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30 June 09

GAS TURBINES
Vivek Ghate GMS CPP vivek.ghate@ril.com

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Index
1. Basics of Gas Turbines. 2. Major Components of Gas Turbines.

3. Categories of Gas Turbines.


4. Performance Comparison of various makes of Gas Turbines. 5. GEs range of Gas Turbines.

6. Factors affecting the performance of Gas turbines.


7. Gas Turbines at RIL. 8. Maintenance factors of Gas Turbines based on the fuel used. 9. The Hot gas path components & its metallurgy. 10. Gas Turbine Control Systems. 11. Performance Benchmarking.
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GAS TURBINE
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between.

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GAS TURBINE
By heating up compressed air, expanding it in nozzles mechanical/rotational energy is obtained.

Buckets

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Brayton Cycle

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Ideal Brayton cycle:


(1-2) Isentropic Compression - Ambient air is drawn into the compressor,
where it is pressurized.

(2-3) Isobaric Process - The compressed air then runs through a combustion
chamber, where fuel is burned, heating that aira constant-pressure process, since the chamber is open to flow in and out.

(3-4) Isentropic Expansion - The heated, pressurized air then gives up its
energy, expanding through a turbine (or series of turbines). Some of the work extracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor.

(4-1) Isobaric Process - Heat Rejection (in the atmosphere).


Actual Brayton Cycle:
Adiabatic process - Compression. Isobaric process - Heat Addition. Adiabatic process - Expansion. Isobaric process - Heat Rejection.

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GT Cutaway Showing Casing Cross Section

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Simple Cycle Single Shaft Gas Turbine

Compressor & Turbine are coupled to common single shaft. Normally used in process where less speed variation is required. Due to larger rotor mass the speed can be easily kept constant. Extremely suitable for generator drives.
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Simple Cycle Two Shaft Gas Turbine

In 2 shaft machines turbine is divided into High Pressure (HP) turbine & Low Pressure (LP) turbine. HP turbine & compressor are attached to one shaft & LP turbine is attached to another shaft. These machines provide wide speed range with sufficient power & efficiency. Well suited for mechanical drives & compressors.
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Open Cycle Gas Turbine Typical Performance

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Combined Cycle Power Plant

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Cogen Cycle Power Plant

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Gas Turbine Major Components

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Gas Turbine Major Components Compressor

Turbine

Combustion chamber

Starting means

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Gas Turbine Major Components


COMPRESSOR
17 stage axial flow compressor. Extractions 5th stage: bearing cooling and sealing air. 11th stage: Air bleed valves for surge control. 17th stage: Atom air compressor and pulse air.

TURBINE
3 Stage Impulse Turbine

COMBUSTION CHAMBER
10 combustors in annular space. 2 nos. Igniters in combustor no 1 & 10. 4 nos. Flame scanners in the combustor no 2,3 & 7,8.

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Gas Turbine Major Components


GT ANNULAR FIRING CROSS FIRE TUBE

2+3+7+8 HAVE SCANNERS

1&10 HAVE IGNITORS

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Categories of Gas Turbines

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GAS TURBINE CATEGORIES


The Simple Gas Turbine is classified into five broad groups:
Frame Type Heavy - Duty Gas Turbines: Large power generation units ranging

from 3 MW to 480 MW in a simple cycle configuration. Efficiency 30 to 39 %. Aircraft - Derivative Gas turbines: These are power generation units, which are prime mover of aircraft in the aerospace industry. Efficiency 35 to 45%. Industrial Type - Gas Turbines: In the range of 2.5-15 MW. Used extensively for compressor drive trains. Efficiency Less than 30%. Small Gas Turbines: In the range from about 0.5-2.5 MW. They often have centrifugal compressors & radial inflow turbines. Efficiency 15 to 25%. Micro - Turbines: In the range from 75 - 650 kW. Efficiency 15 to 20%.

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Frame Type Heavy - Duty Gas Turbines


Gas Turbines up to 20 MW.
Various Manufacturers are:
Solar Turbine

Rolls Royce Siemens MHI GE

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Gas Turbine
MODEL Make Output (MW) Heat Turbine Exhaust Efficiency Pressure Flow Rate Speed Temp % Ratio (kg/sec) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (C)

Saturn 20

Solar

1.2 3.897
4.35 5.925

3535 2960
2865 3001

24.3 29.1
30 28.7

6.8 10.3
13 8.4

22516 14200
16500 15400

6.55 15.4
17.7 27.3

504 560
527 496

501-KB5S Rolls Royce


SGT 100 MF-61 Siemens MHI

Mars 100
LM1600PE SGT 500 UGT15000+

Solar
GE Siemens Zorya Mashproek t

10.69
14.898 17 20

2650
2544 2671 2389

32.5
33.8 32.2 36

17.4
21.3 12 19.4

11168
7900 3000 3000

42
49.8 92.5 72.2

488
479 375 412
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Gas Turbine
Gas Turbines up to 60 MW.
Various Manufacturers are:
Rolls Royce

Siemens Alstom IHI Mitsubishi

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Rolls Royce Gas Turbine


MODEL
ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C)

RB211 6761 DLE 2000 TRENT 60 DLE 1996 TRENT 60 WLE 2001

32 51 58

2188 2043 2104

39.3 42 40

21.5 33 36

94.55 151.82 165.91

4850 3000 3000

503.33 444.44 423.33

Siemens Gas Turbine


MODEL YEAR ISO BASE RATING (MW) HEAT RATE (kcal/kwh) EFFICIENCY % PRESS RATIO FLOW (kg/sec) TURBINE SPEED (rpm) EXHAUST TEMP (Deg C)

SGT 700 SGT 800 SGT 900

1999 1998 1982

29.06 45 49.5

2389.72 2322.91 2634.23

36 34 32.7

18 19.3 15.3

91.36 130.45 175.45

6500 6600 5425

517.78 1093.89 513.89

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IHI Gas Turbine


MODEL ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C)

LM 6000 1997 PC SPRINT LM 6000 1997 PD SPRINT

46 45.48

2123.3 2123.5

40.5 40.5

30 30

130.45 130.91

3000 3000

445 450

Mitsubishi Gas Turbine


MODEL YEAR ISO BASE HEAT EFFICIENCY RATING RATE % (MW) (kcal/kwh) PRESS FLOW RATIO (kg/sec) TURBINE EXHAUST SPEED TEMP (rpm) (Deg C)

MF221

1994

30

2689.69

32

15

108.18

7200

532.78

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Gas Turbines more than 60 MW

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Alstom Gas Turbine


ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST PRESS FLOW MODEL YEAR RATING RATE EFFICIENCY SPEED TEMP RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) % (rpm) (Deg C) GT8C2 GT11N2 GT13E2 GT26 1998 1993 1993 1994 56.3 115.4 172.2 288 2722 2559 2363 2246 33.9 33.6 36.4 38.3 17 16 15 32 197 400 538 633 6219 3000 3000 3000 508 531 522 615

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Ansaldo Energia
ISO BASE HEAT TURBINE EXHAUST EFFICIENCY PRESS FLOW MODEL YEAR RATING RATE SPEED TEMP % RATIO (kg/sec) (MW) (kcal/kwh) (rpm) (Deg C) V64.3A V 94.2 V 94.3 A2 V 94.3 A4 1996 1981 1995 2004 68.5 166 272 279 2364.51 2500.63 2233.43 2200.66 34.7 34.4 38.5 39.1 15.8 11.8 17.4 17.7 191.4 510.0 657.3 668.2 3000 3000 3000 3000 588.89 546.11 575.00 577.22

Mitsubishi Gas Turbine


ISO BASE Model M701 M701F M701G Type SC CC SC RATING (MW) 144 273+142 334 34.8 59 39.5 2473 1464 2175 26 of 119 14 17 21 442 651 739 Eff % Heat Rate (kcal/kwh) Pressure Ratio Flow (kg/sec) Turbine Speed (rpm) 3000 3000 3000 Exhaust Temp (Deg C) 542 600 587 VMG/AG

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Siemens Gas Turbine


MODEL YEAR ISO BASE RATING (MW) 67.7 163.3 188.2 278 290 407 HEAT RATE (kcal/ kwh) 2452.74 2496.85 2359.47 2199.90 1509.03 1434.97 EFFICIENCY % 35.1 34.5 36.5 39 54.9 (CC) 57.7 (CC) PRESS RATIO 15.8 11.8 13.4 17.2 FLOW (kg/sec) 191.82 528.18 520.00 672.27 TURBINE SPEED (rpm) 5400 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 EXHAUST TEMP (Deg C) 582.78 542.22 581.11 582.22

SGT 1000F SGT 5 2000E SGT 6 3000E SGT 6 4000F SGT 5 3000E SGT 5 4000F

1996 1981 1997 1995 1997 1995

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GEs range of Gas Turbines

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GE Heavy Duty Gas Turbine


Model
The world demands a reliable supply of clean, dependable power. GE offers a wide array of technological options to meet the most challenging energy requirements.
MS9001H MS9001FB MS9001FA

Type
CC SC

O/P (MW)
520 412.9

Freq (Hz)
50 50

Kcal/ kwh
1434.3 1481.2

CC
SC CC SC CC CC CC SC CC SC

390.8
255.6 193.2 126.1 117.7 75.9 64.3 42.1 67.2 45.4

50
50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

1517.5
2331.7 1656.2 2546.0 1573.0 2460.3 1752.0 2682.6 1583.3 2348.1

MS9001E

MS6001FA

MS6001B

MS6001C
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GE H-System

First gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency.
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S 109H
109H System Combined Cycle Power Plant
520 MW; Single shaft. Firing Temperature Class: 1430C (2600F) Heat Rate: 1435 kcal/kwh.

Efficiency: 60%
18 Stage Compressor; 23:1 Pressure Ratio; Airflow 687 kg/sec. NOx emissions: < 25 ppm. Steam Turbine: GE design; Reheat, Single flow exhaust. Generator: GE 550 MW LSTG; 660 MVA Liquid cooled. HRSG: 3 Pressure level reheat.

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The F Class Comparison


GE
(MS9001FA)
Output Heat Rate Efficiency Pressure Ratio Flow Exhaust Temp. 255.6 MW 2332 kcal/kwh 36.90% 17 642.2 kg/sec 602 Deg C

Siemens
(SGT5-4000F)
278 MW 2200 kcal/kwh 39.10% 17.2 672.2 kg/sec 582 Deg C

Alstom
(GT26)
288 MW 2246 kcal/kwh 38.3% 32 633 kg/sec 615 Deg C

SIMPLE CYCLE

COMBINED CYCLE
Output Heat Rate Efficiency 390.8 MW 1517.5 kcal/kwh 56.70% 407 MW 1435 kcal/kwh 57.70% 410 MW 1488 kcal/kwh 57.8%

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H Class Comparison
GE
(S109H)

Siemens
(8000H)

Combined Cycle

Output
Heat Rate Efficiency Pressure Ratio Flow

520 MW

530 MW

1435 kcal/kwh 1435 kcal/kwh 60 % 23 687 kg/sec 60 % 19.2 820 kg/sec

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GE Aero derivative Gas Turbine

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GE Aero derivative Gas Turbine


MODEL OUTPUT (MW) HEAT RATE (kcal/kwh) PRESSURE RATIO TURBINE SPEED (rpm) FLOW (kg/sec) EXHAUST TEMP. (C)

LMS100PA LMS100PB LM6000PC sprint

102.998 98.44 50

1960.42 1906.48 2132.85

41.01 40 31.5

3000 3000 3627

213 207 137

407 417 434

LM6000PC
LM6000PD sprint LM6000PD LM2500RC LM2500RD LM2500PH GE 10 - 2

42.89
46.9 41.7 32.91 32.68 26.46 11.982

2060.25
2085.20 2110.92 2238.47 2243.76 2186.29 2557

29.2
30.9 29.3 28.5 23 23 15.5

3627
3627 3627 3600 3600 3000 11000

129
132 127 92 91 76 47

436
446 448 524 525 497 480

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Factors Affecting the Gas Turbine Performance

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Gas Turbine Performance


Influences on Gas Turbine Output:
Compressor Fouling

Size Influence Thermodynamic Influence Ambient condition Influence GT Speed Inlet & Exhaust Pressure Loss

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Compressor Fouling
Fouling rate is a function of
Environment Wind Direction Filtration System

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Size Influence
Greater Dimensions

Higher Air flow

Higher Output
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Thermodynamic Influence
Mainly determined by the design of the engine Main Component Efficiency Compressor Pressure Ratio Turbine Inlet Temperature

The combination of gas temperature and pressure ratio gives a specific output, exhaust temperature and thermal efficiency, which also are influenced by the components efficiency.

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Ambient Conditions Influence


Ambient Conditions Influence
Ambient Air Pressure (P0) Ambient Air Temperature (T0) Ambient Air Relative Humidity (RH)

The gas turbine nominal performance is related to: P = 1,013 bar T = 15C RH = 60%
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Ambient Air Pressure (PO)


At constant gas temperature INCREASED ambient air pressure gives: Increased Output Unchanged Unit Efficiency The air density reduces as the site elevation increases. While the resulting airflow and output decrease proportionately, the heat rate and other cycle parameters are not affected.

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Ambient Air Temperature (TO)


The gas turbine is an air-breathing engine, its performance is changed by Air Temperature that affects the density or mass flow of the air intake to the compressor. The following graph shows effect of Ambient Air temperature on output, heat rate, heat consumption, and exhaust flow.

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Ambient Air Relative Humidity


At constant gas temperature, INCREASED ambient air relative humidity gives: Decreased Output

Humid air, which is less dense than dry air, affects output and heat rate, as shown in Graph.

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GT Speed
Ref: GE perf.curve GTF6SP

GT - MW change with speed at different ambient temperature range


35.7 35.925 36 34.05 33.075 32.1 31.05 30 29.025 27.975 27 36.075 34.2 33.3 32.34 31.35 30.3 29.325 28.35 27.3 36.075 34.35 33.45 32.46 31.5 30.6 29.55 28.65 27.6

37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

34.95 34.35 33.75 33.15 32.4 31.5 30.75 30 28.8 27.6 26.475 25.35 24.3 23.175 22.125 29.625 28.35 27.225 26.1 24.975 23.925 22.8 30.3 29.1 27.975 26.85 25.65 24.6 23.55 32.1 30.975 29.85 28.65 27.6 26.4 25.35 24.3 32.7 31.65

35.4

33.3 32.25 31.05 30.45 29.4 28.2 27.15 26.025 24.9 30 28.875 27.75 26.7 25.575

33.6 32.55 31.5 30.45 29.4 28.2 27.15 26.1

33.9 32.85 31.8 30.75 29.7 28.65 27.6 26.55

MW

95

96

97 5degC 35degC

98

99 15degC 40degC

100

101

102 25degC 50degC

103 30degC

104

105

speed %
20degC 45degC

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Inlet & Exhaust Pressure Loss


Pressure Drop Effects for Frame - 6:
4 Inches H2O Inlet Drop Produces:

1.50% Power Output Loss 0.50 % Heat rate Increase 1.2 Deg F Exhaust temperature increase.
4 Inches H2O Exhaust Drop Produces:

0.50% Power Output Loss 0.50 % Heat rate Increase 1.2 Deg F Exhaust temperature increase.

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Gas Turbines with RELIANCE

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RIL Gas Turbines


MODEL Make Output (MW) Heat Rate (kcal/kwh) Efficiency % Pressure Ratio Turbine Speed (rpm) Flow (kg/sec) Exhaust Temp (0C)

GE 10 - 2 Fr - 5 Fr - 6 SGT 700 LM6000PC LM2500+

GE GE GE SIEMENS GE GE GE

11.982 26.30 37.5 29.06 45.48 30.057 126.1 193.20 255.6

2557 3022 2752 2390 2123 2169 2548 1656 2334

33.3 28.5 32.1 36 40.5 39.7 33.8 (sc) 52.0 (cc) 36.9 (sc)

15.5 10.5 12.2 18 30 21.4 12.6 12.6 17

11000 5100 5100 6500 3000 6100 3000 3000 3000

47 123 146 91.36 131 84 418 418 642

480 487.2 544 518 450 500.5 543 543 602

Fr 9E
GE GE Fr 9 FA

GE

390.80

1517

56.7 (cc)
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3000

641

602
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Performance Curves for Gas Turbine

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Performance Curve for Gas Turbine


Power Efficienc ISO Heat Flow consumed by y Output Rate (lb/sec) Compressor % %
26.3 37.5 126.1 255.6 3022 2752 2548 2334 28.5 32.1 33.8 36.9 273 294.8 919.6 1412.4 63.86 61.96 57.93 54.29

Model

Firing Temp (Deg C)


957 1104 1124 1327

Fr 5 MS 6541 Fr 9E Fr 9FA

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Gas Turbine Compressor Power


NET OUTPUT (MW)

T1 T2 (C) (C) 15 15 15 15 15 15 315

T3 (C) 957

T4 WORK TURBINE COMPRESSOR WORK POWER (C) RATIO (MW) (MW) 487 0.361 0.380 0.421 0.457 0.358 0.355 73 99 300 559 127 82 46 61 174 304 82 53

%
63.86 61.96 57.93 54.29 64.20 64.47

Fr - 5 MS-6541 Fr-9E Fr-9FA LM6000 PC SGT 700

26.3 37.5 126.1 255.6 45.48 29.06

362 1104 544 340 1104 543 407 1327 605 535 1260 450 416 1140 518

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Effect of Power Consumed by Compressor

40

80

30

70

20

60

10

50

0 MODEL Fr - 5 MS-6541 Fr-9E Fr-9FA

40

Efficiency %

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% POWER CONSUMED BY THE COMPRESSOR

EFFICIENCY, %

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Effect of Firing Temperature


40 1500 1250

Efficiency, %

30 1000 20 10 250 0 Model Fr - 5 MS-6541 Fr 9E Fr - 9FA 0 750 500

Efficiency %

Firing Temp (Deg C)

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Firing Temp, Deg C


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Comparison
Model ISO Output Heat Rate Efficiency % Flow (lb/sec) Power consumed by Compressor % Firing Temp (Deg C)

MS-6541

37.5

2752

32.1

294.8

61.96

1104

Fr 9FA

255.6

2334

36.9

1412.4

54.29

1327

For every 100 Deg F/55.5 Deg C increase in firing temperature, the efficiency increases about 1.5%. So, 223 Deg C rise in firing temp increases the efficiency by 6%. Leading to improvement in heat rate by 165 kcal/kwh.

7 % reduction in compressor power consumption improves the heat rate by 211 kcal/kwh.
Remaining 2 % improvement in Heat rate as a result of:
GTD-222 Stage 2 Nozzle Stage 2 & 3 Honey Comb Shrouds 86i IGV setting Higher RPM Load Gear High Pressure Packing Brush Seal Improved Cooling Stage 1 Nozzle
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Approximately 20% of the Inlet Air to the Axial Flow Compressor gets lost to the Thermal cycle due to losses associated with cooling hot gas path parts or losses due to Large Clearances. Most uprates on Gas Turbines typically are achieved by Higher Airflow or Higher Firing Temperatures.

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Maintenance Factors of Gas Turbine

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Combustion System Components


Efforts to advance the combustion system are driven by the need for higher firing temperatures and for compliance with regulatory requirements to reduce exhaust emissions.

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Combustion System Components Requirements:


Withstanding Higher Firing Temperature. Low Emissions etc. NOx & CO. Life Time Extension. Maintenance Interval Extension.

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Factors Affecting the Combustion Components Life

Type of fuel
Firing Temperature

Cyclic Effects
Steam or Water Injection Quality of Air

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Maintenance factors Hot gas path (Buckets & Nozzles)

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Fuel vs. Component life

Estimated Effect of Fuel Type on Maintenance


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Fuel vs. Component life


Various fuels used are RFG, Naphtha, HSD& LCO . Liquid fuel High radiant energy Impurities (Na, K, Va) Thermal fatigue failure Hot corrosion
= 1.5 hrs of Gas Fuel Operation at Base Load

Results
1 hr of Liquid Fuel Operation

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The Firing Temperature


Firing temperature Results Thermal efficiency Power output Creep Distortion Reduced life = 6 hours of base load operation.

1 hr of peak load operation.

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Cyclic Effects during Start/Stop

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Cyclic Effects
Each stop and start of a gas turbine subjects the hot gas path to significant thermal cycles. Control systems are designed and adjusted to minimize this effect. The severity is phenomenal in the case of emergency start and trips.

1 Emergency Trip = 8 Normal Shutdown Cycles


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Steam or Water Injection

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Steam or Water Injection


Steam or water is injected in to the combustion system for: NOx Reduction Power Augmentation This steam or water Injection used causes higher dynamic pressure and due to higher specific heat capacity of steam with respect to the gas, causes higher transfer of heat to bucket and nozzle resulting in higher metal temperature of these components reducing their life.

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Hot Gas Path Components & its Metallurgy

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Combustion Liners (FR1G/FR1H)


The original combustion liner was Louvered which was cooled through louvered punches in liner body (Experiencing cracking in punches during operation) Replaced with a slot-cooled liner - provides a more uniform distribution of cooling air flow for better overall cooling. Air enters the cooling holes, impinges on the brazed ring and

discharges from the internal slot as a continuous cooling film.

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The Mechanism of Slot Cooled Liner

Advantage
139 C lower metal Temp. Lower Temp. gradient. Short length provide more stiffness and reduced cooling air.

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TBC Coated Liner


Advantage
The 380 micron TBC thick provide 38 C lower temp. in base metal. For firing temp. 1124 C the thickness of liner is 15 mil thicker.

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Transition piece Changes


The Material Hastelloy-X replaced by Nimonic 263 because of superior to creep life time. The wall thickness is thicker and TBC coated. T.P was lengthened 15 in to relocate the wear of Liner-T.P interface induced by compressor discharge air. Increasing inspection interval to 12000 E.O.H. Redesign of aft bracket allowing the T.P pivot during the thermal cycling.

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Turbine Components
There have been significant design and material improvements made to the turbine components to improve component designs which can withstand higher firing temperatures due to advanced materials and coatings, as well as the addition of air cooling for some of the components.

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BUCKETS
Stage 1 Bucket (FS2H)
Design
The original designs sharp leading edge has been blunted to allow more cooling air to flow to the leading edge, which reduces thermal gradients and cracks.

Materials
The original stage 1 bucket was IN- 738 is changed to an Equiaxed (E/A) GTD-111, a precipitation hardened, nickel-base super alloy, a greater low cycle fatigue. It also provides the industry standard in corrosion resistance.

Coatings
In 1997 the coating was changed again to GT-33 INCOAT. GT-33 is a vacuum plasma spray coating, an increased resistance to through cracking. INCOAT refers to an aluminide coating on the cooling holes passages.
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BUCKETS
Stage 2 Bucket (FS2F)
Cooling
The new stage 2 buckets contains internal air cooling ,allows for higher firing temperatures.

Tip Shroud
Shroud leading edge was scalloped & tip was thickened & shroud tapered. It resulted in 25% reduction in stress and 80% increase in creep life.

Materials
The original bucket was made of U-700, the material was changed to GTD-111, also a precipitation-hardened, nickelbase super alloy, to improve rupture strength. In addition it has higher low cycle fatigue strength
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Scalloping of bucket shroud

Coating
GT 33 INCOAT

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BUCKETS
Stage 3 Bucket (FS2K)
Design
The trailing edge was thickened, and the chord length increased, the shroud leading edge was scalloped, the shroud tip was thickened between the seal teeth, and the underside of the shroud was tapered. These design changes resulted in an increase in creep life of the bucket.

Materials
The stage 3 bucket was originally made of U-500, it was changed to IN-738, a precipitation hardened, nickel-based super alloy.

Process Change
A new process for the bucket which eliminates the need for the cold straightening step, thus eliminating the process induced strain in the material.

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NOZZLES
Stage 2 Nozzle (FS1P)

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SHROUD BLOCKS
Stage 1 Shroud Blocks (FS2C)
The stage 1 shroud block was redesigned for the 2055F/ 1124C firing temperature. The two piece design is film cooled using airflow from the stage 2 nozzle to inhibit cracking. The film cooling required additional flow which translates into a performance loss. The main advantage of the two piece design is that it allows the damaged caps to be replaced without Having to remove the shroud block bodies or turbine nozzles. The body and hook fit are made of310 stainless steel and the cap is made of FSX-414.

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SHROUD BLOCKS
Stage 2 & 3 Shroud Honey Comb Seal
i. ii. Honey Comb Shroud: Reduces Leakage Greater Rub Tolerance Requires Buckets with Cutter Teeth Provides a performance improvement up to 0.6% in both output and heat rate.

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MATERIALS
Turbine Blades

Turbine Nozzles

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MATERIALS
Combustors

Turbine Wheels

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MATERIALS
Compressor Blades

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Improvement in Firing Temperature with Blade Material

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Gas Turbine Control Systems

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RIL Gas Turbine Control System

Due to non-availability of spares, Mark IV system at RIL sites are under proposal for upgrade to Mark VI. Expected cost is Rs. 200 lacs per unit.

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GE Control System Advances


System Type Introduced Total Shipped Sequencing Control Protection Mark I 1966 850 Relays Discrete Solid State Relays Analog Meters & Relay Annunciator Mark II 1973 1825 Mark II ITS 1976 356 Mark IV 1982 1080 TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor CRT & LED Aux. Display Membrane Switches Hardware Based Mark V 1991 530 TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor VGA Color Graphics Keyboard &/or CPD SIFT, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance Mark VI 2004 Ongoing TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor TMR Microprocessor VGA Color Graphics Keyboard &/or CPD SIFT, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance Remote I/O capability

Discrete Solid State Components ICs Relays & Solid State ICs & MPs ICs & microprocessor

Display

Analog and Digital Meters; Solid State Annunciator

Input

Push buttons and bat handled switches

Fault Tolerance

Manually Rejects Failed Exhaust Thermocouples

Automatic Rejects Failed T/Cs.

Enhancement

Integrated Circuits

Micro-Processor

TMR & CRT Display

SIFT, VGA Graphics

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Introduction to Control Philosophy

Control system
Communicates with the turbine to Measure, adjust the parameters

It also protects the turbine from abnormal operations

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Introduction to Control Philosophy


Gas Turbine Controls
1. Basic Control Parameters of GT
2. Minimum Gate Concept of Six Control Loop Start up Speed/Load Temperature Acceleration Manual Shut down Main

Auxiliary

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30 June 09 NAP/KER HSD EXHAUST 84 dga BREAKER OPEN

UNIT CONTROL DISPLAY

IGV

CRANK MOTOR
AIR INLET CPD 8.55 barg Max. Vib 7.0 mm/sec

GEAR BOX

GENERATOR
WATTS VARS PF FREQ

NORMAL RUN STATUS SELECT2 PRESEL STATUS_FLD UNLOADING FSER_CONTROL SPEED-DROOP SPEED_LVL 14HS FLAME #A#B#C#D GT_SPEED 98.75 % TNR 102.57 % SPREAD_1 30 deg C FSR 64 % MSG_FLD1 SIMPLE CYCLE MSG_FLD2 IGV FULL OPEN SC43 AUTO SC43F NAPTHA LIQUID FUEL 100 % RT NAP/KER

Master Select
OFF CRANK FIRE AUTO CO-GEN SIMPLE 89 of 119

Master Control
START FAST START STOP DROOP

Load Control
BASE LOAD PRESEL MW SETPOINT

Fuel Select
GAS HSD NAP
100 75 50 25 0 LUBE OIL

LOAD CONTROL RAISE ISOCH LOWER

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Controlling and Monitoring


Stage Link

BOI
Mark-V Panel Backup operator Interface

<I> Station Turbine Generator

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MARK-V CONTROL PANEL LAYOUT


<I> Station

<S>

<R>

<C>

<T>

< P>

< PD >

IONET DENET POWER STAGE LINK

< QD1 >

< CD >

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The MARK-V Control System Description

The Mark-V control system has TMR (Triple Modular


Redundant) configuration.
<R>, <S> and <T> control processor. <C> communication processor.

<P> protective processor.


<PD> power distribution processor. <QD1> & <CD> input & output processor. The < I > station is used to control the turbine. The <BOI> may be used to control the Turbine, whenever loss

of communication between the < I > station and Mark-V panel.

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Simple Cycle Package Power Plant Starting Time

* Time is in Minutes

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Gas Turbine Generator Controls & Limit

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Dual Fuel transfer Characteristics- Gas to Liquid

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Gas Turbine Fuel Control

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Gas Fuel Control System

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Liquid Fuel Control System

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Typical Gas Turbine Starting Characteristics

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Exhaust Temperature Control


Temperature Controller ensures that the Turbine internals are protected from over heat and Optimum power is produced. The firing temperature is difficult to measure and hence the Controller uses the exhaust thermocouples as reference which is directly proportional to Firing Temperature. Tf = Tx (Pcd/Pa) k

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Exhaust/Firing Temperature Relation

Curve comparing the load

at different ambient.

The firing temperature remains constant even with increase in MW, FSR & CPR ratio with less exhaust temperatures.
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Acceleration Control

0.35 %/sec

0.10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100% TNH


Acceleration Control functions during sudden Load Changes and Start Up

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Manual Control

Manual Control Loop Can be used to limit fuel to prevent over firing and over riding active control.

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Shut Down Control

Shut down control loop reduces the fuel at a predetermined during shut down to reduce thermal stresses.

FSRSD is the minimum of Six Control Loops


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IGV Control
IGV Control Loop
Controls air fuel ratio Prevents Compressor Pulsations

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IGV Control

IGV scheduling is required to ensure the protection from Pulsation/Stall by excessive opening at lower speeds/loads and negative pressures at partial loads by less opening

IGV Schedule
Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loads for Combined Cycle Operation

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IGV Control
Isothermal

The exhaust temp. varies for simple and combined cycle operations. IGV temperature control never exceeds the base temperature control set point.

CPD

IGV control reference Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loads for Combined Cycle Operation

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Performance Benchmarking

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Purpose of Benchmarking
Gives feed back on relative performance.
Indicating opportunities for improvement. Un-earth and explore the outstanding Reliability issues. Highlight the areas for improvement. Target the initiatives for sustainable development.

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Gas Turbine Key Performance Indicators


% Reliability accounting for - No. of Emergency trips - No. of Forced shutdowns - No. of Unplanned shutdowns hrs % Availability accounting for - Outage duration - MTBF Key performance indicators - Heat rate (Open cycle/Co-gen) - Efficiency (Open cycle/Co-gen) - Fuel efficiency improvement Index Fuel , Power , Steam Costs & Grid Power Bill - Percentage increase in Grid Power Consumption - Fuel, Power & Steam Cost - Fuel & Grid Power Bill
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Benchmarking at a Glance Number of Emergency Trips Number of forced shutdowns These are numbers which indicate the number of equipment trips in each category. RIL benchmark for not more than 1 trip/year for one equipment.

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Benchmarking at a Glance

Number of unplanned shut down hours


This is number which indicates the number of unplanned shutdown hours in each category. RIL has a systematic budget approach targeting planned shutdown hours for all the equipment.

The Down time hours include planned and unplanned shutdown hours.

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Benchmarking at a Glance
GT open cycle heat rate
Total direct fuel fired in GT in Kcal Power generated from GT in kwh

GT/HRSG Co-gen Efficiency


GT/HRSG Co-gen efficiency = ((A+B)/(C+D))*100
where A= GT power generation in thermal units B= HRSG steam generation in thermal units C= Fuel input to GT in thermal units D= Fuel input to HRSG supp firing in thermal units

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Benchmarking at a Glance

STG Cycle Efficiency


This is the efficiency in % for STG.

STG Efficiency = (A+B/C)*100


where A = ST power generation in thermal units B = Steam generation in thermal units C = Steam energy input at Steam turbine inlet in thermal units

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Benchmarking at a Glance

Auxiliary Boiler Thermal Efficiency


This is the efficiency in % for Auxiliary Boiler.

Aux Boiler Efficiency = (A/B)*100


where A = Aux boiler steam generation in thermal units B = Fuel energy input to boilers in thermal units

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Benchmarking at a Glance

Overall fuel utilization efficiency


This is the combined efficiency of the CPP in %
Overall Fuel utilization efficiency =((A+B+C)/(D+E+F))*100 where A= GT power generation in thermal units B= ST power generation in thermal units C= Steam extraction+PRDS steam energy in thermal units D= GT input fuel in thermal units E= HRSG input suppl. fuel in thermal units F=Aux boiler input fuel in thermal units

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Benchmarking at a Glance Fuel efficiency improvement index


This is the number in %, that indicates fuel efficiency improvement to reference period. Fuel efficiency improvement index is then = A / B where A = Fuel efficiency for the current period B = Fuel efficiency for the reference period overall

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RIL - CPP Benchmarking Criteria


Based on Key performance indicators, Ranking allotted to plants

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

2008-09 Jamnagar Hazira Nagothane Baroda Gandhar Patalganga

2007-08 Baroda Hazira Jamnagar Nagothane Gandhar Patalganga

2006-07 Patalganga Jamnagar Hazira Gandhar Baroda Nagothane

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Thank You
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