You are on page 1of 147

TASHEEL AL-NAHW

based on
Ilm al-Nahw of Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali

Copyright Dr al-Sadah Publications 2011


First Online Edition July 2011

General and unrestricted permission is granted for the unaltered


duplication, distribution, and transmission of this text.
In Plain English: Make as many copies as you want.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
List of Tables
Introduction to the Text & Translation

i
vii
ix

Arabic Terms

xi

CHAPTER 1

1.1.
Arabic Grammar
1.2 The Word

1.3

Noun
Verb
Particle

2
2
3

Types of Noun

Types of Verb

Types of Particle
1.4
Sentences and Phrases

1.4.1


Nominal Sentence
Verbal Sentence
1.4.2


Types of Phrases

1.4.3

Descriptive Phrase
1.

2.
Possessive Phrase
3.
Demonstrative Phrase
Numerical Phrase
4. /

5.

Indeclinable Phrase

1.4.4 Additional Notes About

Summary

4
4
4
4
6
6
6
7
8
9
9
9
10
10
11
13
14

1.5

15

Signs of a Noun



Signs of a Verb

Sign of a Particle

15
15
15

1.5.1 General Notes


Personal Pronouns
1.7


Prepositions
1.8
Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs
1.9

1.6

CHAPTER 2

16
17
18
20
22

Declinable and Indeclinable Nouns

25

2.1

25


Signs of Iraab

Conditions of Murab
Difference Between
and

2.2
Indeclinable Noun
2.3
Declinable Noun
Types of Indeclinable Nouns
2.4

2.4.1
Personal Pronouns
2.4.2
- Relative Pronouns
2.4.3
Demonstrative Pronouns
Those Nouns Which Have the Meaning of Verbs
2.4.4

2.4.5
Those Nouns Which Denote a Sound
Adverbs
2.4.6

Adverb of Time

Adverb of Place
Those Nouns Which Indicate an Unspecified
2.4.7

25
25
26
27
28
29
30
36
39
41
42
43
43
45
47

Quantity

2.4.8
Numerical phrase
2.5 Types of Declinable Nouns

ii

47
48
48

48
48
52

2.6
Iraab of the Various Types of Murab Nouns

55

CHAPTER 3
Further Discussion of Nouns

55

3.1

57
58
59
61
62
66
66
68
69
69

71
71
73
73
73
74
76
79
80
84
87
88

Relative Adjective
Diminutive Noun

Definite and Common Nouns

Masculine and Feminine Nouns


Singular, Dual and Plural


Types of Plural

- Words Which Are Always Marfoo


Subject/Doer
3.7.1

3.7.2
Substitute of /
, Which Is Similar and The Noun of
3.7.3

to

3.7.4
Which Negates an Entire of That The

) (Class

Words Which Are Always Mansoob
Object 3.8.1
3.8.2

/ 3.8.3

3.8.4
/
3.8.4

3.8.5
State / Condition
/
3.8.6

) (Numerals Rules for
3.8.7

Words Which Are Always Majroor


iii

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

3.8

3.9
3.10

3.10.1

Adjective

88

Emphasis 3.10.2

91

Substitute 3.10.3

94
95

3.10.4
Conjunction /


3.10.5

96

CHAPTER 4
97

Governing Words

4.1
Governing Particles

98

Particles Which Govern Nouns

98

Particles Which Govern


98
99
102


4.1.1
Particles That Give Nasb
4.1.2

Particles That Give Jazm


4.2
Governing Verbs

104

4.2.1
Transitive Verb

105


4.2.2

107
109


4.2.3
Verbs of Praise and Blame

4.2.4
Verbs of Wonder

111

Governing Nouns
4.3

112
112

4.3.1
Conditional Nouns


4.3.2

114
116

4.3.3

118




4.3.5

4.3.6

117


4.3.4
That Adjective Which Is Similar to

120

4.3.7

120

4.3.8

121

iv


4.3.9

122

4.3.10

123
124
124
124
125
125
125
126
126
126


Non-Governing Particles
1.
Particles of Notification


2.
Particles of Affirmation
Particles of Clarification
3.

4.




5.
Particles of Exhortation
6.
Particle of Anticipation

Particles of Interrogation
7.

8.

Particle of Rebuke

4.4

9.

126

10.

127

11.

127

12.

Extra Particles

127

13.
Conditional Particles

128

14.

129

15.

129


16.

129

Bibliography

131

LIST OF TABLES

Page No
17
18
20
22
31
32
33
34
36
36
39
39
41
41
53
63
63
64
64
66
69
72
85
99
102

Table No

Personal Pronouns

Prepositions

Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs



(also called
( in )
)

(also called
in
)

(also called
and
in

and
)
()
(also called
in
)
( )

( )







Nouns in the Meaning of
Nouns in the Meaning of







Different Forms of the Noun of
and Its Iraab
Rules Governing the Iraab of the


vii

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.1
4.2

105
106

Verbs Requiring Three

107
112
118

viii

4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Introduction to the Text & Translation


This book is a revised edition of Tasheel al-Nahw, which in turn is a somewhat expanded
translation of the Urdu language primer of Arabic grammar, Ilm al-Nahw by Mawlana
Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali. Mawlana Charthawalis primers for Nahw (Arabic grammar)
and Sarf (Arabic Morphology) are standard textbooks in Western madrasahs. The original
English translation of Ilm al-Nahw was prepared by scholars from Madrasah Islamiyyah,
Benoni, South Africa. They put in a lot of hardwork and made the English translation much
more beneficial than the Urdu original. May Allah reward them. At least two versions of this
translation are available online. The first one had many errors and typing issues. The newer
version has made some improvements but issues remain, especially with regards to language
and clarity of the English and Arabic texts. We decided to bring out a revised edition of this
translation to address these issues. During the course of our revision and editing, we consulted
various grammar works including al-Nahw al-Wadih, Sharh ibn Aqeel, Mujam al-Qawaid alArabiyyah, and A Simplified Arabic Grammar of Mawlana Hasan Dockrat. We have completely
revised some sections, as well as a number of definitions. The organization has been changed in
a way that we feel will make it easier for the student to understand how each section fits in the
overall picture.
This is a beginner-to-intermediate level text; therefore, we have not transliterated Arabic
words exactly, keeping in mind that most people at this stage will not be comfortable with
Arabic transliteration schemes. Rather, we have used approximate equivalents that are easier to
read for the untrained. Nevertheless, non-English words have been italicized.
As for duals and plurals of Arabic words, we have not used the original Arabic duals and
plurals; rather, their plurals have been created the English way by adding an s to the singular.
Thus, two dammahs is used instead of dammahtain. The word still remains italicized so as to
reflect its non-English origin.
It should also be noted that the English equivalents of Arabic grammar terms are mere
approximations. In some cases, they convey the exact meaning. In many cases, they do not.
The student is, therefore, urged to focus on the original term in Arabic.
To the best of our ability, we have tried to remove all errors. However, we are merely
human. There are bound to be some mistakes in it. Your comments, constructive criticism,
and suggestions are all welcome. You can contact us with your feedback at the email address
given at the end.

ix

We hope and pray that this revised translation will be of benefit to the students. We also
pray that Allah, the Exalted, accepts this humble effort from all those who have contributed to
it in any way, especially the typists; and gives us the power to continue with more. We also
request the readers and all those who benefit from it in any way to remember us in their
prayers.
And He alone gives success.












Aamir Bashir
Buffalo, NY
9 Shaban, 1432 (8 July, 2011)
E-mail: ainbay97@yahoo.com

ARABIC TERMS

Arabic Term

Approximate
Transliteration

Equivalent English Term /


Description of the meaning

ism

Noun

fil

Verb

harf

Particle

mudhakkar

Masculine

muannath

Feminine

waahid

Singular

tathniyah

Dual

jam

Plural

dammah

fathah

kasrah

harakah
plural: harakaat

Short vowels, i.e., dammah , fathah , kasrah

huroof al-illah

Long vowels i.e., -

iraab

These are the variations at the end of the word, which


take place in accordance with the governing word.

tanween

two fathahs , two dammahs , two kasrahs

sukoon

saakin

a letter with sukoon

tashdeed

mushaddad

A letter with tashdeed

faail

Subject i.e. the doer

xi

Object i.e. the person or thing upon whom or which


the work is done.
Governing word i.e. that word, which causes iraab
change in the word(s) following it.
The governed word i.e. that word in which the iraab
change occurred.
The active verb i.e. that verb whose doer is
known/mentioned.
The passive verb i.e. that verb whose doer is not
known/mentioned.
The intransitive verb i.e. that verb, which can be

mafool

aamil

mamool

fil maroof

fil majhool

fil laazim

fil mutaaddi

marifah

nakirah

marfoo

It is that word, which is in the state of , which is


generally represented by a dammah on the last letter.

mansoob

It is that word, which is in the state of



, which is
generally represented by a fathah on the last letter.

majroor

It is that word, which is in the state of


, which is
generally represented by a kasrah on the last letter.

understood without a .

The transitive verb i.e. that verb, which cannot be


fully understood without a .

Definite noun. It is generally indicated by an . For


example, the house (a particular/specific house).

Common noun. It is generally indicated by a tanween.


e.g. a house (any house).

xii

CHAPTER 1

Section 1.1

Arabic Grammar
Definition:
Nahw is that science, which teaches us how to join a noun, verb and particle to form a correct
sentence, as well as what the
( condition) of the last letter of a word should be.
Subject Matter:
Its subject matter is ( word) and ( sentence).
Objective:
The immediate objective is to learn how to read, write and speak correct Arabic, and to
avoid making mistakes in this. For example, , ,
, and
are four words. The

science of Nahw teaches us how to put them together to form a correct sentence.
The mid-term objective is to use our Arabic skills to understand the Quran, Hadeeth,
Fiqh and other Islamic sciences, so that we can act upon them.
The ultimate objective through the above is to gain the pleasure of Allah, the Exalted.

Section 1.2

The Word
Any word uttered by humans is called a
. If it has a meaning, it is called

( meaningful);
and if it does not have any meaning, it is called
( meaningless).

In Arabic,

( meaningful word) is of two types: and
.

1. Singular: It is that single word, which conveys one meaning. It is also called .

2.
Compound: It is a group of words. They may form a complete sentence or an
incomplete one.
Types of
There are three types of :
1.
( noun)
2.
( verb)

3.
( particle)

Noun:

It is that whose meaning can be understood without the need to combine it with
another word.
It is the name of a person, place or thing.
It does not have any tense.
e.g.

man

house

Note: A noun can never have a


( tanween) and an at the same time.

Verb:

It is that whose meaning can be understood without the need to combine it with
another word.
It has one of the three tenses: past, present, or future.
It denotes an action.
e.g.

He hit.

He helped.

Note: A
can never have a ( tanween) or an .


Particle:
It is that whose meaning cannot be understood without joining a
or a or both to it.
e.g.
( from)
( on top)
EXERCISE
1. State with reason whether the following words are
or
.
i.
ii.

( He sat.)

(and)

iii.
iv.

(girl)
(He broke.)

2. Find the meaning and the plural of the following nouns using a dictionary.
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

Section 1.3
Types of Noun

is of three types:
1.
Primary Noun: It is that which is neither derived from another word nor is any
word derived from it.
e.g.

horse

girl

2.
Root Noun: It is that from which many words are derived.
e.g.

to hit
to help

3.
Derived Noun: It is that which is derived from a masdar.
e.g.


hitter
the helped

Types of Verb

is of four types:
Past tense
1.

Present and Future tense


2.

e.g.
e.g.

3.

Positive Command/
Imperative

e.g.

4.

Negative Command/
Prohibitive

e.g.

Types of Particle

He hit.
He is hitting or will
hit.
Hit!

Dont hit!

is of two types:
1.

Causative Particle: It is that
, which causes
change in the word after it.
e.g.
Zayd is in the mosque.
2.
Non Causative: It is that
, which does not cause
change in the
following word.
e.g.

then

and

EXERCISE
1.

Correct the following words (stating a reason) and give its meaning.
i.
ii.

2.

iii.
iv.

Find the meaning and the plural of the following nouns using a dictionary.
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

Section 1.4


Sentences and Phrases
and

.
is of two types:


is also called
,
and . This is a complete sentence.
Often, it is just called .

is also called

, and
. This is a phrase, i.e.,

an incomplete sentence.

From now onwards, when we use sentence, we will be referring to complete sentences; and
when we use phrase, we will be referring to incomplete sentences.
Types of Sentences
There are two types of sentences:

A.
: It is that sentence, which has the possibility of being true or false.

B.

: It is that sentence, which does not have the possibility of being true or false.
Section 1.4.1



is of two types:
Nominal Sentence:
1.

Definition: It is that sentence, which begins with a noun.


The second part of the sentence can be a noun or a verb.
The first part of the sentence is called ( subject) or
( the word about which

information is being given).


The second part of the sentence is called
(predicate) or
( the word giving the
information).
The is generally and the
generally .
Both parts ( and
) are
.

Sentence Analysis


The house is clean.

= +

Note: A sentence may have more than one


.
Sentence Analysis


The man is tall and strong.
= 2 + 1 +

2.

Verbal Sentence:
Definition: It is that sentence, which begins with a verb.
The first part of the sentence is called
or
.

The second part of the sentence is called



or
and is always
.
Sentence Analysis

Zayd sat.

+

Note: In the above example, the verb is


i.e. it is a verb whose meaning can be
understood without a
.

Note: If the verb is


i.e. a verb whose meaning cannot be fully understood without
a
, then a will be added and will be

.

Sentence Analysis

= +

Allah created the sky.

EXERCISE
1.

Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.

iv.
i.

2.

ii.
v.

What is the difference between (v) and (vi) above?

iii.
vi.

Section 1.4.2

is of ten types:

1.
2.
3.
4.


e.g.

Positive Command

Hope

Exclamation

Oath

e.g.

Amazement

e.g.

Transaction

e.g.

Negative Command
Interrogative
Desire

e.g.




e.g. !

e.g.

Note:
is generally used for something unattainable.
5.

e.g.

Note:
is generally used for something attainable.
6.
7.

Request/Offer

9.

10.

Dont Hit!
Did Zayd hit?
I wish youth would
return.
Hopefully, the
examination will be easy.

!

O Allah!
Will you not come to me
e.g. !


e.g.

Note:
is a mere request; no answer is anticipated.

8.

Hit!

so that I may give you a


dinar?
By Allah!
How good Zayd is!

The seller says



I sold this book.
and the buyer says I bought it.

. However, in Islamic law, contracts require the


Note: The sentences for appear to be
use of past tense verbal sentences to convey the meaning of
. Hence, these will be

classified as
.

Sentence Analysis:

Did Zayd hit?


+
+


EXERCISE

1. State what type of



are the following sentences.


i.

ii.

iii.



iv.

Section 1.4.3

- Types of Phrases

Phrases are of five types:


Descriptive Phrase: It is a phrase in which one word describes the other.
1.

.
The describing word is called

The object being described is called



.

The

and must correspond in four things:
1. Iraab.
2. Gender i.e. being masculine or feminine.
3. Number i.e. being singular, dual or plural.
4. Being marifah or nakirah.
For example,

2.

the righteous men

two righteous men

the intelligent/wise girl



) is attributed

Possessive Phrase: It is a phrase in which the first word (
to the second one (

) . In some cases, this means that the second word owns or
possesses the first.

The

never gets an or a .
The

is always .

The iraab of the



will be according to the
governing it. For example,

Zayds book

Notes:
1.

are found in one single phrase. For example,


Sometimes many

/

the door of the mans house



with an
of the
2. If a

is brought, it should come immediately after the

and should have the same iraab as that of the



. For example,

the new door of the house




), and it
of the
3. If a
is brought, it should come immediately after it (

should correspond to it (

) i.e. in the four aspects mentioned earlier. For example,
The door of the new house.

3.


Demonstrative Phrase:
towards another noun (

) .


It is a phrase in which one noun (


)points

The

must have an .

e.g.


This man

Note: If the

does not have an , it would be a complete sentence.
e.g.

This is a man.

/
4.


Numerical Phrase: It is a phrase in which two numerals are joined to


form a single word (number).
A
originally linked the two.
This phrase is found only in numbers 11-19.

Both parts of this phrase will be


except the number 12 (
).


( eleven)
It was originally

.
e.g.

10


Note: The first part of the number
)in

will be given a in place of the (

and
.
e.g.

(

)

I saw twelve men.

I passed by twelve men.

(
)

5.




Indeclinable Phrase: It is a phrase in which two words are joined to form
a single word.
The first part of this phrase is always
.

The second part changes according to the



.

(
+
)
A region in Yemen.


is a verb, which means he/it became present and


is a noun, which

e.g.

means death.

(+
)
A city in Lebanon.
was the name of an idol and was the name of a king.
Note: The above mentioned various types of phrases/incomplete sentences form part of a
complete sentence.

Example 1

Example 2



+


+

The trustworthy/honest trader


gained profit.

11

Every faail is marfoo

and every mafool is


mansoob.

I bought this book.

Example 3


Fourteen men came.




+

=



This is Balabakk.

+ =

Example 4

Example 5

EXERCISE
Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following phrases.

vi.
vii.
viii.

ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

i.

?What is the difference between the following sentences

and
and
and
and



ii.
iii.
iv.
3.


ii.
i.

Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following.

12

2.

i.

Correct the following and state the reason(s).

iii.

iv.

1.

i.

4.

Section 1.4.4


Additional Notes About

1. Sometimes, the
) .1
is not mentioned, in which case it will be regarded as hidden (
e.g.

The Imam is in the mosque.

[
]

2. The
can be a complete sentence.
Example 1:

Zayds father is knowledgable.

Example 2:

Zayd ate the food.


EXERCISE
1.

Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.


i.
ii.

However, generally, to simplify matters, the


is taken to be . See Hasan Dockrat, A
Simplified Arabic Grammar, (Azaadvillle: Madrasa Arabia Islamia, 2003 ), 37.
1

13

Summary

14

Section 1.5

Signs of a Noun:


1. It is preceded by an .

e.g.

2. It is preceded by a

.

e.g.

3. There is tanween on the last letter.

e.g.

4. It ends with a round .

e.g.

5. It is a dual )(.2

6. It is a plural )
(.

7. It is a
(
) or
8. It is

.

9. It is

.
10. It is .
11. It is

12. It is
.

e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.

Signs of a Verb:


1. It is preceded by .

2. It is preceded by
.

e.g.
e.g.

3. It is preceded by
.

e.g.

4.

e.g.

5.
6.
7.
8.

It is preceded by
.

It is preceded by


.
It has a hidden
.
It is an imperative )( .
It is a prohibitive )
( .

e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.

the man
with the pen
a man
a word
two men
men
The man is strong.
Zayd sat.
book of Zayd
tall man
O man!
a little man
a Makkan

He has gone out.


He will soon go out.
He will go out after a while.
He did not go out.
He will never go out.
He went out.
Go out.
Do not go out.

Sign of a Particle:

That word which has no sign of a noun or verb is a particle (a particle has no sign of its own).

Verbs are said to be dual and plural with respect to their doers )

(. The action is one. Thus, duality

and plurality are signs of a noun and not a verb.

15

Section 1.5.1
General Notes
1. The indefiniteness of a noun )
(is indicated by a tanween. Such a noun is called .
e.g.

a house (any house)

the house (a specific house)

2. The definiteness of a noun is indicated by an . Such a noun is called .


e.g.

3. A noun can never have a tanween and an at the same time.


e.g.

is incorrect.

4. When the last letter of a word and the first letter of the following word have sukoon (), it


is called


( the meeting of two sukoons). In this case, the first sukoon will be
changed to a kasrah.
. The
e.g.


before the will not be
will become

pronounced.
5. When an appears before a noun, which begins with a letter from


( sun

letters) then the of must not be pronounced. The of will not get a sukoon. Instead
the



will get a tashdeed.

6. The remaining letters are known as


( moon letters). In these, the of will get
a sukoon and will be pronounced. The

will not get a tashdeed.
e.g. the pen
7. Generally, a noun ending with a round )
(is a feminine )
( noun.
e.g.
blackboard
8. The



etc. of a ( non-human) plural will be

.
e.g.

e.g.


many idols

The idols do not benefit.


These idols.



The guard dogs are sitting.

The houses were many.




9. When writing a noun ending with two fathahs (), an alif ) (must be added at the end.
e.g.

16

Section 1.6

Personal Pronouns
Definition:
(singular:
) are those words, which refer to the speaker ) ( or the
second person )
( or the third person )
( .
Table 1.1

Personal Pronouns
Unattached Form )

(

He (one male), it
They (two males)
They (many males)
She (one female), it
They (two females)
They (many females)
You (one male)
You (two males)
You (many males)
You (one female)

You (two females)


You (many females)

I (one male or female)


We (many males or
females)

e.g.

Attached Form )

(

his, its, him


their, them
their, them
her, its
their, them
their, them
your
your
your
your
your
your
my
our

He is Zayd.
I am a student.

17

)

(



)

(
your pen
I helped her.

Section 1.7



Prepositions

Effect: A
gives a to the noun it enters upon, which is then known as
.

Table 1.2



Prepositions



1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Meaning
with

by (for oath)

by (oath)

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.
15.
16.

17.

Example 1:

like
for

Example

I wrote with the pen.


By Allah!

Zayd is like a lion.


All praise is for Allah.
By Allah!





since/for


besides, except




many a




besides, except






from


besides, except




in, regarding

from, regarding





on

up to, until






up to, towards

since

I have not seen him since a week.


I did not see him for four days.
The people came except Zayd.
Many a learned person acts on his
knowledge.
The people came except Zayd.
I returned from the journey.
The people came except Zayd.
Zayd is in the house.
The doctor asked about the patient.
The cloth/clothes is/are on the chair.
I slept till dawn.
I travelled to Madinah.





Grammar in speech is like salt in food.

18

Example 2 with Sentence Analysis:

I wrote with the pen.

+

=


+
Note: Together, the
and
are known as ( connected) of the in

and

of the
in
.

EXERCISE
1.

Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences.

i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

19

Section 1.8




Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

These are called




because like , they also govern two words.
These
appear before a and )

(.

Effect: Such a particle gives a



to the which is then known as ( or and so
on) and a to the
which is then known as ( or and so on).
Table 1.3




Those Particles That Resemble the Verb

2.
1.

Meaning
certainly, verily, indeed
certainly, verily; that

Example
Verily Allah is All Knowing.
I knew that the examination
was near.

as if

4.
but, however



It is as if the house is new.


The house is new but the

if only, I wish
6.
maybe, hopefully,

3.

5.

perhaps

Sentence Analysis:

furniture is old.

I wish youth would return.


Hopefully, the examination
will be easy.

Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing.


Notes:

1. Difference between and :

a. is generally used at the beginning of a sentence.

is generally used in the middle of a sentence.


b. Sometimes, appears in the middle of a sentence. This happens when it is used after
a word with root letters .
e.g.
He says, it is a yellow cow.

20

2. The
can be a complete sentence.

Example 1:

Indeed, Zayds mother is pious.

)

= (

Indeed, Zayd ate the food.

Example 2:


)
= (
+

3. If there is a
second. will appear first and the , then the before the

Indeed, to us is their return.

( )

( )

e.g.

4. When
is joined to any of these
, their effect will be cancelled.
Your god is only one god.

e.g.

EXCERISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.
i.

v.
vi.
iv.

ii.

iii.
21

Section 1.9

Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs


Such a verb is called


( incomplete) because even though it is a , it needs two
mamools (
) . The sentence remains incomplete with one
.
e.g.

Zayd was (the sentence remains incomplete).

These verbs enter on a and a



(.
)

Effect: They give to the , which becomes known as ( or



and so on) and


to the , which becomes known as ( or
and so on).
Table 1.4


1.
2.

3.

Meaning
was
became
happen in the morning

Example

OR
became

4.

happen in the evening,


became

5.

happen at mid-morning,


became

6.

happen during the day,


became
happen during the
night, became

7.

always, continuously

12. always, continuously


13.

no, not

The worker became tired in


the evening.
The clouds became dense at
mid morning.

Zayd passed the night


sleeping.

11.

always, continuously

Zayd became rich.

always, continuously

10.

Zayd became ill in the


morning.

It rained the whole day.

9.

as long as

The man became wealthy.

8.

The house was clean.

22

Sit as long as Zayd is sitting.


Zayd was continuously sick.
Zayd was always fasting.
Zayd was always active.
The businessman was always
truthful.
The servant is not strong.

Sentence Analysis:

The house was clean.

Notes:
1. When is used with

, it gives the meaning of past continuous.

Zayd was writing/Zayd used to write.



.
Note: Here, the
of is a
e.g.

2.



can be used in

and as well.


3.


can be used in

but not in .

4.


have a past tense only (no

or ).
and

5.


must be preceded by another sentence.

6. The
is sometimes prefixed with a .

of
e.g.

Is Allah not the greatest of rulers?

7. If there is a

before the , then the will appear first and the second.


)
(

e.g.

)
(

There were clouds in the sky.


EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.
vi.
vii.

23

CHAPTER 2


Declinable and Indeclinable Nouns

Words are of two types with respect to changes, which may or may not take place at their ends.
If the end of a word remains the same in all conditions, it is called
; and that word whose
end changes is called
.

Section 2.11
: Those conditions(


words are four:
) , which remain unchanged at the end of
.

, , and . These are called

: Those conditions (



,

) , which occur at the end of
words are four:
,
, and . These are called

(
for short). These changes are brought about at
the end of a
word in accordance with the requirement of the ( governing word).

Signs of Iraab

Iraab can be shown in two ways. These are called




( signs of iraab).

1.

: These are the basic signs and are the most common. Iraab is shown by means

of a
i.e.
or
or
, or ( which is the absence of a ) .

e.g.

e.g.

2.


: Sometimes, the iraab is shown by means of any of the
i.e. or or

Conditions of Murab

As mentioned above, the conditions that occur at the end of
words are four. Below, we
look at them in more detail.

This section is based upon the discussion in al-Nahw al-Wadih. See Ali al-Jaarim & Mustafa Ameen, al-Nahw
al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Ibdtidaiyyah, (Cairo: Dar al-Maarif, n.d.), 2:7-17.

25

1.
is that when a
or its corresponding
() appears at the end of a word.
Such a word is said to be
.
e.g.

2.

is that when a
or its corresponding
() appears at the end of a word.
Such a word is said to be

.
e.g.

3.
is that when a
or its corresponding
() appears at the end of a word.
Such a word is said to be
.
e.g.

4.
is that when a appears at the end of a word. Such a word is said to be
.
e.g.


Difference Between





and

The words


are used to describe the conditions at the end of a
, e.g.

has a
at the end, which is a sign of its being
.
The words

are used to describe the conditions at the end of a
, e.g.

has a
at the end. It is
.

In other words, ( )is the same but the name is
when it appears in a
and is
when
it appears in a
. The same is true of ( )and ().

26

Section 2.2

Indeclinable Noun

As mentioned earlier, a
is that word whose end remains unchanged in all conditions i.e.
irrespective of the requirement of the
governing it.
e.g.

This came.

I saw this.

I passed by this.

Note: The
at the end of remained constant and did not change according to the
requirement.
Types of :
1.
2.

All Particles )
* (

Amongst the verbs )


( , the following are
.

*
2)

*
3)
The

(
and
) and the ( and ) of

.
Amongst nouns )

(, there are some nouns whose ends remain constant. They are
known as
i.e. nouns, which do not give place to changes. These nouns are

1)

3.

and are recognized by their resemblance with any one of the three types of al-mabny alasl words (
or
or

) . This resemblance can be in any one
of the following ways:
a. Resemblance in meaning. For example, the noun ( give grace/respite) resembles
the word
, which is

( one of the al-mabny al-asl) and has the
b.

c.

d.

same meaning.
Resemblance in dependency. For example, the noun )
( , which is

dependent on a

to give meaning, resembles a
( one of the al-mabny alasl), which is also dependent on another word to give meaning.
Resemblance in having less than three letters. For example, the noun
, which is
less than three letters, resembles
( e.g. ) , which is also generally less than three

letters.
Resemblance in having had a
originally. For example, the noun

resembles a
in the sense that originally it contained a
)
( .

*These three are known as





.
27

Section 2.3

Declinable Noun
As mentioned above, a
is that word whose end accepts any of the iraab according to the
requirement of the
governing it.
e.g.

A man came.

I saw a man.

I passed by a man.

Note: The iraab of kept on changing according to the requirement of the


.
Types of

:
1.
2.

Amongst verbs )
( , all of

besides the

(
and
) and the
( and ) are
.
Amongst nouns )

(, those nouns, which accept iraab changes are
. They are
known as
i.e. nouns which give place to iraab changes.
Note: These nouns will be
when they are used in a sentence. If not used in a
sentence, such a word will be
. For example,
on its own, out of a sentence, will
have a
.

EXERCISE
1. State with reason whether the following words are
or
.


ii.
iii.

iv.

vi.
vii.

viii.

i.

v.

28

Section 2.4

Types of Indeclinable Nouns


The types of

are as follows:
1.( personal pronouns)

2.


( relative pronouns)

3.

( demonstrative pronouns)

4.

( those nouns which have the meaning of verbs)
5.


( those nouns which denote a sound)
6.

( adverbs)

7.

( those nouns which indicate an unspecified quantity)
8.

( numerical phrase)

In the following pages, we will look at each of these in detail.

29

Section 2.4.1

Personal Pronouns


We have discussed
before. Now, we will look at them in greater detail.

Definition:
(singular:
) are those words, which refer to the speaker ) ( or the
second person )
( or the third person )
( .
There are two types of dameers:
1. Visible or Independent Pronoun: It is that dameer, which is visible and has a

2.

)or
distinct form. It appears on its own, unattached to another word (known as

attached to another word (known as


) .

Hidden or Implied Pronoun: It is that dameer, which is not visible but is




implied.
Note: A hidden dameer can only appear in
. (refer to Table 2.2)

Below are tables showing different forms that the dameers will assume in the various conditions
(haalaat).

30

Table 2.1




(also called
( in)

)

(

)

(

)
(

31

e.g.

Table 2.2



)

(also called
in

)

(

)

(

( )

( )

( )

( )

)
(

32

()

()


()

()


()

()


( )

()


()

()

()

()

()

()

()

)
(

()

( )

)
(

()

()

)
(

()

Table 2.3





and

(also called


and
)





in

)

(

)

(


( )


( )

You alone we worship.


)

(

e.g.

( is added before the ) Sometimes, a


to protect an iraab as in

, which would otherwise be


). is
incorrectly read as

of (the

33

. One is when it is preceded by appears in


( ) There are two ways in which



a

; and the other is when some other word is
to it.

Table 2.4

)
( )
(also called in

)

(

)

(

His house is his.

(
)

(
)

e.g.

.
Note: The dameer baariz in
will always be

34

It is that

, which sometimes appears at the beginning of a sentence without a
( an earlier word that it refers to). The sentence after it clarifies such a
.
e.g.

Indeed, the matter is that Zayd is standing.

It is that


, which sometimes appears at the beginning of a sentence without a

( an earlier word that it refers to). The sentence after it clarifies such a
.

e.g.
Indeed, the matter is that Fatimah is standing.


:
It is that
, which appears between a and a for emphasis.

e.g.
It is they who are successful.


EXERCISE

1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences, pointing out all the
dameers, as well as their type and haalaat.
i.

iii.

iv.

ii.

35

Section 2.4.2



- Relative Pronouns
Definition: An

is a whose purpose is understood through the sentence,
.
which comes after it, which is called

An
cannot form a complete part of a sentence on its own. It must have a

is a
(visible or
which relates (refers back) to it. The

, which must have a


hidden) referring to the

.

Table 2.5

) (



who, that, which


those two who, that, which
those two, who, that, which
those who, that, which

Table 2.6

)
(



e.g.

who, that, which


those two who, that, which
those two, who, that, which
those who, that, which

those who, that, which

The man who helped you, came.


I saw those two men who hit you.
I love those men who taught me.

36

Additional Relative Pronouns:


1. and
These are used for all genders and all numbers.
The difference is that
is used for humans and is used for things (non-human).
e.g.

Show goodness to that person who has


shown goodness to you.

I read what you wrote.

2. and

They are generally


and used in
.

.
has the meaning of
e.g.

from which book
.
has the meaning of
e.g.

which girl

3. , which appears before an



and an , will have the effect of
.
e.g.

would equal
would equal
would equal

4.

According to the dialect of the tribe , it is an

It is used for all genders and all numbers, without its form changing.
e.g.

equals
equals
equals

37

The one who hit you, came.


I saw the one who hit you.
I passed by the one who hit you.

Sentence Analysis:
That person whose father is knowledgeable, came.


+ =

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.

ii.
iii.
iv.
i.

38

Section 2.4.3

Demonstrative Pronouns

Definition: An
is that noun, which is used to point at something. These nouns are of

of two types.
i.
: It is used for pointing at something near.
ii.

: It is used for pointing at something far.

Table 2.7

this

these
two
these
two

these

that
those

two
those
two


those

Table 2.8

e.g.

this
these
two
these
two

these

that book
these women
those men

39


that
those
two
those
two


those

Notes:

1. The of
( ) is sometimes changed according to the number of persons being

addressed. The meaning will not be affected.
e.g.

He is the Lord of both of you.

This book of yours.

2. If the


is a

, then the
will come after the

.
e.g.

3. If the
occurs as a , then the will generally be a .

This is a book.

should be added between the ,
However, if the

is also , then a suitable

which is an
, and the for it to remain a complete sentence.

e.g.

This is the book.
If no

is added, it would be an incomplete sentence.
e.g.

This book
e.g.

4. If the

, then there will be no need for a
to be added between the and
is a
the
.

e.g.

This is the son of the king.

5. or ( here) and
( there) are also
. However, they do not have any special
rules.
Sentence Analysis:



This pen is precious.


+

EXERCISE
1.

Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences.

ii.
iii.

iv.

i.

v.

vi.

40

Section 2.4.4

Those Nouns Which Have the Meaning of Verbs

Definition: These are nouns that have the meaning of verbs.


, gives the noun after it a raf; and the one which has
That which has the meaning of


the meaning of
, gives the noun after it a nasb.
Table 2.9


Nouns in the Meaning of

Noun

Verb

what a difference,
there is a difference

Meaning
beyond, far from

between
hastened, made quick

Example
It is far from (beyond)
Zayd to do this.
What a difference there is
between the learned and
the ignorant!
Zayd hastened.

Table 2.10


Nouns in the Meaning of

Noun

Verb

Meaning
give respite,
let him be slow
leave, give up

take
hold on to,
incumbent on you
come, hasten



come, hasten

Example
Give Zayd respite.
Give up thinking about
that which does not
concern you.
Take the milk.
Hold on to my
Sunnah.
Come to salaah.

Notes:
1. There are some other nouns which have the meaning of verbs. These are as follows:
(

come)
(

accept)

(
suffice)

(
keep quite)

41

bring, give)

bring him/it to me)


(


away from me)
(

2. Some of these nouns are inflectable, i.e. their form changes.

i.


e.g.

Say: bring your proof, if you are truthful.

ii.




e.g. ...

Say: O people of the book! Come to a word

e.g.

Then, come, I will make provision for you and release you with kindness.

Section 2.4.5

Those Nouns Which Denote a Sound

To denote a cough.
To denote pain.
To denote happiness, pleasure.
To make a camel sit.
To denote the cawing of a crow.

42

Section 2.4.6

Adverbs

Definition: An
is that noun, which gives us an idea of the place or time when (or
where) some work is done.



( adverb of time) and

( the adverb of place).
are of two kinds:

Adverb of Time:
1.
(when)

It gives the meaning of past tense even when it appears before

.
The sentence after could be a

or a
.
e.g.
e.g.

And when Ibrahim (Allah give him peace)


raised the foundation of the House (Kaba).

I came out and suddenly the principal of


the school was watching.

(when)

It gives the meaning of future tense even when it appears before


.
It gives the meaning of
and but does not give either a .
The sentence after could be a

or preferably a
.
e.g.
e.g.

Remember when you were less.

Sometimes, it gives the meaning of suddenness )


( .
e.g.

2.

I will come to you when the sun rises.


When the help of Allah will come.

Sometimes, it gives the meaning of suddenness )


( , in which case must be
followed by a

.
e.g.

I came out and suddenly the dog was standing.

3.
(when)
It can be used as an interrogative )
( .
e.g.

When will you travel?

43

It can also be used as a conditional noun in which case the


and get a .
e.g.

When you fast, I will fast.

4.
( how)
It is used to enquire condition.
e.g.


How are you? (In what condition are you?)


5.

(when)
It is used as an interrogative.
e.g.

When will be the day of recompense?

Note: is used only to enquire of great events of the future as compared to


.

( yesterday)
6.
e.g.

Zayd came to me yesterday.

7. ( since, from)
These two can be used to convey the beginning of a time period.
e.g.

I have not seen him since Friday.

They can also be used to refer to the entire period.


e.g.
/

I have not seen him for two days.



These can be used as



( followed by a
) or as , which will be regarded as
a followed by a
.
e.g.

8.


/



/

I have not seen him since Friday.

(not, never)

It is used to emphasize

.
e.g.

I never hit him.

9.
( never)
It is used to emphasize

.
e.g.

I will never hit him.

44

10.

(before)

(after)

They are
when they are

and the

is not mentioned, but intended.
e.g.

Allahs is the decision before and after (i.e., before everything and after
everything).
e.g.

I have been present from before (i.e., before you).


e.g.

When will you come after (i.e., after this)?


When the


is mentioned, they will be
.
e.g.

before the victory

Adverb of Place:

1.
( where)
It is generally

to a sentence.
e.g.
2.

Sit where Zayd is sitting.

(in front of)

( behind)

It has the same rules as those for


and .
e.g.

)



(

The people stood in front and behind.


(i.e., in front of him and behind him).
3.

(under)
(on top, above)

It has the same rules as those for


and .
e.g.

)




(

Zayd sat under and Amr above. (i.e., under the tree and above the tree.)

45

4.

(by, at, near, with)



The money is with Zayd.

Note: will get a kasrah if it is preceded by
.
e.g.

from Allah
e.g.

5. /
( where, how)
It is used for
.
e.g.

Where are you going?

It is used for
(
and will get a ) .
e.g.

Where you sit, I will sit.

6. /( at, by, near, with (same meaning as )) .


e.g.

The money is with Zayd.

From the All-Wise, All-knowing

is generally used with .


The difference between / and is that in the case of / , the possessed
thing must be present with the person; whereas, in the case of , the possessed
thing need not be present with the person.

Note: That adverb which is murab and is mudaaf to a sentence or the word , could bemabny
ala al-fath or it could get the iraab according to the aamil.
e.g.

the adverb which is mudaaf in the following ayahs:




and

This is the day when the truth of the truthful will benefit them.

and
faces on that day

46

Section 2.4.7


Those Nouns Which Indicate an Unspecified Quantity
1.

(so many, so much, how many, how much)

It is used for numbers


e.g.


e.g.

How many silver coins do you have?

I took this many silver coins.

is also used in the meaning of such and such.


e.g.
2.


e.g.
e.g.

He said to me such and such.

(so and so, such and such)

or
or

Section 2.4.8



Numerical Phrase
This has been discussed earlier. Please, refer to section 1.3.3.

47

I said such and such.


I did such and such.

Section 2.5

Types of Declinable Nouns



These are of two types:
1.


Definition: It is that noun which does not have two causes from amongst the nine causes
that prevent declension (

) or one such cause, which is equivalent to two.

It accepts all harakaat as well as a tanween.


2.


Definition: It is that noun which has two causes from amongst the nine causes that prevent
declension (

) or one such cause, which is equivalent to two.

Such a noun does not accept a kasrah and never gets a tanween. Thus in
, it gets
a fathah in place of a kasrah.

The nine reasons/causes which prevent iraab changes are as follows:


1.

2.

3.
4.

6.

7.

8.

9.

5.

1. :
It refers to the case when a noun gives up its original form to assume a new form.

is of two types:

: It refers to the case when a noun has an original.
i.


e.g.
In the case of
( three and three together), the original is .

: It refers to the case when it is assumed that a noun had an original because it
ii.

is used as


by the Arabs.
e.g.

The Arabs use as



. However, there is only one apparent cause, .

Therefore, in order to keep the grammar rule intact, it is assumed that the
second reason is
, and the original for is .

48

2.
, which was originally devised to give

: It refers to the case when a word is such an


a descriptive (

) meaning.If such a
is on the wazn of () , and does not accept taa
for its
, it will be ghayr munsarif.3

red

e.g.


green

3. : It refers to the case when a noun is a proper noun (name of a person, place or thing).

e.g.
female name

name of a region in Yemen

4.
: It refers to the case when a noun is such a feminine proper noun, which has one of
the following characteristics:
4

i. It ends with a round . For example,

ii. It does not end with a round and has more then three letters. For example,
.

iii. It is a non-Arabic three letter word and the middle letter is



. For example,
.
Note:

All nouns ending in



)
( or

()are feminine.
e.g.

pregnant
red

Those feminine nouns which end in



)
( or

() are

equivalent to two reasons.

5.
It refers to the case when a word, which is a proper noun in a non-Arabic language,
:
has either

more than three letters
e.g.

or

( name of a fort)
Thus,
is munsarif because its middle letter is not
.

Note: The difference between


and
is that
is a feminine noun because of
it being the name of a country, while
is not a feminine noun. Thus,
is ghayr

has three letters and the middle letters is

e.g.

Al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Ibtidaiyyah, 3:122 and Abdullah ibn Aqeel, Sharh ibn Aqeel ala Alfiyyat
ibn Maalik, (Karachi: Qadeemi Kutubkhana, n.d.), 4: 5.
4

Even though

is a masculine proper noun, it is considered a feminine noun because of the presence of a

round . For more discussion on the subject, see Section 3.4.

49

munsarif because of
and , while
is munsarif because it only has .
does not apply to either.

6.
: It refers to the case when a word is a combination of two words. This word must be
an .
e.g.

7.

name of a city in Lebanon


name of a region in Yemen

( and one of
and)
: It refers to the case when a noun ends with an
the following is true:
The
and appear at the end of such a noun which is an ( proper noun).

e.g.

Note: Thus, the word
(grass) is not ghayr munsarif because it is not a proper
noun.
The
and appear at the end of such a
whose feminine is not on the of

e.g.
( thirsty)
( intoxicated)
Their feminines are not on the of .

Note: Thus, the word is not ghayr munsarif because its feminine ) ( is on
the of .

If the
and are not extra or added (i.e. not
) but are part of the original
letters of the words, then it will not be ghayr munsarif. For example, .

8. : It refers to the case when a proper noun ) ( is on the of a verb.


e.g.

It is on the of the verb

Note: Only one wazn amongst the wazn wil, ( ) applies to


, as mentioned above.

9.
( alif of plural) one of the


: It is that plural, which has after the
following:
mosques
i.
two

letters.
e.g.

ii.

iii.

one
letter.

e.g.

three letters, the middle letter being



.

50

e.g.

animals
keys

Note:

If any of the above words ends with a round , it will not be ghayr munsarif.


polishers


is equivalent to two reasons/causes.
e.g.

Note: A ghayr munsarif noun will get a kasrah in


in the following cases:

when it is

.

when it has before it.



e.g.


e.g.

I prayed in their mosque.


I went to the graves.

EXERCISE
1.

Mention with reason why the following words are munsarif or ghayr munsarif.
i.

v.

ii.

vi.

iii.

vii.

iv.

viii.

2. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out with reason the words which are ghayr munsarif.
i.
ii.

iii.

iv.
v.

vi.

vii.
viii.

51

Section 2.6

Iraab of the Various Types of Murab Nouns



We begin this section by defining some terms. Then, we will outline the iraab of each of the
various types of murab nouns.

() .

: It is that noun, which does not end with any of the



e.g.



: It is that noun, which ends with a or preceded by a .
e.g.
bucket
deer

( . These
: These are six nouns, which are not in their diminutive form )
are as follows:

father
brother
brother-in-law

mouth
something insignificant
someone who possesses something


)
(.
: It is that noun, which ends with an
e.g.

: It is that noun which ends with a preceded by a kasrah.

e.g.

Before we list the iraab of each of the various types of murab nouns in a table, it would
be useful to remember that a simple method of illustrating different iraab is to make three
sentences on the following pattern:

Zayd came.

I saw Zayd.

I passed by Zayd.

In these three sentences, the word is displaying the different iraab according to the

changing state (
). Thus, it is has a dammah in
, and a fathah in
, and a
kasrah in
.

52

Table 2.11

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

hidden

Examples for Each State

Noun Type

a. When mudaaf to
any noun besides the

dameer.

b. When mudaaf to
dameer. the
c. when not
mudaaf


) (masculine

) (feminine

) (masculine

) (feminine
)


(

I said to some men.

dameer. For example, it is dropped in

of The
will be dropped when it is mudaaf to any noun besides the

) (Whatever you put in the mouth of your wife


the followng hadith: ...

53

Both of them.

Table 2.11 Continued

hidden





8
9



Noun Type

)



(

Examples for Each State

was originally
. First, the was dropped because of
. It became
. Then, the was
changed to a and the two were joined according to the following morphological )

( rule: when a and a
appear together and the first is

, then the is changed to a , and the two are joined (this is called ) ,
and the dammah before the is changed into a kasrah. Thus, it became
.
9
was originally
. First, the was dropped because of
. It became
. Then, the two were
joined (
) . Thus, it became .
8

54

CHAPTER 3
Further Discussion of Nouns

Section 3.1

Relative Adjective
Definition: It is that noun, which shows something or someone to be related to it.

e.g.
someone or something from Baghdad

an expert in morphology
an expert in Arabic grammar
someone or something from India

:
Rules of Forming

To show this relation, a


)


(preceded by a kasrah is added at the end of the
noun after effecting the following changes, if needed:
1. If a three letter or a four letter noun ends with an

(), then

()
should be changed to a .
e.g.

becomes

e.g.

becomes

becomes

would remain as is.

Note: In the case of a five letter noun, the



()should be dropped.
2. If a noun ends with an
(), then the should be changed to a .
e.g.

3. That noun which already ends with a does not require



.
e.g.

4. The round at the end of a noun should be dropped.

becomes



5. The round and of a noun, which appears on the of and should be
e.g.

dropped.
e.g.

becomes

becomes

55

becomes

6. In case of the noun, which appears on the of


and ends with a , the first should
be changed to a preceded by a fathah, and the second should be dropped.
e.g.

( )

becomes

7. If the fourth letter of a noun is a preceded by a kasrah, then the can be dropped or it
can be changed to a .
e.g.

becomes

or

8. If an original letter from the end of noun was dropped, it should first be brought back, and
then, the relative adjective should be made.
e.g.
( originally )
becomes

( originally )
( originally )

becomes
becomes

9. Some words do not follow any particular rule. They are based on usage.
e.g.
becomes

becomes

EXERCISE
1. Form the relative adjective from the following words.
i.

iv.

ii.

v.

iii.

56

Section 3.2


Diminutive Noun
Definition: It is that noun, which is used to express the diminutive form of a noun.
Sometimes, the purpose is to show affection or contempt.
Rules:
1. A three-lettered noun would come on the wazn of
( or for feminine).
e.g.

becomes
becomes

( a little man)
( a little slave)

2. A four-lettered noun would come on the wazn of


.
e.g.

becomes

3. A five-lettered noun, without a , or as the fourth, would also come on the wazn of

. The fifth letter would be dropped.


e.g.
( name of a plant)
becomes

A five-lettered noun, having a , or as the fourth letter, would come on the scale of

e.g.

( paper)

becomes

Notes:
1. In the diminutive form, the hidden of a


becomes apparent.
e.g.

becomes

2. In the diminutive form, the last letter of a noun which has been dropped becomes
apparent.
e.g.

(originally )
becomes

(
was originally , and underwent a morphological process to become
)

EXERCISE
1. Form the diminutive noun from the following words.

i.
ii.
iii.

iv.
v.
vi.
57

Section 3.3

Definite and Common Nouns

: It is that noun, which denotes an unspecified thing; i.e. a common noun.

e.g.
a man

: It is that noun which denotes a specific thing. There are seven types of .
1.
: It is a personal pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in Section 2.4.1.
2. : It is a proper noun, i.e., the name of a specific person, place or thing.
e.g.

3.
: It is the demonstrative pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in section 2.4.3.

4.
: It is the relative pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in Section 2.4.2.

5.

: It is that noun, which has ( definite particle) at the beginning.
e.g.

the man

6. That common noun )


(which is mudaaf to any of the above five definite nouns.
e.g.

7. : It is the vocative noun, i.e. that noun, which appears after a


.
e.g.


EXERCISE
1. Which of the following words are marifah (state what type) and which are nakirah.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

58

Section 3.4

Masculine and Feminine Nouns


- Masculine Noun: It is that noun, which does not have any sign from amongst the
signs of femininity )

( .
- Feminine Noun: It is that noun, which has a sign from amongst the signs of
femininity. This sign could be apparent or hidden.

: The signs of being feminine are of two types:

1. ( in words): It is that sign, which is visible in words. These signs are of the
following three types:

: This renders the word


even if the appears in a masculine proper
noun.
e.g.
( a masucline proper noun)


e.g.

()


e.g.


()

If a word has any of these three signs it will be
.
2. ( assumed): It is that sign, which is not visible in words and is assumed to exist.
This is determined by looking at the diminutive form )
(of a particular word. This

reveals the original letters of the word.


e.g.
The diminutive form is

.
. Therefore, it is

The diminutive form is


.
. Therefore, it is

Based on the signs of femininity being or ,


is of two types:
1.


( according to rule): It is that feminine noun, which has a sign of

femininity.
2.



( according to usage): It is that feminine noun, which has a sign of

femininity.

In terms of
( essence),
is of two types:

1.

: It is that feminine noun, which has an opposite masculine.

e.g. ( woman). Its masculine is
( man).

2.

: It is that feminine noun, which does not have an opposite masculine.
e.g.

( darkness)

( spring)

59

Notes:
1. The following are used as feminine )
( :
a.

Name of females.

b.

e.g.

Words denoting the feminine gender.


e.g.

c.
d.

e.
f.
g.

Names of countries, cities, towns and tribes.

e.g.

Parts of the body found in pairs.


e.g.

( eyebrow) etc. are


Note: There are exceptions to the rule.

(cheek),

masculine.
Names of various types of winds.
e.g.

Various names of Jahannam (hell).


e.g.

( are generally used as


Letters of the alphabet )
. They can also be used


as masculine.
e.g.

..

2. There are some words that Arabs use as feminine without regard to the presence or absence
of signs of femininity. Examples include the following:

(bucket)
( tillage/field)

(well)

(self)

(fire)

60

(house)

Section 3.5

Singular, Dual and Plural



Singular: It is that noun, which denotes one.

e.g.

one man
Dual: It is that noun, which denotes two. It is formed by placing at the end of a singular
(one of the following:
)

An
preceded by a fathah and a with a kasrah )



(i.e.
]
[for
.
e.g.
two men

A
preceded by a fathah and a with a kasrah )



(i.e. ][
for


.
e.g.

two men

Plural: It is that noun, which denotes more than two.


e.g.

men
Note: The of and is dropped in case of
.
e.g.

but the was dropped due to


(Originally,
.)

but the was dropped due to


(Originally,

.)


(Originally,
.)
but the was dropped due to
but the was dropped due to
(Originally,
.)

EXERCISE

1. Translate the following into Arabic.


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

The boys two bicycles.


The farmers two servants.
Your parents came.
I saw your parents.
The servants of deen.
The teachers of the school.

61

Section 3.6

Types of Plural

Sound Plural: It is that plural whose ( the singular letter sequence/form) of
does not change, when its plural is made. In other words, the singular letter sequence does

not break.

e.g.

(singular
)

There are two types of


:

1.


Masculine Sound Plural: It is formed by adding at the end of a singular
(one of the following:
)

A
preceded by a dammah and a with a fathah )

( i.e.
] [ for
.
e.g.

A
preceded by a kasrah and a with a fathah )


(i.e.
[
]for


.
e.g.

Feminine Sound Plural: It is formed by discarding the round and adding


2.

at the end of a singular, one of the following:


An
preceded by a fathah and a madmoom long )




(
i.e. ]
[for
.

e.g.

e.g.

An
preceded by a fathah and a maksoor long )




(i.e.
]
[for


.


Broken Plural: It is that plural whose ( the singular letter sequence/form) of
changes, when its plural is made. In other words, the singular letter sequence breaks.

e.g.

(singular
)
Restricted Plural: It is that plural, which denotes a number from three to ten. It has
four common .

62

Table 3.1


Wazn

Singular

Meaning

Plural

self

statement
food
boy

Note: The masculine and feminine sound plural, which is not preceded by an is also
considered
.
e.g.

intelligent females
intelligent males

Unrestricted Plural: It is that plural, which denotes a number from ten upwards.
Some of the common are given below.

Table 3.2


Wazn

Singular

Meaning

slave

knowledgeable
prophet

messenger
star
servant
patient
student
group/sect
boy

63

Plural

Note: The masculine and feminine sound plural which is preceded by an is also
considered as .
e.g.

Plural of a Plural: It is the plural of a plural. Sometimes, it appears on the wazn of


. Every plural does not have a plural. Some


and sometimes on the wazn of
examples of plurals, which have a plural are given below.
Table 3.3


Singular

Meaning

Plural

Plural of Plural

blessing

nail
house
well-qualified

: It is that plural, which has after the




( alif of plural), one of the following:

two

letters.
e.g.

one
letter.
e.g. ( the original being
)
three letters, the middle one being

. e.g.
Some of the common wazns of

are given below:
Table 3.4


Wazn

Singular

Meaning
mosque
key
rule/maxim

message/letter
elder

64

Plural

Collective Noun: It is a singular noun, which gives a plural meaning.


e.g.
nation
group

Note:
1. These words have plurals. )

(
2. In usage, if the word is considered, it will be used as a singular noun.

e.g.
The people are present.

If its meaning is considered (as is commonly done), it will be used as a plural noun.

e.g.
righteous people

Notes:
1. Some plurals do not have the same root letters as their singulars.
e.g.
(woman)

(the one who possesses something)

2. Some plurals are not according to rule )




( .
e.g.

(mother)
(mouth)
(water)
(human being)
(goat/sheep)

Generic Noun: It is that noun, which refers to an entire genus (category).


e.g.
refers to anything which falls under the concept of a tree.
EXERCISE
1. What type of plurals are the following?
i.
iii.
v.
vii.

ii.
iv.
vi.

65

Section 3.7

- Words Which Are Always Marfoo


There are eight words that are always in the state of raf. These are as follows:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


6.
7.

8.




Some of these have been discussed before. ( subject) and
(predicate) were
was
discussed in Section 1.3.1,
was discussed in Section 1.7, and

discussed in Section 1.8. We discuss the rest below.


Section 3.7.1

Subject/Doer

Definition: It is the doer of the action or of the meaning contained in the verb.

can either be a personal pronoun or an


The

( i.e. visible in words after the

is
) . We discussed personal pronouns in Section 2.4.1. As for the case, when

, the verb ) ( usage will be as given below.


Table 3.5



1.
and no


2.

word appears between the


.
and

according to
preceding noun

3.


and a word
or


appears between the
and

.

4.



5.


6. any


or



or



corresponding in
gender

66

Example




or

or


or


-

Table 3.5 Continued


Example




or

according to
preceding noun


or

7.

8.

EXERCISE
1. Fill in a suitable
in the spaces below.
_______

ii.

______________/

_______ _______/
_______ _______/ vi.

i.

_______ iii.

iv.

______________/

67

v.

Section 3.7.2

/
Substitute of


Definition: It is that noun, which appears with a
(passive voice). The original
is
of such (the
dropped and the
subsitutes it, thus it is also called


)Zayd was hit. (The doer is not known/mentioned.

a
whose
is not mentioned).

e.g.

The same

usage rules apply as mentioned above in Table 3.5.

e.g.
1.



2.


3.

or

or
4.


or
5.

6.

or
or

or
or 7.

8.

or


Sentence Analysis:

The door was opened.

EXERCISE
.
1. Convert the following to
with its

i.

iii.

iv.

iii.

iv.

ii.

2. Convert the following to



.
i.


ii.

68

Section 3.7.3

The Noun of and , Which Is Similar to


It means that and
have the same meaning and effect ( ) as
.

e.g.
Zayd is not standing.

No man is more virtuous than you.



can appear before a or a
.

appears before a .

When the
of appears before the , or the word appears before the ,
the
effect of is cancelled.

e.g.
Zayd is not standing.


And Muhammad is not but a messenger. /


And Muhammad is only a messenger.
[Allah bless him and give him peace]
Section 3.7.4

The of That Which Negates an Entire


( Class)


gives its a fathah and its a dammah when the and the are .
e.g.
No man is standing.

Table 3.6
Different Forms of the Noun of and Its Iraab


1.

or 1

Explanation

Iraab

Example

There is no servant of
a man in the house.

2.

The one who attempts


to do good is not
blameworthy.

There is no man in the


house.

It refers to the case when a word is connected to another word, which completes its meaning, in the same way
that mudaaf and mudaaf ilayhi are connected to one another.

69

Table 3.6 Continued


3.

Explanation

Iraab

- The
has to be

Example

repeated with
another .

Neither is Zayd in the


house nor Amr.

- The effect of
is
4.

5.

with a word
between it and

and repeated
with no word
between them

cancelled.
- The
has to be

repeated.
- The effect of
is
cancelled.
- It can be read in
five ways.

Neither is there a man


in it nor a woman.

Note: The
of may be omitted when the meaning is understood.
e.g.

i.e.

There is no harm upon you. / No problem.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the rule which applies.
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

There is no power (to do good) and there is no power (to stay away from evil)

70

Section 3.8

Words Which Are Always Mansoob3


1.

7.

2.

3.

4.

5.

8.

known as

9.
10.
11.

6.

12.

Of these, 8,9,10 and 11 have been discussed before. Here, we will discuss the remaining.
Section 3.8.1

Object

Definition: It is that word on which the action of the



takes place.
e.g.

Khalid drank water.

Sometimes, the verb governing the


is dropped as in the following:
a. ( the one being called):
e.g.

O son of Zayd!

)(


It was originally )
( . The verb was dropped.

Note:

The

( vocative particle) substitutes the omitted verb.
Some of the vocative particles are as follows:
and

These are used when the is near.

and

These are used when the is far.


This is used for both (near and far).

There are exceptions to the rule. Mustathnaa, for example, is not always mansoob. It is still mentioned under this
category because most of the time, it is mansoob.

71

Table 3.7
Rules Governing the Iraab of the

1.
2.
3.

( masculine) or ( feminine) has to be


added between the

and .
O man!
O woman!

(Unspecified nakirah)

4.

(Specified nakirah)

5.

(Singular marifah)

6.

Example
O son of Zayd!
O reader of a book!
O man! Take my hand. (call of
a blind man to any person for
assisstance)
O man!
O Zayd!

( abbreviation) is allowed in munaadaa.


e.g.



can become
or




can become

Note: The last letter can be given a dammah or it can retain its original harakah.
b.
: This is said to ones guest for welcoming him/her.
Its original is


, which means You have come to your own people

and have trampled comfortable ground. In other words, you are welcome. Here two
verbs,
and
have been dropped.
c. Sometimes, the verb governing the
is dropped at the time of warning someone,

due to context. Examples include the following:



is used instead of to give the same meaning, which is
Beware of the road! Here, the verb
has been dropped.




is used instead of
to give the same meaning, which


is Save yourself from the lion.

This is another term for



. As mentioned earlier, it is similar to mudaaf in meaning.

72

Section 3.8.2


Definition: It is the masdar of the verb that governs it and is used for the following:

( emphasis)
e.g.
I beat him severely.

( description of type) e.g.


( number of times) e.g.

I sat like a Qari would sit.


I hit him twice.

Note: Sometimes, the verb governing


is dropped because of context.


For example,
, which means You came a
. Originally, it was

good coming. Here, the verb
, and , which is the , have been dropped
of the , which is , remains.
because of context. Only the


Section 3.8.3


/
Definition: It is that noun, which explains the reason for the action taking place. Generally, it
is a masdar.
e.g.

I beat/hit him to teach (him) manners.

Section 3.8.4


Definition: It is that noun, which appears after such a
, which has the meaning of ( with).
This
is known as .
e.g.

Zayd came with the book.


I came with Zayd.

73

Section 3.8.4

/
Definition: It is that noun, which denotes the time ) ( or place )
( in which the action
took place.
e.g.
I travelled for a month.

Both types of
, viz., and are of two types: ( limited, restricted)
and ( umlimited, unrestricted).
Types of


i.

ii.

( limited, restricted): for example,

day
e.g.


night
e.g.


month
e.g.

year
e.g.

I fasted for one day.


I worked for one night.
I fasted for a month.
I travelled for a year.

( umlimited, unrestricted): for example,



long period of time
e.g.
I fasted for a long time.

some time (could be short or long time period of time)



e.g.


Nuh called his people for some time.

Types of



i.

( limited, restricted):
e.g.

e.g.

I prayed in the mosque.


I sat in the house.

ii. ( umlimited, unrestricted):


behind

e.g.

in front of

e.g.

I sat behind him.


I stood in front of him.

Note: In the case of


( ) , the preposition
is mentioned in words; while in
the case of
( ) , it is assumed () .

74

The above-mentioned fives mafools have been combined in one verse, which is as
follows:

I praised Haamid and Hameed a lot out of regard for thanking them,
for an extended period of time.
Sentence Analysis:
1.


=
+




=
+

= 2.
=


=
3.

=


=


|
+

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and identify the type of
in the following sentences.

ii.
iii.

v.
vi.

i.

iv.

75

Section 3.8.5

State / Condition
or the or both at
Definition: It is a noun, which describes the condition of either the


the time the action contained in the verb took place.
e.g.
Zayd came in the condition that he was mounted.

I came to Zayd in the condition that he was sleeping.

I spoke to Zayd in the condition that both of us were


sitting.

Notes:
1. The condition itself is known as
, whereas the one whose condition is being
described is known as

.
2. The
gets a nasb, which is generally in the form of two fathahs.

3. The

is generally ( when the
is not a
is generally and the
sentence).
e.g.
Zayd came riding/while he was mounted.

4. If the

is , the
is brought before the

.



A man came to me riding/while he was mounted.

5. The

can be a
.

e.g.
Zayd ate sitting.


Here, the

is , which is the hidden dameer in .
e.g.

6. The
can be a sentence.

If the
is a

, then a ( with or without a dameer) is added to give the
meaning of condition.
e.g.

Dont come near salaah while you are



intoxicated.

If the
is a
and the is
, has to appear before the

.
e.g.

Zayd came while his servant had left.

76

Sentence Analysis:
1.

Zayd came riding/while he was mounted.

2.

I came to Amr while he was asleep.

I met Bakr while he was sitting.

3.




( +

) +

Zayd ate while sitting.



( )


|



( )+

77

4.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the
and

in the following sentences.

ii.
iii.

v.
vi.

i.

iv.

78

Section 3.8.6

Definition: It is an
, which removes the ambiguity or vagueness created by the previous
noun. This ambiguity may be in distance, weight, measure, number, etc.
e.g.

I saw eleven stars.

Here, the word ( ) has clarified what (


) refers to.

Sentence Analysis:

Notes:
The ambiguous noun is called and the noun which clarifies it is called or

The is mansoob and gets two fathahs.

Sometimes, the is not mentioned in words but is understood from the


meaning of the sentence )
( .
e.g.

The boy is good in terms of (his) speech.

If the is a number, the rules with regards to the usage of numerals (on the
next page) must be kept in mind.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the and in the following sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

79

Rules for

( Numerals)
Before we proceed, it should be pointed out that
( number) is the mumayyaz, and

( the counted noun) is the tameez.

One and two (1-2)


The and the must correspond in all aspects.




one boy


one girl


The will appear first and the will appear second.
e.g.

Note: Normally, for one or two men etc., one would simply say
or
. However,
at times, the number is used for emphasis.

Three Through Ten (3-10)


The and the must be of opposite gender.
e.g.

eight pens
five cars

Note: In choosing the correct gender, the singular form of the will be taken
into account.
e.g.


seven nights and eight days

Here, the singular ( night) of


is feminine, and ( day) of is
masculine.
From three onwards, the will appear first and the second.
The will be

.

Eleven and Twelve (11-12)

The and the must agree in all aspects.


e.g.


eleven stars


twelve girls

From eleven onwards till 99, the will be




.

80

Thirteen Through Nineteen (13-19)

The gender of the first part of the should be opposite of the gender of the .


fourteen men


nineteen girls
The will be


.
The ten ( masc.)/( fem.) will agree with the in terms of gender.
Note: The of / will get a fathah when used with a masculine and a sukoon
e.g.

when used with a feminine.


Twenty Till Ninety (20, 30, 40,,90)
The gender of
to
( 20,30,40,90) will remain the same, irrespective of
whether the is masculine or feminine.



twenty men

thirty girls
The will be


.
e.g.

Twenty-one and Twenty-two (21-22)

The first part of the and the must agree in all aspects.




twenty-one men



twenty-one girls
The will be


.
e.g.

Twenty-three Through Twenty-nine (23-29)


The gender of the first part of the should be opposite of the gender of the .



twenty-four men


twenty-six girls
The will be


.
e.g.

The same will apply to 33-39, 43-4993-99.


The tens will remain the same, irrespective of whether the
is masculine or
feminine.

81

Hundred (100)

will remain the same, irrespective of whether the is masculine or feminine.


e.g.

hundred men

hundred girls
For 200, will be used. (
in


)
e.g.

two hundred girls


two hundred girls
The will be

.
Since is feminine, the number before will be masculine.
e.g.
four hundred men
four hundred women

If there are units with the 100s as well, the same gender rule will apply as above till 99.
e.g.


hundred and ten books

hundred and forty-five note-books

Thousand (1,000)

will remain the same, irrespective of whether the is masculine or feminine.



thousand men


thousand girls
The will be

.
Since
is masculine, the number before
will be feminine.
e.g.


four thousand men

four thousand women



e.g.

Million (1,000,000)

will remain the same, irrespective of whether the is masculine or feminine.


e.g.

million men

million girls
The will be

.
Since is masculine, the number before will be feminine.
e.g.



four million men


four million women

82

EXERCISE
1. Write the following in Arabic.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

2 schools
12 women
17 doors
21 cars
150 houses
444 miles

vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.

83

11 books
14 chairs
26 boys
111 elephants
195 keys
3333 roses

Section 3.8.7



means to exclude.

is that noun, which has been excluded and appears after the

.

.
is that noun from which the has been excluded. It appears before


are as follows:




e.g.

The people came except Zayd.

+

+

Related Terminology

refers to the case when the was included in the before the .

e.g.
The people came except Zayd.

(Zayd was one of the people before the exclusion.)

refers to the case when the


was not included in the before the

.
e.g.
The angels prostrated except Iblees.
(Iblees was never one of the angels.)

The people came except the donkey.

(Donkey was never included among the people.)

refers to that sentence in which the is not mentioned.

e.g.
No one came except Zayd.
refers to that sentence in which the is mentioned.
e.g.
The people came except Zayd.

84


( positive statement) refers to that sentence, which does not have a , or
.
e.g.
The people came except Zayd.

( negative sentence) refers to that sentence, which does have a , or

.
e.g.
The people did not come except Zayd.

The iraab of the
will be as given below:
Table 3.8




1.
2.
3.

4.

Sentence Type

Example

or


same as

according to

( as if

does not exist)

The people came to


me except zayd.
The angels prostrated
except Iblees.

No one came to me
except Zayd.
No one came except
Zayd.

I did not see anyone


except Zayd.

I did not pass by


anyone except Zayd.
5.


All types

The people came


except Zayd.

85

Table 3.8 Continued

6.

7.

Sentence Type
All types

All types

Example

or

( as a preposition)


/ /




/ /


The people came


except Zayd.

The people came


except Zayd.
Note: The iraab of the word
is the same as that of . Thus, the simple way to
determine the iraab of ghayr is to replace ghayr with illaa. Now, whatever iraab mustathnaa
gets, should be given to ghayr.
For example, we have two sentences, 1)
and 2)
.

To determine the iraab of ghayr, follow the following two steps for each of these
sentences.
a. Replace with and see what the iraab of the mustathnaa would be.

1)

2)



The first sentence is moojab and ghayr mufarragh, so the mustathnaa will be
mansoob. The second sentence is ghayr moojab and mufarragh, so the
mustathnaa is according to the aamil. Thus, it is marfoo.

b. The iraab of the mustathnaa (with )will be given to ghayr.


1)

2)

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and explain the iraab of themustathnaa.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

86

Section 3.9


Words Which Are Always Majroor
There are two types of words that are always majroor. These are as follows:
1. Noun preceded by a

.
e.g.

in the book

e.g.

book of Zayd.

2.

87

Section 3.10

Definition: A is that noun, which follows the noun before it. The preceding noun is called
the
.

The aamil which governs the


also governs the .
There are five :
1) /

4)


/

2) /

3)

5)

Section 3.10.1


Adjective

is of two types: 1)
2)

/
1.
: It is that word, which describes the actual
.

As mentioned in section 1.3.3, the
follows the

, which is the
in this

case, in the following:


a. Iraab
b. Gender
c. Being marifah or nakirah
d. Being singular, dual or plural
The
can be a complete sentence, in which case the

must be .

The
, which is a sentence must have a
which refers to the nakirah mawsoof.

e.g.


A boy who was riding bicycle came to me.


+ )(

+

+ +


The boy is riding the bicycle.


Here, ( ) is , and (

)is the .
88

Note:
If a is followed by a sentence, it will be a
.
or
e.g.



The boy who was riding the bicycle came


to me.

Here, ( ) is


.
, and (
)is the
2.

: It is that word, which does not describe the
, but describes that which is
connected to the
.


The boy whose father is learned, came to me.


Here, (
) is a
of () , which is connected to the matboo () .
However, it is not a
of the matboo itself.

e.g.

Notes:
1. In
, the

and
must correspond in only two aspects:

a. Iraab
b. Being marifah or nakirah
2. The
will always be singular, irrespective of whether the

is singular, dual

3.

or plural.

e.g.

These are two pictures whose frames are beautiful.

The
will correspond in gender to the word after it.
e.g.

The lady, whose son is intelligent, came.

Sentence Analysis

1.

2.

A learned man came.



) (
+ )
(

+



=

A woman whose son is learned, came.





|
)



(


+


) (



89

)
(


+

A man whose father is learned, came.

)
(


)



(

+

3.

( )



EXERCISE

1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences pointing out the


and the
.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

2. Analyse the following sentences and and point out the difference between them.

90

i.
ii.
iii.

Section 3.10.2

/ Emphasis
Definition: It is that , which gives emphasis to the
in the matter related to it or
emphasizes the inclusion of all members of the
in the matter related to it.

The is called and the


is called .

e.g.
e.g.

(The second Zayd emphasized Zayds coming.)

There are two types of :


and

( emphasized that all came, no one remained.)

1.
Verbal Emphasis: The emphasis is attained by repeating the , which may
be ,
,
,
, or sentence.

e.g.

Zayd, Zayd came.


The absent one became present, became present.
I will not, will not break the pledge.
You open the window.
You are the censured one, you are the censured one.

2. Emphasis Through Meaning: The emphasis is attained with any of the


following words:

Below, we discuss each of these.


a.

( himself, herself)

These are used for singular, dual and plural.


They have to be

to a
.

Their
and form )
( must correspond with those of the .
The plural form )
( of
and
is used for dual.

e.g.

/
/
/

91

Zayd himself stood.


The two Zayds themselves stood.
The (many) Zayds themselves stood.
The female teacher herself came.
The two female teachers themselves came.
The (many) female teachers themselves
came.

b.

( both)

These are used for dual only.


is masculine and is feminine.

It must be

to a dual
.
e.g.

c.

Both of the men stood up.


Both of the female teachers stood up.


( all)

They are used for singular and plural.

is used with a
, which must correspond to the .

( changing to correspond to the .
is used with its form )

e.g.
I read the whole book.



All the people came.

I bought the whole horse.





All the people came.

Note: and
can only be used for emphasis in those things, which have parts
or can be divided. Thus,
( I treated all of Zayd hospitably)
would be incorrect.

d.

These are used for greater emphasis.


They appear after
. They are not used without
nor can they appear
before
.
e.g.

/ /




/ /

All of the people came.


All of the women stood up.

Sentence Analysis

All the people came.


)
|



(

2 +
1



92

|

+

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.

93

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Section 3.10.3

Substitute
Definition: A
is that , which is actually intended in the sentence and not its
. The
matboo merely serves as an introduction to the taabi.
The is called
( substitute) and the
is called or ( the
substituted).

Example:

Zayd, your brother, came.


)
|



(

+

There are four types of


:


1)


2)

3)

4)

1.
: It is that , which refers to the exact same thing as the .
e.g.

Zayd, your brother, came.

: It is that , which is a part of the .


2.

The
must have a
, which refers to the .
e.g.

I hit Zayds head.

3.

: It is that , which is related to the , but is not part of it.

The
must have a
, which refers to the .
e.g.

Zayds shirt was stolen.

4.
: It is that , which is mentioned after an error, as a correction.

e.g.
I bought a horse; no, a donkey.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

94

Section 3.10.4

Conjunction
Definition: It is that , which appears after a

. The

appears between the
and the
. The meaning of the verb directed to the
is also directed to the .

The is called
and the
is called
.
e.g.

Zayd and Amr came.


+

=

The various

are as follows:

Notes:
1. If the
is a


, then its

has to be mentioned after it.
e.g.

Zayd and I hit.

2. However, if after the





, another word appears before the
, then the


need not be brought.


Zayd and I hit, today.



Neither us nor our forefathers associated partners.

3. If the
is a
preceded by a
, then the
should also be preceded by
the same

.
e.g.
I passed by you and Zayd.

e.g.

EXERCISE
1. Fill in a suitable

, translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.

_______
_______
_______

iv.
v.
vi.

95

_______

_______

_______

Section 3.10.5

, which clarifies or specifies its Definition: It is that


.

Often, it is a more famous name of two names.



Example:

Abu Hafs Umar stood up.

)




(



Abu Amr Zayd came.

Example:

)

|



(


+



EXERCISE

1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.


ii.

96

i.

CHAPTER 4

Governing Words

Definition: An
is a word that governs/causes iraab changes in another word.
There are two types of
: 1) 2)

1.
: It is that , which is not in word form i.e. it is abstract.
There are two types of
.
i.

ii.


: which means that being free of a gives a .
e.g.

Zayd is standing.
Here, ( ) is the , which is marfoo because of ibtidaa. ( ) is the khabar and
it is also marfoo because of ibtidaa.
In the case of

, being free of a


or
gives

a .
e.g.

Zayd is working.
Here (
) is marfoo because it is free of any


or
.

2.
: It is that , which is in word form.
There are three types of
.
i.

ii.
iii.

97

Section 4.1



Governing Particles

A. Particles, Which Govern Nouns
1.


refer to section 1.6
2.


refer to section 1.7

3.



refer to section 3.7.3
4.
5.
6.
7.

refer to section 3.8.4


refer to section 3.8.7
refer to section 3.8.1
refer to section 3.7.4

B. Particles, Which Govern





1.
2.

98

Section 4.1.1

Particles That Give Nasb






These appear before

and cause the following changes at the end:


They give the last letter a fathah if it is not a .
If the last letter is a , it is dropped. The exception is the of the two

These are as follows:

Table 4.1

Meaning

Example


will not, never

so that


then, in that


that, to

case

I want to enter Paradise.


The disbeliever will never enter Paradise.
I came so I could rest.
In that case, you will be successful in your
work. [This is said in response to the one
who may have said:
( I will work
hard).]

Notes:
1. Sometimes , together with its
, gives the meaning of a masdar. In this case, is called


.
e.g.

i.e.

Your fasting is better for you.

2. is hidden after the following six huroof and gives the last letter of

a nasb.
a.

After
:

e.g.

)
(

I travelled until I entered the city.


b.

After

or : i.e. that , which appears after or any of the
forms of
.
e.g.

)(

Allah was not going to punish them.


99

c.

After , which has the meaning of


( until) or ( but that).
e.g.

(
)

I will stick to you until you give me my right.



( )

The sinner will be punished unless he provides an excuse.

d.

After
: i.e., that which turns away from the word after it the effect,
which the
had on the word before it (before the ) .
e.g.

Do not command the truth while you lie.


(Here, the
turned away/stopped the effect of from
.)

This
is also known as or

.

The sentence must start with a


or .

e.

)
(

After
: i.e., that which has the meaning of ( it is also called ) .
e.g.

)
(

I came so I could rest.

f.

After
/ : i.e., that , which comes in reply to any of the following six:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

)
(

Visit me so that I treat you hospitably.

Do not cross the limit regarding it, lest, My wrath


descends upon you.

You do not visit us, so that we may treat you hospitably.

Where is your house, so I can visit you.

I wish I had wealth, so I would have spent it.

Why dont you visit us so that you receive good!

100

3. has to be written after a


if the is joined to a .
e.g.

)
(

So that he does not know.

4. which appears after a verb with the root letters is not a




. Therefore, it
does not give

a fathah. Such an is known as i.e., that


which was .
e.g.
e.g.

I knew that he will stand up.


He knew that some of you will be sick.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the

and its effect in the following

sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

101

Section 4.1.2




Particles That Give Jazm

These appear before

and cause the following changes at the end:


They give the last letter a sukoon if it is not a .
If the last letter is a , it will be dropped. The exception is the of the two

These are as follows:

Table 4.2

Meaning

Example

if

did not

do not

not yet
should, shall, let

If you sit, I will sit.


He did not hit me.
The boy went but has not returned yet.
He should sit.
Do not sit.

Notes:
1. appears before two verbal sentences. The first one is called
(condition) and the
second
( answer/result).
2. If appears before , it should be translated negatively.
e.g.

He is not but an honorable angel. /


He is only an honorable angel.

3.
should be brought before the of a
when the is one of the following:
a.

e.g.

b.

e.g.

c.

e.g.

If you come to me you will be treated hospitably.

If you see Zayd, treat him hospitably.

If Zayd comes to you, do not humiliate him.

102

d.

e.g.

If you treat me hospitably, then, may Allah reward you


well.

4.
will be translated in the future tense when it is
a. used as a

e.g.

b. preceded by

May Allah reward you well.

e.g.

c. preceded by

e.g.

If you sit, I will sit.

Whoever comes with good, there will be ten like it


for him.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the

and its effect on the following
sentences.
i.

iv.

ii.

v.

iii.

vi.

103

Section 4.2

Governing Verbs

Active Verb: It is that verb whose doer is known/mentioned.



, whether transitive or intransitive, governs the following nouns as and when
applicable:
it gives raf to the

.

it gives nasb to the following, as and when applicable:

i.
( can only be governed by a )

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

Passive Verb: It is that verb whose doer is not known/mentioned.


( a verb whose faail is not named).

is also known as

It gives raf to the




( ).

It gives nasb to all the remaining mansoobaat.


e.g.




Zayd was beaten severely on Friday, in front of the Judge, in his office, to teach
him manners.


Intransitive Verb: It is that verb whose meaning can be understood without a

.
e.g.
Zayd sat.


: These were discussed earlier in section 1.8.

104

Section 4.2.1



Transitive Verb
Definition: It is that verb whose meaning cannot be understood without a
.
e.g.

Zayd hit Bakr.

There are four types of


. These are as follows:

1. Those verbs, which require one


as is the case with most verbs.
e.g.

2. Those verbs, which can be given two


. These include the following:

Any verb, which has the meaning of


( to give).


etc.


I gave the beggar a bread.

Some other verbs, which can also have two
include the following


etc.
e.g.

Knowledge clothes its possessor with dignity.

e.g.

3. Those verbs, which must be given two


.

These verbs are known as



( verbs which relate to the heart/feelings).
They enter upon a and
unlike the verbs above (number 2).
Table 4.3


Verb

Usage

used for certainty )


(
used for certainty )
(

used for certainty )


(

used for certainty )


(
or doubt )
(

used for doubt )


(
used for doubt )
(
used for doubt )
(






105

Example
I was sure Saeed was going.
I was sure Rasheed was
knowledgeable.
I was sure Zayd was trustworthy.
I was sure Zayd was present. /
I thought Zayd was present.
I thought Zayd was well-educated.
I thought Khalid was standing.
I thought Bakr was sleeping.

Note: Other verbs, which also require two


include the following:

to make something something else

to take someone/something as someone/something

e.g.

I made the pages a book.

e.g.

to make something something else

e.g.

Allah took Ibraheem (peace be upon him)as a friend.

I made the book organized.

4. Those verbs which require three . Each of these has the meaning
informing/showing. These are as follows:
Table 4.4
Verb

Example
I informed Zayd that Khalid is sleeping.
I informed Zayd that Bakr is well-educated.
The messenger informed me that the chief is
coming.
I informed them that arrogance is blameworthy.
I informed the boys that sport is beneficial.
I informed the travellers that the train is late.
I informed the children that swimming is
beneficial.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.

iv.
v.
vi.

106

Section 4.2.2






Definition: These verbs behave the same way as .
They are used for the following purposes:
1.
show nearness in the attainment (

) of the .

2.

show desire for attainment of .
3.
show commencement of action.

Table 4.5




preferably without


preferably without

preferably with

preferably with

without

without

*
*

Type

Example

Zayd was about to


go.
Khalid was about to
sit.









Zayd was about to sit.

Hopefully Zayd will


without

come out.

Zayd began writing.


Zayd began reading.
Zayd began eating.

* These verbs are used only in past tense.


The

can be used as normal verbs too.


e.g.

Sentence Analysis:

Zayd took his clothes.

Hopefully Zayd will come out.


) (
+

107

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.

iv.

ii.

v.

iii.

vi.

108

Section 4.2.3

Verbs of Praise and Blame



Verbs of praise:
Verbs of blame:

e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.

What a wonderful man Zayd is!


What a wonderful man Zayd is!
What an evil man Zayd is!
What an evil man Zayd is!

.
That which appears after the

is called

or

The

of

must be one of the following:
i. prefixed with .

e.g.

What a wonderful man Zayd is!

to a noun prefixed with .





e.g.
What a wonderful learned man Zayd is!



iii. a hidden
followed by a
( being ).

e.g.
What a wonderful man Zayd is!
[ ( ) ]
ii.

is the .

( ) is its
.
is the

.

In
,

Notes:
1. These verbs are used in the past tense in their singular form (masculine or feminine).
2. At times the

is dropped.
e.g.

i.e.

What a wonderful slave Ayub is!

Sentence Analysis:

109

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

110

Section 4.2.4

Verbs of Wonder
There are two wazns to express wonder for three letter verbs )

(.
1. : has the meaning of

.

e.g.

How wonderful Zayd is!


+ )(

+

)
(

2.
: ( ) has the meaning of past tense and the is extra )( .
e.g.
)
How wonderful Zayd is!

To express wonder for other than three letter verbs )



( , a word such as /

etc. should be placed before the masdar of the desired verb. The

or
/

masdar will be
, thus mansoob.

e.g.

How very respectful people are towards the learned.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyse the following sentences.
i.

ii.
iii.

111

Section 4.3


Governing Nouns

Amongst these,


were discussed in section 2.4.4. Here, we will discuss the rest.
Section 4.3.1


Conditional Nouns
They govern two

giving both a jazm.

They appear before two sentences. The first is called


( condition) and the second

( result).

Table 4.6



Noun
1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

Meaning
who,
who ever
what,
whatever
however
much
when
when

6.

where

8.

where

7.

where

9.

how,
manner
any of
the above

10.

Usage


any of the
above

Example

Whoever treats me hospitably, I


will treat him hospitably.

Whatever you eat, I will eat.

Whatever you spend in the way of


good, will benefit you.

Whenever you go, I will go.


Whenever you travel, I will travel.
Wherever you go, I will go.
Wherever you stay, I will stay.
Wherever you travel, I will travel.

Whichever way you sit, I will sit.

Whichever place you go, I will go.

Notes:
1. and have the same function as
, except that they are particles )
(
and not nouns. Collectively they are called

.

if

e.g.

when

e.g.




112

If you go, I will go.

If you do evil, you will be regretful.

2. When the following nouns are used for


( interrogative), they appear before one
sentence.

e.g.

EXERCISE
1. Complete the following sentences with a suitable
.
i.
ii.

_______

iii.

_______

iv.

113

_______

_______

Section 4.3.2

Definition: It has the same effect as that of an active verb )


( i.e. it gives raf to the

and nasb to the
.

Notes:
1. If the

is prefixed with , it could include any of the three tenses.
e.g.

Zayds father beat/is beating/will beat Bakr.

without is often used as


2.

to its , in which case it would generally

give the meaning of past tense.


e.g.
Zayd is the beater/hitter of Bakr.


3.
without when preceded by any of the following would give the meaning of
present or future tense:
a.

e.g.

Zayds father is beating/will beat Bakr.








I passed by a man whose father is

b.

e.g.

c.

e.g.

The one whose father is beating/will


beat Bakr came to me.

d.

e.g.

Zayd came to me while his son was


riding a horse.

e.

e.g.

Is Zayd beating Bakr?/Will Zayd beat


Bakr?

f.

e.g.

Zayd is not standing/will not stand.

beating/will beat Bakr.

Sentence Analysis:


)



(
|


+
+

114

EXERCISE

1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the effect and tense of the
in the
following sentences.

ii.

iii.

i.

iv.

115

Section 4.3.3

Definition: It has the same effect as that of a passive verb (


) , i.e. it givesraf to the

The rules mentioned above regarding the



also apply here.

Examples:
a.

e.g.

b.

e.g.

Zayds son is being beaten/will be


beaten.
I passed by a man whose son is being
beaten/will be beaten.

c.

e.g.

The one whose son is being


beaten/will be beaten, came to me.

d.

e.g.

Zayd came to me while his son was


being beaten/will be beaten.

e.

e.g.

Is Zayd being beaten?/Will Zayd be


beaten?

f.

e.g.

Zayd is not being beaten /will not be


beaten.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the effect and tense of the
in the
following sentences.
i.

ii.

116

Section 4.3.4





That Adjective Which Is Similar to

Definition: It is a noun, which is created from the masdar of a


( three-letter
intransitive verb) to indicate permanent existence of the meaning in the doer.

Like its
, it generally gives the
a raf.
e.g.

His face is beautiful.

It shows the meaning of permanency in the object it relates to e.g.


( beautiful) is a

is a temporary quality, which exists only at the time of the action.



All such nouns, which are derived from a
( three-letter intransitive verb) and
give the meaning of

but are not on its wazn, are

.

permanent quality, as compared to



, which indicates a temporary meaning e.g.

Some of the common wazns of



(based on usage) are as follows:

e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.
e.g.

happy
beautiful
noble/honorable
coward
brave

Colors and bodily defects appear on the following wazns:

(masculine)

( feminine)

e.g.
e.g.

red
mute
red
mute

The

of non-three letter verbs )

( is brought on the wazn of its

on the condition that permanency of meaning is intended.
e.g.

straight

117

Section 4.3.5

Definition: It is that noun, which indicates that a quality is found to a greater extent in one
person/thing when compared to another.

e.g.
Khalid is more courageous than Amr.

Table 4.7

Singular
Dual
Plural

Masculine

Example

Feminine

Example

Meaning
Bigger/older
Bigger/older
Bigger/older
Bigger/older

Usage:

is used in three ways.


will always be a singular masculine )( .


1. With
: the

e.g.
Zayd is more knowledgeable than Bakr.

Aishah is older than Zaynab.

must correspond with the word before it in gender and number.


2. With : the

e.g.

The two more knowledgeable Zayds are absent.


The older Aishah is present.

may be
3. With
: the
or it may correspond with the word before it.

e.g.

The Zayds are the most knowledgeable of people.

The two Zayds are the most knowledgeable of people.

Aishah is the oldest of people.

118

Notes:

of words, which indicate color, physical defects and of


1.

verbs is

made by placing the words


, , etc. before the masdar of that word. The masdar will
be the tameez, and therefore, will be mansoob.
e.g.

He is redder than Zayd.


He is lamer than Zayd.
He is more hard-working than Zayd.

2. The words
and are also used for .
e.g.

The oppressor is the worst of people.

gives its hidden dameer a raf.


3.


e.g.
Zayd is more virtuous than Bakr.

The dameer in

.
is its

EXERCISE
in the following sentences.
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and explain the usage of

i.

v.

ii.

vi.

iii.

vii.

iv.

viii.

119

Section 4.3.6



Definition: It is that noun which refers to the action indicated by the corresponding verb
without any reference to time.
Effect: It has the same effect as that of its verb i.e. it gives raf to the

and nasb to the

e.g.

Today, I saw Zayds beating of Bakr.

Usage:
Masdar is generally used in one of the following ways:
as a

to its
.
e.g.

as a

to its .
e.g.



i.e.

i.e.

)
(


)
(

I disliked Zayds beating of


Bakr.
I disliked Zayds beating of
Bakr.

EXERCISE
1. Fill in the iraab and explain the usage of the masdar in the following sentences.
i.

iii.

ii.

iv.

Section 4.3.7



In the case of mudaaf, it is assumed that one of the following prepositions )

( is hidden
between the mudaaf and mudaaf ilayhi.

when the mudaaf is a part/type )


( of the mudaaf ilayhi.

e.g.

i.e.

when the mudaaf ilayhiis a


.
e.g.

i.e.

silver ring

night prayer

when it is neither of the above two.


e.g.

i.e.


120

Zayds son

Section 4.3.8

Definition: It is that noun, which would give the noun ) (after it a nasb.

A noun will be considered as when it has one of the following:


a.

tanween.

e.g.




)

(
There is not even palms measure of clouds in the sky.

b.

hidden tanween.
e.g.

(



was originally
)

There are eleven men with me.


c.

of a dual noun.
e.g.

I have two qafeezes1 of wheat.

d.

)
(

which resembles the of a sound masculine plural )



(.

e.g.

)
(

I have twenty dirhams.

The
in the above examples cannot be mudaaf while having a tanween or having a noon
of dual/plural, thus the noun after it gets a nasb because of it being .

A qafeez is a classical Islamic measure of weight.

121

Section 4.3.9

Definition: It is that noun, which indicates an unspecified quantity.

It is clarified by the noun following it.


These are and .

: can be used in two ways: as an interrogative )


( or as an informative exclamation
( .
)
( how many)
1.

It gives the noun ) (after it a nasb.


The is brought singular.



How many books do you have?

At times, the preposition
appears before the .

e.g.

How many books do you have?

e.g.

2.
( so many)

It gives the noun ) (after it a jarr (because of it being a mudaaf ilayhi).


The may be singular or plural.
e.g.

So much of wealth you have spent!

At times the preposition appears before the .


e.g.


There are so many angels in the skies/heavens.

( so much, such and such)


It gives the noun ) (after it a nasb.
The is brought singular.

e.g.

I have this much dirhams.
EXERCISE
1. What is the difference between the following sentences.

i.
ii.

122

Section 4.3.10

Definition: It is that noun, which shows extremity/intensity in meaning.


Some of the wazns of are as follows:

most learned
great distinguisher
excessive jester
careful maintainer/sustainer
very eloquent

Notes:
1. The round at the end of some wazns is for and not for gender.
e.g.

well-learned

2. The wazn
is also used to denote a profession.
e.g.

cook

123

carpenter

Section 4.4




Non-Governing Particles
1.
Particles of Notification:

These are used to draw the attention of the listener. These are as follows:

e.g.

meaning
Lo! / Behold! / Take heed!

Behold! Zayd is sleeping.


This

Behold! Indeed, Allahs help is near.



Lo! I am present.



2.
Particles of Affirmation:
These are used for affirmation of a statement made earlier. These are as follows:

( yes)

It is used to verify a statement, be it positive or negative. For example,


If someone says

( Did Zayd come?), the reply will be ( yes)

meaning
( he came).

If someone says

( Has Zayd not come?), the reply will be ( yes)
meaning

( He did not come.).

( yes, why not)

It is used to convert a negative statement into a positive one.


e.g.
If someone says

( Zayd did not stand up.), the reply will be
(yes, why not) meaning
( Zayd has stood up.).

( yes)

It is the same as . However it is used with an oath )


(after a question.
e.g.

If someone says
( Did Zayd stand up?), the reply will be

(yes, by Allah!) meaning
( Zayd stood up.).

124


/ / ( yes)

It is the same as .
e.g.

If someone says
( Zayd came.), the reply will be or or

(yes) meaning
( Zayd came.).

Note: is very rarely used for this purpose.


3. Particles of Clarification:

These are used to clarify a word in a sentence. These are as follows:


(that is)
e.g.

And ask the town, that is, the people of the town.
And We called him, that is, O Ibraheem!

4.


: These are used to give a masdary meaning. These are as follows:

and come before a


.

comes before a

.

e.g.

) (

When the earth became straitened for them despite its vastness.
(
)

Your truthfulness pleases me.

()

(News of) his sleeping reached me.

Note: and are governing particles.


5.

Particles of Exhortation:

These are used to encourage someone to do something when they appear before

. These are as follows:

e.g.

Do you not pray salah?

These particles are also used to create regret and sorrow in the listener when they
appear before
. Therefore, they are also called
.
e.g.

Have you not prayed Asr salah?

125

6.
Particle of Anticipation:
It is , which is used for one of the following:

the meaning of near past.


: It gives
e.g.
Zayd has arrived (recently).


: It gives

the meaning of seldomness.


e.g.

Indeed, sometimes, a generous person is miserly.
: It gives
or

the meaning of certainty.


e.g.
Certainly Zayd came.



Certainly Allah knows.

Particles of Interrogation:
7.

These are and


.

e.g.

Is Zayd standing?
Did Zayd stand up?

8.

Particle of Rebuke:

This is , which means Never!

It is used to rebuke or reprimand.

e.g.
is said to some one who says
( Hit Zayd.).

It gives the meaning of certainty.
e.g.

Indeed, soon you will know.

9. : It is used for one of the following:

: that tanween, which shows a noun to be murab.


e.g.

: that tanween, which shows a noun to be nakirah.


e.g.

: that tanween, which subsitutes a mudaaf ilayhi.

e.g. i.e.
the day when so and so happened

126

10. : It is used for emphasis in



.It is of two forms: and . Both
and
have the same meaning.

) (

) (

Indeed, he should hit.

You must help.

11.
: It is used for the following:

: It is used for emphasis.


e.g.

Indeed, you are more feared

.
: It comes in the answer to and
e.g.








If Allah did not repel some people by means of others, the earth would
be corrupted.

By Allah! I will fast tommorrow.

Indeed, they eat food.

: extra.
e.g.

12.

Extra Particles: These are not translated. However, they add beauty and
emphasis to the meaning. These are:

are governing particles )

Usage:

: It appears after .
e.g.

: It appears after .
e.g.

Zayd is not standing.

When the bearer of good news came.

: appears after the following:


e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

When you are afflicted, be patient.

127

When you travel, I will travel.


Whoever comes to you, treat him
hospitably.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

Whichever way you turn, there is the face of

Then, should some guidance come to you

Allah.

from Me.

So, it is through mercy from Allah that you





are gentle to them.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

e.g.

I swear by this city.


Indeed, they eat food.
Is there a creator besides Allah?
There is nothing like Him.
Zayd is not a liar.

13.
Conditional Particles:

( however, as far asis concerned)

It is used to explain/clarify something, which was mentioned briefly.

has to be brought in its answer )


( .


e.g.


So, some of them will be wretched and (some) blessed. As for the
wretched, they will be in the Fire.

( if)

It is used to negate the second sentence )


( on account of the first sentence
)
( not being fulfilled.
e.g.

If there had been gods besides Allah in them (the heavens and the earth),
they would have been corrupted.
(There will not be corruption because there is notmore than onegod.)
Note: If a is added to i.e. it will give the meaning of even though and will be
known as
.
e.g.

Celebrate walimah even if it be with one


(slaughtered) goat.

128

and , it is also used to demonstrate that the


14.
: Apart from being used for

second sentence )
( cannot be attained because of the presence of the condition of the
first sentence )
( .

e.g.

Had it not been for Zayd, Bakr would have perished.

15.

: It is that ,
( as long as).
which has the meaning of

e.g.

i.e.

I will stand as long as the leader is sitting.


16.

: These are as follows:

( and): This is without regard to sequence.


e.g.
Zayd and Bakr came.
Here, sequence is not considered.

(then, thus):

It shows sequence with slight delay.


e.g.

Zayd came. Then, Bakr (came).

It can also show cause )


( .
e.g.

He sends down water from the sky, because of which the earth becomes
green.

( then): It shows sequence with delay.


e.g.

Zayd came. Then, (after some time) Bakr (came).

( upto, till, even): It shows the end point.


e.g.

I read the Quran until the end.



The pilgrims came, even those on foot.




( eitheror):
e.g.

The fruit is either sweet or bitter.

e.g.

We stayed for a day or a part of a day.

( or):

129

( or): It is generally used with an interrogative )


( .

e.g.

Is Zayd with you or Bakr?

( not): This negates from the


that which has been established for the

.
e.g.


Zayd came to me and not Bakr.
( but, instead, rather): It is used for

i.e. to give up one notion for another.
e.g.


Zayd came to me. Rather, Bakr (came).
( but): It is used with a and serves the purpose of
i.e. to rectify.

e.g.


Zayd did not come to me but Bakr came.

130

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abd al-Ghaniyy al-Daqr (1993). Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah fi al-Nahw wa al-Tasreef.


Damascus: Dar al-Qalam.
Abdullah ibn Aqeel (n.d.). Sharh ibn Aqeel ala Alfiyyat ibn Malik, vols. 1-4. Karachi:
Qadeemi Kutubkhana.
Ali al-Jaarim and Mustafa Ameen (n.d.). Al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Ibtidaiyyah, vols.
1-3. Cairo: Dar al-Maarif.
Ali al-Jaarim and Mustafa Ameen (n.d.). Al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Thaniwiyyah,
vols. 1-3. Cairo: Dar al-Maarif.
Ibn Hayyan al-Andalusi (2008). Hidayat al-Nahw. Karachi: Maktabat al-Bushra.
Mawlana Hasan Dockrat (2003). Tawdeeh al-Nahw: A Simplified Arabic Grammar. Azaadville,
South Africa: Madrasah Arabiah Islamia.
Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali (n.d.). Ilm al-Nahw. Karachi: Altaf & Sons.

131