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Final Exam for Ch 11-16

Take assessment - final exam for ch 11 - 16 - IT essentials: PC Hardware and software (version 4.0)

Chapter 16:Advanced Security

3 layers of security – security applications

Security hardware
Local security policy

Is there full time internet access.

Outline security policy – rules, guidelines, and checklists
Have the network secure as possible and keep the users happy. To many passwords or long ones make them

Identify who can mess with what.

Define the requirements necessary for data to remain confidential on a network
How to keep the data safe and within the network.
Create a process for employees to acquire access to equipment data
Ect. Smpr net, nmpr net

Sar forms, to get accounts

Security hardware, restrict access to premises ,

Protect the network infrastructure like vault
Protect individual computers , cable locks and cases.
Protect data, you might use lockable HD carries and/or USP security dongles.

Security software / applications

IDS – intrusion detection systems
Application and OS patches . to fix vaulnerabilies. Loop holes,
Anti-virus and anti-malware software

Compare the cost of data loss to the expense of security protection, and then determinee what tradeoffs are

Selecting security components –

Advantage and disadvantages of component.
Retinal scanner – aren’t perfect, expensive and slow.

Overlapping features and functions.

Like retinal scanner and fingerprint scanner. 2 devices for the same reason. Too much security for this
How hard is to setup and fix.
Budget restrictions.
Real and perceived threats. Student stealing computer or a terrorist from iraq doing it.

Security techniques – use encrypted passwords to login to the network HTTPS - secured
Setup data encryption over wireless – no wep. Yes wpa
Monitor network activity through logging and auditing

Encryption methods include :

Hash encoding uses an algorithm to track tampering. Needs to match on server and transfer. Make sure
nothing has been injected or changed.
Symemetic encryption – uses a key to encode/decode dta
Asymmetric encryption – uses one key to encrypt and other to decrypt
VPN Virtual Private networks– creates a virtual “secure tunnel.” – kinda like taking a subway by yourself

Access control devices, -locks, video surveillance , card key, conduit , gaurds.

Smart key, security key fob, biometric device

Firewall types

Hardware firewall

Free standing and uses dedicated hardware

Initial cost for hardware and software updates can be costly
Multiple computers can be protected
Little impact on the computer performance

Software firewall

Available 3rd party software and cost varies

Included in windows xp operating system

Config security settings – two primary security settings include

Setting levels of permissions on folders and files. Use FAT or NTFS to configure folder sharing or folder
level perm’s for users with network access
Use file-level prem’s with NTFS

Securing wireless access points

WEP – wired equivalent privacy
WPA wi-fi protected access
MAC address filters
Unused wireless connections
SSID service set identifier broadcasting
Wireless antenna

65,535 ports

Automatic – downloads and installs without intervention

Only DL’s
Notify – gives the user and option

Normal or full back up. Archives all selected files

Incremental backup – archives all selected files that have changed since last full or incremental backup. It
marks file as having been backed up . saves time
Differential backup
Daily backup
Copy backup
Chapter 15:Advanced networks

Chemical hazards and potential for broken glass. Safety procedures , always wear eye protection and don’t
touch the end of the cables.

Network design, mission. Means to get it done. Man power and equipment. Availability

SIPR net and NIPR net. Secured and unsecured

Site survey. Physical inspection of the building or area, physical and logical topology.

Need to ping self to make sure tcp/ip is working correctly. Ping

Firewalls block ping requests

Tracet- maps out the hops your packet takes

Packets wont always take the same path

Email installation

• Fully functional and reliable DNS deployment

• Active Directory domain
• At least one Global Catalog
• Windows 2000 or higher native domain functionality
• Exchange server software
• Windows server support tools
• Schema master server
• High-speed Internet connection

Chapter 14:Advanced Printers and Scanners

How to maintain and configure and fix

Printers can be heavy. 2 man lifts, lift from the knees not the back

Allow it to cool before starting work

Serial, - sinlge bit xfer, dot matrix printers
Parallel mutilple bits persecond
SCSI – ports can be DB 50 Mini DB 50 and DB 68 may be male or female
FireWire high speed communication bus that interconnects digital devices such as printers, scanners, and
hard drives. FireWire provides a single plug-andsocket connection on which up to 63 devices can be
attached with data transfer speeds up to 400 Mbps

Ethernet – connecting a printer to a network requires cabling that is compatible with both the existing
network and the network port installed in the printer

Drivers and softer – try to update and drivers, on manufactures website. Test pages – start>setting> printers
and fax> properties>test page

Global and per-document methods – once its on their it effects everyone.

Per-doc – change settings for each new doc.

After installation – check settings. Grayscale, blac-white. Colors, double sided documents, resolution and
Sharing a printer because a printer server.
Printers folder

Print server has 3 funtions. Provide acess, admin jobs – ques, feeding spooling , feedback to the user

3 print servers – network printer server devices

dedicated pc print servers
computer shared-printer

Start>control panel> printers and other hardware> printers and faxes.

Start>control panel>printers and other hardware > printers and faxes.
Creates a virtual port for drivers to print on the network.

Upgrade – paper trays , sheet feeders, network cards and expansion memory. Print speed, job buffering,
duplex printing to enable dual-sided printing
Scanners can also be configured to do more to meet needs. Improved color and resizing. Sharpening,
brightening or darkening, color correction, color inversion. Resolution. Output file format, 24 bit is the
highest it can go. A lot of colors. Output, file type. .gif , .tif , .jpeg ect.
To keep printers up and running - suitable environment.
Manual to clean specific printer or scanner. Check the capacity of ink cartridges and toners.

Laser clean kit- fuser assembly, transfer rollers, separation pads, pickup rollers.
Printers and scanners are affected by temperature, humidity, and electrical interference.
Keep in cool, dust-free environment, paper dry. Let printers vent. Clean glass on scanners.

Ink cartridges and toners. You can set the printer software to reduce the amount of ink or toner that the
printer uses
Chapter 13: Advanced Labtop and PDA/SmartPhone

Bluetooth technology- 2.4 to 2.485 in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical ISM band.
IR light signals operate in the lowest light freq, 100ghz to 1000thz
Flash cards for chart
CRU- customer repairable units
FRU-field replacement units

Chapter 12:Advanced Operating System

OS’s Microsoft windows, apple mac, unix, linux

Scalable cpu, more than one

Remote desktop, network sharing, scalable cpu, (encrypted file systems)efs support, enhanced security.

Right click, context menu.

NOS (network OS) – wondwos 2000/2003 server, unix, linux, novell netware, mac os x.

NOS – designed to share databases, centralized data storage, LDAP.

Print que, access and security,
Redundant store, back and RAID
Network protocols, HTTP – how files are exchanged on the web
FTP – file transfer prot
POP- retreves emails from server
DNS – urls from ip address
DHCP – dynamic host configuration protocol . auto selects ip

Regional settings and network settings. Customize a windows XP pro installation. Include apps to make
things easier.

Unattended installation
Image-based installation – using a copy of a image to push it to a lot of other machines from a server
RIS- remote installation services, across a network
OS deployment feature pack – helps simplify installation over and entire company

Disk structure
Primary partitions , extended partitions and logical drives

Disk management utility . can split and make partitions.

File extensions.

System tools,
Disk error checking – file structure error
Hard drive defragmentation – fragmented files put together
Virtual Memory – uses it first.
Ccleaner – free doc that disk cleans up. And cleans registry
Defraggler – defragmenter
Md5 checker

POP3 or IMAP mailing servers

SMTP is outing mailing server

Email protocols
Post office protocols, version 3. downloads email and stores on the local server.
IMAP on server read there
SMTP – sends text only email, used normally with pop3 or imap
MIME – transfers attachments videos and pictures.
Hz or times per second

On the command line use “at” to schedule a task and update


Make a restore point before updating. System tools

Linux for dummies

Coretemp realtemp.

Chapter 11: Advanced personal computers

Field technician – needs troubleshooting skills and customer service skills, because they work on-site, are
in regular contact with customers and work on a wide variety of hardware and software.
Remote technician – guy who sits at a desk and deals with calls and may send out other techs. Good
listening skills, trouble shooting skills and help remotely
Bench technician – people who never see customers, they work with themselves and work with computers.

Safety rules, clean. No drinks, no jewelry, power off, do not look into laser beams. Make sure fire
extinguisher available, cover sharp edges on site like computer cases
Use Antistatic mats, clear floors, dispose of monitors and printer cartridges properly.

Using proper tools, help to prevent damage and work safely

High voltage companionts – most broken or used power supplies are replaced. Display monitors. Replace
not repair. Laser printers are better to repair not replace, high voltage

Computer recycling warehouse – derma. Proper disposal for monitors , batteries and such

SCSI – 1 50 pin 5 MBps

Fast SCSI – plain SCSI – 50pin 10 MBps
Flash cards

Flashing the BIOS – upgrading the BIOS

RAID – redundant array of independent disks

Parity, no check sum, no way to reread, no fault tolerance

Install RAID using hardware of software. Hardware is the way to use it. More dependable but more
expensive. Read and write speeds that are increased.

Keep compressed up upright, so liquid doesn’t spill on component.


Arma2 – DL from steam

Chapter 9: Security

Importance of security – private info, company secrets, financial data, computer quipment and items of
notion security.

Security threats – physical, theft damage or destruction to computer equipment.

Data – removal , corruption, denial of access, unauthorized access, or theft of information

Potential threats to computer security : internal and external threats

Internal – employees can cause a malicious threat or an accidental threat.
External – outside users can attack in an unstructured or structured way.

Viruses – software code that is deliberately created by an attack. May collect info or alter or destroy info

Worm – is a self-replicating program that uses the network to duplicate its code to the hosts on the network.
At a minimum, worms consume bandwidth in a network.

Trojan horse - technically a worm and is named for its method of getting past computer defenses by
pretending to be something useful.

Anti-virus software is designed to detect, disable, and remove viruses, worms, and Trojan hourses before
they infect the computer.

ActiveX – controls interactivity on web pages . lots of holes within it

Java – allows applets to run within a browser. Example: a calculator or a counter.

JavaScript – Interacts with HTML source code to allow interactive web sites. Example: a rotating banner or
a popup window

Adware, spyware and grayware – multiple windows up at once.

DoS – Denial of service. Prevents users from accessing normal services. Sends enough requests to overload
a resource or even stopping its operation
Ping of Death – is a series of repeated , larger than normal pings intended to crash the receiving computer
E-mail Bomb – is a large quantity of bulk e-mail that overwhelms the email server preventing users from
accessing email
Distributed DoS (Denial of service) - is an attack launched from many computers called zombies.

Spam – is unsolicited email that can be used to send harmful links or deceptive content.
Popups – are windows that automatically open and are designed to capture your attention and lead you to
advertising sites.

Social engineering – never give out your PW

Ask for ID from the unknown person
Escort visitors
Restrict access of unexpected visitors

TCP/IP attacks is used to control all internet comm

SYN flood attack – 3 way handshake - synchronized, synchronized acknowledged, acknowledge. Flood
means lots of synchronized being sent out and no ack being sent back
Spoofing looks like another user.
Man in the middle is spoofing plus changing info
Replay attacks- makes the server think it is the same user. But hacker just replays like iden theft
DNS poisoning – use the dns cache to change the ip of the dns

Comp disposal and recycling – earase all hard drives using a magnet type tool
Hammer is the only way to destroy data
Destroy cd’s and software with shreading machines

Never take a user’s PW

Chapter 8: Networking

8bits = 1 byte
Move right or left of that byte
Hex = 4 bits 0 – F is the most you can have for a hex. 0123456789abcdef (15 total)

Mbps = bits
MBps = bytes

bits 1 byte 1
kilobits 1024 kilobytes 1024
megabits 1024 megabytes 1024
gigabits 1024 gigabytes 1024
terabits 1024 terabyte 1024
exabits 1024 exabyte 1024

128bytes = 1 kilobit or 1024 bits

10Megabytes per second = 1.25 Megabits per second

10,240 x 1024 = 10,485,760 / 8 = 1,310,720 / 1024 = x / 1024 = 1.25

Down divide : Up multiply

LAN – Local Area Network

WAN – Wide Area Network
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

Networks are systems that are formed by links. Like a mail delivery system, telephone, public
transportation, corporate computer networks, The Internet.
Networks share data and resources
Networks are as simple as a cable between 2 computers or hundreds.

Network devices include, desktop and labtop computers, printers, scanners, pdas, smartphones, files and
print servers.
Resources shared across networks include: services like printing or scanning
Storage devices, hard drives, optical drives
Applications such as databases
Different types of network media: copper cabling – electricity conductor
Fiber-optic cabling - light
Wireless connection – radio waves

Benefit of networking
Increased communication capabilities
Fewer peripherals needed
Avoid file duplication and corruption
Lower cost licensing
Centralized administration
Conserve resources

Types of networks: identified by –

Type of media used to connect the devices
Type of networking devices used
How to manage resources
How the network is organized
How the data is stored
The area it serves

WAN- LAN’s connected over geographically separated locations
The internet is one bit WAN
TSP - Telecommunications service providers are used to interconnect these LANs at different locations

Peer to peer networking – no domain controllers. No central networking.

No computer over another, choose what to share
Best if 10 or fewer computers because no centralized admin
No network resources admin
Each computer needs its own security, back ups, and managed network

Client /server network

Provides control and security for the network
Client requests from server
Server sends response and requested information
Servers are maintained by network admins
Data backups and security measures
Control of user access to network resources
Centralized storage and services include data stored on a centralized file server
Shared printers managed by a print server
Users have proper permissions to access data or printers
(printer server- printer connected to my computer, but other people on my network can use my printer)

Bandwidth - are like lanes on a street. The more lanes the faster you can go.
bps- bits per second
Kbps – kilobits per second
Mbps – megabits per second
Network devices direct the data
Data are like vehicles

Three modes of transportation

Simplex- unidirectional transmission is a single, one-way transmition
Half-duplex – allows data to flow in one direction at a time. Simultaneous transmission in two directions is
not allowed.
Full-duplex – allows data to flow in both directions at the same time.
Bandwidth is measured in only one direction. 100 Mbps full-duplex means a bandwidth of 100 Mbps in
each direction
DLS have full-duplex

IP Address, unique number to identify each machine

Represented as a 32-bit binary number, divided into for octets (groups of eight bits) (12345678)
(23456798) (32456798) (41235678)
If all bits are on, 255 is the highest number possible
Subnets are like zip codes is Dotted decimal format

IP address classes
Class A first octect 1-127 Large networks, implemented by large companies and some countries
Class B first octect 128-191 Medium-sized networks, implemented by ISP for customer subscriptions
Class D first octect 192-223 Special use for multicasting
Class E first octect 240-254 used for experimental testing
255 is a broadcast address

Subnet masks
Class A first Oct is used for network. Oc2 – Oct 4 for hosts
Default subnet masks for the 3 classes of ip addresses are
Class A
Class B
Class C

Class B network needs to provide IP addresses for four LANs, the organization will subdivide the Class B
network into four smaller parts by using subnetting, which is a logical division of a network. The subnet
mask specifies how it is subdivided.

Manual configuration is a static network. The IP wont change unless I change it

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – server automatically assigns IP addresses to network
From the manufacture
For every NIC is a permanent MAC address
Network Interface Card (NIC)- is hardware that enables a computer to connect to a network and it has two
IP addresses is a logical address that can be changed.
Media Access Control ( MAC) address is “burned-in” or permanently programmed into the NIC when
manufactured. The MAC address cannot be changed.

DHCP server
DNS – Domain Name System. server address

Protocols are a set of rules for communication between computers. Controls what is sent. Receved, data
files and email.

ICMP – Internet control message protocol . is used by devices on a network to send control and error
message to computers and servers.

PING – Packet Internet Groper a command line utility used to test connections between computers. Used to
determine whether a specific ip address is accessible. Used with either the hostname or the IP address.
Works by sending an ICMP echo request to a destination computer

Physical networking components –

Hubs – extend the range of a signal by receiving then regenerating it and sending it out all other ports
Traffic is sent out all ports of the hub
Allow a lot of COLLISIONS on the network segment and are often not a good solution
Also called concentrators because they serve as a central connection point for a LAN

Bridges and switches –

A packet along with its mac address information is called a fream
Segments bound by bridges
A bridge determines if incoming frame is sent to a different segment or dropped. A bridge has two ports
A Switch (multiport bridge) several ports and refers to a table of mac addresses to determine which port to
use to forward the frame. Can reduce noise and collisions. It sends packets, frames, mac addy’s to a single
Switch is just a bigger bridge

Routers connect entire networks to each other.

Use ip addresses to packets to other networks
Can be a computer with special network software installed
Can be a device built by network equipment manufactures
Contain tables of ip addresses along witch optimal routes to other networks

Coaxil cable

Bus topology – only 1 computer can transmit data at a time or frams will collide. Terminators on the ends.
Computer to computer connection
Ring topology – hosts are connected in a physical ring circle. Ring has no beginning or end so the cable
does not need to be terminated
when one fails in the ring, they all fail
A special token travels around the ring stopping at each host. No collisions. Computers can’t talk on the
network without the token.
Two types of ring topologies sing and dual ring. Adds another token?
Star topology- has a central connection point. A hub switch or router
Hosts connect directly to the central point with a cable
Costs more to implement than the bus topology because cable is used and central
Hierarchical or extended star topology – a star network with an addition networking device connected to
the main networking device to increase the size of the network. Use for large networks
Mesh topology – connects all devices to each other. Used in WANs that interconnect LANs
Expensive and difficult to install because of the amount of cables needed
Often used in governments

First come first server broadcast topology

LAN architecture- overall structure of a computer or communication system
Ethernet based on IEEE 802.3
Carrier sense multiple acces with collision diction (CSMA/CD)
Token ring- designed by IBM, physically a star network ring.
FDDI – fiber distributed data interface – often token ring network

802.11a Devices conforming to the 802.11a standard allow WLANs to achieve data rates as high as 54
Mbps. IEEE 802.11a devices operate in the 5 GHz radio frequency range and within a maximum range of
150 feet (45.7 m).

802.11b operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range with a maximum theoretical data rate of 11 Mbps.
Typically 6.5. These devices operate within a maximum range of 300 feet (91 m).

IEEE 802.11g provides the same theoretical maximum speed as 802.11a, which is 54 Mbps, but operates in
the same 2.4 GHz spectrum as 802.11b. Unlike 802.11a, 802.11g is backward-compatible with 802.11b.
802.11g also has a maximum range of 300 feet (91 m).

802.11n is a newer wireless standard that has a theoretical bandwidth of 540 Mbps and operates in either
the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency range with a maximum range of 984 feet (250 m).

Chapter 7: Printers and Scanners

Sager computer. virtual computer


Laser Printers 8-200 ppm uses laser beam to creater image. Toner cartridge, laser scanner, high voltage
6 steps to print info onto a single sheet of paper
Step 1- cleaning
Step 2- Conditioning
Strep 3- Writing
Step 4- Developing
Step 5- Transferring
Step 6- Fusing

inject printers 2-6ppm use spray ink through tiny holes or nozzles. Two types of nozzles
Thermal- a pulse of electrical current is applied to head chambers making a bubble of steam
Piezoelectric- uses vibrations to print
Inject printers are wet for 15 seconds.

Printers can buffer to negate slow prints.

Print spool – buffering on the computer
Print Calibration – adjust settings to match the colors seen on the screen and paper

Test Page verifies, printer working, driver software works, printer and computer communicating.

Printing from the command line are limited to ASCII files only like .txt and .bat

OCR – optical character recognition can scan pages to convert into word and type into it.

Dot matrix printers

DPI – dots per inch. Higher dpi higher resolution

MTBF- mean time between failures. Average time it lasts before failure.
TCO- total cost of ownership includes paper, ink, maintenance costs, Price per page, warranty costs, the
amount of material to be printed, expected lifetime of the printer.

Printer to Computer interfaces

Serial- transfers data in single bits in a single cycle, D-shell and either male or female.
Parallel twice as fast as serial
Wi-Fi or IEEE 802

Chapter 6: Fundamentals Laptops and Portable Devices

Expansion capabilities. PC BUS and Express Bus

PC BUS Type 1 3.3mm SRAM Flash
Type 2- 5mm Moden LAN wireless
Type 3- Hard drive 10.5mm

Express bus

ACPI standards.
SO-S5 On to Off.

SMS- short message service

MMS-multimedia message service
Packet switching- used for accessing the interent

Optimal operating environments- Pack for transport, soft cushion clean properly, ventilate, air temperature,
and humidity.
Chapter 5: Operating Systems

OS controls almost all functions on a computer

Windows 2000 and XP

Provides interface, applications and hardware. Boots computer and manages file.
OS’s can support multiple tasks, users or CPU.

OS has 4 main roles. Control access, manage files folders, provides GUI, manage apps.

CLI- command line interface

GUI- graphical user interface

OpenGL- open graphics library

DirectX – for gamers

Multi-user – two or more users can work with programs and share peripheral devices, such as printers, at
the same time.
Multi-tasking – the computer is capable of operating multiple apps at the same time
Multi-processing – multiple CPUs that programs share.
Multi-threading – a program can be broken into smaller parts that can be loaded as needed by the OS.
Multi-threading allows individual programs to be multi-tasked. Like tabs in foxfire. Each doing something
at the same time within foxfire.

Real mode (DOS)- 1 program at a time. Command line, dos and dos apps. Subject to crashes. Only 1 Mb of
memory at a time
Protected Mode – windows 95 and 98 access to all memory, protected from program errors (bad code),
HAL- hardware abstraction layer. Stops bad codes
Virtual read mode – like real mode, 1mb. Dos within XP (command prompt) only protects crashes. Can still
access protected mode.

DOS-desktop operating system for 1 user.

NOS- network operating systems for multiple users.

Hard drive’s have Tracks, Disks , sectors and in a sector is a Header Synchronization info and data, error
correcting code.

POST checks hardware– BIOS loads hardware configurations – MBR (master boot record) NTFS/FAT32 –
NTLDR(NT Loader) Boot.INI what OS to load and where on the driver. NTDETECT.COM checks the
hardware for the OS. – NTOSKRNL.EXE all configurations and HAL (checks code errors) –

POST is a cold start

Warm boot is BIOS onward

Registry starts with HKEY_”Freddy” or HKEY_”Elly” Profile/user . every setting is stored in the registry.
Everything, like control panel, file Associations, system polices, or installed software

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT - .pdf program to open file

HKEY_CURRENT_USER desktop setting
HKEY_USERS internet log ons

LSASS.EXE is the program that displays windows xp login.

Safe mode – for troubleshooting and removing virus

ATTRIB command shows, RASH Read only, Archive, System file, Hidden file.

FAT32 only 4gb at a time of memory. not as secure as NTFS. For more OS’s mac’s lynix and old windows.

NTFS larger file sizes. More secure with options.

AT on cmd schedule programs

Differential doesn’t clear archive bit. Backs up anything that is changed to the last Incremental or Normal
back up. Saves space and only 1 restore.
Incremental does clear archive bit. Backs up anything that is changed, up to the last normal backup.
Smaller backup sizes and more restores.
Daily backs up only files that changed on a certain day

Chapter 4. Basic of Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting (not testable, no quiz)

Reduces likelihood of software and hardware damage. Maintenance. Condition of parts, replace worn parts,

Troubleshooting process
1- Gather data from the customer
2- Verify the obvious issues
3- Try quick solutions first
4- Gather data from the computer
5- Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
6- Close with the customer

Eliminate variables one at a time.

Be very tactful. Communication is key.

Event View- Event ID on google will help to solve the problem.

Beep codes are due to hardware
Memtest. Prime95. Knoppix- lynix. DL nod est-$. Avast- free. ABG- free. Virtual drive. Spybot search and

(90% of what I do.)

Chapter 3. Computer Assembly

Everything has only place to fit. “Plug it in where it fits. It doesn’t fit, it probably doesn’t belong there.”

Prepare the workplace before opening the computer case. Lighting, ventilation, room temp, accessible,
avoid clutter, antistatic mat, containers for screws.

On power supply. Fan facing down and fan out of case, correctly inserted.

Small components to the motherboard.

CPU, touch only corners and use antistatic bands.

Thermal compound- helps keep CPU cool. Evaporates very fast.

Isopropyl alcohol removes the old compound. and manufacturer’s recommendations about applying the thermal compound. Different
techniques for apply

Heatsink/fan has a 3 pin cable that attaches on the motherboard between, cpu and ram. (some motherboards
will have more than 1 fan connector. Controlled by BIO’s)

CPU connection with pin 1 on the cpu socket. Triangle

Thermal sink must be placed on evenly.

After ram is installed, motherboard can be installed the case. Plastic and metal standoffs are used to mount
the motherboard and to prevent it from touching the metal portion of the case. Metal standoff’s are better
than plastic.

Install internal drives. Cd/HDD so on. After motherboard is aligned in the case.
External drives.

Install cards. Network cards. Wireless and NIC’s. Video adapter card.

After everything is put in, cables get connected.

Power cables are used to distribute electricity from the power supply to the motherboard and other
Data cables transmit data between the motherboard and storage devices, such as hard drives.

ATX- 20 or 24 pins Power. 20pin will work in a 24 pin socket.

SATA power 15pin connector
Molex are used where SATA power connectors aren’t used
(Molex and SATA can’t be used at the same time: can be used for anything that supports molex)
Berg 4pin is used for floppy drive

Ribbion (PATA) 40 or 80 conductors. Master at the end and Slave is in the middle of the cable. (3
connectors.) Motherboard to optical drive

SATA 7pin connector. 2 connectors. Motherboard to drive

Floppy drive cables, 34 pin. Stripe is the location of pin, must be lined up. A drive end (master) middle
drive will be B drive (slave) twist in cable.
Lastly, connect external cables. (mouse keyboard monitor) and reattach side panels.

Boot computer for the first time. Basic input output system. Will perform a Power-on selft test (POST)

Identify beep codes. POST checks to see that all of the hardware in the computer is operating correctly.
1 beep means everything is good. Multiple beeps means a problem. Motherboard documentation will give
beep translation.

CMOS- complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

CMOS is maintained by the battery in the computer. BIOS is stored in CMOS. Special memory chip called

Chapter 2. Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use

Safe working conditions, clean organized, properly lit. proper handling and disposal.

Fire plan – Contact Emergency services.

Class A – Paper, wood, plastics, cardboard - Ordinary combustible

Class B – Gasoline, kerosene, organic solvents - Liquid combustible

Class C – Electrical equipment

Class D – Combustible metals

ESD- Electrostatic discharge can damage is computer. only 30 volts of ESD can damage a component.
Preventing ESD damage- antistatic bags to store components. Grounded mats on workbenches, grounded
floor mats in work areas, and use antistatic wrist straps when working on computers.

Power Fluctuation can cause data loss or hardware failure: blackouts brownouts, noise(electrical
interference, crosstalk), spikes, power surges (lightning).
Surge suppressors – UPS – SPS keep the power supply constant. UPS is the best. Enough time to shut
down computer without power. Do not plug printer into ups

Proper Disposal- Batteries from portable computer systems may contain lead, cadmium, lithium, alkaline,
manganese and mercury.
Used printer toner kits and printer cartridges.
Monitors – 4 pounds of lead

Tools for the job- ESD tools, antistatic wrist strap mat
Hand tools- screwdrivers, needle-nose pliers
Cleaning tools soft cloth compressed air can
Diagnostic tools- digital multimeter loopback adapter.
Software tools- FDisk (makes partitions), Format (erase stored information), Scandisk or Chkdsk, Defrag,
Disk cleanup, Disk management (same as FDisk and Format but is GUI- shows charts and stuff), System
file checker (SFC)

Organizational tools- personal reference tools notes, journal, history of repairs.

Internet reference tools-search engines, news groups, forums ((Marine tactical network))
Misc tools- spare parts, a working labtop

Took a Skills Review exam today. Received a 97, 1 question wrong in the Basic Hand Tool and
Environmental Knowledge/Safety.

Chapter 1.

Hardware, electricity.

Safe lab procedures, troubleshooting, OS’s, networks, security, communication skill.

AC alternating current. DC direct current. DC is lower voltage. Used for all computer parts that need

Form factor- size and layout of a case

RPM’s- Revolutions per minute. Speed at which a hard drive is read.

LED indicators. Are little lights that show status of computer. ie. Hard drive being used

Voltage(V) Current (I)

Buses allow data to travel among the various components.

IDE(ATA)- 40pin early drive controller interface that connects computer and hard disk drive

CPU – processor, brain of computer

RISC, small- reduced instruction set computer
CISC, complex instruction set computer. larger more at the same time

Hyperthreading – two CPU’s at the same time.

GPU- Graphics card has its own processor and fan on it.

PCI are the expansion ports used today.

PCI-Express is better. PCI-Express version 2 is the best right now.

IEEE1394a. 400 Mbps 6-pin or a 4pin connector

IEEE1394b 800Mbps 9pin

Parallel IEEE1284 8 bits of data

Serial Cable transfer 1 bit at a time.

RJ-45 port connects a computer to a network

PS/2 is 6pin

s-video is an output only device

IRQs ticket in line. Process requests.

I/O 65,535 I/O ports in a computer. communication between, devices and software
DMA used by high speed devices. Bypass cpu. New computers have channels 0-7