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Fundamentals of

Electropneumatics

Collection of
Transparencies

1 3

3 3
2 2
1 1

095011 GB
Foreword

The transparencies are designed from a didactical and methodological point of view.
For each transparency, there is a short accompanying text that provides the speaker
with a quick overview of the contents. More information you will find in the textbook
Electropneumatics.

Syllabus · Physical fundamentals of electropneumatics


· Function and application of electropneumatic components
· Designation and drawing of electropneumatic symbols
· Drawing of pneumatic and electrical circuit diagrams in accordance with
standards
· Presentation of motion sequences and switching conditions
· Direct and indirect manual controls
· Direct and indirect direction-dependent controllers
· Logical AND/OR functions
· Pressure-dependent controls with pressure switches
· Troubleshooting in simple electropneumatic control systems

The text pages contain a complete picture of the transparency with some additional
explanations and items which the speaker can mark on the transparency during
instruction.

The advantages of this concept are:


· The speaker can add to the transparencies step-by-step during instruction.
· Instruction is livelier.
· The accompanying texts provided reduce preparation time.

New!
Electronic presentation

© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. • Electropneumatics


Contents

System Elements
Elements of a Control Chain __________________________________ Transparency 1

Pneumatic Components
Single-Acting Cylinder _______________________________________ Transparency 2
Double-Acting Cylinder ______________________________________ Transparency 3
Non-return, Flow Control and Pressure Control Valves_____________ Transparency 4
Pressure Regulating Valve____________________________________ Transparency 5
One-Way Flow Control Valve __________________________________ Transparency 6
Quick Exhaust Valve_________________________________________ Transparency 7

Electropneumatic Components
Conversion of Electrical Signals into Pneumatic Signals ___________ Transparency 8
Conversion of Pneumatic Signals into Electrical Signals ___________ Transparency 9
Switching Symbols for Valves ________________________________ Transparency 10
Directional Control Valves: Ports and Switching Positions_________ Transparency 11
Function Principle of a Solenoid Coil __________________________ Transparency 12
2/2-Way Solenoid Valve without Pilot Control __________________ Transparency 13
Solenoid Valves with Pilot Control ____________________________ Transparency 14
3/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control _______________ Transparency 15
5/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control _______________ Transparency 16
5/2-Way Double Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control_______________ Transparency 17
5/3-Way Solenoid Valve ____________________________________ Transparency 18

Electrical Components
Power Supply Units ________________________________________ Transparency 19
Switching Contacts and Types of Actuation _____________________ Transparency 20
Types of Actuation of Switching Elements ______________________ Transparency 21
Switching Symbols for Solenoid Coils and Relays________________ Transparency 22
The Relay ________________________________________________ Transparency 23
Magnetic Proximity Switches (Reed Switches) __________________ Transparency 24
Electrical Output Devices____________________________________ Transparency 25

Logic Functions
The AND Logic Function _____________________________________ Transparency 26
The OR Logic Function ______________________________________ Transparency 27
Contents

Electropneumatic Controller
Control Chain _____________________________________________ Transparency 28
Direct Actuation of a Single-Acting Cylinder ____________________ Transparency 29
Indirect Actuation of a Double-Acting Cylinder __________________ Transparency 30
Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Set ______________________ Transparency 31
Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Reset ____________________ Transparency 32
Electropneumatic Memory Circuit with Double Solenoid Valve _____ Transparency 33
Stroke-Dependent Control___________________________________ Transparency 34
Pressure-Dependent Control _________________________________ Transparency 35

Circuit Diagram Design


The Electropneumatic Circuit Diagram _________________________ Transparency 36
Circuit Diagram Structure ___________________________________ Transparency 37
Displacement-Step Diagram _________________________________ Transparency 38

Terminal Connection Diagram


Terminal Connection Diagram ________________________________ Transparency 39
Checklist for the Terminal Connection Diagram__________________ Transparency 40

Special Features with the Connection of Solenoid Coils


Protective Circuits for Inductive Loads _________________________ Transparency 41

Programmable Logic Controllers


Alterable Controls__________________________________________ Transparency 42
1

Elements of a Control Chain

The principle of the control chain is used for the preparation of the circuit diagram.
Every element of a control chain has a certain task to perform in the processing and
further transmission of signals.

This structuring of a system into functional blocks has proven itself in the following
tasks:
· Arrangement of the elements in the circuit diagram
· Definition of the nominal sizes, nominal current and nominal voltage of
components
· Set-up and commissioning of the controller
· Identification of the components for maintenance work

Pneumatics/ Electrics/
Hydraulics Electronics

– Cylinders – Electric motors


– Motors Working elements – Solenoids
– Components – Linear motors

– Power contactors
– Directional
Control elements – Power transistors
control valves
– Power thyristors

– Directional
Processing – Contactors
control valves
elements – Relays
– Isolating valves (Control elements) – Electronic modules
– Pressure valves

– Switches – Switches
– Push button – Push button actuators
actuators – Limit switches
– Limit switches Input elements – Program module
– Program – Sensors
module – Indicators/generators
– Sensors
Elements of a Control Chain

Pneumatics/ Electrics/
Hydraulics Electronics

– Cylinders – Electric motors


– Motors Working elements – Solenoids
– Components – Linear motors

– Power contactors
– Directional
Control elements – Power transistors
control valves
– Power thyristors

– Directional
Processing – Contactors
control valves
elements – Relays
– Isolating valves (Control elements) – Electronic modules
– Pressure valves

– Switches – Switches
– Push button – Push button actuators
actuators – Limit switches
– Limit switches Input elements – Program module
– Program – Sensors
module – Indicators/generators
– Sensors

TP 201, Transparency 01
2

Single-Acting Cylinder

Compressed air is applied to only one side of the single-acting cylinder.

The piston rod side of the cylinder is vented to atmosphere.

Single-acting cylinders can perform work in only in the advance direction of travel.

The piston rod is driven inwards by the force of a built-in spring or by external forces.

Piston
End cap Reset spring Bearing cap
Piston rod

Sealing ring Exhaust port


Supply port Cylinder barrel
Single-Acting Cylinder

TP 201, Transparency 02
3

Double-Acting Cylinder

The double-acting cylinder is actuated in both directions with compressed air.

It can perform work in both directions of movement.

The force transmitted to the piston rod is greater during the advance stroke than
during the return stroke.

Cylinder barrel

Scraper ring

Bearing cap

Piston Piston rod


End cap
Double-Acting Cylinder

TP 201, Transparency 03
4

Non-return, Flow Control and Pressure Control Valves

Non-return valves block the flow in one direction and release it in the opposite
direction. A distinction is made between:
· Non-return valves
· Shuttle valves (OR)
· Dual pressure valves (AND)
· One-way flow control valves
· Quick exhaust valves

Pressure control valves influence the pressure or are controlled through the size of
the pressure. A distinction is made between:
· Pressure regulating valves
· Pressure relief valves
· Pressure sequence valves

Sloping arrow – the valve is adjustable

Non-return valves – Non-return valve (check valve)


– Non-return valve, spring-loaded

– Shuttle valve (OR function)

– Dual pressure valve (AND function)

– Quick exhaust valve

– One-way flow control valve

Flow control valve – Flow control valve (throttle valve),


adjustable
1

Pressure control – Adjustable pressure regulating valve


valve without relief port
2
1 3
– Adjustable pressure regulating valve
with relief port
2
1
– Pressure sequence valve 12
with external supply line
2
1

– Pressure-relief valve
2
2

– Pressure sequence
valve-combination

1 3

12
Non-return, Flow Control and Pressure Control Valves

Non-return valves – Non-return valve (check valve)


– Non-return valve, spring-loaded

– Shuttle valve (OR function)

– Dual pressure valve (AND function)

– Quick exhaust valve

– One-way flow control valve

Flow control valve – Flow control valve (throttle valve),


adjustable
1

Pressure control – Adjustable pressure regulating valve


valve without relief port
2
1 3
– Adjustable pressure regulating valve
with relief port
2
1
– Pressure sequence valve 12
with external supply line
2
1

– Pressure-relief valve
2
2

– Pressure sequence
valve-combination

1 3

12

TP 201, Transparency 04
5

Pressure Regulating Valve

Pressure regulators have the function of keeping the output pressure mainly
constant, independent of variations in the input pressure and the air consumption.

If the pressure rises at the outlet, the diaphragm moves against the spring force and
the flow cross-section at the valve seat is reduced or closed.

If the pressure drops at the outlet, the spring presses against the diaphragm and the
passage cross-section at the valve seat is enlarged or opened.

The output pressure is adjustable.

The input pressure must be higher than the output pressure.

P1 P2 P1 P2
3
1
Pressure Regulating Valve

P1 P2 P1 P2
3
1

TP 201, Transparency 05
6

One-Way Flow Control Valve

The check element blocks the flow of air in one direction, so that it flows across an
adjustable throttle in this direction.

The air flow from the opposite direction lifts the seal of the check element from the
seat. The compressed air can flow almost unrestricted in this direction.

The valve should be installed as close as possible to the cylinder.

1A

1V2 1V3

1V1
4 2

1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
One-Way Flow Control Valve

1A

1V2 1V3

1V1
4 2

1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1

TP 201, Transparency 06
7

Quick Exhaust Valve

Quick exhaust valves are used to achieve the maximum advance and retract speed
of pneumatic cylinders.

To increase the effectiveness of the valve, it should be mounted directly on the


cylinder or in the immediate vicinity of the supply or exhaust ports of the cylinder.

3 3

2 2 è

1 1A 1 1A

1V2 1V2
2 2
1 1
3 3
1V1 1V1
2 4 2

1Y1 1Y2
1 3 5 3
1
Quick Exhaust Valve
2
3 3
1 3

2 2

1A 1A
1 1

1V2 1V2
2 2
1 1
3 3
1V1 1V1
2 4 2

1Y1 1Y2
1 3 5 3
1

TP 201, Transparency 07
8

Conversion of Electrical Signals into Pneumatic Signals

If control systems are using compressed air and electricity as working mediums,
converter systems must be used.

Solenoid valves convert electrical signals into pneumatic signals.

Solenoid valves consist of:


· A pneumatic valve
· A coil which switches the valve

1 3

3 3
2 2
1 1

unactuated actuated
Conversion of Electrical Signals into Pneumatic Signals
2

1 3

3 3
2 2
1 1

unactuated actuated

TP 201, Transparency 08
9

Conversion of Pneumatic Signals into Electrical Signals

The PE converter is actuated with compressed air. When the pressure reaches a
preset value, an electric signal is generated.

The pressure of a pneumatic signal works against an adjustable spring.

If the pressure working against the diaphragm overcomes the spring force, a stem
actuates an electrical switch contact.

The electrical switching element can be normally closed, normally open or


changeover contact.

14

14 14
actuated unactuated
Conversion of Pneumatic Signals into Electrical Signals
14

14 14
actuated unactuated
TP 201, Transparency 09
10

Switching Symbols for Valves

Pneumatic components are normally shown in the deenergized condition in circuit


diagrams.

Valve switching positions are represented by a square.

The number of squares corresponds to the number of switching positions.

Functions and modes of operation are drawn inside the square:


· Lines indicate the flow paths.
· Arrows indicate the flow direction.
· Closed ports are represented by two lines drawn at right angles to one another.

The connecting lines are drawn outside on the square.

The valve switching position is shown by a square.

The number of squares corresponds to the number of switching positions.

Lines indicate the flow paths, arrows indicate the direction of flow.

Closed ports are shown by two lines drawn at right angles to one another.

The connecting lines for supply and exhaust air are drawn outside the square.
Switching Symbols for Valves

The valve switching position is shown by a square.

The number of squares corresponds to the number of switching positions.

Lines indicate the flow paths, arrows indicate the direction of flow.

Closed ports are shown by two lines drawn at right angles to one another.

The connecting lines for supply and exhaust air are drawn outside the square.

TP 201, Transparency 10
11

Directional Control Valves: Ports and Switching Positions

Information about the type of valve can be established from the following features:
· Number of ports
· Number of switching positions
· Port numbering

The following applies to the numbering of the ports:


· Air supply port 1
· Exhaust ports 3, 5
· Working or outlet ports 2, 4

Number of ports
Number of switching positions
2

2/2-way valve, normally open position


1

3/2-way valve, normally closed position


1 3

3/2-way valve, normally open position


1 3

4 2
4/2-way valve
flow from 1 à 2 and from 4 à 3
1 3

4 2
5/2-way valve
flow from 1 à 2 and from 4 à 5
5 3
1
4 2

5/3-way valve, mid-position closed


5 3
1
Directional Control Valves:
Ports and Switching Positions

Number of ports
Number of switching positions
2

2/2-way valve, normally open position


1
2

3/2-way valve, normally closed position


1 3

3/2-way valve, normally open position


1 3
4 2
4/2-way valve
flow from 1 à 2 and from 4 à 3
1 3
4 2
5/2-way valve
flow from 1 à 2 and from 4 à 5
5 3
1
4 2

5/3-way valve, mid-position closed


5 3
1

TP 201, Transparency 11
12

Function Principle of a Solenoid Coil

When an electric current flows through a coil, a magnetic field is generated.

The following applies to the strength of the magnetic field:


· Increasing the number of windings increases the field.
· Increasing the strength of the current increases the field.
· Lengthening the coil reduces the field.

A soft iron core (armature) is drawn into a coil through which a current is flowing.

Coil winding

Soft iron core


Function Principle of a Solenoid Coil

Coil winding

Soft iron core

TP 201, Transparency 12
13

2/2-Way Solenoid Valve without Pilot Control

Normally-closed position, spring return

Solenoid coil deenergized


· Port 1 is blocked.
· Port 2 is blocked.
· Exhausting is not possible.

Solenoid coil energized


· The armature is raised.
· Compressed air flows from port 1 to port 2.

1 1
2 2
2/2-Way Solenoid Valve without Pilot Control
2

1 1
2 2

TP 201, Transparency 13
14

Solenoid Valves with Pilot Control

Solenoid valves with pilot control consist of:


· An electromagnetically-actuated pilot control valve.
· A pneumatically-actuated main valve.

In comparison with solenoid valves without a pilot control, solenoid valves with a
pilot control are distinguished by:
· Lower force required to actuate the armature.
· Smaller dimensions of the coil head.
· Lower power consumption.
· Less heat generated.

An electrical signal is
applied to the solenoid
coil

The solenoid coil


actuates the pilot
control valve

The pilot control


actuates the valve
Solenoid Valves with Pilot Control

An electrical signal is
applied to the solenoid
coil

TP 201, Transparency 14
15

3/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control

Normally-closed position, spring return, manual override

Solenoid coil deenergized


· Port 1 is blocked.
· Port 2 is vented to port 3.
· The pilot control channel is blocked by the armature seal on the valve side.
· The space above the valve piston is vented through the armature guide tube.

Solenoid coil energized


· The armature is lifted and the armature seal on the coil side blocks the vent hole
in the armature guide tube, while the armature seal on the valve side opens the
pilot control channel.
· Compressed air from port 1 flows through the pilot control channel and actuates
the valve piston.
· Port 3 is blocked.
· Compressed air flows from port 1 to port 2.

1 3

3 3
2 2
1 1
3/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control
2

1 3

3 3
2 2
1 1

TP 201, Transparency 15
16

5/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control

Spring returned, manual override

Solenoid coil deenergized


· Compressed air flows from port 1 to 2.
· Port 4 is vented to 5.
· Port 3 is blocked.
· The pilot control channel is blocked.
· The space above the valve piston is vented through the armature guide tube.

Solenoid coil energized


· The armature is lifted and the armature seal on the coil side blocks the vent in
the armature guide tube, while the armature seal on the valve side opens the
pilot control channel.
· Compressed air from port 1 flows through the pilot control channel and actuates
the valve piston.
· Port 5 is blocked.
· Compressed air flows from port 1 to port 4.
· Port 2 is vented to port 3.

4 2

14
84 5 3
1

14
84 5 4 1 2 3 4 2

14
84 5 3
1

14
84 5 4 1 2 3
5/2-Way Single Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control
4 2

14
84 5 3
1

14

84 5 4 1 2 3 4 2

14
84 5 3
1

14

84 5 4 1 2 3

TP 201, Transparency 16
17

5/2-Way Double Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control

Manual override

Solenoid coil Y1 energized, solenoid coil Y2 deenergized


· The valve switches over.
· Port 3 is blocked.
· Compressed air flows from Port 1 to Port 2.
· Port 4 is vented to Port 5.

Both solenoid coils deenergized


· The valve retains its previous switching position.

Solenoid coil Y2 energized, solenoid coil Y1 deenergized


· The valve switches over.
· Port 5 is blocked.
· Compressed air flows from port 1 to port 4.
· Port 2 is vented to port 3.

4 2

14 12
84 5 3 82
1

14 12
84 5 4 1 2 3 82 4 2

14 12
84 5 3 82
1

14 12
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
5/2-Way Double Solenoid Valve with Pilot Control
4 2

14 12
84 5 3 82
1

14 12

84 5 4 1 2 3 82 4 2

14 12
84 5 3 82
1

14 12

84 5 4 1 2 3 82

TP 201, Transparency 17
18

5/3-Way Solenoid Valve

The three switching positions of an electrically-actuated pilot-controlled


5/3-way valve:

1. In the normal position, the solenoid coils are deenergized and the piston is
centered in its mid-position by the two springs. Ports 2 and 3 as well as 4 and 5
are connected. Port 1 is blocked.
2. If current is applied to the lefthand solenoid coil, the piston moves to the right.
Ports 1 and 4 as well as 2 and 3 are connected with each other.
3. If current flows through the righthand solenoid coil, the piston moves to the left.
In this position, Ports 1 and 2 as well as 4 and 5 are connected.

Each of the two actuated switching positions is held as long as current flows through
the corresponding solenoid coil. If the flow of current is interrupted, the piston
switches back to the mid-position.

4 2

14 12
5 13
84 82

14 12
4 2
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
14 12
5 1 3
84 82

14 12
4 2
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
14 12
5 1 3
84 82

14 12
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
5/3-Way Solenoid Valve
4 2

14 14 12
5 13
84 82

14 12
4 2
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
14 14 12
5 13
84 82

14 12
4 2
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
14 14 12
5 13
84 82

14 12
84 5 4 1 2 3 82
TP 201, Transparency 18
19

Power Supply Units

It is necessary to distinguish between an alternating current and a direct current


power supply.

Alternating current · Is supplied from the mains


· 3-phase or single-phase form
· Sinusoidal-shaped voltage of fixed frequency
· Relatively constant amplitude
· Voltage change through transformers

Direct current · Is supplied by power supply devices

Modules of direct current power supply devices


· Mains transformer
· Rectifier
· Stabilization

Batteries and rechargeable batteries


· Used for buffering in case of mains failure.
· Used in portable devices.

Alternating current Direct current Battery


+

Transformer Rectifier Stabilizer

Power supply unit


Power Supply Units

Alternating current Direct current Battery

- +

Transformer Rectifier Stabilizer

Power supply unit

TP 201, Transparency 19
20

Switching Contacts and Types of Actuation

The following switch contact designs are used as input and processing elements:
· Normally-open contact
· Normally-closed contact
· Changeover contact

Types of actuation for switching elements are:


· Manual
· Mechanical
· Relay
· Magnet field

Normally-open Normally-closed Changeover Mechanically connected


contacts contacts switch contacts

Push-button with Rotary switch with Limit switch with normally open
normally open contacts normally open contacts or normally closed contacts,
manually actuated manually actuated mechanically actuated
by pushing by turning
Switching Contacts and Types of Actuation

Normally-open Normally-closed Changeover Mechanically connected


contacts contacts switch contacts

Push-button with Rotary switch with Limit switch with normally open
normally open contacts normally open contacts or normally closed contacts,
manually actuated manually actuated mechanically actuated
by pushing by turning

TP 201, Transparency 20
21

Types of Actuation of Switching Elements

Frequently used types of actuation are


· Pushbuttons
· Roller levers
· Roller lever with idle return

Two types of actuation are shown


· Pushbutton, as changeover switch
· Latching rocker switch, as normally-open contact

Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: S (S1, S2, ...)

2 4

Type of actuation
(push-button)
1
Connection
Switching element
(normally-closed contact)

Connection
(normally-open contact)

3 3
4

4 4
Types of Actuation of Switching Elements
2 4

Type of actuation
(push-button)
1
Connection
Switching element
(normally-closed contact)

Connection
(normally-open contact)

3 3
4

4 4
TP 201, Transparency 21
22

Switching Symbols for Solenoid Coils and Relays

In electropneumatics, the solenoid coil is the element that switches the valves.

Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: Y (Y1, Y2, ...)

A relay switches 1, 2 or more contacts. The relay can also be a time or temperature-
controlled element.

Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: K (K1, K2, ...)

Electro-magnetically Electro-magnetically Representation in


actuated on both sides actuated on one side, electrical circuit
with spring return diagrams

Y1

Electro-magnetically Contactor or relay with


actuated, 3 normally open contacts
with pilot control and 1 normally closed contact

K1
Switching Symbols for Solenoid Coils and Relays

Electro-magnetically Electro-magnetically Representation in


actuated on both sides actuated on one side, electrical circuit
with spring return diagrams

Y1

Electro-magnetically Contactor or relay with


actuated, 3 normally open contacts
with pilot control and 1 normally closed contact

K1

TP 201, Transparency 22
23

The Relay

In practice, the construction of a relay can be very different, but the function is
nevertheless the same in principle:
· When a voltage is applied to the relay coil through contacts A1 and A2, an
electric current flows through the windings. A magnetic field is built up and pulls
the armature against the core of the coil.
· Switch contact 1 is connected with switch contact 4.
· After removing the voltage, the armature is brought back into its initial position
by a spring.
· Switching contact 1 is connected with switching contact 2.

A relay can have multiple switching contacts which can be actuated simultaneously.

There are the following types, for example:


· Polarised relay
· Current impulse relay
· Time relay
· Thermal relay

12 14 22 24
A1
Return spring
A2
Relay coil 11 21

Armature

Coil core
Insulation
Contact

A1 A2 4 2 1
The Relay
12 14 22 24
A1
Return spring
A2
Relay coil 11 21

Armature

Coil core
Insulation
Contact

A1 A2 4 2 1
TP 201, Transparency 23
24

Magnetic Proximity Switches (Reed Switches)

Reed switches are actuated through a magnetic field. In industrial applications, most
reed switches are used with LED displays.

The illustration shows a three-wire reed switch. It has three connections:


· One connection for the positive power supply
· One connection for the negative power supply
· One signal or switch output

The reed switch is attached directly to the body of a cylinder. It is actuated by a


magnetic ring on the cylinder piston.

When the magnetic ring moves past the reed switch, the switching contacts are
closed as a result of the magnetic field and thus provide an output signal.

Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: B (B1, B2, ...)

+24V

BN
BK

BU

0V
Magnetic Proximity Sensors (Reed Switches)

+24V

BN
BK

BU

0V

TP 201, Transparency 24
25

Electrical Output Devices

Supply acoustic signals:


· For example, horns, sirens
· Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: H (H1, H2, ...)

Supply optical signals:


· For example, lamps, LEDs
· Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: H (H1, H2, ...)

Do work:
· For example, electric motors
· Identifying letters in electrical circuit diagrams: M (M1, M2, ...)

Signalling device
Audible indicator: Horn Siren Bell

Illuminating
indicators: Lamp Light emitting diode (LED)

Motors
DC motor
M
Electrical Output Devices

Signalling device
Audible indicator: Horn Siren Bell

Illuminating
indicators: Lamp Light emitting diode (LED)

Motors
DC motor
M

TP 201, Transparency 25
26

The AND Logic Function

The AND logic function consists of at least two switching elements connected in
series:
· The AND logic function can have two or more inputs. A combination of switches
and sensors may be involved.
· The function is represented through a logic symbol with two inputs and one
output.
· Both input signals must be present to switch the output.

1
+24V

S1
Input 1
(S1)
S2
Input 2
& Output
(lamp H1)
(S2)

H1

0V
The AND Logic Function

1
+24V

S1

Input 1
S2
Input 2
& Output

H1

0V

TP 201, Transparency 26
27

The OR Logic Function

The OR logic function consists of at least two switching elements connected in


parallel:
· The OR logic function can have two or more inputs. A combination of switches
and sensors may be involved.
· The function is represented through a logic symbol with two inputs and one
output.
· Only one input signal needs to be present to switch the output.

1 2
+24V

S1 S2
Input 1
(S1)
Input 2
³1 Output
(lamp H1)
(S2)

H1

0V
The OR Logic Function

1 2
+24V

S1 S2

Input 1
³1 Output
Input 2

H1

0V

TP 201, Transparency 27
28

Control Chain

The structure of the control chain supports:


· The allocation of components with comparable functions to a group of elements.
· The avoidance of lines crossing each other in pneumatic and electrical circuit
diagrams.
· The preparation of clearly structured and uniformly designed circuit diagrams.

The principle of the control chain should be understood as being only a guideline.
The signal flow of the control system defines the structure of the control chain:
· In the pneumatic circuit diagram, the signal flow is represented from bottom to
top.
· In the electrical circuit diagram, the signal flow is represented from top to
bottom.

1A 1 2
+24V
S1 Signal
input

Signal flow
1V1 S2
Signal flow

4 2

1Y1 Signal
5 3
K1 K1 processing
1

Signal
1Y1 output
0V

2
Control Chain

1A 1 2
+24V
S1 Signal input

1V1 S2
4 2

1Y1
5 3
K1 K1 Signal processing
1

1Y1 Signal output


0V

TP 201, Transparency 28
29

Direct Actuation of a Single-Acting Cylinder

After actuating S1, current flows through the coil 1Y1, which switches the valve 1.1.

Compressed air flows from port 1 to port 2, and the piston rod advances.

If S1 is no longer actuated, there is no current through coil 1Y1. Valve 1.1 switches
back into the initial position.

The cylinder is vented through port 3 of valve 1.1, and the piston rod retracts.

1A 1
+24V

S1

1V1
2

1Y1
1 3
1Y1

0V
Direct Actuation of a Single-Acting Cylinder

1A 1
+24V

S1

1V1
2

1Y1
1 3
1Y1

0V

TP 201, Transparency 29
30

Indirect Actuation of a Double-Acting Cylinder

The use of indirect actuation depends upon:


· The force which is required for the actuation of the positioner
· The complexity of the circuit
· The switching power of the contacts
· Whether or not the system is remote controlled

1A 1 2
+24V

13 13
S1 K1
14 14
1V1
4 2

1Y1
5 3 A1
1
K1 1Y1
A2

0V
Indirect Actuation of a Double-Acting Cylinder

1A 1 2
+24V

13
S1
14
1V1
4 2

1Y1
5 3
1
1Y1

0V

TP 201, Transparency 30
31

Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Set

A relay can be held in the switched condition if a holding current path is switched in
parallel to the ON pushbutton through an internal normally-open contact in the
relay.

An OFF pushbutton must be built into the memory circuit. The installed position of
the OFF pushbutton determines the function of the memory circuit.

A memory circuit in which a pushbutton (S2, normally-closed) is connected in series


with a relay holding contact (normally-open) is a dominating set memory circuit.

In this dominating set memory circuit, the pushbutton S1 dominates the pushbutton
S2.

If S1 and S2 are pressed simultaneously, current flows through the relay coil K1.

1 2 3
+24V

13 23
S1 K1 K1
14 24

S2

K1 H1

0V

2
3
Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Set
1 2 3
+24V

13 23
S1 K1 K1
14 24

S2

K1 H1

0V

2
3
© TP 201, Transparency 31
32

Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Reset

A relay can be held in the switched condition if a holding current path is switched in
parallel to the ON pushbutton to the relay coil through an internal normally-open
contact in the relay.

An OFF pushbutton must be built into the memory circuit. The installed position of
the OFF pushbutton determines the function of the memory circuit.

A memory circuit in which a pushbutton (S1, normally-open) and a relay holding


contact (normally-open) are connected in parallel and then in series with a
pushbutton (S2, normally-closed) is a dominating reset memory circuit.

In this dominating reset memory circuit, the pushbutton S2 dominates the


pushbutton S1.

If S1 and S2 are pressed simultaneously, no current flows through the relay coil K1.

1 2 3
+24V

13 23
S1 K1 K1
14 24

S2

K1 H1

0V

2
3
Electrical Memory Circuit – Dominant Reset
1 2 3
+24V

13 23
S1 K1 K1
14 24

S2

K1 H1

0V

2
3
© TP 201, Transparency 32
33

Electropneumatic Memory Circuit with Double Solenoid Valve

Double solenoid valves are also called bistable valves or memory valves:
· The valve illustrated is actuated by two solenoid coils.
· The valve retains the switched position brought about through energising one of
the coils, even when the signal to switch the valve is cancelled.
· The switched position is reversed only when a signal is applied to the opposite
coil or a manual override is operated.
· To reverse the switched position, a signal only needs to be applied to one coil.

1A 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2

1V1
4 2

1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2

0V
3 4
Electropneumatic Memory Circuit with Double Solenoid Valve

1A 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2

1V1
4 2

1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2

0V
3 4

TP 201, Transparency 33
34

Stroke-Dependent Control

Limit switches with roller lever actuation are frequently used to check the position of
pneumatic actuators in simple circuits.

The use of limit sensors in a control depends upon the required accuracy of the
sensor.

Decisive factors are:


· The reliability
· The safety
· The complexity of the circuit

1A 1S1 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2

1V1
4 2
1S1
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2

0V
3 4
Stroke-Dependent Control

1A 1S1 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2

1V1
4 2
1S1
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2

0V
3 4

TP 201, Transparency 34
35

Pressure-Dependent Control

A pneumatic-electric signal converter measures the air pressure in the supply line of
cylinder 1A and compares it with a preset value.

As soon as this value is reached, the signal converter generates an electrical signal.

1B2
1A +24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1B2 1B1
p
1B1 S1 K1 K2
p

K3
1V1
4 2
K1 K2 K3 1Y1 1Y2
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1

0V
5 6 6
Pressure-Dependent Control

1B2
1A +24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1B2 1B1
p
1B1 S1 K1 K2
p

K3
1V1
4 2
K1 K2 K3 1Y1 1Y2
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1

0V
5 6 6

TP 201, Transparency 35
36

The Electropneumatic Circuit Diagram

The pneumatic and electrical parts of an electropneumatic circuit diagram are


prepared separately, but their contents are closely related.

In the pneumatic part, signal flow is presented from bottom to top.

In the electrical part, signal flow is presented from top to bottom.

In the electrical circuit diagram, the current paths are numbered consecutively from
left to right.

The common circuit diagram elements form the interfaces between the pneumatic
and the electrical circuits. In this case, they are the coils 1Y1 and 2Y1, as well as the
limit sensors 1B1, 1B2, 2S1 and 2S2.

1B1 1B2
1A 2A 2S1 2S2

1V1 2V1
4 2 4 2

1Y1 2Y1
5 3 5 3
1 1

+24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1B1 1B2 Start K3 K2 K4 2S2 K5 2S1 K3 K4

K1

K6 K3 K4 K5 K5

K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 1Y1 2Y1

0V
5 7 6 8 13 10 5
7 9 11
12 13
The Electropneumatic Circuit Diagram
1B1 1B2
1A 2A 2S1 2S2

1V1 2V1
4 2 4 2

1Y1 2Y1
5 3 5 3
1 1

+24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1B1 1B2 Start K3 K2 K4 2S2 K5 2S1 K3 K4

K1

K6 K3 K4 K5 K5

K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 1Y1 2Y1

0V
5 7 6 8 13 10 5
7 9 11
12 13

TP 201, Transparency 36
37

Circuit Diagram Structure

The electropneumatic circuit diagram consists of two parts:


· Pneumatic
· Electrical

Pneumatic · The arrangement of the components follows the signal flow accordingly from
bottom to top.
· Cylinders and valves are drawn horizontally.
· The outward travel motion of cylinders should be from left to right.

Electrical · The arrangement of the components follows the signal flow accordingly from top
to bottom.
· The electrical circuit diagram can be subdivided into a control part and a power
part.

Control section Power section

1A 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2
1V2

K2

1V1
4 2
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
0Z
0V
3 4
Circuit Diagram Structure

1A 1S2 +24V 1 2 3 4

S1 1S2 K1 K2
1V2

K2

1V1
4 2
K1 K2 1Y1 1Y2
1Y1 1Y2
5 3
1
0Z
0V
3 4

TP 201, Transparency 37
38

Displacement-Step Diagram

In a displacement-step diagram, the motion sequences of an actuator in a control


system are presented graphically:
· Movements of the cylinder within a step are represented by a line moving
diagonally upwards (advancing) or downwards (retracting).
· Horizontal lines represent the position of the cylinder in the advanced or
retracted end position.
· If the movements of several actuators are to be represented, they are arranged
under each other for every individual step.
· This arrangement clarifies the relationship between the movements of the
individual actuators in every step.

Step
1 2 3 4 5=1
1

1A

0
1

2A

0
Displacement-Step Diagram

Step
1 2 3 4 5=1
1

1A

0
1

2A

TP 201, Transparency 38
39

Terminal Connection Diagram

The terminal connection diagram shows the physical implementation of the current
circuit.

The identifications used in the circuit diagram are used in the terminal connection
diagram.

The terminal points and the cables are numbered. This facilitates the setting-up of
the controller as well as troubleshooting and maintenance.

1B1
1A 1S2
Machine Control cabinet

Target

Target
Terminal no. X1
1V1

Component
Component

Connection

Connection
4 2

Jumper
1Y1

code

code

code

code
5 3
1

+24V 1 2 3 4 5 +24V 1 X1 9
2 X1 12
X1-1 X1-2 X1-3 X1-4
3 X1 14
X1-9 X1-12 X1-14
4 K2 21
3 1 21 0V 5 X1 11
1B1 S1 1S2 K2 6 K1 A2
4 2 24
X1-13 X1-15 7 K2 A2
11 11 8 X1 17
K1 K2 1B1 + 9 X1 1
X1-11 X1-10 14 14 1B1 10 K1 A1
1B1 11 X1 5
X1-16 S1 3 12 X1 2
A1 A1
K1 K2 1Y1 S1 4 13 K1 11
A2 A2 1S2 1 14 X1 3
X1-17 1S2 2 15 K2 11
X1-5 X1-6 X1-7 X1-8 1Y1 16 K2 24
1Y1 17 X1 8
0V
18
3 4 19
5 20
Terminal Connection Diagram
1B1 Machine Control cabinet
1A 1S2

Target

Target
Terminal no. X1
1V1

Component

Component
4 2

Connection

Connection
Jumper
1Y1

code

code

code

code
5 3
1

+24V 1 2 3 4 5 +24V 1 X1 9
2 X1 12
X1-1 X1-2 X1-3 X1-4
3 X1 14
X1-9 X1-12 X1-14
4 K2 21
3 1 21 0V 5 X1 11
1B1 S1 1S2 K2 6 K1 A2
4 2 24
X1-13 X1-15
7 K2 A2
11 11 8 X1 17
K1 K2 1B1 + 9 X1 1
X1-11 X1-10 14 14 1B1 10 K1 A1
1B1 - 11 X1 5
X1-16 S1 3 12 X1 2
A1 A1
K1 K2 1Y1 S1 4 13 K1 11
A2 A2 1S2 1 14 X1 3
X1-17 1S2 2 15 K2 11
X1-5 X1-6 X1-7 X1-8 1Y1 16 K2 24
0V 1Y1 17 X1 8
18
3 4 19
5 20

TP 201, Transparency 39
40

Checklist for the Terminal Connection Diagram

In the preparation of a terminal connection diagram, the structure of the control


should be checked once again:
· Is every current path connected to the positive +24V bus bar through a terminal?
· Is every current path connected to the negative 0 V bus bar through a terminal?
· Are all external components, such as switches, sensors and valve coils connected
with one terminal per connection to the current circuit?
· Are all connections to the +24 V and 0 V shown in the terminal connection
diagram?
· Are all external components included in the terminal connection diagram
provided with their connection identifications?
· Check all current paths systematically and complete the terminal connection
diagram.
· Note that not all connections – such as the relay contacts, for example – must be
included in the terminal connection diagram.

è Each current path must be connected è Enter all external components with the
to the positive +24 V rail via a terminal. designation of the connection in the
terminal connection diagram.

è Each current path must be connected è Systematically check all current paths
to the negative 0 V rail via a terminal. and complete the wiring diagram.

External components, such as switches, è Note:


sensors and solenoids are each Not all of the connections have to be
connected via one terminal per unit. entered in the wiring diagram
(e.g. relay connections are exempt).
Identify the connection point for +24 V
and 0 V in the wiring diagram.
Checklist for the Terminal Connection Diagram

è Each current path must be connected è Enter all external components with the
to the positive +24 V rail via a terminal. designation of the connection in the
terminal connection diagram.

è Each current path must be connected è Systematically check all current paths
to the negative 0 V rail via a terminal. and complete the wiring diagram.

è External components, such as switches, è Note:


sensors and solenoids are each Not all of the connections have to be
connected via one terminal per unit. entered in the wiring diagram
(e.g. relay connections are exempt).
è Identify the connection point for +24 V
and 0 V in the wiring diagram.

TP 201, Transparency 40
41

Protective Circuits for Inductive Loads

If the current flowing to an inductive load, for example, a solenoid coil, is


interrupted, the magnetic field collapses.

A high induction voltage can be generated which can have the following effects:
· Damage to the coil insulation
· Burning of contacts

This can be avoided through protective circuits using diodes.

I1 I1 = 0

IM = I1 IM
ID = 0 ID = IM
+24V +24V
0V 0V
Protective Circuits for Inductive Loads

I1 I1 = 0

IM = I1 IM
ID = 0 ID = IM
+24V +24V
0V 0V

TP 201, Transparency 41
42

Alterable Controls

Relay-controlled systems are hard wired. The relay control can be replaced in whole
or in part by a programmable controller.

The structure of a system that is controlled via a programmable logic controller (PLC)
is similar to that of a relay-controlled system. Both systems can be subdivided as
follows:
· Signal input
· Signal processing
· Signal output

The signal processing part is the part that can be hard wired or freely programmable.

Signal Signal processing Signal


input output

Switch Relays Contacts


S1 K1 K1 K2 H1

S2 K2

S3 K3 K3 K4 H2

S4 K4

+ +

Program:
S1 WHEN E0.1 H1
E1 AND E0.2 A1

S2 THEN SET A0.1


E2 OTHERWISE RESET A0.1

S3 WHEN E0.3 H2
E3 AND E0.4 A2
THEN SET A0.2
S4 OTHERWISE RESET A0.2
E4 Processor
+ +
Inputs Outputs
Alterable Controls

Signal Signal processing Signal


input output

Switch Relays Contacts


S1 K1 K1 K2 H1

S2 K2

S3 K3 K3 K4 H2

S4 K4

+ - + -

Program:
S1 WHEN E0.1 H1
E1 AND E0.2 A1

S2 THEN SET A0.1


E2 OTHERWISE RESET A0.1

S3 WHEN E0.3 H2
E3 AND E0.4
A2
THEN SET A0.2
S4 OTHERWISE RESET A0.2
E4 Processor
+ + - -
Inputs Outputs

TP 201, Transparency 42