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Israel Butler

Behaviorist Learning Cognitive Learning Constructivism Learning

When Behaviorism is Beneficial for Learners


Accomplished when proper response is demonstrated

following presentation of specific environmental stimuli. (Example: Flash Cards) Teacher determines which cues can elicit desired response Practice is arranged in which target stimuli is prompted to elicit responses in a natural setting Environmental conditions are arranged so students can make correct responses in presence of target stimuli and reinforcement

When Cognitivism is Beneficial for Learners


Focus on conceptualization of learning processes &

address how info is received, organized, stored, and retrieved by the mind Teachers understand individuals bring various learning experiences that impact learning outcomes Most effective manner is determined to organize and structure new information to build on prior knowledge Practice with feedback is arranged so new info can be accommodated within the learners mind

When Constructivism is Beneficial for Learners


Equates learning with creating meaning from

experience (Example: Internship) Teacher instructs student on how to construct meaning; effectively monitor, evaluate, & update those constructions Experiences are designed for the learner to experience authentic and relevant contexts

Student is placed in an apprenticeship role

PBS NewsHour What is Newsworthy?

Constructivist Theory PBS NewsHour Lesson Plan


The lesson plan Whats News Worthy by PBS NewsHour was

designed in a constructivist format Learners are to review mock news events that tap into popular culture, local events, and national issues to determine newsworthiness The instructor is meant to deliver the activity in a way that simulates a newsroom The instructor will also act as a news director to question students on why they believe their topic of choice is newsworthy Students will determine newsworthiness in accordance to broadcast structure
Timeliness, Proximity, Conflict & Controversy, Human Interest, &

relevance

Behaviorist Theory Whats Newsworthy?


In contrast from the Constructivist lesson plan, the

Behaviorist version would place learners in the natural setting of the classroom rather than a simulated newsroom The instructor would explain why each news example is applicable to the five factors implemented in throughout news media Learners will be able to use prior knowledge and experiences with local and worldwide news to better understand how certain stories make the news

Constructivist vs. Behaviorist Whats Newsworthy?


The lesson plans original constructivist approach is more

beneficial to the learner because of its apprenticeship style activity By creating a mock newsroom learning environment, learners are encouraged to think like reporters and producers while identifying newsworthy events in accordance to the five broadcasting factors (Timeliness, Proximity, Conflict & Controversy, Human Interest, & Relevance) The instructor is included in the assignment by acting as a news director who questions each student on how their topic of choice coincides with the five factors listed above

Theories of Design in the Classroom


Theories of Design help produce effective instruction by

identifying the skills and knowledge learners must possess, objectives are outlined, instructional media is chosen, and assessment tools are developed in order to bring about desired results among learners. Different design methods go about this process in backwards or various stages.
Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction: Teachers are provided with a 9-step set of guidelines to construct a learning environment that promotes memorization, feedback, assessments, etc.

Strengths and Limitations: Wiggins; Gagne; Teaching for Understand (The Harvard model)

Strengths of Wiggins Theory


Wiggins Theory of Backwards Design focuses on

overall goal of instruction After goal has been established, the second stage requires instructors to decide how students will demonstrate knowledge of understanding Teacher design learning experiences to help students develop understanding

Limitations of Wiggins
Focusing on the end result of instruction could prove

time consuming Backwards Design model focuses heavily on results rather than the instructional process After instructional process is construction, the design may still need to be modified and added to

Strengths of Gagnes Events


Gagnes Nine Events focus on several target stimuli

that engage learners Learning types such as intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, motor skills, and attitudes Prerequisite skills are identified among learners in order to provide learning material that will reinforce and add on to that prior knowledge

Limitations of Gagnes Events


Gagnes design does not allow for steps for planning
Nine steps of events can prove to be long and tedious Repetition of learning material may inhibit certain

types of learners Some of the events of instruction can be easily identified while the learning outcomes may be unclear

Strengths of Teaching for Understanding


Harvards Teaching for

Understanding incorporates student participation in creating results as needed by the student. Instructional designers analyze and test long-term goals with frequent feedback
http://www.uknow.gse.harvard.edu/teaching/TC3-1.html

Weaknesses of Teaching for Understanding


Desired outcomes may not be achieved due HTfUs

design for short-term instruction Frequent one-on-one feedback to ensure students comprehension can be very time consuming

Gagnes Nine Events Whats Newsworthy?


Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction would be the most

suitable for the PBS NewsHour lesson plan. Since both broadcast and print journalism are very visual and often times deal with familiar people and places, it is important to incorporate the necessary stimuli in order to engage the learner, assess their knowledge of news value in relation to their chosen topic, and place them in a mock newsroom scenario in which the instructor plays the role of news director to provide feedback.

Works Cited
Ertmer, P. and Newby, T. (1993). Behaviorism,

cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6 (4), 50-72. Perkins, D., & Blythe, T. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uknow.gse.harvard.edu/teaching/TC31.html Roblyer, M.D., Edwards, J. & Havriluk, M.A. (1996). Learning theories and integration models (Chapter 3). In Roblyer, Edwards & Havriluk, Integrating educational technology into teaching. Prentice Hall.