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8/9/2009

Sample Exam Questions for Law …

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION

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1. Administration is a(n)

A. science that can be taught. *

B. skill that all people have.

C. art that only few possess.

D. talent that one must be born with.

2. "Management" is most closely associated with

A. a sergeant in a police force.

B. day-to-day operations of elements within the organization. *

C. direction provided on a one-to-one basis.

D. leadership of a small group.

3. "Administration" encompasses both

A. leadership and control.

B. management and supervision. *

C. execution and guidance.

D. governance and direction.

4. The system-wide goal of effectiveness is measured by:

A. accomplishment of outcomes *

B. economy of operations

C. proficiency or quality of process

D. all of the above

5. The goal of equity refers to:

A. predictability

B. procedural fairness

C. spread of benefits or costs *

D. outcomes that enhance freedom

6. Many observers argue that the three justice components actually comprise

A. a "wheel"

B. a "chain"

C. a nonsystem *

D. a strategy

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7. Much of the failure to deal effectively with crime may be attributed to the

justice process's

A. organizational/administrative fragmentation *

B. legal system

C. high risk of corruption

D. inadequate recordkeeping

8. Criminal justice managers usually refer to which measure as a "supergoal"

in criminal justice.

A. the ratio of inputs to outputs

B. the difference between inputs and outputs *

C. the quality of outputs

D. quality inputs, throughputs, and outputs

9. Which of the following is not a reason why agency personnel don't always

know the system-wide goals of criminal justice?

A. they assume the goals of their immediate supervisor

B. they assume other people are taking care of it

C. they assume their subsystem goals are system-wide

D. they assume that such goals are too idealistic *

10. The "Darwinian fallacy" refers to the acceptance of a subsystem function

that has simply survived throughout time without question by anybody.

A. true *

B. false

11. The "Roshomon effect" is likely to occur in decoupled organizations

because there are subenvironments.

A. true *

B. false

12. The goal of enforcing the law and maintaining social order is

A. the due process model

B. found in the Sixth Amendment

C. the crime control model *

D. impossible to meet at all

13. Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?

A. Bonuses

B. Sense of worth *

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C. Awards

D. Professional job titles

14. Public-sector employees must derive their job satisfaction primarily

through

rewards.

A. financial

B. bonus-related

C. intrinsic *

D. extrinsic

15. The criminal justice system is best characterized as:

A. an open system with closed-loop feedback *

B. a closed system with open-loop feedback

C. an open-loop system with feedback

D. an open-loop system with no feedback

16. No feedback or unintended feedback indicates goal conflict.

A. true *

B. false

17. Closed systems are sensitive to their environment.

A. true

B. false *

18. Which of the following would not qualify as a full-blown organization?

A. A police labor union

B. General Motors

C. A men's bridge club *

D. The Department of Defense

19. The success of any organization normally depends on the

within the agency.

A. quality of work life *

B. levels of wages

C. levels of competition

D. pyramidal structure

20. Katz said that

activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective."

skills

involve "coordinating and integrating all the

A. administrative

B. human

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C. technical

D. conceptual *

21. Which of the following elements is not included in Weber's theory of

organizational structure?

A. Division of services *

B. Hierarchy of authority

C. Written rules

D. Rulification and routinization

22. Max Weber's definition of "bureaucracy" included sanctions for the organization as a whole if it fails in its mission.

A. true

B. false *

23. An organization becomes "debureacratized" when its goals have been

penetrated by the norms of a clientele.

A. true *

B. false

24. Why is legal-rational authority the best kind to use?

A. it establishes fear in the minds of subordinates

B. it makes rewards and punishments more logical

C. it creates a system of rights and duties *

D. it is based on legal wisdom and jurisprudence

25. What kind of power should a person use if they are unable to rely on

legitimate power?

A. coercive

B. reward

C. expert *

D. coalition

26. According to Patrick Murphy, which areas are non-negotiable where

interference from clientele are not allowed?

A. personnel decisions

B. deployment patterns

C. accountability mechanisms

D. both A and B only *

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27. When an agency manager is "cultivating a constituency" rather than

"coalition-building", he/she is usually involved in:

A. positioning for a budget request *

B. improvement of public relations

C. power games

D. community resource extraction

28. Bureaucracies are often criticized for

A. giving employees too much individual freedom

B. being efficient

C. being unresponsive to changing needs and times *

D. being too loose and unstructured

29. James Q. Wilson says that police work is neither bureaucratic nor

professional but a "craft". Using Perrow's framework of analyzing environmental forces, what characterizes a "craft"?

A. high analyzability, many exceptions

B. high analyzability, few exceptions

C. low analyzability, many exceptions

D. low analyzability, few exceptions *

30. The pyramidal structure has which of the following characteristics?

A. Important decisions are made throughout the pyramid

B. Nearly all contacts take the form of orders going up and reports of results

going down

C. Superiors have a limited span of control, supervising only a limited

number of people

D. Personnel at very few levels have contact only with their boss above them

and subordinates below them *

31. Which leadership style does Likert say is most in use by bureaucracies?

A. authoritarian *

B. consultative

C. participative

D. emancipative

32.Communication among managers or subordinates on the same level of the hierarchy is

A. downward

B. lateral *

C. upward

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D. vertical

33. Which of the following is the general model for all organizations?

A. mission---policy---procedure---action

B. mandate---mission---objectives---subobjectives

C. mission---goals---objectives---behavior *

D. mission---goals---policy---action

34. Which ancient society gave us the exception principle?

A. Egyptians

B. Babylonians

C. Hebrews *

D. Chinese

35. The debate over generic vs. distinct management science can be traced

back to the ancient Greeks.

A. true *

B. false

36. An agency with a short span of control is a tall organization.

A. true *

B. false

37. Downward communication is more important to a manager than upward

communication.

A. true *

B. false

38. What largely determines the shape of an organizational chart?

A. span of control *

B. chain of command

C. specialization

D. employee competency

39. Which of the following best represents the staff principle?

A. management must never abandon the staffing function

B. staff personnel are more important than line personnel

C. managers should have their own personal aides *

D. staffing should be done by talent or merit

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40. Which of the following is the least common way organization charts

represent the grouping of like functions?

A. level of authority

B. amount of responsibility

C. skill *

D. closeness to chief

41. Which of the following is the most difficult principle to put into effect?

A. the delegation principle

B. the accountability principle

C. the grouping like functions principle

D. the authority-level principle *

42. The "Gang-Plank" principle deals with what kind of communication?

A. downward

B. upward

C. horizontal *

D. vertical

43.Human relations management began with studies conducted at

A. Bethlehem Steel

B. Harvard Business School

C. Western Electric Company *

D. University of California, Berkeley

44. "Speedy" Taylor preferred flat organizations with wide spans of control, as

wide as 8.

A. true *

B. false

45. Henri Fayol preferred tall organizations with narrow spans of control, as

narrow as 4.

A. true *

B. false

46. Scientific managers believe what ratio of increased productivity should be

tied to wage increases?

A. a five to one ratio

B. a four to one ratio *

C. a three to one ratio

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D. a two to one ratio

47. Which one of Taylor's followers was most involved with the creation of

employee tests to match workers to a job?

A. Henry Gantt

B. Hugo Munsterberg *

C. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

D. Morris Cooke

48. Which one of Taylor's followers was most involved with the development of

visual aids for management?

A. Henry Gantt *

B. Hugo Munsterberg

C. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

D. Morris Cooke

49. Who developed the concept of "zone of indifference"?

A. "Speedy" Taylor

B. Henri Fayol

C. Elton Mayo

D. Chester Barnard *

50. The "Hawthorne effect" usually produces approximately what increase in

productivity?

A. 50%

B. 100% *

C. 150%

D. 200%

51. Who discovered the "Hawthorne effect"?

A. "Speedy" Taylor

B. Henri Fayol

C. Elton Mayo *

D. Chester Barnard

52. Who was an early founder of MBO, Management By Objectives?

A. Max Weber

B. Oliver Sheldon

C. Mary Parker Follett *

D. James Mooney

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53. Who invented the acronym POSDCORB for remembering all the

management functions?

A. Carl Barth

B. Frank & Lillian Gilbreth

C. Leonard White

D. Gulick & Urwick *

54. Which study at Michigan State University looked at how leaders motivated

individuals or groups to achieve organizational goals?

A. Trait theory

B. Style theory *

C. Democratic theory

D. Laissez-faire theory

55. According to Katz, an administrator needs

A. sufficient communication skills to accomplish the mechanics of the

particular job for which he or she is responsible

B. sufficient human skill in working with others to be an effective group

member *

C. sufficient conceptual skills to recognize the mechanics of a particular job

D. sufficient educational skills to interpret administrative needs and wants

56.Which of the following was not a management fad of the 1980s?

A. Demassing

B. Corporate Culture

C. Management by Objectives *

D. Management by Walking Around

57. Which principle says that 90% of the problems for management come from

10% of the organization?

A. Parkinson's law

B. Peter Principle

C. Michel's Law

D. Pareto's Law *

58. Which principle says that managers rise to their level of incompetency?

A. Parkinson's law

B. Peter Principle *

C. Michel's Law

D. Pareto's Law

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59. Which principle says that work expands to fill the time available?

A. Parkinson's law *

B. Peter Principle

C. Michel's Law

D. Pareto's Law

60. Which of these most clearly illustrate a person's "hierarchy of needs,"

beginning at the bottom?

A. food, protection, creativity, power

B. food, power, protection, creativity

C. protection, food, power, creativity

D. food, protection, power, creativity *

61. Maintenance factors, according to motivation-hygiene theory, are those

A. things in the work environment that meet an employee's hedonistic need

to avoid pain *

B. psychosocial factors in work that provide intrinsic satisfaction and serve

as an incentive *

C. characteristics and tasks that motivate individuals

D. behaviors an organization spells out in order to maintain efficiency in the

group

62. According to Kanter's theory of tokenism, minorities who constitute less

than what percent of a department usually suffer psychological harm from coworkers?

A. 10%

B. 15% *

C. 20%

D. 25%

63. Which of the following points on the Managerial Grid represents managers'

preferred leadership style?

A. 1,9

B. 9,9 *

C. 1,1

D. 9,1

64. Which part of the "Johari window" typically represents the most confident

manager?

A. known to self---known to others

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B. known to self---unknown to others

C. unknown to self---known to others *

D. unknown to self---unknown to others

65. Committees will normally engage in the "risky-shift phenomenon" if they

number at least five members.

A. true *

B. false

66. August Vollmer's most daring innovation was the creation of

A. day and night patrol

B. bicycle patrol

C. a police school *

D. red light systems

67. Fosdick believed that police chiefs should possess all but which of the

following?

A. A good education

B. Job tenure

C. Power equal to the mayor's *

D. Good salaries

68. Bruce Smith identified a broad classification of activities in police

organization, including all but which of the following?

A. Patrol and traffic control

B. Communication and records control

C. Canine patrol and internal affairs *

D. Criminal investigation and personnel management

69. O. W. Wilson viewed the primary police objectives as all but which of the

following?

A. Perpetuation of the policing system of the past *

B. Prevention of criminal tendencies in individuals

C. Arrest of criminals and recovery of stolen property

D. The performance of a wide variety of non-regulatory services

79. The

more

the agency, the greater the need for specialization and the the organizational chart will be.

A. larger/horizontal

B. smaller/vertical

C. larger/vertical *

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D. smaller/horizontal

80. Police organizations in the United States, as a whole, are quasi-military

A. cooperatives

B. bureaucracies *

C. businesses

D. autocracies

81. The larger the police agency, the greater its need for

A. an organizational chart

B. specialization *

C. a chief of detectives

D. a generalist approach

82. Which of the following is one of Lynch's major criticisms of scientific

management?

A. Officers were considered aggressive instruments *

B. The focus was on technical efficiency

C. The employee was considered to be an "economic man"

D. The efficiency of operation was to be obtained only through division of

labor

83. Attempts to replace the traditional pyramidal structure in policing have

included all but which of the following?

A. Expanded pay scales or salary incentives for the patrol officer

B. The "Master Police Officer" designation

C. Separation of autonomy from rank

D. Lawsuits by the rank and file *

84. Which is an example of a secondary line function in policing?

A. Technical services

B. Administration services

C. Investigation services *

D. Patrol services

85. Which is an example of a primary line function in policing?

A. Technical services

B. Administration services

C. Investigation services

D. Patrol services *

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86. The type of police function that the public rarely sees, which includes jail

management and crime laboratory services, is called

A. investigative services

B. auxiliary services *

C. patrol services

D. staff services

87. Which of the following best describes police rules and regulations?

A. Specific managerial guidelines which leaves little or no latitude for

individual discretion *

B. "Guides to action"

C. Reflections of the purpose and philosophy of the organization

D. Guides to thinking rather than action

88. Successful police innovation is associated with all but which of the

following?

A. The chief's active commitment to policing that is oriented toward crime

prevention

B. The chief's motivation of personnel to "enlist in the cause" of these new

norms

C. The support and patience of the public

D. Allowing the quality of innovation to decline due to everyday demands *

89. The most challenging aspect of changing the culture of a police agency lies

with

A.

the first-line supervisor *

B.

captains and lieutenants

C.

the line officer

D.

the chief executive

90. Problem oriented policing calls for

A. specifically handling the problem

B. recognizing that incidents are often merely overt symptoms of problems *

C. monitoring the seriousness of incidents

D. taking note of the number of occurrences of the problem

91. COPPS stands for

A. common organizational people policing society

B. community oriented people policing society

C. community oriented policing and problem solving *

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D. community oriented policing and people solving

92. For COPPS to be effective, the police organization needs

A. employees to be removed from the decisionmaking process

B. the strategy to be created as a temporary "unit"

C. for only about half of the officers to engage in problem solving

D. a chief executive who is a viable change agent *

93. Which of the following is not one of the three major roles of CEOs, under

the Mintzberg model?

A. Negotiator *

B. Interpersonal

C. Informational

D. Decision-maker

94. Which CEO role includes figurehead, leadership, and liaison duties?

A. liaison

B. interpersonal *

C. spokesperson

D. leadership

95.

Duties which include monitoring/inspecting and spokesperson functions

are

A. part of the liaison role

B. part of the negotiating role

C. part of the spokesperson role

D. part of the informational role *

96. Kuykendall and Unsinger found that the

was used more frequently by police administrators.

A. telling

B. selling *

C. participating

D. delegating

97. Kuykendall and Unsinger found that the

used least often.

A. Telling

B. Selling

C. Participating

D. Delegating *

manager style

manager style was

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98. The "telling" style can be best described as

A. placing high emphasis on both task accomplishment and people

relationships

B. emphasizing relationships and having low task orientation

C. having both low task and people orientation

D. having high task and low people orientation *

99. Which method has been most developed in policing to obtain the most capable people for executive positions?

A.

The "Johari Window"

B.

The situational question/answer

C.

The assessment center *

D.

The managerial grid

100.

The most common educational requirement for police chief is

A.

high school diploma

B.

high school diploma and several years of experience as a police

supervisor *

C.

college degree

D.

college degree and several years of experience as a police supervisor

101.

A study by the Police Executive Research Forum found that police

executives wanted more training in all but which of the following areas?

A.

Computers

B.

Legal problems

C.

Personnel management

D.

Writing ability *

102.

The lack of police chief job tenure has several negative consequences,

including all but which of the following?

A.

The creation of too many in-house programs *

B.

The lack of long-range planning

C.

Frequently have new policies and administrative styles

D.

Time and expense in hiring a new chief

103.

Which type of police chief is found the least often?

A.

the administrator

B.

the top cop

C.

the politician

D.

the statesman *

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104.

Sheriffs often regard

as a liability.

A.

service of civil service

B.

serving as bailiff of the courts

C.

jail administration duties *

D.

collection of certain taxes and sale of estates

105.

Sheriffs tend to be

than police chiefs.

A.

older and less trained and educated *

B.

younger and more highly trained and educated

C.

in charge of more valuable resources

D.

more actively involved in civic activities

106.

Too often,

become glorified paper pushers in top-heavy

organizations.

A.

civilian staff

B.

patrol officers

C.

deputy chiefs

D.

middle managers *

107.

A very difficult rank to hold, being caught between upper management

and rank and file officers, is

A.

sergeant *

B.

captain

C.

corporal

D.

lieutenant

108.

Which of the following approaches is not a means of determining the

appropriate level of police personnel a department needs?

A.

Intuitive

B.

Consultant-oriented *

C.

Geographical

D.

Comparative

109.

Which approach to determining police personnel levels requires an

elaborate information system and standards of expected performance.

A. Intuitive

B. Workload *

C. Comparative method

D. Geographical

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110. The concept sweeping the country, community oriented policing and

problem solving:

A.

is widely felt to be doomed to fail

B.

can be applied to all sizes of cities and counties *

C.

actually consists of foot patrol

D.

is mostly performed by detectives

111.

A study of 57 cities found all but which of the following to be associated

with high rates of justifiable homicides:

A.

Awarding of incentives for marksmanship

B.

A younger than average police force *

C.

The issuance of shotguns

D.

The issuance of weapons larger than a .38 caliber

112.

Which of the following is not one of the four parts of the SARA model,

used in problem-oriented policing?

A.

Scanning

B.

Assessment

C.

Reconfiguration *

D.

Analysis

113.

What is the first step towards mobilization of personnel when a riot

begins?

A.

Discontinue all nonessential police tasks *

B.

Mobilization of military personnel

C.

Communication towards subordinates

D.

Logistics and tactics

114.

The best known organization for accrediting police agencies is the

A.

Uniform Accreditation Association of Police

B.

InterAgency Review and Coordination Committee

C.

Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies *

D.

National Commission on Police Accreditation

115.

During the first half of the 20th century, emphasis on police performance

was placed on

A. the numbers of problems solved

B. qualitative measures, such as quality of life in neighborhoods

C. the amount of complaints that could be generated from arrestees

D. quantifiable activities, such as arrests, citations, and miles driven per shift

*

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116. One-third of all police and sheriff's departments with 50,000 or more

population

A.

are videotaping at least some interrogations *

B.

are fully accredited

C.

use the Tennessee v. Garner standard

D.

engage in videotaping high accident intersections

117.

Once police recruits leave the academy it is critical for administrators to

see that

A. they go back to the academy as soon as possible, for more testing

B. they continue to receive adequate, annual in-service training *

C. they forget their academy training and instead absorb "real world"

knowledge

D.

they go teach to other, more veteran officers as soon as possible

118.

With regard to stress management, police administrators

A.

have traditionally been reluctant to acknowledge the problem *

B.

have led the movement for recognition and treatment

C.

actually suffer greater levels of stress than do their subordinates

D.

have generally given up hope and allow their officers to take disability

119.

Police psychologists recommend that a systematic stress program should

minimally include all but which of the following?

A.

A behavioral profile for each officer

B.

A flexible counseling program

C.

Training for supervisors to recognize the warning signs

D.

A disciplinary policy for those officers who miss counseling sessions *

D.

reward those who consistently file litigation

154.

There are approximately how many locally administered jails in the U.S.?

A.

2,300

B.

3,300

C.

4,300 *

D.

5,300

176.

Which deadly force policy has the most serious consequences if

employees violate it?

A. restrictive

B. discouragement

C. judgmental *

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D.

deferential

177.

Which of the following levels of government are exempt from OSHA?

A.

federal

B.

state

C.

local

D.

all are exempt *

178.

Title I of the

makes it illegal to discriminate against persons

with disabilities.

A.

American Disabilities Act *

B.

Civil Rights Act of 1954

C.

Section 1983 Act

D.

Pregnancy Act

179.

Employers may discriminate when it is shown that a "business

justification" requiring doing so exists, which is also known as a:

A.

affirmative employment measure

B.

incompetent screening device

C.

bona fide occupational qualifier *

D.

liability exclusion clause

181.

Which of the following is not one of the four steps in a budget cycle?

A.

formulation

B.

approval

C.

appeal *

D.

execution

182.

What is Not a primary strength of a line-item budget?

A.

ease of control

B.

ease of comprehension

C.

ease of development

D.

ease of modifying the status quo *

183.

A performance budget:

A.

is cheap to develop

B.

is cheap to implement

C.

relates volume of work to money spent *

D.

compares past years with present and future years

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184. The best-known management budget for monitoring organization activities is:

A. line-item

B. zero-based

C. program *

D. performance

185. Which type of budget requires justification of the entire operations in detail, rather than simply basing it on prior years?

A. line-item

B. zero-based *

C. program

D. performance

Last updated: Oct 05, 2006 Not an official webpage of APSU, copyright restrictions apply, see Megalinks in Criminal Justice

O'Connor, T. (Date of Last Update at bottom of pag e). In Part of web cited (Windows name for file at top of browser), MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/rest of URL accessed on today's date.