diode is given by

(

)

3. Apply the reverse voltage (2 Volt) by adjusting the potentiometer (if a battery is given, then there is no need of doing this adjustment).

4. Switch on the heater. Note down the reverse current in the micro ammeter for say, every 2°C rise, in temperature of the diode (if micro ammeter is not available, you can use a multimeter in D.C. current mode under 200 µA ranges).

5. Tabulate the readings.

6. Complete the calculations relevant to the tabular form and get the answer for slope.

7. Plot a graph between lnI and 1/T to obtain its slope.

8. Calculate the E G from both slopes obtained

from graph and table.

Where, E G is the energy band gap of the material of the semi conductor diode, T is the absolute temperature of the diode junction and

k B = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K is Boltzmann constant. Circuit diagram:

Precautions:

1. Readings of thermometer must be noted

without any parallax error.

2. Reverse bias voltage must be regulated at 2 Volt throughout the experiment.

3. Diode should be completely immersed inside the oil bath.

GRAPH:

Plot a graph by taking the values of ln I vs 1/T. Find out the slope of the curve. Do not consider the origin of this graph. Usually we start at 300K and go up to 333K, hence 1/T varies roughly from

at

2.98 and go up to 3.34 by choosing the scale On 1/T axis as

to

So

start

.

Usually I D varies from 2 µA to 60 µA. So ln I D varies roughly from to 13.2. So start at 9.7 and go up to 13.2 by choosing the scale

V T D + + + _ 2 V A I D _ Stainless steel
V
T
D
+
+
+
_
2 V
A
I
D
_
Stainless steel container water bath
Test tube containing oil
Electric Heater

Caution: Set the applied reverse bias voltage at 2 Volt. Do not increase this value more. Do not heat the diode beyond 60°C. Procedure:

1. Build the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Observe the initial temperature of the thermometer. If it is high (>30°C) then replace the water in the heater jar with some cold water and try to reduce the temperature below 30°C.

jar with some cold water and try to reduce the temperature below 30°C. BG 3 G.V.P.
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY On ln I axis as Slope (E G /k B ) can

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

On ln I axis as

Slope (E G /k B ) can be calculated from both straight line data fit as well as from the graph.

Viva-Voce questions:

1. Distinguish intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor.

If the semiconductor material consists of no

impurities (dopants), then it will be intrinsic (pure) semiconductor. If it contains dopants {acceptor type [p-type] III group elements or Donor type [n-type] IV group elements} then it will be an extrinsic semiconductor.

2. What are the band gaps of Silicon and Germanium? For silicon; (eV = electron volt)

For Germanium,

3.

T is the temperature of the sample in Kelvin.

At 300K, E G = 0.72 eV for Ge; E G = 1.1 eV for Si.

How do you test the diode for its polarity using a multimeter? There will be a symbol of diode on the multimeter’s mode changing dial. Turn the dial to diode testing mode. Connect the two leads of the multimeter to the two leads of the diode. If the multimeter shows infinite resistance (it shows a “1 ” Or “OL” means out of range, very large), then it is reverse biased and the terminal of diode that is connected to positive (red probe) of multimeter will be the cathode of the diode and the other one will obviously be the anode. Similarly, if the meter shows some finite resistance like few hundred (150, 540 etc), then it is forward biased, i.e. the terminal of diode that is connected to positive (red probe) of multimeter will be the Anode of the diode and the other one will be the Cathode. During this process, multimeter applies some known voltage across its leads and measures its resistance.

known voltage across its leads and measures its resistance. References: 4. If I reveal the material

References:

4. If I reveal the material of the diode used, can you estimate the Boltzmann constant from this experiment? If yes, describe how do you do it, if no, say why? (Think and answer)

5. Why do we observe small current (of the order of Micro amp) in this experiment? What are responsible for this small current? Because reverse current is due to the minority carries only. As their number is very small the current is also small.

6. In which biasing of diode are you doing this experiment? Reverse bias.

7. Can you determine the band gap by changing the bias of the diode? If yes, describe how you do it. If no, explain why? (think and answer)

8. If I give you a silicon diode and the same experimental set up (micro ammeter 0- 50range), can you find out its band gap? Justify your answer. No, the reverse current variation is very small of the order of few nano amperes per degree centigrade and hence it not possible to observe the variation in reverse current with the micro ammeter for a temperature range of 30-60°C

9. What is the magnitude of reverse current

in silicon at moderate temperatures? Few tens of nano amperes. 10. Can you make a diode thermometer using this setup? If yes, say how? If no, say why? Yes, once if we know the value of I 0 (antilog of intercept of lnI vs 1/T graph) from the experiment, we can measure the T. Just bring the diode in contact with the body whose temperature is to be measured and measure the reverse current (I D ) accurately. As we know the I 0 and I D we can determine the T in Kelvin for that body

using the relation

(

).

1. Electronic devices and circuits, Millman and Halkias, McGraw hill student edition

p.126-132.

2. Semiconductor device physics and technology, SM Sze, M K Lee, 3 rd Ed, John wiley,

P.107

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

JUNCTION DIODE AND ZENER DIODE VOLT AMPERE CHARACTERISTICS

THEORY:

Semiconductors are basically of two types. Intrinsic semiconductors: These are in their purest form, without any impurities (Dopants). Extrinsic semiconductors: These are impurity added (Doped) intrinsic semiconductors. Doping is a process of adding impurity atoms to the pure semiconductors. The reason for this doping is only to increase the conductivity of the semiconductors. By adding Group III elements Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium (Trivalent impurity) to the pure semiconductors, it becomes P type. By adding Group V elements Nitrogen, phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth (pentavalent impurity) it becomes N type. P

type has excess of holes as majority carriers and N type has excess of electrons as majority carriers.

Diode is a semiconductor based electronic component. It is formed by joining a p type

section of semiconductor with n type section. It has anode (p type) and cathode (n

type). It is a polar device, i.e. its operation will depend on the direction of connection (biasing).

will depend on the direction of connection (biasing). The above symbol represents an ordinary P –

The above symbol represents an ordinary P N junction diode. A denotes the positive (high potential end) Anode and K denotes the negative (low potential end) of the diode. Diode acts like a mechanical check valve, that conducts (allows flow of liquid) only when the Anode is at relatively high potential with respect to the cathode. Suppose that A is at 10 Volt potential and K is at 9.3 Volt potential. Then the diode will conduct (closed switch or Forward Bias) a current from anode to cathode in the direction of arrow shown in diode symbol. If the potentials are reversed, i.e. A at 9.3V and K at 10V, it does not conduct, acts like infinite resistance (open switch or Reverse bias). Forward Bias: Anode of the diode will be at a relatively high potential that that of cathode. In this bias the diode conducts and acts like a closed switch.

Reverse bias: Cathode of the diode will be at a relatively high potential than that of Anode. In this bias the diode acts like open switch and offer infinite resistance, i.e. do not conduct. FOR DETAILS ABOUT THE CONDUCTION IN DIODES REFER TO THE THEORY PART OF BAND GAP OF SEMICONDUCTOR EXPERIMENT.

MECHANISM OF CONDUCTION IN JUNCTION DIODE:

EXPERIMENT . MECHANISM OF CONDUCTION IN JUNCTION DIODE: When a PN junction is forward biased as

When a PN junction is forward biased as shown in the figure, there will be an electric force on the carries of the diode due to the potential difference applied by the battery. This field on holes of P region will be towards the depletion region (junction) and hence the holes of P region will try to move away from the + ve plate. Similarly in the N region the electrons are repelled by the negative potential of the battery and hence they too try to move towards the depletion region from the N region. Initially the neutral barrier at the junction (depletion region) prevents the flow of carriers through it. To overcome this, carriers need some

potential energy that is just equal to the barrier potential of the junction. In case of silicon

diodes it will

be 0.7 volt for

Germanium it will be 0.3 volt (approximately). After applying this much voltage across junction conduction starts. The

minimum voltage at which the diode starts conducting is called its cut in voltage.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY During reverse bias the Holes of P – region are attracted towards

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY During reverse bias the Holes of P – region are attracted towards the
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY During reverse bias the Holes of P – region are attracted towards the

During reverse bias the Holes of P region are attracted towards the negative plate and electrons of N region are attracted towards the positive plate of the battery. This makes the depletion region to expand in size and it becomes thicker. Due this the conduction in diode due to majority carriers ceases. Still there are minority carriers which enjoy forward bias, to contribute some weak current across the junction known as Reverse saturation current. The value of this in most of the commercial Junction diodes is in nano ampere range. V I CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNCTION DIODE:

During forward bias of the diode, initially we would not observe any current up to say 0.5 to 0.6 V across the diode. Later the current through diode increases exponentially as shown in the figure. Even at higher forward

exponentially as shown in the figure. Even at higher forward voltages across the diode the voltage

voltages across the diode the voltage does not increase much. But it raises slightly in a practical diode due to the Ohmic resistance of

the semiconductor as well the metal contacts of the diode. During reverse bias, the current through diode is very small of the order of few micro amperes. To observe this we must use a micro ammeter in place of milli ammeter that was used during forward bias. To reach the break down region a PN diode needs a relatively high voltage. In case of rectifier type diodes it will be as high as 1000 Volt. Hence it is not possible in our lab to break down this PN junction diode as we do not have such a high voltage source. Zener and Avalanche diodes are heavily doped p-n junction diodes. Their circuit symbol is

heavily doped p-n junction diodes. Their circuit symbol is The doping levels (amounts of added impurities)

The doping levels (amounts of added impurities) are considerably different from those normally found in a rectifier (PN) diode. This diode preferably used in REVERSE BIAS. A rectifier diode cannot be used in the breakdown region as it makes permanent damage to the junction. However, zener and avalanche diodes are designed to use in the breakdown region. These diodes are used for voltage reference and voltage regulator circuits. There are two mechanisms that cause a reverse-biased p-n junction to break down:

the Zener effect and avalanche breakdown. Either of the two may occur independently, or they may both occur simultaneously. Diode junctions that break down below 5 V are caused by the Zener effect.

Heavily doped

N Side

Moderately doped

P Side

Depletion region Denotes atoms/ions ) denote holes and black dots (
Depletion region
Denotes atoms/ions
) denote holes and black dots (

Bubbles (

) denote electrons

A REVERSE BIASED ZENER DIODE

Junctions that experience break down

above

ZD 2

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A REVERSE BIASED ZENER DIODE Junctions that experience break down above ZD 2 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY 5 V are caused by avalanche breakdown . Junctions that break down

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY 5 V are caused by avalanche breakdown . Junctions that break down around

5 V are caused by avalanche breakdown. Junctions that break down around 5 V are

usually caused by a combination of the two effects.

A zener diode is produced by moderately

doping the p-type semiconductor and heavily doping the n-type material (see Fig below). Observe that the depletion region extends

more deeply into the p-type region.

Under the influence of a high-intensity electric field, large numbers of bound electrons within the depletion region will break their covalent bonds to become free. This is ionization by an electric field. When ionization occurs, the increase in the number of free electrons in the depletion region converts it from being practically an insulator, to being a conductor.

As a result, a large reverse current may flow

through the junction. The actual electric field intensity required for the Zener effect to occur is approximately 3 X 10 7 Volt/meter. From basic circuit theory we recall that the electric field intensity E is given by V = E d

where

E

= electric field intensity (volts per meter)

V

= potential difference (volts)

d

= distance (meters)

Heavily doped

N Side

Moderately doped

P Side

Depletion region
Depletion region

The black dotted electrons on the P-side are minority carriers that are “Feeling” forward bias and travelling with high speed, colliding with ions of depletion region causing them to release electrons. Their number increases drastically and an avalanche (flood) of electrons are released (Avalanche breakdown) MECHANISM OF AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN

In terms of the p-n junction depicted in above

Fig. we note that the applied reverse voltage is

V and the depletion region width is the

distance d. The narrower the depletion region, the smaller the required reverse bias to cause Zener breakdown. A small reverse bias can produce a sufficiently strong electric field in a narrow depletion region. By controlling the doping levels, manufacturers can control the magnitudes of the reverse biases required for

Zener breakdown to occur. Only certain standard zener diode voltages are available. These range from 2.4 to 5.1 V. With lightly doped p-type material, the depletion region

may be too wide for the electric field intensity

to become sufficient for Zener breakdown to

occur. In these cases, the breakdown of the reverse-biased junction is caused by avalanche breakdown (see Fig below). The depletion region is wider because it extends more deeply

into the p region. Reverse saturation current is

a current flow across a reverse-biased p-n

junction due to minority carriers. Even though

the electric field strength is not large enough

to ionize the atoms in the depletion region, it

may accelerate the minority carriers sufficiently to allow them to cause ionization by collision. The specifics may be outlined as follows:

1. The depletion region is too wide to allow an electric field intensity of at least 3 X10 7 V/m.

2. The minority carriers are accelerated by the applied electric field.

3. The minority carriers gain kinetic energy.

4. The minority carriers collide with atoms in the depletion region.

5. The valence electrons of the atoms receive enough energy from the collisions to become free (conduction band) electrons.

6. As a result, the number of free electrons in the depletion region increases to support a large reverse current. This avalanche of carriers is also termed as “carrier multiplication" since one minority carrier may ultimately cause many free electrons.

The V- I characteristic curve for a zener diode will be similar to rectifier diode in forward bias condition. Its behavior in reverse bias is different from rectifier diode.

condition. Its behavior in reverse bias is different from rectifier diode. ZD 3 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY IMPORTANT POINTS FROM V – I CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Cut – in Voltage

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY IMPORTANT POINTS FROM V – I CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Cut – in Voltage (V

IMPORTANT POINTS FROM V I CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Cut in Voltage (V γ ): During forward bias of the diode, if we slowly vary the voltage across the diode, there will be no observable current up to a characteristic voltage known as Cut In or Break in voltage or Knee voltage. The minimum forward voltage to be applied to the diode to make it just conducting is called its Cut in voltage. For Silicon diodes, this cut in voltage will be approximately 0.6 to 0.7 Volt. For Germanium diodes it will be approximately 0.2 to 0.3 Volt.

2. Break down voltage (V Z ): During reverse biasing of diode, initially there will be no current through the diode. (Exception: if we use a micro ammeter, we can observe some small current, a milli ammeter does not show any current ) As we increase the magnitude of reverse voltage, there will be a characteristic voltage for the diode at which it starts conducting infinitely. Sudden raise of current will be observed at this point leaving the voltage across diode almost constant. This voltage is called the Break down voltage. For voltages less than 5V zener break down is dominant and for voltages greater than 5V, Avalanche breakdown is dominant.

3. Dynamic Resistance (R F and R Z ): During forward or reverse biasing of diode there are points at which the current through

of diode there are points at which the current through diode increase rapidly. At these points

diode increase rapidly. At these points the variation of current with voltage is non linear, reflecting that these devices are non Ohmic. For Ohmic devices, that obey

Ohm’s law, the resistance does not change with applied voltage and hence they have some fixed value of resistance. But here in the case of diode, the resistance changes with applied voltage. So we define the ratio of differential change in Voltage across the diode with the corresponding differential change in current through it as the Dynamic Resistance. 4. Material of the diode: Depending the cut in and break down voltages as described above, we can decide the make of the diode. APPLICATIONS:

1. As voltage regulators for both line regulation and load regulation in D.C. power supplies.

2. Used in generating reference voltages for transistor based and integrated circuits.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: To study the V I

characteristics of the Junction diode / zener diode, we must measure the current through

the diode by applying various voltages to the

diode in both forward and reverse biases. This can be done with a variable voltage D.C. source and a milli ammeter.

V

V

R
R

R S

mA
mA

V

D.C. source and a milli – ammeter. V V R R S mA V D FORWARD
D.C. source and a milli – ammeter. V V R R S mA V D FORWARD
D
D

FORWARD BIAS

and a milli – ammeter. V V R R S mA V D FORWARD BIAS What

What is the D.C. source?

A variable D.C. power supply with zero

minimum voltage to at least 15 to 20 V maximum voltage. Its power rating must be sufficient to draw at least 100 mA current at these voltages. In our lab we are going to use a 0 20 V variable D.C. source with 1 Ampere maximum current.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose

V

V R

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose

R S

mA
mA
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose

V D

REVERSE BIAS

PHYSICS LABORATORY V V R R S mA V D REVERSE BIAS How to choose the

How to choose the diode? The zener break down voltage should not exceed the maximum voltage supplied by the D.C. source. As a rule of thumb, the difference between maximum voltage of the source and the break down voltage of the diode must be greater than at least 5V. If the D.C. source has maximum voltage of 15 Volt, we can use zener diodes of break down voltages up to 10V. The power rating of the diode is specified by the manufacturer. If we want more current through the diode, we must use high power rated diodes. In our lab we use either half watt or one watt rated zener diodes. Their voltage ratings usually vary from 5V to 13V. For PN junction diode we use 1N 4001 4007 family of rectifier diodes. In our lab we use 1N 4007 diode made of silicon that has a PIV rating of 1000V (PIV peak inverse voltage, the maximum reverse voltage a diode can withstand; break down voltage) How to recognize its polarity? There will a ring (band) on the cathode side it will be the negative of diode and obviously the other one will be positive of diode. If the band is not visible, you can test it with a muti- meter. How to test a diode with a multi-meter? There will be a diode symbol on the multi- meter dial knob. Turn it to the diode testing mode. Join the positive (red probe) of multi- meter to one end of the diode and the negative (black probe) to the other end of diode. If the meter shows a low resistance of say few hundred, it means that the diode is forward biased, i.e. the leg of diode connected to positive (red probe) is it’s positive and vice versa. If the multi-meter shows an infinite resistance, it means that it is in reverse bias, i.e. the leg of diode connected to the positive (red probe) of multimeter is its cathode (negative) and vice versa.

How to check whether a diode is working or spoiled? To check whether the diode is working or spoiled use the multimeter test as described above. If the diode shows very low resistance in both directions, it is spoiled. If it shows high resistance only in one direction, it is in good condition. What is the function of series resistance R S ? R S is used for limiting (controlling) the current through diode. The value of this resistor can be decided by the power rating of the diode. How to measure the current? In our lab we have milli ammeters of 0 50 and 0-100 range. We can also use the digital multimeter (DMM) in current measuring mode. Fixing the values of components:

Apply KVL to the forward bias circuit.

During forward bias V D =0.7 V approximately for silicon diode. If the power rating of Zener is P, maximum current it can hold without being destroyed is i max , then,

Or

This will tell us the maximum current the diode can withstand when a voltage of V D is applied to it. The resistor must be capable of controlling the current to this threshold value. As a rule of thumb, we restrict our self to a threshold current value which is much lower than the value predicted by the above expression for i max . If the predicted value is say 90 mA, then we restrict to ¼ of this value, say 20 to 25 mA. Take this value as i max . This is to ensure the durability of the diode. If the applied maximum voltage by the D.C. source is say 20 V, then

(In forward bias) Suppose that the zener is a half watt rated.

it

ammeter has only 50 or 100 mA range, it is better to restrict up to 30 mA in forward bias.

So,

can

Then,

700

Hence

milli

.

withstand

I max

mA.

But

our

is

0.03Amp.

Hence,

 

or

.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY The nearest standard resistance value is 68 0Ω . The power rating

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY The nearest standard resistance value is 68 0Ω . The power rating of

The nearest standard resistance value is 680Ω. The power rating of the resistor can be

. Suppose that the maximum current goes up to 30 mA in the resistor, then,

calculated using

Nearest standard wattage is 1 Watt. If we use a 1KΩ resistor in place of 680Ω, the current drops and even a 1KΩ half watt resistor can withstand the maximum current. So, when we wish to reduce the resistance we must increase its power rating and vice versa. For reverse bias replace V D with the break down voltage of the zener diode, say 5.6V, ½

watt rating, then,

So, restrict only to 25 mA.

.

or

is 680Ω. So it is better to use 680Ω or more in both forward and reverse biasing of the circuit.

, nearest standard value

ZENER DIODE V I CHARACTERISTICS EXPERIMENT

Aim:

characteristics of the given zener diode.

2. To determine the Cut in, Break

down and dynamic resistances of the diode from the characteristic curves. Apparatus:

Zener diode (½W), Resistors (1 KΩ, ½W), Variable voltage D.C. power supply, milli ammeter (0 50 or 100), Multimeter, bread board, connecting wires.

ampere

1. To study the

volt

Procedure:

FORWARD BIAS:

Circuit:

V

mA
mA
1. To study the volt Procedure: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD
1. To study the volt Procedure: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD

R S

study the volt Procedure: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1.

V D

the volt Procedure: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1. Construct

FORWARD BIAS

FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1. Construct the circuit on
FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1. Construct the circuit on

1. Construct the circuit on bread board according to the circuit diagram for forward bias. Zener diode has a black band on it. It shows the cathode of diode. 2. Vary the potentiometer (knob on the power supply) and apply various voltages to the diode in steps of 0.1 Volt. Note the current in milli ampere as shown by the ammeter.

3. Initially, there will be no current through the diode up to a characteristic voltage, known as Cut-In voltage. Note values of current until this characteristic voltage as zero. Observe carefully for this voltage and note it down.

4. From here onwards note down the voltage that you observe across the diode as function of current through diode in steps of 2 mA by varying the potentiometer.

REVERSE BIAS:

Circuit:

V

mA
mA
by varying the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS
by varying the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS

R S

varying the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS 1.
varying the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS 1.

V D

REVERSE BIAS

. REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect the circuit
. REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect the circuit

1. Connect the circuit in reverse bias as shown in the circuit diagram, i.e. just reverse the ends of the diode in the forward bias circuit.

2. Vary the potentiometer (knob on the power supply) and apply various voltages to the diode in steps of 1 volt starting from zero.

3. Note the value of current in milli ampere as shown by the ammeter (initially you wouldn’t get any current, note them as zero).

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY 4. At a characteristic voltage known as 5. From here onwards note

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY 4. At a characteristic voltage known as 5. From here onwards note down

4.

At

a

characteristic

voltage

known

as

5. From here onwards note down the voltage that you observe across the diode as function of current through diode in steps of 2 mA by varying the potentiometer.

Break

down

voltage,

you

will

get

a

sudden raise in the current through the diode. Observe this carefully and note down the value.

Graph: Plot a graph by taking the current through diode versus voltage across diode both for forward and reverse biases. Split the graph into four quadrants. Choose the scale on voltage axis (horizontal) as 1 division = 0.1Volt on the positive side and 1 division = 1 volt on the negative side. Choose the scale on current axis (vertical) as 1division = 1 mA on both positive and negative sides. From each curve on first and third quadrants, calculate the slope of the graph near cut in and break down points. These slopes will give the dynamic conductances of diode. Inverse of conductance gives the dynamic resistance of the diode.

Precautions:

1. Do not short the ends of the power supply. This will damage your power supply.

2. Connections on the breadboard must be tight. Avoid loose contacts.

3. Check the polarity of diode carefully.

4. Do not connect the diode without current limiting resistor. This will burn out the diode in any

bias.

Viva voce questions:

1. What is the basic application of a zener diode? It is used as a voltage regulator.

2. have a silicon made zener diode with

I

V

Z =5.2V connected in reverse bias with

a series resistor of 100Ω and a variable D.C. source of 0-20V. Estimate the maximum current flowing in the circuit. Determine the current in the circuit if the diode direction is reversed. Suggest the minimum power ratings for both zener diode and resistor in both connections. In reverse bias,

For diode,

For resistor,

.

In forward bias, for Silicon V Z = 0.7 V

For diode,

For resistor,

.

3. Design a voltage regulating circuit which drives a cell phone charging unit with required output at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C.

output at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 .
output at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 .

R

S

at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 . 6
at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 . 6
at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 . 6
at 5.6 Volt, 300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 . 6

5.6

10V

300mA with input voltage of 10 Volt D.C. R S 5 . 6 10V I m

I max for the zener is 300mA, i.e. 0.3A. Zener voltage rating is 5.6V, for diode,

For resistor, Voltage drop across it will be 105.6= 4.4V

; This circuit will work will a load (cell phone) of resistance

greater than 18.66 Ω. If the load resistance is further reduced, the circuit will not work. 4. What do you mean by dynamic resistance? It is the resistance offered by the diode due to the changes occurred in input voltage. Static resistance of a diode refers to a fixed resistance at a fixed voltage. But dynamic resistance is some kind of average

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY resistance offered by the diode when the input voltage changes between two

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY resistance offered by the diode when the input voltage changes between two closely

resistance offered by the diode when the input voltage changes between two closely separated voltage levels.

5. Which bias would you suggest for operating the zener diode to exploit to maximum extent? Reverse bias only.

6. Can we use an ordinary PN junction diode to regulate the voltage instead of a Zener diode? Justify your answer. Yes, Junction diode offers a forward drop of about 0.7 Volt (for silicon). Hence by using a combination of forward biased diodes we can achieve voltage regulation even in forward bias. A serial combination

REFERENCES:

of two forward biased silicon diodes will provide a forward drop of 1.4V. 7. What is the basic difference between Zener break down and avalanche breakdown? Zener break down is due to the breaking of bonds in the depletion region because of applied external reverse voltage. Avalanche breakdown is due to the rupture of bonds in depletion region by the collisions of minority carriers that are accelerated by the applied reverse voltage. As the temperature increases, the minority carrier concentration also increases, giving more chance for avalanche breakdown.

1. Electronic devices and circuits Discrete and integrated, Stephen Fleeman, Prentice hall, Art.

2-8, zener and avalanche diodes, p.32-36 (taken verbatim).

2. Electronic devices, 9 th Ed, Thomas L Floyd, Prentice hall, unit-3, special purpose diodes,

p.113-126.

3. Electronic devices and circuit theory, R. Boylestad, 7 th ed, Prentice hall publications, Art, semiconductor diode p.10.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY PN JUNCTION DIODE V – I CHARACTERISTICS EXPERIMENT Aim: To study the

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

PN JUNCTION DIODE V I CHARACTERISTICS EXPERIMENT

Aim:

To study the volt ampere characteristics of the given PN junction diode. Apparatus:

1N 4007 rectifier diode / 1n 4148 signal diode, Resistors (470 Ω or 1 KΩ, ½W), Variable voltage D.C. power supply, milli ammeter (0 50 or 100), micro ammeter (0 50) range, Multimeter, bread board, connecting wires.

PROCEDURE:

FORWARD BIAS:

Circuit:

V

mA
mA
connecting wires. PROCEDURE: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1. Construct
connecting wires. PROCEDURE: FORWARD BIAS: Circuit: V mA R S V D FORWARD BIAS 1. Construct

R S

V D FORWARD BIAS
V D
FORWARD BIAS

1. Construct the circuit on bread board according to the circuit diagram for forward bias. Junction diode has a band on it. It shows the cathode of diode.

2. Vary the potentiometer (knob on the power supply) and apply various voltages to the diode in steps of 0.1 Volt. Note the current in milli ampere as shown by the ammeter.

3. Initially, there will be no current through the diode up to a characteristic voltage, known as Cut-In voltage. Note values of current until this characteristic voltage as

zero. Observe carefully for this voltage and note it down.

4. From here onwards note down the voltage that you observe across the diode as function of current through diode in steps of 1 mA by varying the potentiometer.

REVERSE BIAS:

Circuit:

V

1 mA by varying the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S
µA V D
µA
V D
the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect
the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect
the potentiometer . REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect

R S

REVERSE BIAS

. REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect the circuit
. REVERSE BIAS: Circuit: V µA V D R S REVERSE BIAS 1. Connect the circuit

1. Connect the circuit in reverse bias as shown in the circuit diagram, i.e. just reverse the ends of the diode in the forward bias circuit.

2. Vary the potentiometer (knob on the power supply) and apply various voltages to the diode in steps of 1 volt starting from zero.

3. Note the value of current in micro ampere as shown by the ammeter. (If you connect a milli ammeter in place of this you will not observe any current)

4. Just continue doing this until you reach the maximum D.C. source voltage.

5. Use these values to estimate the reverse resistance of the diode. Usually it will be in mega Ohms.

Graph: Plot a graph by taking the current through diode versus voltage across diode both for forward and reverse biases. Split the graph into four quadrants. Choose the scale on voltage axis (horizontal) as 1 division = 0.1Volt on the positive side and 1 division = 1 volt on the negative side. Choose the scale on current axis (vertical) as 1division = 1 mA on both positive and negative sides. From each curve on first and third quadrants, calculate the slope of the graph near cut in in forward bias and anywhere in the reverse bias. These slopes will give the dynamic conductances of diode. Inverse of conductance gives the dynamic resistance of the diode.

Precautions:

1. Do not short the ends of the power supply. This will damage your power supply.

2. Connections on the breadboard must be tight. Avoid loose contacts.

3. Check the polarity of diode carefully.

4. Do not connect the diode without current limiting resistor. This will burn out the diode in forward bias.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY STEWART AND GEE APPARATUS MAGNETIC FIELD ALONG THE AXIS OF CIRCULAR CURRENT

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

STEWART AND GEE APPARATUS MAGNETIC FIELD ALONG THE AXIS OF CIRCULAR CURRENT CONDUCTOR

THEORY:

Biot – Savart’s Law:

Consider a current carrying conductor (of arbitrary orientation) as shown in figure. It

at

a point P at distance from an element ⃗⃗⃗⃗ of the conductor will be given by ⃗⃗⃗⃗

carries a current of I. The magnetic field ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

| ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |

|

|

| ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | | ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ | | ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | Here θ is the

| ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |

Here θ is the angle between the radius vector r and the length element ds.

free

space permeability constant. Direction of magnetic field is in the direction of the cross product of ds and r, given by right hand screw rule.

is

the

,

Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop:

Consider a circular wire loop of radius R located in the yz plane and carrying a steady current I, as shown in Figure. We are going to calculate the magnetic field at an axial point P at a distance x from the center of the loop. Consider element ⃗⃗⃗⃗ of the wire. Using Biot savart’s law, the field at P due to this ⃗⃗⃗⃗ will be

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗

⃗⃗⃗⃗

The angle between the ds and r is 90 0 . So,

And its direction is indicated in the figure. Also from the figure the angle between vector

in the figure. Also from the figure the angle between vector r and the y –

r and the y axis (smaller angle side) is . So, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ makes an angle with the x direction. Its components along X and Y directions are and respectively. When we consider the entire elements of the loop, their y components will cancel with each other due to the circular symmetry of the coil and only the x components survive. So, the total field at P due to all elements will be,

Throughout the loop the values of θ and r remains unchanged and hence can be taken outside the integral.

is the circumference of the coil. From the figure,

√ Therefore, √ (√ )
Therefore,
(√
)
of the coil. From the figure, √ Therefore, √ (√ ) If the coil contains n

If the coil contains n number of turns, then the field gets multiplied by that factor.

The direction of this b is always either parallel or anti parallel to the axis of the coil. The field B at the centre of the coil can be obtained by putting x = 0,

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY H = 0.38 Oersted or 0.38 X 10 - 4 Tesla By
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY
H = 0.38 Oersted or 0.38 X 10 - 4 Tesla
By
measuring
θ
we
can
estimate
the
At
,
(
)
experimental value of ⃗ using the above
relation.
What is the coil?
A circular frame holding the coil of variable
Hence, the field B falls to
times of its
maximum value B o at the center. We can
use this point to calculate the radius of the
coil, without measuring it physically with a
scale, from the experiment.
number of turns is mounted vertically on a
platform. The platform can be adjusted to
make it horizontal with the help of two
leveling screws. The set up has 2 turns, 50
turns and 500 turns of coil for experimenting.
We use only the 50 turn coil.
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:
How to set up the current in the coil?
Using a fixed voltage D.C. source.

PRINCIPLE:

The variation in B along the axis of the circular coil can be studied experimentally with the help of a Tangent Galvanometer. How to measure B?

field ⃗⃗ .

There is a huge EARTH magnet that will produce another field , known as the horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic field. The plane containing the axis of the hypothetical Earth bar magnet is called the MAGNETIC MERIDIAN.

The coil

will

produce

a magnetic

N
N
⃗ N ⃗

If we place the plane of the coil in the magnetic meridian, then there will be two mutually perpendicular magnetic fields, one in the North South direction (Earth) and the other in the East West direction (coil). If we use a magnetic compass near the coil (which is already set in magnetic meridian), it will experience a toque due to the action of the two magnetic fields and will settle ultimately in the resultant direction of the two fields.

How to measure the current? Using an ammeter of 0 3 Amp range. How to vary the current the circuit? By using a 20 Ω Rheostat. Why to adjust the current? As we measure the magnetic field as a function of angle, it is necessary to restrict our self to some fixed range (30°-60°). Hence it is required to adjust the current to get the desired value of deflection θ. Why to restrict only to 30 0 -60 0 range? When using the instrument it is important to adjust matters so that the deflection is never

outside the range 25° to 65° and preferably it should be between 30° and 60°. This is because the value of θ is to be used in the form

tan θ and an effect which can be called 'error magnification' arises. The matter will be made clear by considering the following examples:

Suppose the deflection can only be observed with an accuracy of half a degree. Let us consider how this possible error will affect the values of the tangents of deflections 10°. tan 10° 30' = 0.1853 and tan 9° 30' = 0.1673 thus tan 10° 30' - tan 9° 30' = 0.0180. Now tan 10° 00' = 0.1763.Thus an observation

of θ = 10° ± 0.5° leads to a statement that tan θ

= 0.1763 ± 0.0090. This represents a possible

θ.

error

of

over

5%

in

tan

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY STEWART AND GEE APPARATUS EXPERIMENT AIM: To study the variation in magnetic

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

STEWART AND GEE APPARATUS EXPERIMENT

AIM:

To study the variation in magnetic field with distance along the axis of circular current carrying conductor.

APPARATUS:

Stewart and Gee type galvanometer, battery (D.C. Source 2 Volt - 1Amp), commutator, rheostat, Ammeter and connecting wires.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

magnetic compass consists of a small magnet and an aluminum pointer is fixed perpendicular to the small magnet situated at the center of the compass. The circular scale in the magnetic compass is divided into four quadrants to read the angles from 0to 90and 90 0 to 0 0 . A plane mirror is fixed below the pointer such that the deflections can be observed without parallax.

PROCEDURE:

A 0 to 3 Amp
A 0 to 3 Amp
can be observed without parallax. PROCEDURE: A 0 to 3 Amp Rh (20Ω) S.G. coil C
Rh (20Ω) S.G. coil
Rh (20Ω)
S.G.
coil
C
C

2 VOLT D.C.

PROCEDURE: A 0 to 3 Amp Rh (20Ω) S.G. coil C 2 VOLT D.C. FORMULA: Where

FORMULA:

Where

to 3 Amp Rh (20Ω) S.G. coil C 2 VOLT D.C. FORMULA: Where  0 =

0

=

4X 10 -7 Henry/meter

n

=

No. of turn in the coil

i

=

Current flowing through the circuit

x

=

Distance of the magnetic compass from the center of the coil

a

= Radius of the coil.

If x and a are expressed in centimeter, then the

resultant expression will be

In gauss, the same formula will be,

expression will be In gauss, the same formula will be, DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT: It consists of

DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT:

It consists of a circular coil in a vertical plane fixed to a horizontal frame at its middle point.

The ends of the coil are connected to binding

screws. A magnetic compass is arranged such that it can slide along the horizontal scale passing through the center of the coil and is perpendicular to the plane of the coil. The

1. The circuit should be connected as shown in the diagram.

2. Remove the power connection applied to the circuit.

3. Place the compass exactly at the centre of the coil.

4. Adjust the arms of the magnetometer until

the pointer of compass becomes parallel to it. Rotate the compass until the pointer reads 0°- 0°.

5. Suppose that the coil is placed in magnetic meridian and switch on the power to circuit. It will show some deflection. Carefully adjust the rheostat and bring the deflection to 60° - 60°.

6. Interchange the plug keys of the commutator and reverse the current direction in the coil. Note down the deflections of compass.

7. If your coil is exactly in magnetic meridian, then the readings of compass should not differ by more than 5° from their previous values, before interchanging the commutator. If this is not satisfied, once

again turn off the power and make the pointer parallel to the magnetometer and repeat this until you get all four deflections within 5° variations.

8. Move the compass to 10 cm distance on both east and west directions on the magnetometer and obtain the deflections with both directions of current.

9. If all the eight deflections that you have obtained in above case lie within 5°, you can start taking deflections at various positions. Now the instrument should not be disturbed while moving the compass. Otherwise repeat the adjustment by disconnecting the power.

S.G.3

G.V.P. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN

the compass . Otherwise repeat the adjustment by disconnecting the power. S.G.3 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY 10. Start at 0 cm position and obtain four deflections. Vary the

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

10. Start at 0 cm position and obtain four deflections. Vary the position to 2 cm either East or West and obtain four more readings. Tabulate them. 11. Proceed in the same way at 2, 4, 6…. cm on both East and West until the deflection falls less than 20°. Tabulate the readings.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The Stewart and Gee apparatus should not be disturbed after the adjustments.

2. Observations are noted down without parallax.

3. The ammeter and rheostat should be kept far away from the deflection magnetometer

Graph:

A graph is plotted taking distance of

center of the coil along X-axis and tan along Y-axis. The shape of the curve is as shown in the figure and is symmetric about Y-axis. The magnetic field is found to be maximum at the center of the coil. The radius of the coil ‘a’ is determined by measuring its circumference. The current flowing through the circuit ‘i’ and the number of turns in the coil ‘n’ are noted. The value of magnetic induction is calculated from the above formula and is compared with the experimental formula B = H tan θ.

the compass from the

Tanθ East 0 West
Tanθ
East
0
West

Position of compass

compass from the Tanθ East 0 West Position of compass Viva-Voce questions: 1. What are the

Viva-Voce questions:

1. What are the magnetic forces acting on the compass when it is mounted on the axis of the coil? Mention their directions. The forces are, due to Earth’s magnetic field along the geographic north direction and due to coil along either east or west direction.

2. What is the direction of the magnetic field produced by the coil? Along East or West, i.e. perpendicular to the plane of the coil.

3. Why do we adjust the maximum deflection at 60° ? To restrict the error in the measurement of θ and hence in the tan θ to less than 5%, we always adjust the maximum deflection to

60°.

4. State Biot-Savart’s law. Refer to text.

5. Define magnetic meridian. It is the plane containing the axis of the earth’s hypothetical bar magnet.

6. Why the ammeter should be placed far away from the coil? If it is sufficiently close to the coil, its horse shoe magnet will influence the resultant deflection of the compass which is an undesirable effect.

REFERENCES:

7. What is the function of rheostat in this experiment? To vary the current in the circuit and to bring the deflection to desired value.

8. Can you determine the radius of the coil without measuring it with a scale? Yes, consider the tan θ vs. position graph. Maximum value of tan θ is obtained at the

centre. Calculate the value of . Draw a horizontal line intersecting the tan θ axis at this value. The line intersects the graph (curve) at two different points. The

Tanθ √ East 2R West
Tanθ
East
2R
West

graphical distance between these two points will give the diameter of the coil and half of it will give the required radius of the coil.

1. Advanced level physics, Nelkon and parker, magnetic fields due to conductors, p.935

2. Fundamentals of physics, Resnick, Halliday, Walker, 7 th ed, Example 30.3, p.942 (for fig).

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

TORSIONAL PENDULUM THEORY

DESCRIPTION OF PENDULUM:

 

C



a

4

It

consists of uniform metal disk suspended by

2

l

a

stainless steel wire whose rigidity modulus is

a

=

Radius of the wire

to

be determined. The lower end of the wire is

l = Length of the pendulum

gripped to a chuck nut fixed to the disk and the upper end to another chuck nut fixed to a rigid

support. When the disk is turned through a small angle (less than 5 0 ) in the horizontal plane so as to twist the wire and released, the pendulum executes torsional oscillations about the axis of the wire.

The period of the oscillation is given by

Where,

I

=

Moment of inertia of the Disk about its axis of rotation

C

= Couple acting per unit twist of the wire

= Rigidity modulus of material of wire The period of oscillation is expressed by,

Therefore,

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the time period of oscillation of the pendulum with various lengths of suspensions, we can estimate the “η” of the material of the wire.

1. What is the pendulum?

A brass disk, of about 6 cm radius and about 1kg

mass, with a chuck nut at its centre to suspend it

with a wire. Suspend this disk to a wall bracket

that carries another chuck nut to hold the wire.

L, the length of the pendulum is the length of the

wire suspended between the two chuck nuts.

2. How to measure time period T ?

First focus the telescope on the pendulum. You can make a mark on the edge of the pendulum either by a marker or by attaching a pin to it with wax. Use a stop clock to count the time taken for say 20 oscillations and hence find out the period. The amplitude of oscillation must be less than

5°.

Graph:

Plot a graph between length of the pendulum (L) and the square of the corresponding time period of oscillation (T 2 ). It

will be a straight line passing through origin.

Choose 1 div = 5 cm on L axis and 1 div = 5 sec 2 on T 2 axis.

T 2 L
T 2
L

REFERENCES:

1. Advanced practical physics for students, Worsnop and Flint, Methuen publications, p.100

102

2. Laboratory Physics, 3 rd Ed, J.H. Avery, A.W.K. Ingram, Heinemann publications, p.73

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

TORSIONAL PENDULUM EXPERIMENT

AIM:

To determine the rigidity modulus of the material of the wire using Torsional pendulum. APPARATUS:

Torsional Pendulum, Reading Telescope, Pin, Steel wire, Meter scale, Screw Gauge, Vernier Calipers and Stop Clock.

FORMULA:

Where

η

=

Rigidity Modulus of the material of the wire

a

=

Avg. radius of the wire

M

=

Mass of the Disk

R

=

Radius of the Disk

L

=

Length of the Pendulum

T

=

Time Period

PROCEDURE:

1.

Fix the metal wire whose rigidity modulus is to be determined (without kinks) to the Wall bracket with the help of chuck nut.

2.

Carefully suspend the disk is from the other end of the wire.

3.

Adjust the length between the two chuck nuts to say 40 cm using a meter scale.

4.

Attach a pin vertically to the edge of the disk. Or equally you can make some reference line with permanent marker.

5.

Watch through the telescope and focus it on the pin. Make the vertical cross wire to coincide with the reference line or pin.

6.

Give a small twist to the wire by turning the disk slightly about the vertical axis.

7.

Take proper care to avoid any up & down and lateral movements.

8.

Let the mark come to one extreme of the vertical cross wire. From here start counting of oscillations by turning on the stop watch.

9.

When it executes torsional oscillations, count the time taken for 20 oscillations in two trials, trail one and two. Calculate the time period ‘T’.

10.

Now adjust the length of the wire to another position say 50cm. repeat the experiment two more lengths of the wire in the intervals of 10 cm and calculate T in each case.

11.

Calculate avg. L/T 2 .

12.

Measure the mass of the disk and then its radius using rough balance and Vernier calipers respectively.

13.

For the radius of the disk, take at least three observations.

14.

Use screw gauge and measure the mean radius of the wire by taking five observations at different positions of the wire.

15.

Determine the rigidity modulus by using the formula.

16.

Plot a graph between L and T 2 . It gives a straight line passing through the origin. Calculate η also from the graph.

Least count of Vernier calipers:

Least count (LC) =

Least count of Screw Gauge:

Pitch of the screw =

LC =

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The pendulum must be oscillated only in the Horizontal plane with small amplitude (< 5°)

and without any wobbling.

2. Wire must be free from kinks.

VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS

1. What is meant by rigidity modulus? The ratio of shearing stress applied on the body to the corresponding shearing strain developed in the body (Shear = tangential)

2. What is the moment of inertia of the disk about an axis through its chuck nut?

3. What happens to the time period of oscillation of the disk when the length of the suspended portion of wire is increased? , hence increase in l increases T

4. What is the least count of vernier calipers? 0.01 cm

5. What is the least count of screw gauge? 0.01 mm

6. What is the zero error for a screw gauge?

The zero of head scale usually doesn’t coincide with the index line on the pitch scale. If the zero of the head scale lies above the index line, it will be negative error equal to the number of divisions between zero and index line. Similarly if the zero lies below the index line it will be positive error by the same divisions. For positive error the correction should be negative and vice versa.

7.

What is the unit for rigidity modulus in C.G.S. system? Dyne/cm 2

8.

If we change the radius of the wire from a to a/2, what will be the new rigidity modulus of the material of the wire? Does not change. η does not depend on the physical dimensions of the wire. It is a material constant. If we change the radius, the new l/T 2 will adjust in such a way to compensate this, i.e. l/T 2 decreases.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

NEWTON’S RINGS THEORY

DESCRIPTION:

When a Plano convex lens with its convex surface placed on an optically plane glass plate is observed for interference fringes with an extended monochromatic source, it will produce concentric bright and dark rings of variable radius. The pattern was first observed independently by Hooke and Boyle. But the radii of the rings were first measured by Sir Isaac Newton and the name was given to him. The correct mathematical explanation of these fringes was given Thomas Young in later years.

R A t B
R
A
t
B

r n

Plano convex lens encloses an air gap with the glass plate that is a non parallel thin film of variable thickness. When a beam of parallel rays fall normally on the lens they will undergo reflections from the top and bottom layers of this Plano concave shaped air film. These rays satisfy the conditions for coherent sources and hence they produce sustained interference pattern in the field of view of the microscope (observer).

Rays move towards the microscope

Rays move towards the microscope
Rays move towards the microscope

Nature of fringes:

These fringes are called the fringes of equal inclination or Fizeau fringes. They are concentric rings with variable diameters. MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT:

Consider a Plano-concave shaped thin film formed by a medium of refractive index µ. Let the radius of curvature of this Plano-concave shaped film be R. Consider a parallel beam of light rays incident normally (r, the angle of refraction = 0) on this film. The ray reflected from the upper surface of the film, at A will not suffer any phase change due to reflection. But the ray from B suffers a phase change of π due to reflection from an optically denser boundary. Path difference created between these two rays at a location where the thickness is “t” is,

From the figure, if the point of observation (thickness = t) lies at a distance r n away from the center of the lens, using Pythagoras theorem for the right angled triangle implies,

For a thin Plano-convex lens usually the thickness (t) will be small compared to its R. Hence t 2 will be much smaller than R and can

be

neglected.

Or,

Using this in the expression for path difference implies,

Replacing r n with D n the diameter (D n =2. r n ) gives,

For maxima,

“n” representing the order of the bright fringe,

with

(

)

With

.

for bright fringes (rings). For minima, the dark ring,

 

With representing the order of the dark fringe,

“n”

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

(

)

. For Dark

fringes (rings). If we consider air as the medium between lens and glass plate, µ = 1, then

for

For dark ring,

dark rings. Consider an m th order dark ring. Then,

With

, hence

Combining both equations implies,

R = radius of curvature of the Plano convex lens = Wavelength of the monochromatic source = 5893 Å for sodium vapour lamp The above equation is valid for dark rings only. In this experiment we intentionally choose dark rings because it is easy to locate the dark fringes exactly than the brighter ones.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the diameters of various dark rings with traveling microscope, we can determine the radius of curvature of the Plano convex lens by knowing the wavelength λ.

2. How to achieve normal incidence on the lens? With the help of a beam splitter, a plane glass plate inclined at an angle 45° with vertical we can collimate the beam normally on the lens system.

the microscope.

It is a compound microscope with a graduated carriage that enables the reading of motion of the microscope in both horizontal and vertical directions. it has a vernier to read the position of

1. What is the traveling microscope?

Graph:

A graph should be plotted by taking the values of versus the order of ring n. It is a straight line passing through origin as shown in the figure. Determine the radius of curvature of lens from the slope of graph.

Applications:

1. To check the optical flatness of a plane glass surface

2. To check the quality of grinding or polishing of lenses by opticians

3. In the study of polarized Laser beams.

REFERENCES:

2 D n Ring order (n)
2
D n
Ring order (n)

1. Advanced practical physics for students, Worsnop and Flint, Methuen publications, p.67 71

2. Laboratory Physics, 3 rd Ed, J.H. Avery, A.W.K. Ingram, Heinemann publications, p.93

3 r d Ed, J.H. Avery, A.W.K. Ingram, Heinemann publications, p.93 NR 2 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF
3 r d Ed, J.H. Avery, A.W.K. Ingram, Heinemann publications, p.93 NR 2 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

NEWTON’S RINGS EXPERIMENT

AIM:

To determine radius of Curvature of a given convex lens by forming Newton’s Rings. APPARATUS:

Sodium Vapour lamp, traveling microscope, reading lens, convex lens and plane glass plates, retort stand.

FORMULA:

Where

R

=

Radius of Curvature of Plano-convex lens

D n

=

Diameter of n th dark ring

λ

=

Wavelength of the source used = 5893 Å

n, m = order of the rings (Number of the ring from the

Procedure:

Central dark spot)

1. Take a piece of paper (paper should not be completely white, it must contain some markings or rulings so that they can be observed in the field of view) and place it below the microscope on the platform of the travelling microscope (TM). Adjust the rack and pinion and focus the microscope. (markings on the paper will become very clear)

2. Take the Plano-convex lens and locate which side is plane and which side is curved. Clean the lens with cloth (handle it with care) and place it on the plane glass plate. Place the black paper below the plane glass plate.

3. Keep them on the platform of the TM. Make sure that neither the lens nor glass plate comes on track of the moving base of the microscope.

4. Use a retort stand to hold another plane glass plate at 45 0 with vertical as described in the theory. Place the glass plate in between the microscope and the lens setup.

5. Observe through the microscope and tilt the clamp of retort stand to get maximum yellow light. This ensures normal incidence of light on the lens surface.

6. Now move the lens carefully to observe the central portion of the ring pattern, i.e. dark central spot surrounded by rings. Do not disturb the lens once after you reach the central dark spot.

7. Turn the screw gauge dial of the TM and bring the vertical cross wire near the central dark spot.

8. Turn the dial by counting rings (arcs) first towards your right hand side until you reach at least 20 th dark ring on that side.

9. If there is no difficulty in reaching the 20 th on RHS, return back to the central dark spot by turning screw gauge dial back. Now turn the dial towards otherside until you reach the 20 th ring on the left hand side.

10. If it gets struck in the middle, then carefully move the lens system such that the 20 th ring or another higher order ring (say 24 th ) comes and coincides with the cross wire in the position where you had this struck. Steps 8 to10 will make sure that you can go through the diameter of the 20 th ring.

11. Lock the base screw of the TM for horizontal motion and turn the screw gauge dial to coincide the reference line of main scale with any one division on the main scale.

12. Release the base screw and adjust the screw gauge dial such that the “0” of it coincides with its reference line. Then once again lock the base screw and never release it again throughout the experiment. This calibrates your TM.

13. Now once again come back to the central dark spot and go towards one side (either left or right) by carefully counting the dark rings only. Make the cross wire tangential to the dark ring, say 20 th . Note down the reading of TM.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

14. Rotate the dial back by counting the rings carefully in decreasing order. Make the crosswire tangential to the ring, say 18 th and note the reading of TM.

15. Proceed in the same way in steps of two-two rings until you reach the central dark spot.

16. Now continue taking readings on the other side of the ring pattern until you reach the other side 20 th ring. Tabulate the readings.

Least count =

Or (For screw gauge dial type microscope) Least count =

Precautions:

1. The lens should not be disturbed from the initial position while taking the readings at various

positions.

2. Readings of the Vernier must be noted without parallax error.

Viva-Voce Questions:

1. What is cosine law?

2. What is the medium that is responsible for the formation of Newton’s rings? Air film in Plano concave shape.

3. What is the shape of the thin film forming the rings?

4. What happens to the ring pattern when the refractive index of Plano convex lens is changed? (either increased or decreased) No changes will take place.

5. What happens when a liquid is poured in between the lens and glass plate? Fringe pattern shrinks as µ for liquid is greater than 1.

6. What happens to the fringe pattern when the yellow light is changed to 1) Red light 2) violet light

7. Can you determine the refractive index of a transparent liquid by using this method? If yes, describe a method. If no, why?

8. What happens to the fringe pattern if we replace the sodium vapour lamp with a mercury vapour lamp? Few fringes are seen near the center and after that there will be uniform illumination.

9. What is back-lash error?

It is the error caused in the measurement of vernier due to improper calibration of the screw controlling the motion of the microscope. Once if the screw is made tight in one direction it gets calibrated and afterwards the readings will be good. If we change the direction of motion of the microscope once again it needs to be calibrated by a fraction of rotation in the new direction.

10. Why do we get circular interference fringes in this experiment? Why not straight edge fringes? They are fringes of equal thickness, i.e. they are formed by the film of constant thickness. The locus of constant thickness of film will decide the shape of fringes. In this case the locus will be circle and hence fringes are rings. In the case of wedge method the locus will be a straight line and hence they are straight edge fringes.

11. What is the least count of the travelling microscope that you have used? Write its formula.

12. Why do we keep a black paper at the bottom of the plane glass plate? To avoid the light coming from the platform of traveling microscope.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

MELDE’S EXPERIMENT

DESCRIPTION OF TUNINIG FORK:

The prongs of the tuning fork are vibrated

with an electromagnet. It is fitted with a metal plate with an adjustable screw. An electromagnetic coil is placed in the middle of the prongs which has a make and break type arrangement. The electromagnet is powered by the variable voltage D.C. power supply. Once power is turned on to the electromagnet, it pulls (attracts) the prong inward. As the prong moves towards the electromagnet the circuit breaks with the help of the make and break key connected to the prong along with the electromagnet coil.

Then the prong turns back and the circuit gets completed again. This process repeats continuously and we obtain continuous vibrations in the tuning fork.

An electrically maintained tuning fork is

taken and to one end of its prongs a thread of about one and half metre is attached. The other prong of this electrically driven fork is connected to the light and flexible string having a light weight pan on the other end. This string passes over a frictionless pulley. We can vary the tension in the string by adding weights to the pan. With a definite tension applied to the string

we can obtain a number of well defined loops in the string.

LONGITUDINAL MODE:

In this mode the fork is adjusted until the displacement of the prong is parallel to the length of the string.

String direction Direction of vibration of prongs
String direction
Direction of vibration
of prongs
string. String direction Direction of vibration of prongs Direction of propagation of waves Longitudinal mode

Direction of propagation of waves

Longitudinal mode

TRANSVERSE MODE:

In this mode the fork is adjusted until the displacement of the prong is perpendicular to the length of the string. This mode is perpendicular to the longitudinal mode.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the length of the loop of the standing wave in both longitudinal and transverse modes we can estimate the frequency of vibration of the tuning fork by knowing the linear density and tension applied to the string.

1. How much voltage is required? 4 to 6 Volts DC is suitable to vibrate the fork.

2. How to apply tension to the string? By adding known weights to the scale pan. Tension will be the product of mass added

to the string including the mass of pan with the free fall acceleration 980 cm/s 2 . 3. How to measure the linear density of thread? By taking a string of length roughly 5 to 10 meter and by weighing it in a sensitive balance we can measure the linear density.

Graphs:

Plot a graph between

respectively. Choose the horizontal axis with scale 1 div = 20

and on vertical axis choose 1 div = 10 cm or 5 cm.

Plot separate graphs for both Longitudinal and Transverse modes.

and l on horizontal and vertical axes

l T
l
T

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

MELDE’S EXPERIMENT

AIM:

To determine the frequency of vibration of the electrically driven tuning fork. APPARATUS:

An electrically driven tuning fork, light weight pan, soft and flexible thread, variable voltage D.C. power supply, connecting wires, meter scale. FORMULA:

 

For transverse mode

For longitudinal mode

Where,

n

=

frequency of vibration of the tuning fork in Hz.

 

T

=

Tension applied to the string in dyne.

m

=

Linear density (mass per unit length) of the string.

l

=

Length of each loop in cm.

PROCEDURE:

1. Set the apparatus in transverse mode, i.e. the displacement of prong is perpendicular to the length of the string.

of prong is perpendicular to the length of the string. 2. Switch on the power supply

2. Switch on the power supply and adjust the screw until steady vibrations are obtained with the fork.

3. Adjust the distance between pulley and the prong of tuning fork until you get some number of well defined loops, i.e. nodes and antinodes.

4. Measure the total length of vibrating part of the string. Then divide it by the number of loops and obtain the length of each loop.

5. Add weights in steps to the pan and change the tension in the string. In each step, measure the number of loops and total length of vibrating segment. Then obtain the length of each loop for each case and tabulate the readings.

6. Repeat the same process by adjusting the fork in Longitudinal mode, i.e. the displacement of fork is parallel to the length of the string. Tabulate the observations.

7. For the same tension and same length of thread between the pulley and prongs, you will get approximately double number of loops in transverse mode than in longitudinal mode.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The displacement at the nodes on the thread must be completely zero.

2. Do not give very large amplitude to the vibrations of the tuning fork.

VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS

1. What is meant by transverse wave?

2. What is meant by longitudinal wave?

3. If the linear density of the thread in this experiment is doubled, what happens to the frequency of the fork? Does not change, remains constant.

4. If tension applied to the string is decreased by four times of its initial value, what happens to the length of the loop? Gets doubled.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

DIFFRACTION GRATING THEORY

DIFFRACTION GRATING:

Plane diffraction grating consists of very large number of parallel slits (open and opaque portions) drawn on its surface. When the light rays coming from collimator fall on the surface of the grating normally (perpendicularly) it is called normal incidence. Or, if the light rays fall on the surface of the grating with an angle of incidence ZERO, it will be normal incidence.

an angle of incidence ZERO, it will be normal incidence. PLANE DIFFRACTION GRATING The following figure

PLANE DIFFRACTION GRATING The following figure shows the diffraction of plane waves under normal incidence at the surface of a plane transmission grating. The interference of secondary wavelets generated from each of the open portions on the grating is shown in the figure. MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT:

If we calculate the resultant disturbance caused due to the superposition of the spherical waves (Huygens secondary wavelets) we will the resultant intensity on the screen will be,

 

(

)

(

)

Where,

and

And d, e are representing respectively the slit width and slit separation of the grating slits. Here d is the width open portion of the slit and e is the distance between the centers of two successive opaque portions of the slit. The above said expression has its maximum value when both terms in the braces are maximum. Clearly, the first Sinc function has a maximum value of 1 at α = 0. The second Sinc has maximum value of N at β = ± nπ, with n taking natural numbers. Hence, for maximas,

Or,

Here n represents the order of the spectrum. (n = 0, 1, 2,….) With N = 1/e, the number of slits per unit width of the grating surface. (e, is the distance between the centers of two neighboring opaque portions and hence it tells the extent over which one slit occupies, so 1/e tells the number of such slits within unit width). Clearly there will be no spectrum for zero order n. From n = 1 onwards we can see the spectrum. This is because for n = 0 all wavelengths λ will fall at θ = 0, so no splitting. But for n = 1 onwards different wavelengths have different corresponding θ’s and hence a spectrum of colours. APPLICATIONS:

1. For the analysis of spectrum of various gases (discharge process)

analysis of spectrum of various gases (discharge process) EXAMPLES IN DAY – TO – DAY EXPERIENCE:

EXAMPLES IN DAY TO DAY EXPERIENCE:

1. The colours seen on a compact disk(CD) or a DVD (digital versatile disk) is an example for reflection grating

2. The colours on the peacock feather.

3. The colours of the wings of a fly (insect).

4. Wire mesh in front of a loud speaker is an

acoustic transmission grating.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the angle θ of diffraction for maximas in a particular order of spectrum say for n = 1, we can calculate the wavelength of the corresponding spectral line by knowing the number of rulings over the grating per unit width, N.

2. How to measure θ ? With a spectrometer. (Refer Appendix)

1. What is the Source of light?

A mercury vapour lamp.

REFERENCES:

1. Advanced practical physics for students, Worsnop and Flint, Methuen publications, p.362 365 and p.279-282 for spectrometer description.

2. Laboratory Physics, 3 rd Ed, J.H. Avery, A.W.K. Ingram, Heinemann publications, p.218-220

DIFFRACTION GRATING NORMAL INCIDENCE EXPERIMENT

AIM:

To determine the wavelength of spectral lines in the mercury spectrum using diffraction grating under normal incidence of light. APPARATUS:

Spectrometer, Plane diffraction grating, spirit level, reading lens and mercury vapour lamp source.

FORMULA:

Where

λ

=

wavelength of the spectral line.

 

Θ

=

Angle of the diffraction of a spectral line

n

=

order of the spectrum

 

N

=

number of lines on the grating per unit width.

 

=

15000 LPI = (

)

= 5905.6 lines/ cm

(LPI = lines per inch)

PROCEDURE:

 

STEPS 1 TO 7 ARE KNOWN AS PRELIMINARY ADJUSTMENTS

1. Assuming that the mercury vapor lamp is switched on, adjust the collimator of the spectrometer in front of the lamp such that its slit faces opposite to the lamp.

2. Turn the telescope towards a distant object, a building at far seen through the window of your dark room. Watch through the telescope and adjust its rack and pinion until you see the clear inverted image of the building.

3. Turn the telescope back and try to see the light coming from the lamp through the collimator. In this position both telescope and collimator will come on a straight line, i.e. collinear.

4. Initially, the view of the slit of collimator need not be clear, you may see a blurred image, i.e. some diffused white light. Continue watching through the telescope and adjust the rack and pinion of collimator (but not the rack and pinion of telescope) until you see the sharp image of the slit of collimator. Now adjust the width of the slit (an adjustable screw is fitted with the slit) and make it very thin.

5. Look at the base of the telescope, you will find two screws attached with the rotating platform. One screw locks the telescope from moving, known as locking screw and the other screw, known as tangential screw moves the telescope very slowly when it is locked by the locking screw. Remember tangential screw will operate if and only if the telescope is locked. You will also find another pair of screws attached with the base of prism table. Their action is also similar. They lock the prism table and allow fine adjustments to it.

6. Coincide the telescope’s vertical crosswire with the slit and lock the telescope.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

7. Release the prism table base screw and adjust it until you see in both verniers the zeros getting coincided with 0 and 180 0 divisions of main scale. Now lock the prism table base screw and then release the telescope. This adjustment calibrates the telescope

8. Fix the grating holder to the prism table. Insert the grating in the holder. Do not make scratches on the grating surface as it reduces the life of grating.

9. Rotate the telescope through 90 0 either clock-wise or counter clock-wise and lock it.

10. Free the prism table (not its base, but the long metal screw below the prism table platform and make it free to rotate). With one hand slowly turn the prism table and watch through the telescope until you see the reflection of the slit in the telescope.

11. Bring the reflection of slit exactly onto the vertical cross-wire only by turning the prism table.

(Do not adjust the telescope with its tangential screw to bring the slit on cross wire)

12. With one hand carefully hold the grating, in the position where the reflection coinciding with cross wire, and with the other hand lock the metal screw

below the prism table carefully. This makes grating at

45 0 with the incident beam.

13. Release the base screw of prism table and turn the entire prism table through further 45 0 until the plane of grating makes 90 0 angle with the incident beam.

You can do this by looking at the initial reading of telescope. If the reading in one vernier is say 90 0 , then, after rotating the prism table it may become either (90+45=135 0 ) or (90-45=45 0 ). Use your commonsense to decide whether to rotate to 45 0 or

135 0 to make the plane of grating normal (90 0 ) with

the incident beam.

14. In this position lock the prism table and release the

telescope.

COLLIMATOR 45 0 45 0 45 0 45 0 Telescope rotated through 90 Telesco- pe
COLLIMATOR
45 0
45 0
45 0
45 0
Telescope
rotated
through 90
Telesco-
pe
direct
position

15. Go though both sides of direct position to observe the spectrum.

16. Concentrate first on left hand side spectrum of the direct position. Rotate the telescope and coincide each spectral line with cross wire and then lock it. In each case note down the vernier readings (both vernier 1 and 2).

17. After completion of readings on left hand side go to the right hand side and repeat the same process and obtain the readings.

Precautions:

1. Plane of the Grating must be vertical to the prism table. If the holder is not perfectly perpendicular then use paper padding to make the plane of grating perpendicular to the rays.

2. Grating should not be disturbed after fixing it for normal incidence.

3. Readings of the spectrometer must be noted without parallax.

VIVA-VOCE QUESTIONS

1. What is normal incidence?

2. How do you keep the grating for normal incidence using spectrometer?

3. When you see the reflection of slit in the telescope by tilting the plane of the grating, What will be angle of incidence on the grating for the incident rays (slit)?

45°

4. What is the least count of spectrometer?

5. Describe the construction of collimator.

Refer appendix.

6. Describe the construction of telescope.

7. What kinds of waves (shape) are emitted by the mercury vapour lamp? Spherical waves.

8. What serves as object in this experiment? Rectangular slit.

9. What is the function of mercury vapour lamp in the prism experiment? Just to illuminate the slit.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

10. What

emitted through collimator? Plane waves. 11. I will hide the object placed on the prism table by using suitable box and show you the spectrum alone through telescope. If I ask you whether the object inside the box is prism or

are

kinds

of

waves

(shape)

transmission type diffraction grating, how will you decide it? In the spectrum seen, if the red line comes at a smaller angle with respect to the direct position than the violet line, it is due to grating. If the violet comes at smaller angle than the red line, it will be due to prism.

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

COMPOUND PENDULUM THEORY

DESCRIPTION OF PENDULUM:

Compound pendulum consists of a uniform rectangular bar made up of iron or brass with a number of holes drilled along its length at equal distances symmetrically on either sides of the center of gravity (CG). The pendulum can be suspended vertically by means of a horizontal knife edge passing through one of the holes.

Point of suspension x Centre of mass θ mg
Point of suspension
x
Centre of mass
θ
mg

Suppose that the mass of the pendulum bar be m. Let “x” be the distance of the point of suspension of the pendulum (from where it is suspended with the axle) to the center of mass of the pendulum, i.e. at the midpoint of the pendulum (50 cm location). Let θ be the angle made by the axis of the pendulum with respect to the vertical.

Point of suspension x θ xsin θ
Point of suspension
x
θ
xsin θ

If “I” represents the moment of inertia of the pendulum bar about the point of suspension, then the equation of motion (torque) governing the pendulum will be,

Where α represents the angular acceleration of the pendulum bar about the axis of suspension. Force is the weight mg.

In this case from the figure, the perpendicular

distance

Hence

will

be

x

sin

θ.

Here we make the approximation that the oscillations are very small so that the angular amplitude θ is less than 5 0 . Then,

(

)

With , where ω representing the angular frequency of the oscillations, it is clear that the pendulum executes simple harmonic motion. Moment of inertia I is given as, . k is called the radius of gyration of the compound pendulum about an axis passing through the center of mass point. Here we have used the parallel axes theorem which states that

m = mass of pendulum X Centre of mass I I G = mk 2
m = mass of pendulum
X
Centre of mass
I I G = mk 2

I S = mx 2 + I G

the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the point of suspension is equal to sum of the moment of inertia of the pendulum about its center of mass and m x 2 .

OR

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

) √ ( where l
)
√ (
where
l

(

)

, effective or equivalent length of a simple pendulum which has the same time period as that of the compound pendulum. Then

the

Putting

represents

If we plot the graph of ( ) with time t on vertical axis and position x on horizontal axis, we will get the following graph. If we fix the value of t, then it will represent a horizontal straight line (dotted) on this graph.

If we solve the equation ( solutions,

a

x 1 solution to the above equation, obviously x 2 = (l- x 1 ) will also be a solution. Because the sum of roots of a quadratic equation ax 2 +bx+c=0 with roots α 1 and α 2 is (α 1 + α 2 = - b/a). So,

for

)

x

=

And

hence

if

is

Hence, on the horizontal straight line, there will be four points with same time period of oscillation t. These points form a set of conjugate points. The first point from the left is called the Center Of Suspension and its corresponding conjugate point is the Center Of Oscillation which is the third intersecting point on the same line. Observe the two more set of conjugate points on the same line. Distance between the center of oscillation and center of suspension of the compound pendulum is called the Equivalent length of simple pendulum (l) What is Center of suspension and center of oscillation? When a compound pendulum is suspended freely at any arbitrary point (any hole), it will be the Center Of Suspension. If we consider a simple pendulum whose bob has the same mass as that of the compound pendulum with length (l)equivalent to the effective length (as said above), it will have an equal time period as that of the suspended compound pendulum.

we

By putting x obtain k =l/2.

(

)

=

k

in

,

We can get two such k’s from the graph. Either by taking their average or by taking the square root of their product we can obtain the value of radius of gyration of the compound pendulum about an axis passing through its center of mass. We can calculate the same by using the theoretical formula,

√( ) L and B are respectively the length and breadth of the compound pendulum.
√(
)
L and B are respectively the length and breadth
of the compound pendulum. As the breadth is
comparatively small in comparison to its length,
k is approximately equal to √ .
Center of
Center of
suspension
suspension
l
l
Center of suspension
Center of suspension
suspension suspension l l Center of suspension Center of suspension CP 2 G.V.P. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING PHYSICS LABORATORY

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT:

PRINCIPLE: If we measure the time period of oscillation of the pendulum at various points of suspension (holes) we can estimate the “g” and “k” from graphs.

3. What is the pendulum?

A metal bar of one meter long and about 5 cm in

width having holes drilled at every 5 cm of its length.

4. How to measure T?

Use a stop clock to count the time taken for say

20 oscillations and hence find out the period. The amplitude of oscillation must be less than

5°.

Graphs:

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 ( ) ( ) 0 -3000 -2000 -1000
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
(
)
(
)
0
-3000
-2000
-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
If we plot the graph of
vs.
, with
on y – axis and on x – axis, it will give a straight

line with a slope of ( ) and a y intercept of (

from the slope of the graph by using,

). We can estimate the average ‘g’ value

And the value of the radius of gyration k can be obtained by using,

You may use the standard g value of 980 cm/s 2 in the above expression to find the value of k.

1. Plot a graph with x axis as point of suspension (1 division = 5cm) and y axis as time period T (1 division = 0.1 sec) of the oscillation. Take at least three horizontal lines in the valley region with T = constant. Locate the points D, F, A and E as described in theory for each line. For each line calculate (AD+FE)/2 and hence calculate the l/T 2 . Take the average of the l/T 2 . Use this to

on the curve. Half the average distance M gives K,

find out the g. Locate the minimas M and radius of gyration.

2. Plot the graph of

, with

on y axis (1 division = 10cm.s 2 ) and on x axis

y intercept

vs.

(1division = 200 cm 2 ), it will give a straight line with a slope of

(

) and