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REPORT RESUMES ED 016 223 AL 000 977 FUNDAMENTALS OF AMHARIC (REVISED EDITION)» UNITS I-1IT (PRONUNCIATION AND LESSONS 1-15). BY- BARTON, DONALD K. AND OTHERS UTAH UNIV.) SALT LAKE CITY PUB DATE 67 EORS PRICE MF-$1.50 HC-$14.26 354. DESCRIPTORS- SAHHARIC, LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, #GRAMMAR, PATTERN DRILLS (LANGUAGE), FHONOLOGY, LANGUAGE STYLES, FORM CLASSES (LANGUAGES), ROMANIZATION, STANDARD SFOKEN USAGE, ETHIOPIA, UNIVERSITY OF UTAH, THIS 18 THE FIRST OF A THREE-VOLUME, NINE-UNIT COURSE IN BASIC AMHARIC. VOLUME ONE TOGETHER WITH VOLUME TWO (UNITS IV-VITT OR LESSONS 16-35) DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS OF PRONUNCIATION AND THE ORAL-AURAL MASTERY OF BASIC GRAMMATICAL, CONSTRUCTIONS. EACH LESSON INCLUDES & DIALOG, GRAMMATICAL. NOTES, PATTERN DRILLS, EXERCISES, AND A VOCABULARY LIST. AT THE END OF EACH VOLUME ARE APPENDED ENGLISH-AMHARIC AND AMHARIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES. THIS COURSE WILL PREPARE THE STUDENT TO PERFORM AT A PROFICIENCY LEVEL IN SPOKEN AMHARIC OF 8-3, FOLLOWING THE EVALUATION OF CRITERIA OF THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. (TP) OFFICE OF EDUCATION 5 THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINATING IT. POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINION STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION a FUNDAMENTALS CF_AMHARIC (Revised Edition) Units I - III (Pronunciation and Lessons 1 - 15) Dr. Donald K. Barton Taddese Beyene Teshome Habte-Gabriel Larry B. Prestwich Coord inato: Materials Production Assistant Materials Production Illustrations Sponsored by PEACE CCRPS UNIVERSITY OF UTAH 1967 REPRODUCE THIS SAN? HATE HA BE GRATED wy Okan 7H TO ERIC AND ORGAxIzA OPERATING. ‘UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF DUCATION. FURTHER REPRODUCTION OUTSIDE THE ERIC SYSTEM REQUIRES PERRISSION OF THE GOOCH OWNER.” PREFACE This is the first of three volumes of Fundamentals of Amharic in their revised form prepared at the Univer- ‘sity of Utah under the sponsorship of Peace Corps and intended to teach Amharic to Peace Corps trainees goin, to Ethiopia, Together with another volume, Amharic a English (University of Utah, 1966), they serve ae corps materials linking foreign language study (i.e. Amharic) th the study of English as a foreign language on the sumption that such contrastive analysis may have great benefit for volunteers in learning a foreign language and in preparing them to teach Englieh in the foreign field. The authors wish to express their sincere apprecia- tion to Peace Corps and, in particular, to Mr. Alan Kulakow of the Training Division for their constant en- couragement and direction in the preparation end revision of these materials. Acknowledgement is likewise to be made of the invaluable suggestions contributed by the Ethiopian Amharic instructors at the University of Utah for expanding, revising and improving the original text. D. K. Barton T. Beyene Sait Lake City, Utah May 20, 1967 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........4 iv PRONUNCIATION 1 sence eee eee eceeseeeeeeeeenes OF Penne eee e eee eee ee eens eeeeeeee teeeeceeeeees 6H Lesson ONE weeceeecescececccecceseseeeee te eeeeeeeeeee OF Greetings. ne neti, xfifia nen. Negative: re aydellehum, zhi aydellenim, Plural marker, Lesson TWO seseceececesecereeees tet eeeeeeeeeeeee TF Greetings. ante neh. anti nes. rsswe newot. Negative: ante aydellehim, anki, aydelleSim, rsswo aydellum, Lesson Three .esseseeeseceeeeeeeeeeee Greetings + xssu new. rsswa tssattew nattew, ato new, weyero, weyzerit nat. Negative : xssu aydellem, rsswa _ aydellettrm, rssattow aydollum, Lesson Four ... eee ceccccceseccccccessscecseeses 108 Greetings. rnnants nat&zhu: innessu nattew. Negative: mnante aydellatézhum iInnessu aydellum. Identification : yrh mrndzn new? Innezzih mrndrn nattew? Lesson Five .ececceccccceseececesseetsesseeeesesseses 126 UNIT II .eccccescccccceeccceceeeeeesescesereeceetesecseeec 134 Lesson Six ..... 134 Age and Name. Greetings. Numerals. Age. Possessive suffixes. Lesson Seven .eeeeececcececeeteeeeeettetecereeeeeeeee 152 Family Relations. Greetings Lesson Eight...ccceececececeeeseeeeteeeesteeeeeseeeee L72 Time Peer rr reer sire) Lesson Nine . Days . Weeks. Months. Year. Weather. Months. Seasons. Date. Lesson Ten . 205 Review Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication. Division. (44) UNIT III ..... Lesson Eleven ...ssssesseccsseesecseceecssecccresecce OLb Directions. tzzih. xzziya, bestek'efifi. bestegra. 4 bestehuala, fitlefit. at'egeb. belay ‘ batokt. Lesson Twelve . ws 229 Past of Verb "to be", Personal endings. (Subject suffixes), Perfect (Past tense). Personal endings. al- (z)m- negative particle. Lesson Thirteen 253 be. ley, be- wrst'. be- srr. Lesson Fourtsen .ssseesseseeeseseeseeseesscceceeeeees 265 Verb "to have" with singular and plural nouns. Lesson Fifteen . Review. VOCABULARY: ENGLISH-AMHARIC seeeeeeeeee 202 VOCABULARY: AMHARIC-ENGLISH .......4. Perrrrrs seeeeeeeeees BOD CHARTS AND MAPS CHARTS : Chart One 22. ccerecececcccccccecccceccncccesesseesee6S ChArt TWO 2. ..secceeeccceccccccc cece ccncccecesce eset Chart Three. ......seeccccececcccccccccecscncceccceeell& Chart Four ....scsceeeeccceccccccceccccccccceccceceel 37 Chart Five csccccccccccsccccccccscceccncccessceseeeel SS Chart Six ...cccccccccccesccccccnccccccncccencsscensl66 ‘MAPS: Map of Ethiopia . Map of Addis Ababa . eviii 2217 Civ) INTRODUCTION COURSE MATERIALS It has been estimated that less than half the people of Ethiopia speak Amharic as their native tongue. Never- theless, Amharic is the official national language and its popularity throughout the Empire is increasing rapidly. In areas where Amharic is not the mother language, it ia the second language of most educated people. Currently Amharic is being taught in all public schools and can be used al- most anywhere in Ethiopia, This course will by-pass the numerous Amharic dialects and teach the language as it is spoken in the capital city of Addis Ababa. The present materials, a revision of Fundamentals of Amharic (University of Uteh, 1966), have been prepare inder the auspices of Peace Corps as a basic functional course in Amharic to be used in training programs to pre- pare personnel for service in Ethiop: In view of the fact that most volunteers going to Ethiopia must at some time teach English, much of the con- tent of Lessons 1 - 5 in Fundamentals of Amharic parallels the grammatical subject matter in Amharic end English (University of Utah, 1966) in order te provide volunteers with some insights into the problems of teaching English as a foreign language. Fundamentals of Amharic (Revised Edition) is composed of three volumes. folumes TI a TI deal with the problems of pronunciation and the oral-aural mastery of basic struc- tural materials. Volume III has two parts: 1) a collec tion of dialogues and narratives which are intended to im- Prove aural comprehension and which offer extensive vocabu- lary study including colloquialisms suited to every-day situations; 2) an introduction to the writing system in Amharic with a study of the syllabary and representative texts from elementary to literary style. The study of the syllabary may be begun at any time, but for those interested primarily in developing verbal skills, it is felt that thie phase is best left until the completion of Volume II before undertaking a study of the writing system in detail. Pedagogically this text, complete with audio tapes, utilizes proven audio-lingual techniques. Grammatical information is expressed simply in sections entitled Notes and is presented always from the point of view of how a thing is said as opposed to why. Models illustrat- Ing usage are clearly marked and provide examples for the instructor to follow. @w Vocabulary study anticipates absolute mastery. It is expected, therefore, that the vocabulary of each lesson will be thoroughly learned before moving to the next. Appended to many lessons is an enrichment vocabulary to be used at the instructor's discretion. Matters of pronunciation are presented with a minimum of explanation. Exercises focus on specific kinds of diffi- culties end include ear-training drills for vocabulary pur- poses (i.e. learning to distinguish words which sound much alike but having different meanings). All representation of sounds in Amharic is achieved by the use of transcription symbols. The materials presented in Fundamentals of Amharic (Revised Erition), if learned well, will prepare the stu- lent to perform at a proficiency level in spoken-Amharic of S - 3, following the evaluation criteria of the Foreign Service Institute. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS To The Instructor 1. Teach and insist on the mastery of each lesson. 2. Use Amharic as the exclusive language of the classroom so far as possible. If necessary, give the student the English word but return immediately to Amharic. 3. Insist on accuracy and fluency. Once a pattern has been correctly put together require the student to repeat it at conversational tempo. 4, Using the text: a) In class, only the instructor will use the text. Students will respond with books closed. All vocabulary will be learned through repetition after the instructor. Drills will be modeled by the instructor. b) Certain types of drills occur repeatedly. Feel free to improvise on their vocabulary but do not change the models. ©) The text contains numerous short narratives. Read the narrative somewhat slowly once and then repeat it at normal speed. (vi) 4) Questions given by the instructor are to be re~ peated by the student and then the answer given. Anawers are to bé repeated if inaccurate, slow, or poorly pronounced. e) Intonation is to be taught primarily by imitation. Ineiet or repetition of items poorly pronounced. To the Student 1. Successful volunteers are usually those who know the language. 2. Use Amharic whenever you can and always when speaking with the Etniopians. 3. Strive for accuracy and fluency. This will be possible only by extensive over-learning. Once through is never enough. 4. Work in class will be with books closed. 5S. In audio-lingual teaching techniques there is much needed repetition. Be patient and be content to say things simply at first. 6. Role playing will facilitate language learning. Visualize yourself as being in Ethiopie. 7. Ask always how a thing is said in Amharic, not why. (wii) ETHIOPIA sowaLt REPUBLIC kena é PRONUNCIATION There are seven vowels and twenty-six consonants in Amharic. Many of these sounds are new to those whose native tongue is English, To master them will require much practice. In this text the various sounds of Amharic will be represented by symbols with examples in English which approximate the sounds of Amharic, The symbols, with their approximate English sound and examples in Amharic are given below. Symbol, English Amharic. sheep i 'facet set 2 ‘house! children 321 ‘amet Just 'doort how ‘she ist boot nw ‘bananat home 101 ‘death! The vowels in these words are followed by an off-glide of /y/ in the case of sheep and ,‘w/ in the case of boot and home. The same vowels are pronounced without off-glides in Amharic. English LY shoe CONSONANTS Amharic paris ‘Paris! plawlos 'Paul! bunna ‘coffee! barik ‘story! ttella ‘pear! (home made) dulle ‘stack, club! kot ‘coat! fob teap! genna ‘Christmas’ fori ‘coward! ‘ sar ‘grass! zega ‘national! eri ‘buy! (imperative, you feminine um tchief, boss, officer! * The glottalized sounds are produced by a simultaneous closure and release of a ») c) a) e) ) the lips and the glottis for /p'/ Symbol i /e/ /er/* ann Lo boy L*/ toy /t/* feet /¥ ge LY key 7s/* eee /e/ go /8/ far /3/ so Lf 200 LY pleasure | ! i the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper teeth and the glottis for [t'/ the back of the tongue against the soft palate and the glottis for /k'/ the front part of the tongue against the soft palate and the glottis for /t'/ the tip of the tongue against the back of the upper teeth and the glottis for /ts'/ Symbol LY /ts'/* TY LE4* 1 ff 1Y LY /Y ff i /3/ English Amharic. haya ‘twenty! ts'ehay "sunt Ber "eina! Bow ‘salt! joro tear! man twho! nage ‘tomorrow! nett 'T amt lam "cow! ras ‘head! waga ‘price! ya "that? Consonat Length Consonant length (doubling of consonants) is indicated by writing the same consonant twice, 'O.K.! talright! Examples: 1884 berr "door! * See foot note, preceding page. ** trt in Amharic is always pronounced by one or more taps of the tongue and resembles the pronunciation of this letter in Spanish, PUNCTUATION AND INTONATION A period marks the end of a sentence, It is characterized by a falling intonation at the end of a statement sentence, Example: /smme alemu now./ ‘My name is Alemu', em A comma marks the end of one intonation group and the beginning of another in the same sentence. It indicates that the sentence is not completed and it is characterized by a relatively sustained intonation. EE Example: /ewon, sime_alem. new./ Suon ‘Yes, my name is Aldgu'. A question mark indicates the end of an interrogative sentence. It is characterized by a sharp rise in intonation at the end of an interrogative sentence, Example: 7 ‘/sime alemu npw?/ ‘Is my name Alem?! EXERCISES /x/ non-glottalized Z&!Z glottalized Practice ktolla, -ktura, ktolla. Kroji ktadda. Irktkt, + brrk' dznk' nektkta, lakte. Same or different? ktedda - kedda.. Ktodda - k'edda, kedda - kedda. kedda - ktedda, ktedda - kedda. Kedda - kedda.. Ktodda - k'odda. Ktedda - kedda.. ay rrites Non-glottalized or glottalized? ktedda glottalized, non-glottalized, 14 1.5 1.6 | | : ‘kt adde/_'he poured’, /kedda/ ‘he betrayed'. Say 'poured! or 'betrayed'. kiedda. sess ++ poured, kedda. tesesees betrayed, kedda. wee : kKledda, ktedda... kedda. klodda... Ktedda.... Practice. kten = 'day!, kles = 'priest!, Klum - "stand up! k'zn - 'good netured', Klim = 'grudge', —-ktob_. = 'cap', klal = 'word', K'oda - ‘leather, skin or hide’. zk'k! = 'vacant', brrk! - ‘rare’, aink' - 'wonderful' sink’ - 'provision'. Say _'k'edda' or 'kedda', poured. + ktedda. betrayed. betrayed . poured. betrayed. roured. poured, betrayed. | | PRACTICE INTONATION Statement intonation, ato abbabe gebare new. ato aseffa gebere new. weyzero sofiya astemari nat. weyzerit brrtukan ts'ohafi nat. Question intonation, ato abbebe gebere now? ato aseffa gebere now? weyzero sofiya astemari nat? weyzerit brrtukan ts'ehafi nat? Say 'Same' or 'Different'. ato abbebe gabere new, ato abbebe gebere new? *****"*** ato abbebe gebere new. ato abbebe gebere new. ***t ttt gennet temari nat? gennet temari nat? * atc alemu neggade new? ato alemu neggade new. weyzerit aster ts'ohafi nat, weyzerit aster ts'ehafi sat. weyzero sofiya astemari nat? weyzero sofiya astemari getahun temari new, getahun temari new? 1.10 Say 'question' or 'statement'. weyzero sofiya astemari nat.. statement. weyzerit brrtukan ts'ehafi nat question. weyzerit aster ts'ehafi nat? ato yohannis astemari new... weyzero yeSi astemari nat?. ato alemu neggade new?.. ato alemu noggade new. masfin temari now.. 1.12 Change the statement to a question. ato abbebe gebere new. ato abbabe gebere new? weyzerit aster ts'ehafi nat. weyzerit aster ts'ehafi nat? ato alemu neggade new. tew: . ast: getahun temari new. tw: : ast: ato aseffa gebere new. tow: . weyzerit birtukan ts'ehefi nat. weyzero sofiya astemari nat. ast: | weyzerit mulu temari nat. t-w: weyzerit mulu temari nat? 1.12 Change the question to a statement, weyzero sofiya astemari nat? weyzero sofiya astemari nat. ato aseffa gebere now? ato aseffa gebere now. weyzerit brrtukan ts'ehafi nat? weyzero yeSi astemari nat? getahun temari new? ato alemu neggade new? weyzerit aster ts'ehafi nat? ato abbebe gebere new? Non-glottalized /t/ glottalized /t'/ 21 Practice 2.2 Seme or different? tlebba - tebba. .D tlebba - t'ebba, aS tebba - tebba. eae tebba - tlebba. Sam tlebba - tebba, ea tebba - tebba. ee ttebba - t'abba, ome ttebba - tebba, ae 2.3 Non-glottalized or glottalized? tlebba.. glottalized, non-glottalized. ‘quarrel! + worm, quarrel. Practice ttolla tlotitta trena therra tirrr Say 'trl' or 't'zl', quarrel WOIM. .eeeees worm... quarrel. quarrel. WOPT. wee quarrel. worm... 2.7 2.8 29 2.10 2.11 PRACTISE INTONATION (Repeet after the instructor) ato abbebe gebere new, ato aseffam gebore now. ato alemu neggade new, ato lemmam neggade new, ato yohannrs astemari new, ato grrmam astemari now, tesfaye temari new, mesfrnim temari new. gennet temari nat, zewditum temari nat. goberewot% nat¥ew. noggadewot® nattow. astemariwott naétew, ts'ehafinott nattew. temariwott nattew. innessu geberewott nattew, innessu neggadewokt nattow. Innessu astemariwott nattew, Innessu ts'ehafiwokt nattew, Innessu temariwott nattew, ato aseffanna ato abbebe geberewott nattow. ato lemmanna ato alemu neggadewot® naktow. ato yohanniIsinna ato grrma astemariwott natvew. weyzerit saranna weyzerit birtukan ts'ohafiwots nattow, weyzero almazinna weyzero yeSi astemariwott nattew, getahuninna zewditu temariwot% nattew, temari noh? ante temari neh? tomari no8? anéi temari no8? awon nef, awon, temari nefi, awon, Ine temari nef, ts'ehafi neh? ante ts'ehafi neh? ts'ohafi nok? anéi ts'ehafi nok? yellem aydellehum, yellem, ts'ehafi aydellehum, yellem, Ine ts'ehafi aydellehum, 3. QL non-glottalized Zp'/_glottalized 3.1 Practice plawlos. plap'ptas. plagume. plettros, i ityop'p!zya. fl ityopptya, perak'1it'os. ptorak'lit!'os, i lappis lap'p!is. ; filippos. filiptptos. i pilattos. piilattos. t ereppeza, >+ tlerep'pteza, 3.2 Same or different? ptavlos - pawlos HD, plawlos - ptavwlos. eae pawlos - plawlos.. eae plawlos - ptawlos. pe pawlos - pawlos. bes ptawlos - pawlos. eet ptawlos - p'awlos, bee pawlos - p'awlos. ae 3.3 Non-glottalized or glottalized, . glottalized, « Non-glottalized. plawlos pawlos. pawlos. plawlos ptawlos: pawlos.e.. plawlos pawlos. 3.4 3.5 3.6 Statement:- yzh yzh yzh yzh yrh yrh yzh yzh yzh yzh yth yzh yzh yzh yzh yzh zh yzh yrh yzh yzh INTONATION PRACTICE QUESTION VS, STATEMENT mats'thaf new. yzh mets'zhaf new? zrsas new. yrh rrsas now? womber new, yth wémber new? brir new. yrh brir new? tlerep'pteza new. —-yrh_tterep'pteza new? berr new. yth berr new? maskot new. yth maskot new? Sam2 or different? mats'zhaf new. yth mots'zhaf now?... tlerep'p'eza new? yzh t'erep'p'eza new? barr new. yzh berr new...... mesrot new. yrh meskot new? rrsas new? yzh qrsas new?. wember new. yth wember new. brrr new. yrh brrr new?.. Say ‘statement' or ‘question! rrsas new? wember new, tterep'pteza new... brzr new?, . DEFT NOWeeeveeee meskot naw?.. mats'zhaf new, debter new... eeeee + question, eveceseess statement, 14 4 Non-glottalized Blottalized /ts'/ AL Practice sogea. ts! ogga. ansa, ants'a, nessa, nets'ts'a, ktrrs ktirts', ASC. eee atste, anese. anets's. anesa afietsta, mansat.. mants' at, sed. tsteb. ammasa.. amnets'o. 42 Same or different? ts'opga - sogga. D tstogga - ts'ogga. s SOGBA = SOLER eee eves segga- tsloggaseeeee. _ tstogga - i tstegga - = segea- = tslogga - = Non-glottalized or glottalized? ts'ogga.. SOLEAL eee ee ee sogga. ts 'egga. SaBBa. eee ts' egga. sogga. sogea. glottalized. non-glottalized, the worried, tste, 'grace', /so; Say ‘grace! or 'worried', tstogga. Seed e wenn eeeeeeeee Braces segea.. tstogga. SOgBa... ts'ogga. TS OBER. eevee vee eee SOLER. eee ee eeeee ts'egea. ts'ehafi ts'ogga ts'elot. tstafo, tstolleya..... dimts'.... k'rrts'. grits grbts gets'ts! Say 'ts'sgga' or 'sogga'. grace.. worried, worried, worried. grace grace worri worried. 'sun', 'secretary/writer'. "grace! 'prayer'. the wrote!. ‘he prayed". ‘voice’, ‘shape', ‘clear', 'Egypt', ‘page’. tslogga. SoBga. Non-glotvalized /&/ glottalizea /¢1/ a 5.1 Practice notte, j Etzpbo. t moti, i fetta, t ret'i, i gotti, ' bréteia, i Eton, j gadti, | fxrb"4, ' | 5.2 Same or different? } i net1Bt = 8 i nett = D nebter = es nettt — a i | nek = a I neki I netter iH i : nett - 7 | | : i 5.3 Non-glottalized or glottalized? | non-glottalized, I glottalized. i ’ i v7 54 natt¥'/ twhitet, /nekt/ 'she ist. Say ‘white’ or 'she is! white, she is. nedtbt, 5.6 ‘salt’, ‘smoke, 'shoe!, ‘Patt, tcrafty'. trazor'. ‘out/outside'. ‘tax-collector'. tone who cuts', 5.7 Say ett! or 'Mmett&t. nette!, white. eeeee nett, she is . whites... white. she is. she is. white. whites... 6. Flapped /x/* 6.1 Practice serek'o, . 6.2 Same or different? berre - berre, berre - bere. berre - berre. bere - bere. berre - bere. bere - berre. berre - barre. bere - bere, 6.3 Trilled or flapped? verre. bere. bere, berre, bere. barre. bere, berre. I * The flapped-r is pronounced with a single flap of the tongue whereas the trilled-r, sometimes called a muitivibrant-r, several such flaps. 19 Trilled (doubled) /rr/* ferra’. arrege. serrek!a, Pll tl ow trilled. flapped. | 1 | | | ‘ | j 6.4 ‘perre/_'my door', /bare, Say 'my door! or 'ox'. bere. perre, berre, bere. berre, bere. bere. berre 6.5 Practice arrese. 6.6 Say "beret or "berret. toxt. ‘my door’. 'door', the became proud’, "dollar. the leat. 'thread!. : "it came on (light)'. the farmed'. bere. berre. 7 Single /1/ Double /11/* Tl Practice alle. i allu. i ballu. i nella, i wrll, i allattew, i allem. i allat. } malat! mellat', melak, mellak, i ij | 7.2 Same or different? i ale - ale... s 4 alle - allo. 8 i alo - alle. He | ale - ae i alle - ia ' alle - ee ale - ale - fr 7.3 Single or double /11/? * Most double consonants in Amharic may be approximated by consecutive sequence in two different words in English: double /11/: pale light, double /nn/: tan neck, etc. 21 Th 7.5 7.6 Zalle/ ‘there is' /ale/ 'he said'. Say ‘there is' or "he said', ale... alle. alles. aloseeee ale.. alle, alosees alle. Practice alle, allu. bella... . DEL eevee ee ee fella... fellege. zellele.... Belleme.... Say 'ale' or talle'. there is... he saideeceeee he said, there AS. eee eeeee seers he said.. there is. there 4: he said.. 22 he said. there is. ‘there ist. ‘there are!, the ate', ‘they ate'. tit boiled’. the looked for". the jumped", the rewarded’. alle. ale. 8.1 8.2 8.3 Non-palatalized Practice ayyon.. ayyun.. allon.. Same or different? nefi nefi nen nen nef nef nen nef nefie. Non-valatalized or palatalized? NON vo eeeeeeeeessereeee Palatalized /7/ ahifta, nefi, Klett, mettat. ayyefi. ayyun. allen. nebberefi. sot!tlan, terran. vn See ae non-palatalized, palatalized. 8.4 Lnanf_'we are', /net/ 'I am', Say 'we are! or 'I am! nen, Practice Tiflasss eee ‘wet, amarihfiane ee eeee ‘Amharic', sefifio. . « "Monday. 'Tuesday'. : ‘he saw off', (accompanied) ‘they ‘saw off", (accompanied) 8.6 Say 'nen' or ‘nef. We are, I om. 9 Single Double /nn/ 9.2 Practice wana, vveee. wanna, gena, genna, at'ona. at'enna, mena, menna, bun... bunn, ktonat. k'onnat. brnesa.. brnnesa, 9.2 Same or different? wanna - wanna.. s wanna - wana. D wana - wana, es wanna = wanna, wana - wanna..... a wanna = wanna, = wana - wanna, wanna - wana, wanna, wanna, wana, 4 ‘wana/ ‘swimming’, /wanna/ ‘maint or 'important'. . important. + swimming. ll 905 Practice important". 'Christmas'. ‘manna’. ‘famet, the studied". ‘they studied’. attonm.... +. ‘it rained'. zennebe.. 9.6 Say ‘wana! or 'wannat. important swimming. swimming. important. swimming. swimming. important Double /mm/ lemmtn, lemmar, lemma. yammal. yrt'ommal. mommar. ammat. Tame... lamn, yamerall yimmerall, nemezgeb. mommezgeb. 10,2 Same or different? lemmzn lemmzn lemzn lemzn lemmn lemmzn lemzn lemmin 10.3 Single or double Lemmzn, lemin, lemmzn, lemin, lemin, lemmzn, lemmzn, lemin, 10.4 ‘lemmrn/ _'beg' imperative, Say ‘beg! or 'why'. lemin.... 10.5 Practice lemma. semma, domma. Lemmene..... jemmere.. gamma. ammeme....+ kk" omma.. 10.6 Say 'lemzn' or 'lemmrn'. why. DEB. se eeee 28 ‘Lemrn/_'why'. + why. beg. ‘it became fertile’. ‘he heard", the bled", the begged". the began’. ‘mane of horse'. ‘it caused pain’, the took! (by force). lemmn, lemmzn, 1. Single /b/ Double /bb/ 11.2 Practice ageba... agebba. aba. abba, abay. abbay. seba, sabba. tlab. ttebb. grb. grbb. gezbbi. yrt!ebbal, 11.2 Same or different? abay - s abbay - D abay - is abbay - = abay - a abay - i abbay - = abay - im 11.3 Single /b/ or double /bb/? double, single, lI 29 14 Zabbay/ ‘River Nile', /abay/ ‘Liar! Say 'liart or 'Nile'. sees Mle. 11.5 Practice + ‘he married’. vi. 'father' (clergy). DUT. 'father'. ‘pumpkin’, ‘pread'. theart'. ‘pear! (animal). 11.6 Say _'abbay' or ‘abay'. seeeeeeees Abbaye ve abay. liar.. Nile. liar. | | 30 12. 12.1 12,2 12.3 Single /t, Double /tt/ Practice kote + Kotte. mato + metto, ya8etal + yaSottal. metew. + Rattew. matergom,. + mettergom, metekat mettekat, matekos. mattekos. yr8etall. yr8ettall, Same or different? kotte s kote D kote a kotte ce kotte ae kote a kotte an kotte a Single or double? kotte. Double. kote. Single. kote. 12.4 ‘Kotte/ "hooft, /kote/ 'my coat'. Say "hoof! or 'my coat!, my coat. hoof, 12.5 Practice motta. the hit', i fettasce. the untied!, ketto, tnever', Sztto. 'perfume!, the, having hit'. thoof', 'to be left". 'to be translated'. 12.6 Say 'kotte! or 'kotet, hoof,, my coat. my coat. hoof... my coat. hoof, x & t é ULL 32 sae Single /d/ Double /ad/ Practice ada... addat, medar, meddar. madaniia. maddafifia, trdar., trddar. madebdab,: maddebdeb, gra. verdd, addin, beddrl, yrdafifiall... yrddafifiall. Same or different? addan addati adafi addam adafi addan adam adafi va 13.3 Double or Single? Shia + 13.4 addi ‘hunter', /ad: ‘saviourt. Say ‘hunter! or 'saviour!. hunter. saviour. 13.4 Practice ‘hunter'. ‘he betrayed’. tobligation'. texpensive', the spent: the night’. the killed’, the covered", ‘by luck!. 13.6 Say 'addet' or ‘adanit. hunter. adian. saviour. aden. saviour. hunter. hunter. saviour, A Single /k/ 11 14.2 Same or lakk - lek = lek - akk = lek = lakk - Takk = lak - lakk, lak. lakk, lakk, lak. lakk, lak. LakKe eee eee Practice different? lakk, lak... lakeees lak. lakk. lak. iakk, lakk. | 14,3 Single or double? Double _//kk/ lakk, yakkal. makkan, yekkul, trkkas. nekka. yrkkas, ‘Irkkas. yrkkab, trkkual, vo tratig double, single, ll I ‘Lakk/ ‘put the blame on! (imperative). /lak/ 'send', you,masc. (imperative). Say 'blame' or 'send', ‘correct'. ‘put the blame on', the measured’. the touched", the advised’. the got drunk', ‘the became strong’. ‘he treated' (a patient). lekka.... nekka. mekkere. sakkere, t!onekkere.. akkeme..+. Say 'lakk' or ‘lak', 15. 15.1 15.2 15.3 Single /t/ Practice tirfi tlefir. rlefallehu.. Same or different? seffi sefi sefi seffi seffi sefi sefi seffi soft. Single or double? sefi, seffi, seffi 37 seffi, keffa. akaffa, afferu, tleffallenu. tirffi. ttoffrr, affrs, rffetallehu. Ktoeffo. Sin > Double. 15.4 15.5 15.6 Zsefi/ 'tailor', /seffi/ widet. Say 'tailor' or ‘wide! sefi. vailor. seffi. wide. i seffi. sefi. soffi. sefi. sefi. seffi. HM Practice 'widet. ‘he, having skinned'. the spat'. ‘he pushed', the/it got lost'. ‘height’, trash". 'measles! Say 'seffi' or 'sefit tailor.. wide... tailor. tailor. wide. 38 16. Single /2/ Double /z2/ 16.1 Practice tazza, azzan, wezzu, azzaba, mezzezu. yrzegall. yizzegall. VAZeeee yazz. yrzegallu. yizzegallu. 16.2 Same or different? azzan - D azafl - s azanh = azzafi - ae azzam - oH azani = iH azzaf - a azah - ba 16.3 Single or double? Double. Single. aZzzatieees azaMe eee 39 16.4 16.5 16.6 azz, ‘she having ordered me! az: ‘sympathetic! Say ‘order' or ‘sympathetic! azan. AZZaTe es Practice azzene aggezzo. mezzene. Bazza... Innezzih. rnnezziya, zzzinee. xzziya Say 'azzaf' or 'azan' order... sympathetic. sympathetic. orders... order. sympat sympathetic. Orderseseeee 40 sympathetic. order. ‘he regretted’. the helped'. the weighed!. the bought’. ‘these’. 'those'. there! ‘there’. azzan, : a (UL 17. 17.1 ane 17.3 Single /g/ Double /ge/ Practice Lega mogaz. agazat, aga¥. mogat. 2Ig. agra, negede. magotet: maga%a, Same or different? ageat - aggad aga! - aggat aggat - agaz agak - aggak. ageat - aggat. aga% - aged... agal - aggat. aggel - aged Single or double? agaz. aggad. aggek. aga. aggak. aga. aggaz. 4 logga. mageaz. aggazat. ageat. moggat. 2788. agerz. neggade. moggotet. magga%a. vn trite ‘aga%/ ‘carrier’, /aggat/ 'helper'. Say 'carrier' or 'helper'. | carrier. agaz. helper. aggad.. aged. age. ageet aged. agal, aged... 175 Practice | the closed’. the kicked! (a ball). | the got worried’. the helped'. ‘he repeated". the fed". ‘law! ticind!, 17-6 Say ‘aga%! or ‘aggaZ' ] helpers. carrier, helper. carrier helper. carrier... 42 18.3 Single /kt/ Double /ktk!/ Practice bakta. mak' yk! abba! yrk! eddall. yrk! ommall. yrk! ot! all. Same or different? bek'k'a.- bek'kta, bekta bak'kta, bekta bek'a, bekta bek'kta, bek'k'a - bek'a, bekta bek'kta, bek'k'a - bek'kta, bekta bekta, Single or double? bek'kta +. 43 bek'kta, mak'kt, yrk'k! abball. yrk'k' addall. yzk'k! ommall, yrk'ktattall. vo Double. + Single, Be eee ee eee Eee eee eee eee 18.4 18.5 18.6 ‘pek'kta/ it is enough' /bek'a/ 'by a thing! Say ‘enough! or 'by a thing! . by (with) a thing, ves enough, bek'a, bok! khase.. bek'a, bek'k DEK'a. wees bek'k'aye. beak! a, Practice sek'k. tpelt!, irk'k' ‘loose’. bek'k'a, ‘it is enough’. nak'k'aseeee "he woke’. ak'k'afe wees ‘he embraced', ttok'k! ema, nek'k'efe. we. ‘it became useful’, ‘he criticized', Say 'bek'k'a! or 'bekta', enough... bektkta, by a thing... bakta. by a thing. enough. enough... by a thin ENOUh. ee esos eee by a thing....... 4h 19. Single /t'/ Double /t'tt/ 19.1 Practice betta. + detttta, brt'zr, + brttttrr, yamot'al, ve yamet'ttal. yrttot'ttal, +e yrtittetttial. wots. ve wotlth, 19.2 Same or different? bet'tta betta bat'tta betta betta bet'tta betta bet'tta betitta, vo 19.3 Single or double? betta, bet't bet'tta, betta, bet'tta, betta. bat'tta, bet'tta, Single. Double. 45 19.4 19.5 19.6 Loat'a/ ty lots, /bet't'a/ the operated on the body'. Say 'he operated' or 'by lot! by drawing lots. he operated. betta... Practice met't'a, “ "he came! tlatitta, ‘he drank', wet't! ‘he left/he went out', klotittas.. ‘he punished’. set'tla, the gave!. fet't'ere. ‘he created". at't'ere. got't! ema, + he/it was (too) short? the composed! (poetry). Say 'bet's' or 'bet'ttat, see dotta, wee dati tta, by lots.. he operated. he operated... by lots.. he operated. by lots. by lots. he operated. 46 Single /s/ yrkesal yrkessal yrkesal yrkessal yrkesal yrkesal yrkessal yrkesal 20.3 yrkesal,. yrkessal. yrkesal. yrkessal. yrkessal. yrkesal. yrkesal. yrkessal, Same or diffe Double /ss/ Practice « messal. + kessow. .» yissab. . tissam. +» yikessal. + trssal. massab. 6? yrkesal. 8 yrkesal D yikessal. yrkesal. yrkesal.... toot yrkessal.. bride Single or double? Single. Double. 47 20.4 20.5 20.6 /ytkesal/ ‘he looses wei, yrkesales.. yrkessal. yrkessal. yrkesal.. yrkessal, yrkesal.... yrkesal. yikessal.... wessede. kessese. tt tkessal/ the sues! Say ‘he sues' or the looses weight! Practice Say 'yrkesal' or 'ytkessal! he he he he he he he he looses weight..... SUCS..eeeee looses weights... looses weight. sues sues... looses weigl BUCS. reeeeeeee 48 he looses weight. he sues. the forgot'. the tied". the thought". ‘plan'. ‘he took'. "he accused’. ‘accusation’, ‘verb'. yrkesal. yrkessal. 1 al. al. 21.2 21.3 Single /¥/ Double /88/ Practice rE¥i. a’¥ara. me8¥om, mo8¥ar, yr88erfiall, meS8slom, me¥elon. 7 1D moBSabot, meSebat. yr8¥et'ai1, meS8oemitiot. Same or different? I8Si ri ISEi I88i ri 884i rBi 18i vo tririg Single or double? IBS. 49 214 21.5 21.6 I8¥: 1, alright! Massage’ - imperative (you, fem.). Say '0.K.' or 'massage! massage. TSSivee OK. TSieeee eens TESL vee e eee qBi. 881i. IBS. Practice "dog". ‘evening’. ‘it became evening". 10.K.'. ‘title! (with names). 'pandage'. ‘shield’, ‘puffalo'. Say 'r¥¥it or '3r¥i! O.Keeeee massage. massage. On. Keeeeee eee ee 0.K. Massage.'.'s« On Kee eee ee O.Keeeeeeee : | | 22, 22.1 22.2 22.3 Single /y/ Double /yy/ Practice ayate. ayyat. kayate. kayyat. mayaz. meyyaz. bryat. bryyat. liyaz. liyyaz. bayat. bayyat. bayew. bayyow. meya%a. meyya%a, Same or different? ayyat - ayyat s ayat - ayyat. D ayyat - ayat. oe ayyat - ayyat fa ayat - ayates.. on ayyat - ayate... = ayat - ayyat. = ayyat - ayat. fe Single or double? 51 a 22.4 at/ "he saw her! /ayat/ ‘grand parent! Say ‘he saw her' or 'grand parent! he saw her, 22.5 Practice ayye. saw', k'oyya) waited’. loyye. distinguished". Kleyyo changed'. ayyele. 7 became stronger’. iryyu.. 7 Mo taifterent'. Kloyya. 7 il ‘they waited". ayyu.. ii ‘they saw!. 22.6 Say ‘ayyat! or tayat! grand parent + ayat. he saw her + ayyat. he saw her, grand parent.. he saw her..«. grand parent. grand parent. he saw her, 52