Sie sind auf Seite 1von 68

g Am{U

VrWIm~, nR>U

am` _amR>s dmL>_` nwaH$ma 2010-2011


dmL>_` H$ma nwaH$ma H$m` mT> H$ds Ho$edgwV nwaH$ma H$m` mT ~mbH$ds nwaH$ma H$m` W_ ~[hUm~mB MmYar nwaH$ma H$m` [deof B[Xam gV nwaH$ma ZmQ>H$ mT> am_ JUoe JS>H$ar nwaH$ma ZmQ>H$ mT AUmgmho~ [H$bm}H$a nwaH$ma ZmQ>H$ [deof [d.dm.[eadmS>H$a nwaH$ma H$mX~ar mT> har Zmam`U AmnQo> nwaH$ma H$mX~ar mT> [d.g.ImSo>H$a nwaH$ma H$mX~ar W_ ls.Zm.n|S>go nwaH$ma H$mX~ar [deof CXd O.eoiHo$ nwaH$ma bKwH$Wm mT> [XdmH$a H$U nwaH$ma bKwH$Wm mT nw.^m.^mdo nwaH$ma bKwH$Wm W_ J.b.R>moH$i nwaH$ma bKwH$Wm [deof ~s.aKwZmW nwaH$ma b[bVJ-mT> AZV H$mUoH$a nwaH$ma b[bVJ-mT> [d.X.KmQo> nwaH$ma b[bVJ-W_ Vmam~mB [eXo nwaH$ma b[bVJ-[deof _YwH$a Ho$Mo nwaH$ma EH$m[H$H$m-mT> _m_m daoaH$a nwaH$ma EH$m[H$H$m-[deof O`dV Xids nwaH$ma [dZmoX-mT> lsnmX H$U H$mohQ>H$a nwaH$ma [dZmoX-[deof Xmy ~mXoH$a nwaH$ma gH$sU-mT> ^mB _mYdamd ~mJb nwaH$ma gH$sU-[deof H$Uamd ^mboH$a nwaH$ma b[bV [dkmZ a.Ym|.H$d} nwaH$ma b[bV [dkmZ gV VwH$S>moOs _hmamO nwaH$ma M[a-mT> b_s~mB [Q>iH$ nwaH$ma M[a-mT> ([d^mJyZ) M[a-[deof YZO` H$sa nwaH$ma Am_M[a-mT> Z.qM. Ho$iH$a nwaH$ma Am_M[a-mT> ([d^mJyZ) Am_M[a `edVamd MhmU nwaH$ma g_sjm Am[U gmX`em ls.Ho$.jsagmJa nwaH$ma g > _sjm Am[U gmX`em H$.Zaha Hw$XH$a nwaH$ma g_sjm Am[U gmX`em Hw$gw_mdVs XoenmSo> nwaH$ma g_sjm Am[U gmX`em dm.b.Hw$bH$Uu nwaH$ma B[Vhmg-mT> _hm_m OmoVsamd \w$bo nwaH$ma B[Vhmg-[deof H$mVs[gh ZmZm nmQ>sb nwaH$ma AWem-mT> gs.S>s.Xoe_wI nwaH$ma boIH$ JUoe [dgnwVo A[Zb H$m~is gVmof eoUB gOsdZs VSo>JmdH$a AemoH$ nmQ>moio O`V ndma [dbmg gmaJ _sZm XoenmSo> AemoH$ H$mois AmZX [~JH$a Os.Ho$.EoZmnwao adt emo^Uo O`V ndma [Z[eH$mV Jwad m.S>m.Xod| nwZgo S>m.H$me Omoes AemoH$ S>mJo Ym|Sw>Om BJmobo B[OV ^mboamd [XdmH$a _mo[hVo S>m.h[aM ~moaH$a ^m.b._hm~i ~S>m `kmon[dV m.am_ ~mnQ> gVre H$migoH$a amhwb JmoIbo gO` T>moio Za| MniJmdH$a S>m.AZV Xoe_wI [dbmg Imobo MH$mV dmZISo> `moZm H$X_ [dO` \$iUsH$a S>m.h[aM WmoamV S>m.dgV nmQ>UH$a m.ads [H$~hwZo S>m.`m_b dZmago JOmZZ _oh|Xio/gVmof [eo S>m.gVse gmiwHo$ [_btX gJmoam_ am`em d g_mOem> S>m.~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a nwaH$ma S>m.Za| Xm^mobH$a nwVH$ AmdmO ZQ> hmoV Zmhs [H$b[H$`m COoS>mMs [Varn KQ>H$mnimZo AX XmamVyZ ~mhoa nS>VmZm A{[X` H$m` S|>Oa dmam gwQ>bm` JmYrOtM _mH$S> hwVm_m Hw$Ym AdH$mis nmdgm`m Xa`mZMs JmoQ> OmB`m Kar OmB Mmogd [\$[Zg`m amIoVyZ CS>bm _moa dmUs[H$So> nmoim Am[U ~mhwbs Aes _mUgo Agm [ZgJ bJS>s AmOs Am[U amdUmm aodmB H$moQ>a ZmX Hw$Um`m Immda dmg` Zdo Vo hdo XUH$m nam_e dmMUm`mMs amoO[Zes [dkmZmVsb gag Am[U gwag A_Osd VsZ `m`_yVu Am[U `mMm H$mi g_mOdm`H$ma AmMm` .Ho$$.Ao Amnwbm[M dmX AmnUmgs ga Am[U _s namO` Zho [dO` H$mX~ar : EH$ gm[h` H$ma H$[dVoMm emoY qH$~hwZm g`[OV am` Am[U ^maVs` _dVa [edN>nVtMo Ama_ma
~sS> [Oh`mMm mMsZ d _``wJsZ B[Vhmg

~Ia ^maVs` m{H$amMs [V[_amVyZ VoOmH$So>


(Cd[aV `mXr wIn> 3 da)

o$~wdmar 2013

df 64 do

AH$ 11

o$~wdmar 2013

AVaJ
kmZ^mfoH$So> dmQ>Mmb
OJ^amV gJUH$mMs ^mfm hs kmZ^mfm gObr OmVo. `mQ>sZo gd gJUH$s` `dhma `w[ZH$moS> _m[UV H$$Z d gJUH$mMo _amR>sH$aU H$$Z am`> emgZmZo _amR>sbm kmZ^mfm ~Z[d`mMm {ZYma Ho$bm Amho. 6

m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, hmamQ> emgZ

A[^OmV _amR>s
gdmAH$am H$moQ>r bmoH$mMr _amR>r hr OJmVrb Xhm`m H$_mH$mMr ^mfm Amho. gnZ kmZ^mfm AgUmar _amR>r _hmZw^dmMr Y_^mfmhr Amho. _amR>r hr amO^mfm AgUmao gmVdmhZ, amQ>Hw$Q> Am{U _amRo> ho am`H$V} ^maV^a am` H$aV hmoVo. hr ^mfm ~mobUmao bmoH$ AmO OJmVrb 72 XoemV ngabobo AmhoV. hr \$$ EH$m mVmMr ^mfm ZgyZ, Vr _hdmMr amQ>r` ^mfm Amho.

w` gnmXH$ `dWmnH$s` gnmXH$ gnmXH$ H$m`H$mar gnmXH$ CngnmXH$

moX `. ZbmdS>o hmX OmYd gwaoe dm{Xbo ^mH$a wamiH$a> {H$aU H|$o

g g

Amnbr ^mfm, Amnbr ApVm


Zmoh|~a 2010 `o _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. [d^mJm`m A[Yn`mImbs ^mfm gMmbZmb`, _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, _hmamQ> am` _amR>s [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>i, am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWm `m Mma gWm H$m`aV AmhoV. `m {d^mJmm$V amR>r ^mfm gdYZmgmR>r AZoH$ CnH$ am~{d`mV `oV AmhoV.

g g g

emgZ d {dVaU A{YH$mar {XJ~a nmbdo {dVaU A{YH$mar {dbmg ~moS>Ho Xmm` H$moH$ao {dm H$X am^m gXrn ndma, gwhmg gmdV EM. Q>r. r{S>`m {b. {XKo, Zdr w~B
g

19

^mfm d^d
^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m H$meZmZm OZVoH$Sy>Z MS> _mJUs Amho. ^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m H$mhr nwVH$mMm n[aM`...
bm^bo Ahmg ^m` ~mobmdo _amR>s... emoY mMsZdmMm gm{h{`H$ `edVamd hmam>mMo gmH${VH$ g{MV AX>^wV Am{U A{Vr` gj Am{U gW amR>r ^mfoMr A{^dr amR>r`m mhoar VrWV^ gmjrXma d^dmMm X[bV gm{h` amR>r ^mfoMo ^yfU ^mfm Am{U ApVm gH$UmVrb amR>r ^mfm gnZ H$moedmL>_` kmZodar eXmWH$moe _madm AZw^dVmZm ^mfm d^d Omdo JWm`m Jmdm... Q>o {ZU`... A{^Zd `moOZm hmamQ>mMm Jmad mo$V AmfYmonMma gnmXH$r` Cnw`r S>m. gw.a. XoenmS>o m. ZdZsV Xoe_wI S>m. gwZsbHw$_ma bdQo> S>m. Mmesbm AmoH$ b{bVm XoR>o S>m. AemoH$ gmobZH$a S>m. am.ls. _moadMsH$a S>m. hgamO OmYd-dOraJmdH$a S>m. JJmYa nmZVmdUo dgV Am~mOr S>hmHo$ amOZ ImZ {dcmg Imoco mMm` am_Xmg S>mJo hoV Q>H$bo JmV qeXo ^Vr {S>i {ZU` _mohZ amR>moS> dmVs ho_V {edeaU

gmhm`

57
5 7 11 15 22 25 27 31 34 35 36 38 40 44 52 55 57 59 62 64 66

wwmnR> g mS>Ur, gOmdQ>


g

wU

gnmXH$s` nmm m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, mXm H$mm amoS>, hVmm amOJw$ MmH$, XmbZ H$. 33, Vi Obm, mb`, w~B-32.
g

gnmXH$s` gnH$ 022-22882888


e-mail : lokrajya@dgipr.maharashtra.gov.in lokrajya2011@gmail.com

B-bmoH$am`gmR>r
Website : http://dgipr.maharashtra.gov.in

dJUrXma d VH$ma {ZdmaUmgmR>r gnH$ - 022-22021530 {dVaU gnH$ - 022-22023957


e-mail : lokvitran@dgipr.maharashtra.gov.in lokrajyavitaran@gmail.com

o$~wdmar 2013

N>mZ AH$ hgwbmgmaIm $j {df` AgyZhr N>mZ AH$ Amho. {edam`mMr OrZ hgyb `dWm hr gnH$ gH$nZm Amho. - gra H$d}, hmam> Q>mBg, w~B Cn`w$ AmT>mdm bmoH$am`Mm _s [Z`[_V dmMH$ Amho. OmZodmar _[h`mMm "_hgyb [deof" AH$ Iyn AmdS>bm. _hgyb [df`mes g~[YV AZoH$ ~m~tMm AmnU KoVbobm AmT>mdm A[Ve` Cn`w$ Amho. gm_m` _mUgm~amo~aM eoVH$ar, njH$ma, dH$sb Am[U _hgyb [d^mJmV H$m_ H$aUm`mZm `m AH$mMs _mobmMs _XV hmoUma Amho. A[Ve` _hdm`m [df`mda XoIUm AH$ H$mT>`m~b Amnbo A[^ZXZ. `mnwTo>hs AemM XO}Xma AH$mMs nanam H$m`_ amhsb, Agm [ddmg dmQ>Vmo. - AS>. dsU _S>[bH$, AmaJm~mX.

ew^oN>m emgZm`m VsZ dfnyVu[Z[_m _m[hVs d OZgnH$ _hmgMmbZmb`m_m\$V H$m[eV H$a`mV Ambobo _amR>s bmoH$am`, Maharashtra Ahead d CXy bmoH$am`Mo AH$ dmMyZ AmZX dmQ>bm. bmoH$m`m H$`mUmgmR>s emgZm_m\$V AZoH$ `moOZm am~[d`m OmVmV. `m `moOZmMs _m[hVs ^mdsnUo bmoH$mn`V nmohmoM[d`mV bmoH$am` _hdmMs ^y[_H$m ~OmdV Amho. Zmoh|~a, 2012 Mm VsZ dfnyVu [deofmH$hs AgmM _m[hVsZo n[anyU Pmbm Amho. emgZ Am[U OZVo_`o gdmX gmY`mMo bmoH$am` ho EH$ _hdmMo _m`_ R>aV Amho. bmoH$am`Zo `mnwT>sb H$mimVhs H$m_Jma, d, [dYdm, KQ>\$mo[Q>V {`m AmXs d[MV KQ>H$mgmR>s ~moYZmMo H$m_ H$amdo, Aes Anojm `m[Z[_mmZo `$ H$aVmo. - lr. hgZ _wls\$, _s, H$m_Jma Am[U [deof ghm`

h[aVH$mVsMm Aj` \w$bmoam _m[bH$ Am[U gJm _m[hVs d OZgnH$ [S>g|~a, 2012 "bmoH$am`"Mm dgVamd ZmBH$ _hmg M mbZmb`mV\} $ "bmo H $am`"Mm O_eVmXsMm AH$ A[Ve` _m[bH$ Am[U gJhUs` Amho. [S> g | ~ a _[h`mMm A H $ hm dg V amd ZmBH$ _m.dgVamd ZmBH$ `m`m gX^mVsb A`V _hdmMo boI VwV AH$mV AmhoV. _m.dgVamd ZmBH$ `m`m `{$_dm`m O_eVmXs [deofmH$ hUyZ [g [d[dY nbyMs _m[hVs dmMH$mZm CnbY Pmbs Amho. VgoM H$a`mV Ambm AgyZ `mVyZ h[aVH$mVsMo UoVo AgUmao dgVamd ZmBH$ AbJXnUo CbJS>V OmVmV. `m`m EHy$UM VwV AH$mV dmQ>MmbsVyZ W$ hmoUo ^mJ nS>Vo. Z`m [nT>snwTo> S>m.~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a eoVH$`mMm _w`_s hUyZ `mMo XeZ hmoVo. _hmn[a[ZdmU eoVH$`mMm _w`_s gdm[YH$ H$mi _hmamQ>mMo _w`_snX ^yf[dUmao [XZm[Z[_m XmoZ [deof gdm[YH$ H$mi _hmamQ>mMo _w`_[nX ^yf[dUmao _w`_s Agm d. dgVamd ZmBH$ `m`m H$ma[H$XrMm JmadmZo CoI Ho$bm OmVmo. `m`m H$ma{H$XuV KS>bo`m YdbH$mVs Am[U h[aVH$mVsZo _w `_s Am[U YdbH$mVs d h[aVH$mVsMo UoVo Aes boI AmhoV. _w`_s am`mVsb eoVH$ar Am[U eoVses g~[YVmMo AdKo OsdZM ~Xbbo. `mZs eoVsjomV KS>[dbo`m ~XbmMs \$io AmnU AmOhs MmIV AmhmoV. AmYw[ZH$ amhUs_wio [g Agbobo d. ZmBH$ `m` `m M r AmoiI Amho. _hmamQ>mV H$fs[df`H$ gw~moMm ndsamO MhmU Eo[Vhm[gH$ [ZU`mgmR>shs H$m`_Mo _aUmV amhVsb.... gmJV AmhoV, _w`_s ndsamO MhmU. nm`m `m Zo`mZo KmVbm. EH$ AQ>nby `{$_dmMs `mZs dgVamd ZmBH$ ~ X J`mMm H$moQ>, Vm|S>mV [M$Q>, M_H$Xma gmoZoar M_m, [eH$marMs Amo iI `mVyZ hmoVo. AZoH$ Xw_ri N>m`m[MmMm g_mdoe AmdS> Aem H$maMo ~mho $Z AmYw [ ZH$ `mMm "eoVH$`mMm s s `mV Amho. "emgH$s` H$meZ" hUOo Xwb[jV H$aUmar H$meZo _w`_s" hUyZ Ho$bobm Agm g_O nma nwgyZ Q>mH$Umao XO}Xma "bmoH$am`" AH$ g`m CoI A`V X`neu Amho. "bmoH$am`"Mo [X_mImV [g hmoV AmhoV. _hmamQ>m`m eoVs[df`H$ gnmXH$ _S>i A[^ZXZmg nm Amho. A`mgH$mZm ho nwVH$ gwdU`moJM AgyZ _mS>Us, N>m`m[Mo, - S>m.Xsn AmJbmdo OsdZ`mm, Zm|Xs `mZo n[anyU hm AH$ Amho. EH$ gX^JW hUyZ S>m.~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a `mMm bm^ dmMH$, A`mgH$mZm hmoBb. [dMmaYmam nX`wma [d^mJ, - gwdUm gmR>o, X.gm_Zm,[X.20 OmZodmar 2013 amQ>gV VwH$S>moOs _hmamO ZmJnya [dmnsR>
OeVmXr df 1 Owb 2012-30 OyZ 2013

"bmoH$am`'Yrb boImMo nwZwU Ho$`mg Amhmbm AmZXM hmoBb...


dm{fH$ dJUr - d[aR> ghm`H$ gMmbH$ (H$meZo), m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, ~aoH$ Z. 19, $s og OZb mJ, w~B-400021 `m n`mda ZrAmS>aZo nmR>dmdr qH$dm "boIm{YH$mar, m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, mb`, w~B' `m`m Zmdo w~B `oWo dQ>Um`m 6 emIoMm {S>mS> S>mQ> nmR>dmdm. bmoH$am` AH$m`m dJUrXmamZr ZyVZrH$aUmgmR>r dm{fH$ dJUr nmR>dVmZm Amnbm dJUr H$mH$ H$idmdm. ({V AH$ y` 10 n`o, dm{fH$ dJUr . 100/-)
*`m

bmoH$am`Mr dJUr AmZbmBZ ^a`mgmR>r


http://dgipr.maharashtra.gov.in

AH$mV `V Ho$bo`m Vmer emgZ ghV AgobM Ago Zmhr.

o$~wdmar 2013

bm^bo Ahmg ^m`


amoO`m gKfmV OJ`mgmR>r CoX XoUm`m m`damMo aU H$a`mMr gYr XoUmam hm o$~wdmar {hZm. naH$s` A_bmg PwJm$Z dam`mMs WmnZm H$aUmao N>nVs [edmOs _hmamO, g_mOgwYmaH$mMo AJUs _hm_m Omo[V~m \w$bo, bmoH$[hVdmXs Jmonmi har XoewI, dN>VoMo nwOmar gV JmS>Jo~m~m, gJsV [eamo_Us ^maVaZ n.^s_goZ Omoes Am[U H$[dloR> Hw$gw_mJO `mMo O_[Xdg `m _[h`mV `oVmV. `mM _[h`mV dmV`bT>mVsb AJUs MeoIa AmPmX, dm.gmdaH$a, S>m.amO| gmX, _mbmZm AXwb H$bm_ AmPmX hs Wmoa `{$_do H$mim`m nQ>bmda Amnbm A[_Q> R>gm C_Q>dyZ A[V_ dmgmgmR>s WmZ H$aVs Pmbs. `m`m _Vs AmnUm gdmZm \w$VuXm`s R>aUm`m AmhoV. _hmamQ>mMo ^yfU R>abo`m H$[dd` Hw$gw_mJO `mMm 27 \o$~wdmar amoOs `oUmam O_[Xdg hm emgZmZo _amR>s ^mfm [XZ hUyZ gmOam H$a`mMm [ZU` KoVbm Amho. `m [XZmMo Am[M` gmYyZ bmoH$am`Mm \o$~wdmarMm AH$ "_amR>s ^mfm [deofmH$" hUyZ H$m[eV H$a`mV `oV Amho. ^maVmV gdm[YH$ ~mob`m OmUm`m ^mfm_`o _amR>s ^mfoMm MmWm H$_mH$ Am[U OJmV Xhmdm H$_mH$ bmJVmo. d^dembs dmagm bm^bobs _amR>s ^mfm [dgm`m eVH$mV AZoH$ dmhmZm Amn`m_`o gm_mdyZ KoV A[YH$ g_ Pmbs Amho. EH$[dgm`m eVH$mV Vs AmYw[ZH$VoMm ~mO boD$Z A[YH$ `mnH$ hmoV Amho. [dgm`m eVH$m`m ma^s Eo[Vhm[gH$ Am[U nmam[UH$ H$mX~`mZs _amR>s gm[h`mMo XmbZ gn Ho$bo. `mZVa`m H$mimV gm_m[OH$ Ame` AgUm`m gm[h`H$VtZs ^mfoMo gmX` Iwb[dbo Am[U gmo~VM gm_m[OH$ A[^gaUmbm JVs [Xbs. _amR>s gm[h`mZo doJis CMs JmR>bs AgVmZmM amo_Q>s[gP_ AWmV dZdmXmMm dmh a[d[H$aU _S>imZo Odbm. `m _S>imZo gm[h`[df`H$ AmYw[ZH$ gH$nZm Am[U Om[Udm Xoes d$nmV BWo AmU`m. _amR>s gm[h`m`m B[VhmgmV a[d[H$aU _S>i hm EH$ _hdmMm Q>nm R>abm Amho. 1940 Vo 1960 Ms XeHo$ _amR>s gm[h` Am[U ^mfo`m AZwfJmZo [d[dY KQ>Zm KS>m_moS>tZs ^m$Z Jobobs R>abs. 1960 gmbs _hmamQ>m`m WmnZoZVa Z`m [V^oMo [Vq~~ _amR>s gm[h`mV nS>bo. `m_wio _amR>s ^mfm AmUIs g_ Pmbs. Jm_sU gm[h`, X[bV gm[h`, OsdZdmXs gm[h` `m gm[h`m`m dmhmVyZ gH$g gm[h`mMs _oOdmZs _amR>s^mfH$mZm [_imbs. ^mfm dkm[ZH$m`m Q>sZo hm H$mi _hdmMm R>abm. ^mfo`m ew-AewmMm AmJh, `mH$aU, ewboIZmMo [Z`_ Aem AZoH$ ~m~tda d[eQ>nyU _WZmMm hm H$mi hmoVm. gm[h`mV`m Z`m dmhmZs _amR>s ^mfoV AmUbobo eX, dm`aMZm, _mS>UsMs ~S>Imoar, d[d`nyU boIZebs Aem ~m~tZs `m _WZmbm Im nwadbo. _amR>s`m d[eQ>m_`o _moS>s [bnsMm R>iH$ CoI H$aUo H$_m R>aVo. _m AmYw[ZH$ H$mimV _moS>s [bns _moS>H$isV [ZKmbs. AmnU hm d^dembs dmagm OnUo Amd`H$ Amho. _amR>s_`o JVsZo [bImU H$a`mgmR>s _moS>s [bnsMm Cn`moJ hmoD$ eH$Vmo. _amR>s ^mfo`m d^dmg gwXa hVmjamZs doJio H$m|XU bmdbo Amho. diUXma, _moVsXma, R>mesd Am[U R>gR>erV hVmja AgUo ho ~w[_moMo bjU g_Obo OmB. g`m`m H$mimV gwaoI hVmjamH$So> nmbH$ Am[U nm`mMo Xwbj hmoVmZm [XgVo. gwboIZ ho A[^OmVVoMo bjU g_OyZ `mXQ>sZo `mnH$ `Z `oH$ Hw$Qw>~mV Am[U embo` Vamda Pm`mg Aja gH$Vs dsg MmbZm [_iob. gH$VsMs OmonmgZm Am[U gdYZmgmR>s ^mfoMo AZ`gmYmaU _hd bjmV KoD$Z, ^mfm gMmbZmb` d gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. `m Xmohs gWmZs _amR>s ^mfoMo d^d d[JV hmo`mgmR>s Ho$bobo H$m` ho _hdmMo R>abo. H$mbmVamZo _amR>s [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>imMs WmnZm hmoD$Z OmJ[VH$ nmVisdarb kmZmMs H$dmSo> _amR>s _mUgmgmR>s Iwbs Pmbs. H$moU`mhs mXo[eH$ ^mfoV BVH$m MS> `msMm d AmdmH$m Agbobm kmZH$moe [Z_mU Pmbm Zmhs Ago hUVm `oVo. [ddH$moem`m [d[dY IS>mZs _amR>s H$moedmL>_`m`m g_ nanaobm A[YH$ J^ Ho$bo Amho. _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmbm Zdo n[a_mU [_imdo `m hoVyZo am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWoMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. _hmamQ>m`m [Z[_Vs`m gwdU _hmogds dfm_`o gmH$[VH$ YmoaU Omhsa Ho$bo Jobo. `mZwgma dV Aem _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmMs WmnZm Ho$bs Jobs. doJdoJ`m [d^mJmVJV H$m`aV AgUm`m ^mfm gMmbZmb`, am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>i Am[U am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWm `mZm _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJm`m AVJV AmU`mV `oD$Z _amR>s ^mfoMm [dH$mg hm EH$gys Am[U g_d`mZo hmo`mMm _mJ Iwbm Ho$bm Jobm. 29 Zmoh|~a 2010`m emgZ{ZU`mZwgma `m [d^mJmMs WmnZm Pm`mZVa g~[YV gWm`m [Z`[_V d$nm`m H$m`mgmo~V _amR>s ^mfoMo gdYZ H$a`mgmR>s AZoH$ Zmds`nyU CnH$_ Ko`mV Ambo. `m_`o ^mfm gmJma g[_VsMs WmnZm, _amR>s ^mfobm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm [_imdm hUyZ _gwXm V`ma H$a`mgmR>s g[_VsMs WmnZm, B-~wgMs [Z[_Vs, [ddH$moemMo 16 IS> _hmOmbmda Ro>dUo, Hw$_ma [ddH$moe, H$`mH$moe, `w[ZH$moS> Q>H$_w$moV d$nmV XoUo, `oH$ [Om_`o JWmogd, N>moQ>m gm[h` g_obZmZm AWgmhm`, ~h_hmamQ>mVsb _amR>s gWmZm AWgmhm`, _hmamQ>-H$ZmQ>H$ gs_m ^mJmVsb _amR>s ^mfm d gH$Vs`m OmonmgZogmR>s AWgmhm`, lm` d$nmV Xmg~moYmMs gHo$VWimda CnbYVm AmXs CnH$_mMm R>iH$nUo CoI H$aVm `oBb. _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmZo `mM H$mbmdYrV http://marathibhasha.maharashtra.gov.in `m gHo$VWimMs [Z[_Vs Ho$bs AgyZ _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmVJV `oUm`m gd gWm, [d[dY `moOZm, CnH$_, [ZU` `mMs _m[hVs `mda CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV Ambs Amho. `m AH$mV _amR>s ^mfo`m gmX`mMo Am[U gm_`mMo [d[dY nby Zm|XdUm`m _m`dam`m boImMm g_mdoe Ho$bm Amho. ho boI Amnbs kmZH$jm AmUIs [demb H$a`mgmR>s Cn`wV R>aVsb, Agm [ddmg dmQ>Vmo. "bmoH$am`'`m `m AH$mnmgyZ [XsVsb _hmamQ> Am[U _[_S>i [ZU` hs XmoZ Zds gXao gw$ H$a`mV Ambs AmhoV, Vsgwm dmMH$mZm AmdS>Vsb Aes Amem Amho. dmMH$ Zoh_s_mUo `m AH$mMo _Z:nydH$ dmJV H$aVsb, Agm [ddmg dmQ>Vmo.

moX `. ZbmdS>o
w` gnmXH$ VWm hmgMmbH$ (m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`) gnH$ : 022-22041585/22027956
dg@dgipr.maharashtra.gov.in

o$~wdmar 2013

kmZ^mfoH$So> dmQ>Mmb
ZbmBZ hm AmOMm nadbsMm eX ~Zbm Amho. AWmVM hm eX [H$dm gH$nZm hs gJUH$ Am[U BQ>aZoQ>es g~[YV Amho. gJUH$ Am[U BQ>aZoQ>Zo gnyU OJmV _moR>s H$mVs Ho$bs Amho. Amn`m XZ[XZ `dhmamMm Vmo EH$ ^mJ ~Zbm Amho. H$moUVmhs `dhma Agmo, `j ~Ho$V Om`mMs [H$dm amoI ngo hmVmi`mMs JaO Cabobs Zmhs. H|$ gaH$maZohs ZwH$VsM AmYma H$_mH$ [ZJ[S>V AmnH$m ngm AmnHo$ hmW, hs WoQ> bm^mWu`m Im`mV ngo O_m H$a`mMs `moOZmhs gw$ Ho$bs Amho. H$moRo>hs JobmV Var H$Zo{Q>{hQ>sbm Am[U gJUH$mbm AZ`gmYmaU _hd [_imbobo Amn`mbm [XgVo. emgH$s` H$m`mb`o Am[U `dhmahs `mbm AndmX am[hbobs ZmhsV. Odinmg gd emgH$s` H$m`mb`mMo gJUH$sH$aU Pmbobo Amho. `oH$ Vmbw`mVsb goVy godm H|$o Am[U [R>H$[R>H$mUMs _hm-B-godm H|$o `mMs gmj XoV AmhoV. am` emgZmZo Amnbo BJhZg YmoaU 2011 _`o Omhsa Ho$bo Amho. emgH$s` H$ma^mamV _amR>s am`^mfoMm e^a Q>$o dmna H$a`mMo emgZmMo YmoaU Amho. _m gJUH$mMs ^mfm hs _w`do BJOs Amho. `m_wio gJUH$m_`o _amR>sMm OmVsV OmV dmna hmdm, `mgmR>s _m[hVs VkmZ [d^mJmZo ~aoM `Z Ho$bo AmhoV. BJhZg YmoaUm_Ysb H$b_ 6 _`o BJhZg_Yo _amR>s`m gnyU dmnam~m~V nQ>nUo VaVyX H$a`mV Ambs Amho. am` emgZm`m gd [d^mJmZm B-JhZg dmnamV _amR>s hs n[hbs Am[U A[Zdm` ^mfm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. _amR>sMm A[Zdm` dmna ho `m YmoaUmMo _w` C[Q> nyU H$a`mgmR>s `w[ZH$moS>Mm dmna hs `mVsb gdmV _hdmMs ~m~ Amho. gsS>H$Zo V`ma Ho$bobo Am`EgE_ (BQo>[bOQ> {H$Q> _ZoOa) ho CnH$aU (Qw>b) emgZ `dhmamV _amR>s Q>H$boIZmgmR>s dmnabo OmVo. AmVmn`V ho `w[ZH$moS>es _m[UV ZhVo. _m `mMs 6 Am[U 6.1 hs Amdms `w[ZH$moS> _m[UV H$$Z EH$ _moR>m AS>Wim

Am

AmO OJ^amV gJUH$mMs ^mfm hs kmZ^mfmm Ago _mZbo OmVo. gJUH$mMo kmZ Zgbobm [Zaja g_Obm OmVmo. `mQ>sZo gd gJUH$s` `dhma `w[ZH$moS> _m[UV H$$Z d gJUH$mMo _amR>sH$aU H$$Z _hmamQ> emgZmZo _amR>sbm kmZ^mfm ~Z[d`mMm MJ ~mYbm Amho Am[U Amhs `mV MmJboM `e [_idbo Amho. "bmoH$am`'`m dmMH$mgmR>r gmJV AmhoV w`r ndramO MhmU.

Xya Pmbm Amho. `m Amd`m_`o nydu`m Amd`m_Ysb _OHy$a `w[ZH$moS>_`o namd[VV H$a`mMshs gmo` H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `w[ZH$moS> dmnam`m [ejUmMmhs _moR>m H$m`H$_ hmVs Ko`mV Ambm Amho. `m gJ`mMm n[aUm_ gJUH$s` emgZ `dhmamV _amR>sMm gnyU dmna hmo`mV Pmbm Amho. AmO OJ^amV gJUH$mMs ^mfm hs "kmZ^mfm' Ago _mZbo OmVo. gJUH$mMo kmZ Zgbobm [Zaja g_Obm OmVmo. `mXQ>sZo gd gJUH$s` `dhma `w[ZH$moS> _m[UV H$$Z d gJUH$mMo _amR>sH$aU H$$Z _hmamQ> emgZmZo _amR>sbm "kmZ^mfm' ~Z[d`mMm MJ ~mYbm Amho

Am[U Amhs `mV MmJboM `e [_idbo Amho. AmO emgZmMs gd gHo$VWio `w[ZH$moS> _m[UV AmhoV. _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJm`m ghH$m`mZo _amR>s JWm`m [S>[OQ>m`PoeZMm EH$ _hdmMm [ZU` ZwH$VmM hUOo Jo`m AmR>dS>mV Pmbm Amho. n[h`m Q>`mV 490 _amR>s JW A[U emgZ `dhma H$mofmMo [S>[OQ>m`PoeZ H$a`mV `oUma Amho. AWmV ho H$m_ Ho$di nwVH$mMo H$[ZJ `m d$nmMo Zgob Va hs gJis nwVHo$ "B-~wH$' d$nm_`o V`ma H$a`mV `oUma AmhoV. hs B-nwVHo$ H$moUmbmhs S>mD$ZbmoS> H$$Z KoVm `oVrb. _amR>s "lm`JW' (Am[S>Amo ~wg) hs gH$nZmhs Amhs emgZ Vamda `jmV AmUrV AmhmoV. bdH$aM kmZodar Am[U Xmg~moY ho JW lm`JWm`m $nmV _amR>so_tZm am` [dH$mg gWo`m gHo$VWimda _mo\$V CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV `oUma AmhoV. Aem nVsZo gJUH$m`m _m`_mVyZ _amR>sMm gd Vamda dmna H$a`mMo Am_Mo `Z `eds hmoV AmhoV. nwUo `oWsb gsS>H$ gWoes gm_O` H$ama H$$Z _amR>s ^mfoVsb H$m`w[Q>JgmR>s g|Q>a \$ma Egbg WmnZ H$a`mMm [ZU`hs Ko`mV Ambm Amho. dmadma dmnabo OmUmao BJOs eX Am[U `mgmR>s _amR>s [VeXmMs `moOZm ho EH$ _hdmMo AmhmZ Amho. `mXQ>sZohs _m[hVs VkmZ [d^mJmZo _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJm`m ghH$m`mZo ZwH$VsM XmoZ [XdgmMs H$m`emim KoVbs. `m H$m`emio`m _WZmVyZ gw_mao 400 [VeX Amkmdbs [dH$mgH$mZm CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV Ambo. _amR>s ^mfobm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm [_idyZ Xo`mMo `Z H$arV AgVmZmM gJUH$s` `dhmam_`o _amR>sMm gnyU dmna H$$Z _amR>s OmJ[VH$ Vamda Zo`mV Amhs `eds hmoV AmhmoV. `m_wio _amR>s`m Mma d gmambm _moR>s JVs `oBb, `mMm _bm [ddmg Amho. eXmH$Z gVre birV w``mMo w` OZgnH$ A{YH$mar gnH$ 9422413800 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

~mobmdo _amR>s...
~wdmar _[h`mV 27 VmaIobm AmnU gdOU _amR>s ^mfm [Xdg [d[dY CnH$_m`m _m`_mVyZ gmOam H$arV AgVmZm, bmoH$am``m dmMH$mZm _s _amR>s ^mfm [Xdgm`m _ZmnmgyZ ew^oN>m XoVmo. _amR>s ^mfm hs mMsZ, g_ Am[U Jmadembs nanam Agbobs ^mfm Amho. gmVdmhZ, amQ>Hw$Q> Am[U AZoH$ _amR>s amOmZs _amR>s ^mfobm am`^mfoMm XOm [Xbm. B[VhmgH$mamZs Ho$bo`m gemoYZ Am[U A`mgmZwgma XmoZ Vo AS>sM hOma dfmnydunmgyZ _amR>s ^mfo`m A{Vdm`m IwUm AmT>iyZ `oVmV. `m AS>sM hOma dfm`m dmQ>MmbsV AZoH$ gVmZs, gm[h{`H$mZs, H$bmdVmZs, gemoYH$mZs Am[U XZ[XZ `dhmamV _amR>s ~mobUm`m, [b[hUm`m, dmMUm`m Amn`mgma`m gdgm_m` _mUgmZshs _amR>s ^mfm g_ H$a`mV _mobmM `moJXmZ [Xb Amho. _hmZw^dmZs _amR>s ^mfobm Amnbs Y_^mfm _mZbs. gV kmZodamZs, _m[P`m _hmQ>s[M ~mobw H$dVwHo$& nar A_VmVohs nOm [OHo$&& Aem eXmV _amR>s ^mfoMm _moRo>nUm gm[JVbm. H$[dd` Hw$gw_mJOmZs, [hMo nw Amhs [hMo nmJ \o$Sy>& dgo Am_w`m _m X`_[Xar&& OJ_m`Vm hsg Any Vmno& [hbm ~gdy d^dm`m [ear&& Ag gmJyZ _amR>sbm d^dm`m [eIamda Zo`mM AmdmhZ Ho$b. H$[dd` gwaoe ^Q>mZs, bm^bo Amhmg ^m` ~mobVmo _amR>s& Omhbmo IaoM Y` EoH$Vmo _amR>s&& Y_, nW, OmV EH$ OmUVmo _amR>s& EdT>m OJmV _m` _mZVmo _amR>s&& Ag hUV _amR>s AgU ho [H$Vs ^m`mM Amho Vo gm[JVb. gV VwH$mam_ _hmamOmZs Va _amR>s ^mfobm d^dm`m [eIamda Zob. `mZs Amn`m gm[h`mVyZ "H$g OJmd?' `mM AmVmn`VM gdm}H$Q> _mJXeZ A[Ib _mZd OmVsbm Ho$b Amho. H$mim`m AmoKmVhs AIS> Am[U [MaH$mb [Q>Hy$Z amhsb Aes gm[h` [Z[_Vs VwH$mam_ _hmamOmZs _amR>s ^mfoV Ho$bs. _amR>s ^mfo~b AmO H$mhs OUm`m _ZmV `yZJS> Amho. _amR>s ~mobVmZm `mZm H$_snUm dmQ>Vmo. naVw, `mZs gV

o$

^mfm ho Ho$di gdmXmM _m`_ ZgyZ Vo gH$Vs Am[U A{_VoM VrH$ AgVo. Amnbs _amR>s ^mfm hs Ho$di Amnbs am`^mfm Zmhs, Va Amnb gmH$[VH$ d^d Am[U _hmamQ>s` _mUgmMm _mZ[~Xy Amho. _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmVM `m am`mMm gdmJsU [dH$mg gm_mdbobm Amho, `m_wio _amR>s ^mfoMm [dH$mg hs Amn`m gdmMs O~m~Xmar Am[U gdm[YH$ mYm`mZo H$a`mMs JmoQ> Amho. Cnw`r A{OV ndma `mMo ZmoJV. VwH$mam_mM gm[h` dmMb Amho Am[U `m gm[h`mMm A`mg Ho$bm Amho, `mZm hm `yZJS> H$YsM `oUma Zmhs. _amR>s ^mfoMm [dH$mg g`m [d[dY Vamda H$a`mMm emgZmMm `Z Amho. ^mfm [dH$mgm`m H$m`mbm [ZYs H$_s nSy> Z`o `mMs XjVm Ko`mV Ambs Amho. _amR>s ^mfm dmT>dm`Ms Am[U g_ H$am`Ms Agob Va BW`m gm[h`, H$bm Am[U gmH$[VH$ jombm mogmhZ Xo`mMs JaO bjmV KoD$Z am` emgZmZ Zoh_sM `m jomZm gdVmonar _XV H$a`mMs ^y[_H$m KoVbs Amho. gm[h`, ZmQ>H$, [MnQ>, bmoH$H$bm`m [Z[_VsgmR>s H$moQ>dYs n`mM ^ard AZwXmZ emgZmV\}$ Xo`mV `oV Amho. H$bm Am[U H$bmdVmZm [d[dY _m`_mVyZ _XV Ho$bs OmV Amho. `mMm Cn`moJ [Z{MVM _amR>s ^mfo`m gdYZmgmR>s hmoV Amho. _amR>s ^mfm hs `dhmamMs Am[U kmZmMs ^mfm ~Z`m[edm` ^mfo`m [dH$mg[H$`obm JVs `oUma Zmhs. OJ^amV KS>Um`m [d[dY KS>m_moS>s, [dkmZ-VkmZm`m jomV doJmZ hmoUma gemoYZ, g_mOm`m [d[dY jomVb A`mdV kmZ VgoM `m ZdZdsZ jomV`m Vm[H$ eXmZm n`m`s _amR>s eX Aem AZoH$ JmoQ>s _amR>s ^mfoV VmVS>sZ CnbY Pm`m nm[hOoV. _m[hVs-VkmZmMm Cn`moJ _amR>s`m [dH$mgmgmR>s ^mdsnUo H$$Z KoVbm nm[hOo. BQ>aZoQ>dahs _amR>sMm dmna dmT>bm nm[hOo. `dhmamV Zgbobs dVy Oes hiyhiy ~mX hmoVo, VmoM [Z`_ ^mfobmhs bmJy nS>Vmo. `m_wio _amR>s ^mfm OJdm`Ms Am[U [VMm [dH$mg H$am`Mm Agob Va Amn`mnH$s `oH$mZ XZ[XZ `dhmamV _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna Ho$bm nm[hOo. dmT>dbm nm[hOo. _amR>s AgU [H$dm _amR>s ^mfm ~mobU hs A[^_mZmMs JmoQ> Amho, ho AmnU gdmZs bjmV KoVb nm[hOo. _amR>sbm am`^mfoMm XOm `mnyduM [_imbm Amho. VmbwH$m Am[U [Ohm `m`mb`mM H$m_H$mO AmO _amR>sVyZ hmoV Amho. _amR>s gm[h`, ZmQ>H$ Am[U [MnQ> jomV ZdZdsZ `moJ hmoV AmhoV. Xadfu hOmamo nwVHo$ H$m[eV hmoV AmhoV. XoemV gdm[YH$ JWmb`o _hmamQ>mV AmhoV. _amR>sbm kmZ^mfm Am[U `m``dhmamMs ^mfm ~Z[d`mg AmnU H$mhs Aes `eds Pmbmo AmhmoV. _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmgmR>s emgZmZ _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJ WmnZ Ho$bm AgyZ `m`m _m`_mVyZ [d[dY CnH$_mMs A_b~OmdUs gw$ Amho. _amR>s ^mfo`m g_sMs hs KmoS>XmS> gw$ Agbs Var, Amn`mbm EdT>mdaM g_mYmZs amhyZ MmbUma Zmhs. _amR>sbm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm [_idyZ XoU hm XoIsb `mM dmQ>MmbsVsb EH$ _hdnyU Q>nm R>aUma Amho. _amR>s ^mfoMm [dH$mg hm XZ[XZ `dhmamV _amR>sMm dmna dmT>[d`mZoM e` Amho, `m_wio AmnU gdmZs Amnbo XZ[XZ `dhma _amR>s ^mfoVM H$a`mMm XT> gH$n H$amdm, Ag _mP Amn`m gdmZm AmdmhZ Amho. eXmH$Z gO` XoewI Cnw``mMo OZgnH$ A{YH$mar gnH$ 9821368210 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

A[^OmV _amR>s
_VmVohr nOm [OH$Um`m Am[U ^mfm_mOs ^mfm gmOar AgUm`m _amR>s ^mfobm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm [_imdm `mgmR>s _hmamQ> emgZmV\}$ gd H$maMo `Z Ho$bo OmV AmhoV. `mgmR>s _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `mZs gw[g gm[h{`H$ m. aJZmW nR>mao `m`m A`jVoImbs EH$ A`mgJQ>

gdmAH$am H$moQ>r bmoH$mMr _amR>r hr OJmVrb Xhm`m H$_mH$mMr ^mfm Amho. gnZ kmZ^mfm AgUmar _amR>r _hmZw^dmMr Y_^mfmhr Amho. _amR>r hr amO^mfm AgUmao gmVdmhZ, amQ>Hw$Q> Am{U _amRo> ho am`H$V} ^maV^a am` H$aV hmoVo. AmO`m nm{H$VmZ, ~mJbmXoe Am{U A\$Jm{UVmZmdahr _amR>r gmoMr nVmH$m \$S>H$V hmoVr. hr ^mfm ~mobUmao bmoH$ AmO OJmVrb 72 XoemV ngabobo AmhoV. Vo ^maVm`m 35 am`o Am{U Ho$em{gV XoemV _hdm`m nXmda H$m_ H$aV AmhoV. `m_wio hr \$$ EH$m mVmMr ^mfm ZgyZ, Vr _hdmMr amQ>r` ^mfm Amho.
1. High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years. speakers.

m. har ZaHo$
WmnZ Ho$bm Amho. AmOda V_ri, VobJy, H$ZS> d gH$V `m Mma ^mfmZm H|$ emgZmZo hm XOm [Xbobm Amho. ^mfo`m A[^OmVnUmg~YsMo H|$ gaH$maMo [ZH$f nwT>sb_mUo AmhoV.

- ^mfoMr _m[bH$Vm Am[U gbJVm


3. The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community.

- ^mfoMr mMsZVm
2. A body of ancient literature / texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of

- ^m{fH$ Am[U dmL>_`sZ nanaoMo d`^ynU


4. The Classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the Classical language and its later forms of its offshoots.

- mMrZ ^mfm d [VMo AmYw[ZH$ $n `m`mV nSy> eH$Um`m IS>mgh OmoS>bobo / Agbobo ZmVo. `m Mmahs _wm`m AZwfJmZo [dMma H$aVm _amR>s ^mfm hs A[^OmV ^mfm Amho ho g~i nwam`m[Zes [g H$aVm `oVo. _amR>s ^mfm A[^OmV R>a`mgmR>s H$mhs nydJh Am[U Imobda Obo`m Jag_OwVs `mMm AS>Wim Amho. _amR>s hs gH$VmoX^d ^mfm Amho Am[U [VMo d` 1 hOma dfmnojm H$_s Amho Aes bmoH$g_OyV H$$Z Xo`mV Ambs Amho. mMrZ _hma>r^mfm, _ah>r ^mfm, _hmamQ>r mH$V ^mfm, An^e _amR>r ^mfm kmZH$moeH$ma lrYa `H$Q>oe Ho$VH$a, amOmamemr ^mJdV, XwJm ^mJdV, dm. dm. {amer, S>m. H$. nm. Hw$bH$Uu, S>m. {d. {^. H$mobVo, S>m. e. Jmo. Vwinwio, b. am. nmJmaH$a, S>m. h. {Y. gmH${b`m Am{U BVa AZoH$ m`dam`m JWmMo nwamdo nmhVm amR>rMo d` gwmao 2500 df} Ag`mMo {g hmoVo.

o$~wdmar 2013

Am{U AmOMr _amR>r ^mfm Agm _amR>rMm dmg Pmbm Amho. `m doJdoJ`m ^mfm ZgyZ Vs _amR>s `m EH$mM ^mfoMs VsZ $no AmhoV, Ago b. am. nmJmaH$a `mZs gmoXmhaU XmIdyZ [Xbo Amho. brimM[a, kmZodar, {ddoH${gYy ho _amR>rVbo AmJW ZmhrV; Va Vo _amR>s J^ d ls_V Pm`mZVaMo loR> JW AmhoV. ho OmJ{VH$ VmoS>rMo JW AmR>eo dfmnydr `m ^mfoV {b{hbo Jobo, Vr `m`m AmYr ~mam-nYameo df} A`V g_ ^mfm hmoVr `mMo {ebmboI, Vm_nQ>, nmo`m Am{U hV{b{IV Jm{WH$ nwamdo AmO CnbY Pmbo AmhoV. _amR>rVbm AmO CnbY Agbobm n{hbm JW gw_mao 2 hOma df} OwZm AgyZ `mMo Zmd "JmWmgeVr' Ago Amho. gH$VdmUr Xodo Ho$bs _J mH$V H$m` MmoamnmgyZ Pmbs, Agm gV gdmb gV EH$ZmWmZs [dMmabm hmoVm. EH$ZmWmMs ^mfm AmOMs _amR>s ^mfm AgyZhs Vo [Vbm mH$V hUVmV `md$Zhs `m XmoZ doJ`m ^mfm ZmhsV hoM nQ> hmoVo. kmZodamZs _amR>sbm Xoes ^mfm hQ>bobo Amho. ho_MmMo "Xoes Zm__mbm' ho `m ^mfoMo `mH$aU [g Amho. nm[UZs`m g_H$mbsZ daMs (H$m`m`Z) `mZo [b[hbobm "mH$V H$me' hm `mH$aU JW `mVZm_ Amho. ^mS>maH$a m` [dm gemoYZ gWoH$So> gw_mao 30 hOma mMsZ nmo`m CnbY AgyZ `mVsb XrS> Vo XmoZ hOma df Ow`m Agbo`m gw_mao 80 JWm_`o _amR>s ^mfm `mV mw`mZo H$m{bXmgmMo emHw$Vb (4 Wo eVH$), ewH$mMo N>H$Q>rH$ (6 do eVH$), dagoZmMo goVw~Y (5 do eVH$), ^~mhMo Amd`H$ {Z`wVr (3 ao eVH$), {dbgwarMo nmM[a`m (1 bo Vo 3 ao eVH$) `mMm gmdoe Amho. am_m`U, _hm^maVmVhs eoH$S>mo _amR>s eX gmnS>VmV. 2 hOma dfmnydu ~hH$Wm hm nemMs ^mfoVsb JW JwUmT> `m _amR>s boIH$mZo [b[hbobm Amho. "[dZ`[nQ>H$', "Xrnde', "_hmde' `m ~m JWm_`o nmbs d [ghbs ^mfoV _hmamQ>mMm CoI Ambobm Amho. _moJ{bnwmm{V` `mZo H$mhr "Woa' hUOo loR> Y_m}nXoeH$ {Za{Zam`m XoemZm nmR>{d`mMm CoI Amho. nH$r "_hma>' XoemV WoamohmYa{IVm `mg nmR>{dbo Ago `mV hQ>bo Amho, "apIVWoa dZdm{g `moZH$ YapIV Woa AnaH$V

amR>rV Xadfr gw_mao XmoZ hOma nwVHo$ H$m{eV hmoVmV, nmMeo {Xdmir AH$ {ZKVmV Am{U N>moQ>r - _moR>r gw_mao XmoZeo gm{h` g_obZo hmoVmV. A{Ib ^maVr` _amR>r gm{h` g_obZmbm bmImo a{gH$ Cn{WVr bmdVmV. Xadfr H$moQ>dYr n`mMr _amR>r nwVH$mMr {dH$r hmoV AgVo. Zm_dV ImgJr H$meZ gWm Am{U gaH$mar H$meZo `mMr dMm[aH$ Am{U b{bV nwVH$mMr dm{fH$ CbmT>mb drg Vo nMdrg H$moQ>r n`mn`V AgyZ nmR>nwVHo$, Ym{_H$ JW, nmH$H$Vr, `{$_d {dH$mg{df`H$ VgoM b{bV Am{U dMm[aH$ JW `mMr EH${V ~mOmanoR> gw_mao 250 H$moQ>r n`oAmho. XoemVrb EHy$U JWmb`mnH$r 25 Q>o$ JWmb`o EH$Q>m _hmamQ>mV AmhoV. _amR>rV OodTo> H$moe dmL>_` Amho VodTo> ^maVmVrb A` H$moU`mhr ^mfoV Zmhr. kmZoda, VwH$mam_md$Z eoH$S>mo Zmo~ob AmodmiyZ Q>mH$mdsV Ago OmJ[VH$ XOmMo loR> boIZ _amR>sV Pmbobo Amho. _amR>s ^mfoV AmOda gw_mao EH$ bmI JW H$m[eV Pmbo AgyZ `mVsb Ag` JW d{dH$XQ>m loR> R>amdoV Ago AmhoV. hmYa{IV Woa hma>.' bmoH$^mfoVyZ {Z{Vr _amR>s hs _w`V: _hmamQ>mMs ^mfm AgyZ doXnydH$mimnmgyZ MmbV Ambo`m bmoH$^mfm_YyZ Vs V`ma Pmbs Amho. AemM Xwg`m EH$m bmoH$^mfoVyZ gH$V O_mbm Ambobs Amho. AmOn`V _amR>sda Am`mMs ~mob^mfm, d[XH$, gH$V d [d[dY mH$V VgoM [dS>s ^mfm `mMm n[aUm_ Pmbm Amho. _amR>sV Vg_, VX^d d Xo` `mV VsZhs H$maMo eX AmT>iVmV. _hmamQ>s hUyZ Os mH$V ^mfoVsb [deof mT> d dmL>_`sZ ^mfm VsM _amR>s hmo`. _amR>r ^mfoVrb n{hbm {ebmboI 2220 dfmnydrMm Amho. Vmo ~mr {bnrVrb AgyZ Vmo nwUo {OmVrb OwZa Odi`m ZmUoKmQ>mVrb Amho. `m {ebmboImV "_hma{R>Zmo' bmoH$mMm nQ> CoI Amho. S>m. dm. {d. {_amer `mZr Amn`m "gmVdmhZ Am{U n{M_r jn `mMm B{Vhmg Am{U H$moard boI' `m JWmV hm {ebmboI H$m{eV Ho$bm Amho. (""...` _ha{R>Zmo A{J`Hw$bdYZg gJa{J[adb`m` nW{d` nW_drag dg... ` _hVmo _h.... '' AZwdmX""...._hmaR>r A{J` Hw$bmonZ {J[ag_wdb`m{H$V ndrdarb draloR>.... _hmZ Aem nwfmV loR> Aem...'') `m _hmaR>r ^mfoV hm {ebmboI {b{hbm Jobm Amho Vr `mAmYr {H$_mZ 200 Vo 300 df} A{VdmV Agbr nm[hOo. _hmamQ> `m XoeZm_mnojm _hmamQ>r ^mfm OwZr Amho. A_H$, Hw$Vb, AnamV, {dX^

o$~wdmar 2013

`m XoemV mH$V _hmamQ>r MmamV hmoVr. BVHo$M ZmhrVa gmVdmhZm`m amOdQ>rV (B.g.nyd 2 ao eVH$ Vo B.g.2 ao eVH$) `mMm am`{dVma Hw$jo, noemda BWn`V Pm`m_wio Vr ^maVm`m ~`mM _moR>m ^y^mJmV M{bV hmoVr. hUyZM "JmhmgmgB' D$\$ "JmWmgeVr' `m hmb gmVdmhZ amOmZo gH${bV Ho$bo`m JmWm`m VtMr hV{b{IVo Xoe^a AZoH$ {R>H$mUr gmnS>bobr AmhoV. _hmamQ>r ho _hma>r _hma>r-_ah>r-_hmQ>r-_amR>r Agm Cma^_mMm dmg "_hmamQ>r ho _hma>r'Mo Zm_H$aU gH$V ^mfoZo, {V`mV`m n{S>VmZr Ho$bo. gH$V ^mfobm gH$V ho Zmd {_i`mAmYr _hmamQ>r ^mfm A{VdmV hmoVr, EdTo>M Zmhr, Va Vr J^ Pmbobr hmoVr. hmb gmVdmhZmMr "gmgB' O`d^mMm "dOmbJ' hm gw^m{fV H$moe, dagoZ dmH$mQ>H$mMo "amdUdhmo' dmnVramOmMo "JD$S>dhmo' hr _hmH$m`o ho _hmamQ>r mH$VmVrb _w` JW. nH$r gmgB d amdUdhmo {Z:ge` _hmamQ>mV {b{hbo Jobo. ""_hmamQ>ml`m ^mfm H$Q> mH$V {dXw:&'' Ago _hmH$dr XS>r hUVmo. hUyZM _hmamQ>r mH$V hm _hmamQ>r`mMm A{^_mZ{df` Amho. _ybV: hr ^mfm _hmamQ>mMrM, ho {Z:ge`. {edm` M{bV _amR>rer _hmamQ>rMo {ZH$Q>Mo ZmVo d gm` Amho ho AZoH$ CXmhaUmd$Z d `wn`md$Z {g hmoVo. _hmH$dr ~mU^> (gmV`m eVH$mMm W_mY) `mZo hfM[aVm`m mVm{dH$mV JmWm H$moemMm

CoI Ho$bm Amho. `mZVa JmWmgeVrMm _hdmMm CoI amOeoIamZo (B.g. 880 Vo 920) Ho$bobm Amho. gmVdmhZ amOmZo AZoH$ {R>H$mUmhyZ JmWm O_dyZ `mMm gJh Ho$bm. `m_wio bmoH$mMm AmZX gH$moM nmdbm Zmhr, CbQ> {dVma nmdbm. Ho$dT>r hr AmM`mMr nanam ! "JmWmgeVr'Vrb ^mJmo{bH$ WmZo, Zm gmao _hmamQ> XoemVrbM Amho. {JaUm, JmoXmdar, Vmnr, Z_Xm, _wim `m Zm `m JWmV m_w`mZo AmhoV. ~hwg` CoI `~Ho$da, JmoXmdar, nR>U `mMo AmhoV. JmWmgeVr ho _hmamQ>mMo Am bmoH$gm{h` Amho. `mV H$m`JV H${_Vm A{O~mV Zmhr. OrdZmMr H$U, XmU d X`neu Aer gd AJo gma`mM Hw$ebVoZo {V`mV aoImQ>bobr AmhoV. An^emnmgyZ _amR>r An^emnmgyZ _amR>r {ZKmbr ho S>m. {d. {^. H$mobVo `mZr dmL>_`rZ nwam`mZo {g Ho$bo Amho. kmZodarV _amR>r ^mfobm "_hmR>r' `m eXm~amo~aM "Xoer' hm eXhr dmnabobm Amho. {H$~hwZm _amR>rMo "Xoer' hoM Zmd A{YH$ $T> hmoVo. An^eJWmVyZ `mVrb ^mfobmM hQ>bo Amho. An^e ^mfoMo gm{h`mVJV Zmd "Xogr' AgoM Amho. An^e Zho. `m XogrMm {dH$mg hmoD$Z Or ^mfm {Z_mU Pmbr Vr Xoer {H$dm _amR>r. Vr An^em`m "ZmJa' `m H$mamnmgyZ {ZKmbr. Xoes `mMm AW `m `m ^y_ses OmoS>bobo AgUo Agm hmoVmo. kmZodagwm "XmD$ dohi Xoes Zds' Ago AmH$_H$ hmoVmV Am[U ^Q>mo~mggma`m JmT>m n[S>Vmbmhs "Vw_Mm A_mV H$_mV _s ZoUo Jm : _O lsMH$Yao, [Z[nbs _hmQ>s : [V`m[M nwgm' Ago hUmdo bmJVo. B.g. 778 _`o {b{hbo`m CmoVZgwar `m`m "Hw$db`_mbm' `m JWmV AR>am Xoer ^mfmMm CoI Amho. JW An^e ^mfoVbm AR>am Xoer ^mfmnH$r EH$rMo Zmd

"_ah>' Ago Amho. _ah>mMo ^mfoMo dUZ `oUo _mUoXT>_S>h gm_bJo g{hao A{h_mU H$bhgbo `& {XUbo J{ho C{dao VW _aho>&& (AW : Ya_wQ>, H$mimgmdim, ghZerb, A{^_mZr, H$bherb d "{XUbo J{ho' ~mobUmam _ah>m....) JmWm ggVs `m JWmVsb JmWm nm[h`m H$s, `m JmWm_Ysb g_mOOsdZ Am[U gm_m[OH$ n`mdaU _amR>s Ag`mMo, _hmamQ>s` Ag`mMo nQ>nUo [XgyZ `oVo. _hmamQ>mMm mMrZV_, naVw A`j CoI n{h`m eVH$mV a{Mbo`m daMr`m mH$V `mH$aUmV {_iVmo. daMrZo "_hmam>r' ho `m XoemVrb mH$V ^mfoMo Zmd {Xbo Amho. hm JW nm{UZr`m H$mimVrb Amho. `mV `mZo emagoZr, _mJYr, nemMr, _hmamQ>rMo gJio {Z`_ gmJyZ Pm`mZVa gdmV _hdmMm {Z`_ gm{JVbm Amho H$r, eof _hmamQ>sdV ("~mH$r gd {Z`_ _amR>r_mUo AgVrb.') `md$Z _amR>r hr _wI ^mfm hmoVr ho {Z{ddmX Amho. Xoemd$Z ^mfobm Zmd nS>Vo ho bjmV KoVm `mZVaMm CoI eH$Zn{V lrYa d_m `m`m Mm`m eVH$mVrb (B. g. 365) EaU `oWrb V^boImV gmnS>Vmo. `mV lrYa d_m `mMm goZmnVr g`ZmJ AmnUmg "_hmamQ>' hUOo _hmamQ>r` hU{dVmo. (''goZmn{V g`ZmJoZ... _wIoZ _hmamQ>oZ..""). nwTo> damh{_{hamZo "~hg{hVo'V _hmamQ>r`m{df`r "^m`o ag{dH${`J: n`rH$`H$m _hmamQ>:' Ago hQ>bo Amho. (~hg{hVm 10.8) Eohmoio {ebmboImV (B.g. 634) gm`ml` nwbHo$er (Mmbw`) hm VrZhr _hmamQ>mMm gmd^m_ amOm Pm`mMm CoI AmT>iVmo. (E{n. B. 6.4). {g {MZr dmgr `wEZgJ (B. g. 629 Vo 645) _hmamQ>mg "_mohmobme' Ago g~moYyZ `m{df`r {dVmamZo {b{hVmo. dm`m`Z, daMr d XS>r `mZr Ho$bobo _hmamQ>mMo CoI {gM AmhoV. amOeoIa dV:bm _hmamQ> MwS>m_Us hUdyZ KoVmo. {ebmboI, VmnQ>, hV{b[IV nmo`m, H$m{eV JW, `m gm`m`m gemoYZmVyZ amR>r~m~V EH$ "mUH$ n[adVZ' (namS>mB {eQ>) hmoUma Amho. rr

10

o$~wdmar 2013

[^OmVVm, dmL>_`mVsb dm H$boVsb hs EH$ Ho$di Eo[Vhm[gH$ [dMmagaUs AWdm Ho$di EH$ B[Vhmg[Zanoj VdUmbs _mZbs, Va `mMo `WmW d$n g_OUma Zmhs. A[^OmVdmXmZo dmL>_`[df`H$ [d[eQ> ebs, [d[eQ> X{Q>H$moZ, [d[eQ>

_Zmodms, [d[eQ> oaUm, [d[eQ> H$mbIS> d [d[eQ> dmL>_`sZ _y`H$nZm `mnH$s EH$, AZoH$ qH$dm gdM JmoQ>s gwM[d`m OmVmV. `m_mJo nanam, bmoH$arVs, bmoH$dmL>_`, H$moard boI, _m[IH$ nanam, [b[IV gm[h` B`mXtMs nmd^y_s AgVo. _amR>s ^mfoVsb Am JWm`m

emoY mMsZdmMm

O_H$mimnmgyZ _moOUs Ho$bs, Va gwdmVsg "bsimM[a' Am[U "kmZodar' `mgma`m gd Q>sZs Anyd d Abm[H$H$ dmL>_`sZ H$VtMs [Z[_Vs Xod[JarH$a `mXd dem`m amOdQ>sV (B.g. 1185 Vo 1318) Pmbs. _hmZw^md nWmMo _wI d gWmnH$ ls MH$Ya `mZs Amnbm CnXoe _amR>sV Ho$`m_wio `m`m nWs`mZs _amR>sV JWaMZm Ho$bs. "bsimM[am'gmaIm AQ>nby _hm` AgUmam JW `m H$mbIS>m`m ma^sM Amho; [H$~hwZm `mZoM `m H$mbIS>mbm ma^ hmoVmo. kmZodargmaIo aZ, H$s `mMs ^m nwTo> XsKH$mi, [H$~hwZm [MaH$mb \$mH$V am[hbs Am[U amhsb, Vs `mM H$mimV [ZnObs. _amR>s gm[h`mVyZ kmZodar dOm Ho$bs Va ""_amR>s gm[h` kmZoda = ey`'' Ago [dZmo~m ^mdo hUV AgV. MH$Yadm_t`m `m gynmR>mda _hmZw^mds` dmL>_`mMo _[Xa C^o am[hbo, Vmo gynmR> `mM H$mimVsb hmo`. Za|gmaIm b[bV_Ywa Am[U [VVH$mM dm[^_mZs H$ds `mM H$mimZo _hmamQ>mbm-_amR>s ^mfobm [Xbm. _hmZw^mdm`m "gmVsJWm'gmaIs H$m`o, Zm_Xodmgma`m`m X`s`m `Wm

S>m. gw. a. XoenmS>o


gmJUm`m JmWm, hs gd [Z[_Vs `m H$mimV Pmbs. "W_d`gmH$mis' H$Q> Pmbobs _amR>s ^mfo`m bmd`mMs hs "Zhmis' IamoIaM Anyd hQ>bs nm[hOo. _wHw$XamOmMo "[ddoH$[gYw' d "na_m_V' Am[U kmZXodmMs "^mdmWXs[nH$m' Zm_H$ JsVodarb Q>sH$m ho `m H$miMo doXmV[df`H$ _amR>s JW gw[g AmhoV. _amR>s ^mfo`m B[VhmgmV ma^sM BVH$s A[^OmV g_ JWaMZm Pm`mMo ho H$Xm[MV EH$_od CXmhaU Agob! [deof hUOo gwdmVsMo ho JW nwT>sb [nT>sbm AIS> \y$Vu XoV Ambo AmhoV. ma^s`m dmL>_`mMm [dMma H$aVmZm n[hbs JmoQ> bjmV `oVo Vs hs H$s, ho A[^OmV dmL>_` EH$m ZdsZ ^mfoV H$Q> hmoV hmoVo. Vgo nm[h`mg `m H$mimn`V hUOo 12 `m - 13 `m eVH$mn`V _amR>s ^mfoMm O_ Pm`mg [H$_mZ Mma-nmMeo df} [Z{MVnUo bmoQ>bs AgUma; nU m H$mbmdYsV [VZo dmL>_`m`m [XeoZo H$mhs dmQ>Mmb Ho$bobs hmoVs H$m? Vg~Ys R>mog

o$~wdmar 2013

11

nwamdm [_iV Zmhs. `mMm AW `m Mma-nmMeo dfmV _amR>s ^mfoV H$mhsM [Z_mU Pmbo Zmhs, Ago Zho. bmoH$JsVo, bmoH$H$Wm, Amo`m-A^J, `mo[VfdH$mMs ~mSo> `mgmaIs [Z[_Vs PmbsM AgUma. hUOo _amR>s dmL>_`mMm ma^ bsimM[a [H$dm kmZodar `mnmgyZ Z hmoVm, Vmo `mnydu H$mhs eVH$mnmgyZ Pmbobm AgUma, ho [Z[ddmX hmo`. _amR>s ^mfm Mmaeo dfo "kmZodar"nydu A{VdmV hmoVs, Ago S>m. J. dm. VJma|gmaIo A`mgH$ hUVmV. [Vbm amQ>Hy$Q>H$mbsZ _amR>s g~mo[YVmV. nU `mXdH$mbmnydu amQ>Hw$Q>m`m, [ebmhmam`m, Mmbw`m`m amOdQ>sV H$mhs _amR>s JW [Z_mU PmboM AgVsb. kmZodargmaIm A[^OmV A[Vs` JW H$mhs EH$X_ [ZnObm ZgUma! nU Am[n `mXdnyd XsK H$mi H$mhs [ebmboI gmoS>`mg nyUnUo AYmamV Amho. "bsimM[a' [H$dm "kmZodar' [Z_mU hmo`mnydu Os Mmaeo df} JhsV Yabs OmVmV, `m XsK H$mimV Ago [H$VsVar dmL>_` bmoH$m`m Vm|Sy>Z C\y$VnUo [Z_mU Pmbo Agmdo; naVw Vo boIZ[dQ> Z Pm`mZo Vo Ogo [Z_mU Pmbo Vgo [Z_mbohs Agob. Aem H$ma`m dmL>_`mMs, `mbm AmO AmnU bmoH$dmL>_` `m ZmdmZo Jma[dVmo, `mMs WmoS>s Mmhyb bsimM[agma`m EImm AndmXm_H$ JWmV bmJVo. bmoH$dmL>_`mMo [deof WmZ _amR>s ^mfoV bmoH$dmL>_`mbm [deof WmZ Amho. AbsH$S>`m H$mimV bmoH$mZs [b[hbobo Zho, Va ~mobbobo dmL>_` CXm.

$T> AgUm`m nman[aH$ H$Wm, H$hm`m, JmUs, hUs, CImUonmImUo, AmOs~mB`m JmoQ>s, AJmBJsVo, Om`mdarb Amo`m, nwamUH$Wm B`mXs. am. [M. To>ao hUVmV, ""`m H$mimV ldU hoM ~hwOZm`m kmZgmYZoMo _m`_ hmoVo, `m H$mimV nwamUH$Wm ho gm_m` g_mOmMo Iwbo> [dmnsR> (AmonZ `w[Zh[gQ>s) hmoVo.'' `m [gmVmbm bsimM[amV nwamdm gmnS>Vmo. Amo`m, Ama`m, nXo `m_mUo Jm|Yis JsVohs _hmamQ>mV \$ma mMsZ H$mimnmgyZ aMbs OmV AgmdsV. B.g. 1240 _`o [b[hbo`m Om`Um`m "Z`aZmdbs' JWmV Agm CoI Amho H$s, ""H$`mUsMm amOm VVs` gmo_oda `mZo H$`mUs_`o ^yV_mV_hmogdm`m [Z[_mmZo Jm|S>bs Z` H$a[dbo hmoVo.'' _hmamQ>mV Vo "Jm|S>bm' `m ZmdmZo [g hmoVo d gmo_odamZo `mV gwYmaUm H$$Z `mbm "[MJm|S>bs' ho Zmd [Xbo. ho Jm|S>bs Z` hUOoM AmO`m Jm|YimMo mMsZ $n hmo`, Ago To>ao hUVmV. Amods hm _amR>s bmoH$gm[h`mMm mMsZV_ H$ma AgUma. _amR>sVsb Amods hs OmZnX d$nmMs Amho d Vs _wimV Jo` Amho. AmodsMs hs d[eQ>o [Vg`m gmo_oda [b[IV "_mZgmomg' [H$dm "A[^b[fVmW

[MVm_Ur' `m [ddH$moege JWmV gy[MV Pmbs AgyZ _hmamQ>mVsb {`m XiUH$mS>U H$aVmZm Amo`m JmV Aem AWmMm nQ> CoI `mV [_iVmo. hmB^Q>H$V "Jmo[dX^yM[am'V H$mS>VmZm Jm`bo`m bsboMm CoI Amho. Vmn`,

AmodsgmaIs bmoH$JsVo \$ma nydunmgyZ $T> AgmdsV, ho "_mZgmomg' [H$dm "bsimM[a' `m JWmd$Z nQ> hmoVo. Aem H$mao ZmZm H$maMo bmoH$mMma, B`mXs AZoH$ dmhmZm Amn`m nmoQ>mV KoD$Z hs bmoH$dmL>_`mMs JJm dmhV AgVo. bmoH$dmL>_` hm eX gwgH$VmZs ~Z[dbobm Agbm, Var `j ho dmL>_` _w`doH$$Z gm_m` bmoH$m`m Vm|S>mVyZ O_mbm Ambobo AgVo. g_mOm`m AZoH$ WamVyZ hs bmoH$dmL>_`mMs JJm dmhV Ag`mZo Vs [demb g_mOmMo [V[Z[Yd

[d_mZ _amR>s AmYs _hmamQ>s An^e d `mhs AmYs _hmamQ>s mH$V `m ^mfm MmamV hmo`m. _hmamQ>s mH$V hs ^maVmVsb gd mH$V ^mfm_`o gdm[YH$ _hdmMs _mZbs OmV hmoVs. daMsZo m_w`mZo [VMoM `mH$aU aMbo Amho. `m H$mis boIH$ H$moU`mhs XoemVbm Agbm, Var b[bV boIZmgmR>s _hmamQ>s mH$VmMmM dsH$ma Ho$bm OmV Ago. gmh[OH$M mH$VmMs jo_`mXm Ho$di _hmamQ> hs ZhVs, Va `mhyZ `mnH$ XoemV [VMm gMma hmoVm. mMsZ _hmamQ>mVsb gm[h`gQ>sH$So> ZOa Q>mH$`mg EH$m _moR>m nanaoMo XeZ KS>Vo. _amR>s ^mfoV Cm_ VsMo dmL>_` Voam`m eVH$mV [Z_mU Pmbo; nU `mnydu `m ^y^mJmV amhUm`m AZoH$mZs gH$V-mH$V-An^e ^mfmV dmL>_` [Z[_Vs Ho$bs. `mMo Cm_ CXmhaU hUOo H$[dHw$bJw$ H$m[bXmg hmo`. `mZo _oKXyVmMs [Z[_Vs am_[Jar `oWo Ho$bs. _N>H$[Q>H$mMm H$Vm ewH$ hm _hmamQ>s` hmoVm. "XeHw$_maM[aV'H$Vm XS>s hmhs _yiMm _hmamQ>s` _mZbm OmVmo. [g `mo[Vfs d J[UVs ^mH$amMm` hmhs _hmamQ>s` hmoVm. `mMm AW Agm H$s, `j _amR>s ^mfoV mT> d$nmMs JWaMZm gw$ hmo`mnydu _hmamQ>mVsb nydH$dtZs _moR>m _mUmV JW[Z[_Vs H$$Z bm[H$H$ [_i[dbm hmoVm. nydgwat`m `m JWmMm H$mhs EH$ n[aUm_ `mXdH$mbsZ _amR>s boIH$mda [Z{MVnUo Pmbm Agbm nm[hOo; _hmZw^md d dmaH$ar nWmVsb H$dtZs JmR>bo`m dmL>_`sZ CMsbm `mAmYsMs Mma-nmMeo dfmMs nanam H$maUs^yV R>abs.

12

o$~wdmar 2013

H$aVo Am[U `m g_mOmMs [d[dY OsdZmJo VsV ghO [V[~[~V hmoVmV. em d H$bm Aem Xmohs Q>tZs `m dmL>_`mg _hd Amho. H$bmQ>m Va Vo AOa, A_a hmoD$Z ~gVo. AZoH$ amOdQ>s `oVmV Am[U H$mbmKmV Zmhsem hmoVmV; nU bmoH$H$Wm, bmoH$JsVo, $T>snanam `m [ZaVa AgVmV; H$maU gmadVmMs gd AJo `mV Ag`mZo `m bmoH$dmL>_`mg bmoH$[`Vmhs bm^Vo. `mMo Cm_ CXmhaU hUOo "nMV' hmo`. bmoH$$T> g_OwVtMm Cn`moJ H$$Z AZoH$ H$dtZs H$m`[Z[_Vs Ho$`mMs H$mhs CXmhaUo EH$ZmWm`m ^mS>mV [_iVmV. nmodmSo> d bmd`m aMUm`m em[hamZs bmoH$dmL>_`mMm Cn`moJ Amnmn`m H$dZm`m aMZoV H$me`mZo H$$Z KoVbm Amho. _mZdem, g_mOem, ^mfmem `mgma`m emmZm bmoH$gm[h`mMm AmYma CnH$maH$ R>aVmo. CbQ> Vs emo `m dmL>_`m`m A`mgmVyZ gmH$ma hmoVmV. bmoH$gm[h`mMo Am[dH$ma [^Z AmhoV. H$Ys Vo EImm bmoH$H$WoMo $n KoVo, Va H$Ys bmoH$JsVm`m $nmZo H$Q> hmoVo. H$YsH$Ys Vo dmMmamVyZ [H$dm g_mOm`m MmbarVtVyZ OmUdVo. H$Ys Vo Jm[WH$ dmL>_`mbm ~sO^yV R>aVo. mVyZ JWmMs [Z[_Vs hmoVo. Agm hm bmoH$gm[h` Am[U Jm[WH$ dmL>_` `mMm nmR>[edUsMm Ioi Amho. WmoS>`mV, ma^s`m H$mimVsb [deofV: H$Wm_H$ gm[h`mMs [Z[_Vs _moR>m

[eamo_mm AmT>iVmV. _mUmda bmoH$m`m B[VhmgmMm` [d. H$m. `m BVa $[MV ldUe$sVyZ Pmbs XQ>monmsg `oVmV. Agmds. _wInanaoZo amOdmS>mZs [dgm`m eVH$m`m n[h`m Xw g `m XeH$m V gw _ mao `mM eVH$mVsb _amR>s ^mfm [OdV AmUIs EH$ boI Ag`mMs AZoH$ 52 Vm_nQ> - [ebmboImMo dmMZ Am~oOmoJmBOdi CXmhaUo AmT>iVmV. Ho$bo Am[U W_M H$mhs [ebmbo I H$m[eV Ho $ bo . `m M m MZB Zm_H$ Jmds `md$Z CnbY Pmbm AgyZ b m o H $ d m L > _ ` m V hoVy _amR>sMo mMsZd emoYUo Am[U `mH$aUQ>m `mMm N>S>m Vmo H$bMwar AmT>iUmar ^mfm [gKUXodmMm Amho. hm [b[IV ^mfonydu bmdUo hm hmoVm. eHo$ 1102 XmZboI eHo$ 1002 AZoH$ eVHo$ Var hUOo Bgds gZ 1180 _Ysb nai `o W sb [ebmbo I mnmgy Z (B.g. 1080) MmamV Agbs eHo$ 602 hUOo B.g. 680 _Ysb Amho. ho gd nm[hOo. _Ysb [dH$_m[X` Mmbw`m`m [ebmboI nydu `mMm _amR>s ^mfoMm Vm_ n Q>mn` V _amR>s eXm M s Am [ebmboI CJ_H$mb hUyZ CoI H$arV _amR>s ^mfoMm nanam A[dN>Z AmT>iVo Ago hmoVo, `m CJ_H$mb d amOdmSo> `mMo AZw_mZ Amho. ldU~oiJmoi CJ_H$mbsZ d$n AmhoV; H$maU OmUyZ `md`mMo Agob, Va mMsZ [ebmboImnyduMo [ebmboImMm d Vm_nQ>mMm [dMma A[Zdm` ldU~oiJmoio hm eHo$ 1038-39 R>aVmo; H$maU H$moard boImMo _hd (B.g.1116-17) _Ysb AgyZ Vmo AZ`gmYmaU Amho. `m`m AmYmao _amR>s _amR>sVsb n[hbm hUyZ g_Obm Jobm ^mfoMm _mJ nwH$i _mJo OmD$Z H$mT>Vm hmoVm; H$maU hwQ>P `mZs Vmo eHo$ 905 `oVmo. [H$~hwZm ho Vm_[ebmboI ho hUOo B.g. 983 Mm R>a[dbm hmoVm. naVw bmoH$dmL>_`mZo $T> Ho$bo`m ^mfoMm H$Q> ZVa`m gemoYH$mZs [deofV: byB amBg, X. Am[dH$ma hmoV. B[VhmgmMo ho EH$ dm. nmoVXma, Za[ghmMma ^[VZs g__mU [ddgZs` gmYZ A_mob Amho, `mV eH$mM `mMm H$mb R>a[dbm Amho; VWm[n H$ZS> Zmhs. Am _amR>s H$moard boI H$moUVm, hm XoemV (H$ZmQ>H$) Vmo XmoZ AmoitMm _amR>s EH$ dmXmMm [df` Amho; VWm[n AmO[_Vsg _OHy$a AmT>i`mZo `mMo _hd CoIZs` A[^boIVkm`m _Vo "Ajs [ebmboI' Amho. `md$Z _amR>s `m ^mJmV Hw$Ro>Var (VmbwH$m A[b~mJ, [Ohm am`JS>) hmM MmamV Agbs nm[hOo, ho [Z{MV. AH$am`m eVH$mVsb Vm_[ebmAm _amR>s boI hUVm `oBb. Vmo eHo$ 934 hUOo B.g. 1012 _Ysb AgyZ emgZmd$Z VgoM A` H$mhs nydu`m Ho$[eXod `m [ebmhma amOm`m H$maH$rXuVsb gH$V-mH$V-H$mZS>s [ebmboImVyZ (CXm. Amho. `m`mM H$ma[H$XuVsb AmUIs EH$ [gXJmodZ `m`m Zmam`UJmd Vm_nQ>mV) "R>mUo Vm_nQ>' CnbY AgyZ `mMm H$mi IS>H$, qMMdj, Jmohdmar (Jdma^mOs), eHo$ 939 hUOo B.g. 1017 Amho. Vohm V[UH$m (gH$V VU) Ago _amR>s eX H$mb[df`H$ Vnesb Am[U VH$mbsZ AmT>iVmV; Va eHo$ 671 (B.g. 749) `m H$maH$sX `mMm _oi ~gVmo, `md$Z `mMs _mZmoa Vm_nQ>mV "gmoZma' hm eX Amho. Vmo mMsZVm [Z{MV hmoVo. Xwgam Hw$S>b nyU _amR>s eX Amho. AWmV ho gd gwQo> eX [ebmboI (gmobmnya [Ohm) hm Ho$di AmhoV. Hw$S>b`m boImV EH$ gnyU dm` VsZ AmoitMm AgyZ `mMm H$mb eHo$ _amR>sV Amho. H$moH$UmVrb 27 H$moard boI 940 (B.g. 1081) Amho; Va [Xdo_amR>sVsb gw_mao nmD$Ueo boImnH$s 27 AmJa Vm_nQ> eHo$ 982 (B.g. 1060) hm gnyU _amR>s ^mfoV AgyZ Vmo Agb Amho, hUOo gw_mao EH$ VVs`me boI H$moH$UmVsb Ago VkmMo _V Amho. H$moH$UmV [_imbo`m AmhoV. hs JmoQ> H$moH$Udmgr`mZm [Z{MVM `m Vm_nQ>mV Kgmg d Xodb hs Hw$bZm_o ^yfUmnX dmQo>b; _m ho gd boI _amR>sV CoIZs` AgyZ boIZmV nR>_mm d AmhoV. `mnH$s EH$hs H$moH$Us ^mfoV Zmhs.

o$~wdmar 2013

13

[H$~hwZm, _hmamQ>^a [dIwabo`m `m _amR>s ^m[fH$ nmD$Ueo boImV _amR>s`m mXo[eH$ ~mobsMs Mmhyb [deof Aes Hw$Ro>M AmT>iV Zmhs. VgoM H$mhs [H$aH$moi AndmX dJi`mg mMsZ _amR>s H$moard boImMo d$n ^mfmQ>m g[_l Amho; H$maU `mV gH$V d _amR>s Aem Xmohs ^mfmMs `moOZm H$_sOmV _mUmV Ho$bobs [XgyZ `oVo. gH$VMm nehs Z Pmbobo ew _amR>s boI VwbZm_H$Q>m \$ma WmoSo> AmhoV; _m `m H$moard boImVsb _amR>sMo d$n VH$mbsZ Jm[WH$ ^mfoes nwH$igo [_iVoOwiVo Amho. EH$ ImQo>Jm_ Vm_nQ> gmoS>Vm gd boI XodZmJar [bnsV AmhoV; _m hm boI _amR>s ^mfoV nU H$mZS>s [bnsV Amho. nwTo> H$mhs boImVyZ _moS>s [bns Q>monmsg `oVo, nU Vo gd boI CmaH$mbsZ hUOo `mXd H$mimZVaMo AmhoV. boIZQ>m AmUIs EH$ [deof hUOo `m boImVyZ Cn`moObobs gjon [Mho hs hmoV. `m gjon [MhmMm Cn`moJ _m gyMH$ Amho. mMsZ _amR>s H$moard boImV Ago gw_mao nZmg EH$ [Za[Zamio gjon dmnabobo AmhoV. boI H$moard Ag`m_wio `mZm eX _`mXoMo ~YZ VXdVM _`m[XV OmJm (nog) Ag`m_wio gjon [MhmMs Amd`H$Vm [deof dmQ>V Agmds ho CKS> Amho. dmH$Q>H$mMm dm[e_ Vm_nQ> ghm`m

eVH$mVsb AgyZ `m boImMs ^mfm gH$VmH$V Aes g[_l Ag`mZo `mV "[OdOmo[g', "gOmogs' `mgmaIs MVw`V nw{Js [deofZm_o, Am[U "Omo', "Amhohs', "AmnyUo' d "MCW' `mgmaIs _amR>sbm \$ma Odi AgUmar eX$no gmnS>VmV. `md$Z B[VhmgmMm` [d. H$m. amOdmS>m`m darb [dYmZmg nwQ>sM [_iVo. _amR>s diUmMs `{$Zm_o Va AZoH$ boImVyZ JmoMa hmoVmV. ~hwVoH$ gd H$moard boImMo boIZ WmoS>m\$ma _mUmV Aew AgVoM! H$maU ImoXH$m_ H$aUmam H$moa`m boIH$m_mUo OmUVm ZgyZ gm_m`nUo AS>mUsM AgVmo. `m_wio gmh[OH$M `m`m hmVyZ AZoH$ H$maMs Aewo boImV [eaVmV; VWm[n EH$ [Z{MV H$s, `m _amR>s ^m[fH$ [ebmVm_emgZmnydu _amR>s ^mfm [b[IV d$nmV Z$sM Agmds, [H$~hwZm

""nyd Mmbw` (~mXm_s), amQ>Hy$Q>, Cma Mmbw` (H$`mUs) d `mXd `m`m H$ma[H$Xv_`o _hmamQ>mV _amR>s ^mfm MmamV hmoVs. `m gw_mamg hmb gmVdmhZ dJa|Ms _amR>s ^mfm gm_m` bmoH$m`m ~mob`mVyZ ~hwVoH$ Jobs hmoVs. `m [ebmVm_emgZmVsb gHw$, gdVw, D$ga, dmda, WonmQ>s hs $no [Z:ge` _amR>s AmhoV. _hmamQ>s mH$V ZmhsV. `m gH$V [ebmVm_emgZmV ho _amR>s eX `oVmV; H$maU Ajao H$moaUmao H$mamJsa Am[U boImMm _gwXm V`ma H$aUmao A[YH$mar `m`m ~mob`mV bmoH$^mfoVsb eX Zoh_s `oV AgVmV. ho bmoH$ JmTo> gH$V Vk ZgV. ho `mMo AkmZ ^mfmemmbm \$ma Cn`moJmMo Pmbo Amho. [ebmboI ImoXUm`m gm_m` H$mam[JamZm gH$V ^mfoMo VmoS>Ho$ kmZ Ago. `m_wio Vo VH$mbsZ kmV ~mobs^mfoMmM A[YH$Va dmna H$arV.'' nwTo> amOdmSo> hUVmV, ""BVHo$ _m [Z{MV Amho H$s eHo$ 602 `m gw_mamg hmb gmVdmhZ dJa|Ms _hmamQ>s ^mfm gm_m` bmoH$m`m ~mob`mVyZ ~hwVoH$ Jobs hmoVs Am[U [V`mEodOs _amR>s ^mfm gw$ Pmbs hmoVs.''

Vs MmamV Ag`m[edm` [ebmboImV eX~ H$es hmoBb? _amR>s dmL>_`mMo dH$m[gH$ $n B.g. 7 `m eVH$mnmgyZ 12 `m eVH$mn`V`m mMsZ [ebmVm_emgZmV Ogo AmT>iVo, VXdVM `mMo CJ_WmZ EH$M hUOo bmoH$gm[h` hmo`; nU `mMo Am[dH$ma [^Z AmhoV. H$Ys Vo EImm bmoH$H$WoMo $n KoVo, Va H$Ys bmoH$JsVm`m $nmZo H$Q> hmoVo; H$Ys dmMmamVyZ Va H$Ys g_mOm`m nman[aH$ Mmbs[aVtVyZ OmUdVo Am[U Jm[WH$ dmL>_`mbm ~sO^yV hmoVo, Agm hm bmoH$gm[h` Am[U Jm[WH$ dmL>_` `mMm nmR>[edUsMm Ioi Amho d Vmo Jobs ~mamVoameo df} gmV`mZo Mmby Amho. `mMm AWM _wis hm Amho H$s, _amR>s ^mfm amOdmSo> hUVmV `m_mUo Bgds gZm`m gmV`mAmR>`m eVH$mV MmamV hmoVs d ~mobbs OmV Agmds, [Vbm A[^OmV d$n B.g. 10 `m - 11 `m eVH$mV m Pmbo Agmdo; H$maU VH$mbsZ [ebmVm_emgZmV AmT>iUmar ^mfm [H$aH$moi Aew d `mH$aU Xmof gmoS>Vm J^ Amho. gX^ : 1. e. ~m. Omoes, _hmQ>s gH$Vs, 1980 2. am. qM. To>ao, bmoH$gH$VsMs [j[VOo, nwUo, 1971 3. e.Jmo. Vwinwio, gnm. _amR>s dmL>_`mMm B[Vhmg, IS> n[hbm, nwUo 1984. 4. gw.a. XoenmSo>, B[VhmgmMm` [d. H$m. amOdmSo>, nwUo, 2010 5. [d. b. ^mdo, _hmamQ> gmadV (6 ds Amdms), IS> 2, nwadUs, e.Jmo. Vwinwio, _w~B, 1983 6. ~miH$U AZV [^So>, _amR>s ^mfoMm d dmL>_`mMm B[Vhmg (_mZ^md AIoa), nwUo, 1933 7. g.J. _mbeo, gnm. _amR>s dmL>_`mMm B[Vhmg, IS> 2, ^mJ n[hbm, nwUo, 1980 8. _w.~. emh, gnm. B[VhmgmMm` [d. H$m. amOdmSo> g_J gm[h`, IS> 1 Vo 13, Ywio, 1995-1998. gnH$ 9623185140 rr

14

o$~wdmar 2013

gm{h{`H$ `edVamd
`edVamdmZs amOH$maUmMm, g_mOH$maUmMm `mn gm^miyZhs ^anya boIZ Ho$bo. Ago AgVmZm _amR>s gmadVmZs `m`m boIZmMs \$maes XIb KoVbs Zmhs. gm[h` g_obZmMo A`jnX `mZm H$Ys [_imbo Zmhs. [H$~hwZm `edVamd MhmU amOH$maUs hUyZ `mZm gm[h`m`m mVmV hmVm`m AVamda Ro>d`mV Ambo. `edVamdmMo gm[h` `mZs [b[hbobs JWgnXm hUOo _amR>s gm[h`mVsb Aja dmL>_` hmo`. gd [dmnsR>mV A`mgH$_mV `edVamdmMs nwVHo$ VU [nT>sbm dmMm`bm, _hm[dmb`mVyZ A`mgm`bm [Xbs nm[hOoV. g_mOgodm hUOo H$m`? amOH$maU hUOo H$m`? ho `m ZdVU [nT>sbm H$im`bm hdo. `mgmR>s `edVamdmMo `{$_d emim-_hm[dmb`mVyZ [dm`m`m A`mgH$_mV `m`bm hdo.. VaM `oUm`m H$mimV H$mhs gH$ma KoD$Z, XoegodoMo ~sX KoD$Z MmJbo ZoVd V`ma hmoD$ eH$Vo. edVamdmMm qnS> hm gm[h{`H$mMm qnS> hmoVm. amOH$maUmV amhyZhs gm[h`mes `mMs ~m[YbH$s am[hbs. MS> dmMZ, [MVZ `mda `edVamdmMm qnS> nmogbm hmoVm. emioV [eH$V AgVmZmM XoemgmR>s H$mhs Ho$bo nm[hOo hUyZ Midis gw$ Pm`m. [~[Q>emZs gmoim dfm`m `edVmbm AR>am _[h`mMs [ejm gwZmdbs. `m H$XoV Wmoam_moR>m`m gm{Z`mV dmMZ, [MVZ, J^Vm dmT>sg bmJbs. dmV` [_im`mZVa XodamQ>_Ysb EH$m gm_m` eoVH$`mMm _wbJm XoemMm gajU_s hmoVmo, CnnVYmZ hmoVmo, AW_s hmoVmo, hs `edVamdmMs Pon AmM`M[H$V H$aUmar Amho. AmM`OZH$ `edVamdmMs JVsMs Pon, hs `m`m AJ^yV JwUmZs gmH$mabs Amho. J[a~sVhs Vo dmT>bo, nmogbo Jobo MmJ`m gH$mamV. AmBMo gH$ma Imobda C_Q>bobo. `m gH$mamZs `mZm AmMaU [Xb. _ZmMm gm\$gwWaonUm [Xbm. _ZmMs ls_Vs [Xbs.

m. ZdZsV Xoe_wI
AmB`m gH$mamM ho F$U `mZs Amn`m [bImUmVyZhs AZoH$Xm _m` Ho$b Amho. "`m_Ms AmB' `m JWmM hV[b[IV `mZm dmMm`bm [_imb. gmZo JwOtM hVmja, `m`m [dMmamVsb g[hUwVm, Z{VH$Vm, d[dH$Vm ho gma `mZm `j AZw^dVm Amb. JWmMo _mJ MmoImiVmZm `mMs dV:Ms XQ>s `mnH$ Pmbs. `edVamdmMm, `m`m gm[h`mMm A`mg H$aVmZm _m`m _Zmg_moa Z C^m am[hbm.. `edVamd amOH$maUs hUyZ _moRo> H$s gm[h{`H$ hUyZ _moRo>? b_Uems Omoes, J. [X. _mS>JyiH$a `m`mgmaIo Wmoa gm[h{`H$ `edVamdm`m gm[h`mbm _mZmMs nmdVs OmoS>VmV, _J C`m _hmamQ>mZo gm[h{`H$ `edVamd `mMm gm[h{`H$ hUyZ Jmad H$m Ho$bm Zmhs? EH$m gm[h` g_obZmMo `O_mZnX `edVamdmZs gm^mibo, `mdois `mgnsR>mda`m gm[h{`H$mZs hQ>bo H$s, `edVamd Oa `mgnsR>mda Ambo

o$~wdmar 2013

15

Va Amhs `mgnsR>mda Wm~Uma Zmhs. `edVamdmZm gm[h{`H$ _S>isMm amoI bjmV Ambm. g_obZmMs gJis `dWm Vo OmVsZo ~KV hmoVo. Xwg`m [Xdes gm[h{`H$ _S>it`m OodUmMm ~oV `edVamdmZs eoVmda Am`mo[OV Ho$bm hmoVm. `m gm[h{`H$mOdi Z_nUo `oD$Z `edVamd hUmbo, ""_s Oar Amn`mbm MmbV Zgbmo Var _bm AmnU MmbVm. hUyZ eoVmda OodUmMm ~oV AmIbm Amho, AmnU gm`mZs `mMm AmdmX `mdm.'' `mdois `edVamdmZs gm[h{`H$mZm Amn`m _moR>m _ZmMm n[aM` [Xbm. `edVamd loR> XOmMo gm[h{`H$ hmoVo. `mgX^mV VH$VsW b_Uems Omoes [b[hVmV, ""[dXoe _snX dsH$ma`mda `mZs n{M_oH$S>sb Am[U nyd}H$S>sb amQ>m`m `mm Ho$`m. EH$ VhoMs g~Y ndsX[jUm KS>bs. _hmZm`m H$mR>Ms Am[U gmJa [H$Zm`mdaMs ehao nm[hbs. Zm, gamodao, OJbo, CmZo `m`mV [dhma Ho$bm. [Za[Zam`m amQ>m`m [dH$mgmMo H$m`H$_ A_bmV Ambobo `j Adbmo[H$bo. `m gdmMo _moRo> a[gH$VoZo _m[_H$ dUZ `mZs Amn`m [d[dY boIgJhmVyZ Ho$bo Amho. Vo `j emgZm`m `mnmV ZgVo, Va _amR>sVsb dmgdUZm`m gm[h`mV `mZs A[^OmV `mmdUZmMs ^a KmVbs AgVs. `m`m `m `mmdUZmd$Z `mMo _amR>s eXH$bodarb ^wd ``mg `oVo. `j AZw^d Am[U `mZm Vm{dH$ [MVZmMs OmoS>

Aem VhoMo gw^J boIZ H$a`mV `edVamdmMm hmVIS>m hmoVm.'' gm[h[`H$ hUyZ `edVamdmMo `mo` _y`_mnZ Pmbo Zmhs. hs IV ~hwYm `mZmhs Agmds. "`wJYa ZoVo `edVamd MhmU' `m JWmV "gm[h{`H$ `edVamd' hm ^m. b. ^moio `mMm boI Amho. `m boImV gwdmVsbmM "F$UmZw~Y' `m `edVamdm`m JWmVsb EH$ CVmam ^m. b. ^moio `mZs KoVbm Amho, Vmo CVmam Agm ""nU `mMo _y`_mnZ _m `m`m amOH$s` OsdZm`m AZwfJmZo Pmbo Amho. `m_wioM `m`mda H$mhsgm A`m` Pmbm Amho. amOH$maUmVsb Amdoe, A[^[Zdoe, nydJh, `m `m H$miMo dmVmdaU `m gdm_wio amOH$s` `$sMo _y`_mnZ dVw{Z>> d gmjons ZgVo. nydJhm`m XmQ> N>m`oZo amOH$s` _hmnwfmMo AZoH$ gX>JwU PmH$bo OmVmV qH$dm `mMo Yyga XeZ hmoVo. AZoH$Xm amOH$s` nwf `m`m H$_s _hdm`m JwUmZs {g nmdVmV. hUyZ amOH$s` _mnmZo Aem AQ>nby `$sMo _y`_mnZ H$aUo VH$XwQ> d Aemr` Amho.'' (F$UmZw~Y 235-6) Vm`mgmho~ Ho$iH$a O_eVmXs [Z[_mmZo "`edVamd MhmUmZs Ho$bobo ho ^mfU hmo`'. AmO hoM `edVamdmMo [dMma `m`m gX^mVhr bmJy hmoVmV. ^m. b. ^moio `edVamdm`m gm[hp`H$ JwUm~b ~mobVmZm [b[hVmV, ""dmL>`rZ gH$mamMo nmWo` O_^a H$VkVmnydH$ [_adUmao, CH$Q>VoZo AZw^d KoD$Z [VV`mM

``H$mar ebsV Vo eX~ H$aUmao, ^mfoda _ZmnmgyZ o_ H$aUmao Am[U gm[h`m[df`s MmoIXi OmUH$mar ~miJUmao `edVamd amOH$s` nydJhm_wio dm _V^oXm_wio Xwb[jbo OmVm H$m_m Z`oV. AZoH$ amOH$maUr YwaYamnojm `edVamdmMo doJionU ho H$s, `mMm Amn`m _m`~mobsda Iyn Osd hmoVm. Vo dV: EH$ gOZesb H$bmdV d Cm_ g_sjH$ hmoVo. `edVamdm`m Vmb_sV V`ma Pmbo`m Zo`mZshs `edVamdmMo gm[h{`H$ hUyZ doJionU dsH$mabo Zmhs. nwTo> gm[h`m`m [deofV: g_sjo`m nwVH$m`m aMZoVhs `edVamdm`m gm[h`mda nwaogm H$me Hw$`m gm[h{`H$mZo Q>mH$bobm Zmhs. b_s~mB [Q>iH$m`m "_[V[Mo' `m Am_M[amMm OodT>m ~mob~mbm `m H$mimV Pmbm [H$dm hgm dmS>H$a `m`m "gmJ`o EoH$m'Mm ~mob~mbm Pmbm, H$hoM nmUs, (. Ho$. Ao), _mP OsdZ EH$ H$mX~ar (Zm. gs. \$S>Ho$) hs Am_M[ao JmOV hmoVs. boIH$, g_sjH$, nH$ma doJdoJ`m Am`m_mZs `m JWmda boIZ H$arV hmoVo; `m _mUmV "H$UmH$mR>' gm[h{`H$mZs nm[hOo Vgo [H$dm "H$UmH$mR>'Ms Os dmL>_`sZ XIb `m`bm hds hmoVs Ves KoVbr Jobs Zmhs. `edVamdmZs Am_M[amMs VsZ IS>mV [d^mJUs Ho$bs hmoVs. H$UmH$mR>, (~mbnUmnmgyZ Vm`m`m C~aR>mdaMm H$mbIS>), gmJaVsa (_w`_s Pm`mZVaMm _w~BMm H$mbIS>) Am[U

16

o$~wdmar 2013

`_wZmH$mR> ([Xs `oWo gajU_s Pm`mZVaMm H$mbIS>) H$UmH$mR> hm n[hbm IS>M Vo [bhy eH$bo. H$Vs AdmWm_wio nwT>Mo [bImU Wm~bo. gm[h`mVsb dmL>_`sZ dmhmMo `edVamdmZm Cm_ kmZ hmoVo. Am_M[a [b[h`mAmYs BVa boIH$mZs [b[hbo`m Am_M[amMo `mZs dmMZ Ho$bo hmoVo. Am_M[amg~YsMs d[eQ>o gmJVmZm Vo hUVmV.. Am_M[ao dmMVmZm dmMH$mZs Z[VH$ `m`mYsemMs ^y[_H$m Z KoUo ~ao, [H$dm ""boIH$m`m ImOJs OsdZm[df`s AH$maU [Okmgmhs ~miJy Z`o'' ([H$mm 219) Agm gmhs Vo XoVmV. Am_M[am[df`s `mMr dV:Mr _Vo V`ma Pmbr hmoVr. Am`w`mV KS>bo`m KQ>ZmMo gy_ [dbofU H$aVm `oUo `mZm d`[deofUmMs d Am[dH$mamMs gd` Amho Aem H$bmdVmbmM e` hmoVo. dV:`m OsdZmV KS>bo`m KQ>Zm gJmH$So> `WnUo nmh`mMs Q>s Am_M[aH$mambm hds AgVo. "H$UmH$mR>' `m `edVamdm`m Am_M[amV Am_M[amMo gJio [ZH$f ^mdsnUo H$Q> hmoVmZm [XgVmV. H$UmH$mR> (W_mdms 7 \o$~wdmar 1984 n. 53) `edVamd [b[hVmV.. nwTo> nwTo> _s nT>anyabm OmD$Z [d>bmMo XeZ KoVmo, `m_Yo loMm ^mJ [H$Vs, Ago bmoH$ _bm [dMmarV. _s `mZm Zoh_s gmJV Ambmo H$s, ""_s Hw$R>`m EH$m XJS>m`m _yVuV Bda Amho, Ago H$Ys _mZV Zmhs. na_oda hUyZ Hw$Us EH$ `$s Hw$Ro> ~gyZ Amho Am[U gd OJ Mmb[dVo Amho, Ago _mPo _V Zmhs. naVw Amn`mbm Z g_OUmar Aes EH$ O~aXV e$s Amho d [VMo A{Vd _mZUo Amd`H$ Amho, `m[edm` AZoH$ JmoQ>tMm CbJS>mM hmoV Zmhs.'' Amn`m `m [dYmZmMo nQ>sH$aU H$aVmZm `edVamd nwTo> [b[hVmV, ~w{dmXmZo, Bda Amho, ho [g H$aVm `oV Zmhs, VgoM Vmo Zmhs, hohs [g H$aVm `oV Zmhs. hUyZ `m [R>H$mUs eoH$S>mo df} g_mO nwf ZV_VH$ hmoV Ambm, VoWo ZV_VH$ hmoUo _s lo`H$a _mZVmo, _[XamV Om`m`m nmR>s_mJMs _mPs ^mdZm hsM Amho. `mM ^mdZoZo VwiOmnyabm OmVmo, VmnJS>bm OmVmo. `m_Yo Xod^moionUmMm ^mJ ZgVmo. naVw ho H$a`mZo _m`m _Zmbm EH$ H$maMo AmV[aH$ g_mYmZ bm^Vo, hs JmoQ> _s H$~yb Ho$bs nm[hOo.''

A[Ve` mOi [ZdoXZmVyZ Hw$R>`mhs gdoXZesb ^mdZobm Y$m bmJy Z`o hs KoVbobs XjVm "H$UmH$mR>' `m Am_M[amMo d[eQ> hmo`. gmao Am_M[a `m Aem mOi [ZdoXZmZo Am[U gai _mZ[gH$VoZo AmoW~yZ dmhVmZm [XgVo. gmsMo dmao Am[U `wJmVa `edVamdm`m [ZdS>H$ `m`mZmMs hs XmoZ nwVHo$ hmoV. 1957 Vo 1961 `m H$mimV `edVamdmZs Os ^mfUo [Xbs Vs "gmsMo dmao' `m_Yo g_m[dQ> H$a`mV Ambs AmhoV. _hmamQ> emgZmZo 26 OmZodmar 1962 amoOr ho nwVH$ H$m[eV Ho$bo. `edVamd MhmU EH$ Qo> gm[h{`H$, [dMmadV Am[U g_sjH$ hUyZ `m ^mfUmVyZ g_moa `oVmV. `edVamdmMs hs ^mfUo hUOo `m`m ns.E.Zr [b[hbobs ^mfUo ZhoV [H$dm emgH$s` godoVsb EImm A[YH$m`mZo nS>mAmS> [b[hbobs ^mfUo ZhoV. `mVsb `oH$ ^mfUmVyZ `edVamd S>moH$mdVmV. _hmamQ> KS>[dVmZm `mZm Ano[jV Aes g_mO`dWm, `mMs XyaQ>s, `mMs H$nH$Vm EdTo>M ZhoVa [dH$mgmH$So> _hmamQ>mbm ZoVmZm bmJUmar _ybJm_s Cnm``moOZmhs Vo gwMdVmV. ZdnXdsYamH$Sy>Z Anojm, _hmamQ>m`m ^[dV`mMs g\$a, [d[dYVoVsb EH$Vm `mgma`m boIm_YyZ `edVamdmMs `mnH$ XQ>s, gH$mam_H$ [MVZesbVm Am[U ^[d`mMm doY KoUmar _ZmoesbVm `mMo XeZ KS>Vo. _hmamQ>mMs `ms, _hmamQ>mMm [dVma, [d[dYVoVsb EH$Vm ho gmJVmZm `mMs ebs H$m`_` hmoVo. ""_hmam>mMm eoVH$ar hUOo Vw_`m Am_`m Q>mnyVsb bmoH$ [H$dm Vw_Mo Am_Mo ZmVodmBH$ ZhoV. nMJJo`m Am[U H$Uo`m H$mR>mbm H$m_ H$aUmam Ogm _amR>m eoVH$ar Amho, VgmM R>m`mMm, Hw$bm`m`m ~mOybm gwaoI eoVs H$aUmam AmJar eoVH$ar Amho; Am[U dgB`m AdVs^dVs gwXa ~mJm`V d ^mVeoVs H$aUmam [MZ eoVH$arhs Amho. aZm[Jar`m ^mJmbm JobmV Va VoWo AmnUmbm Hw$Um eoVH$`mMs ~mJ gmnSo>b Am[U da ImZXoe`m ~mOybm Omb Va

AmaemgmaIs dN> eoVs H$aUmam bodm nmQ>sXma eoVH$ar Amn`mbm ^oQo>b. gJ`m Zm`m H$mR>mZo [\$am... Am[U _J... doJdoJ`m O_mVsVyZ Ambobo ho gd eoVH$ar AmhoV. eoVsVyZ gmoZo [Z_mU H$aUm`m H$Q>H$ar eoVH$`mMo [M Amho. ~hwOZ g_mO `mMm AW Amnbs EH$ O_mV Am[U Amnbo H$mhs nmhUoamdio Agm Oa H$moUs g_O H$aV AgVsb Va Vs MwH$sMs H$nZm Amho. eoVH$`mMs Am[U ~hwOZg_mOmMs `m`m H$aVmZm `edVamdmMs XQ>s gdg_mdoeH$ Aes [XgyZ `oVo. H$Q> H$aUmam, Km_ JmiUmam, H$m`m _mVsV gmoZoMmXs [nH$dUmam `oH$ hmV hm eoVH$`mMm hmo`. "gmsMo dmao' `mVsb boImMm Jmad H$aVmZm adt [H$~hwZo hUVmV, ""hm ^mfU gJh _amR>s _ZmZo nm[hbo`m Cdb ^[dV`m`m dZmMm _m[bH$ XVEodO hmo`.'' Zd_hmamQ>m`m [Z[_VsMs Ywam `edVamdmZs _moR>m [ZRo>Zo dm[hbs. CXma _mZdVmdmXs X{Q>H$moZmVyZ gJim g_mO EH$[OZgs H$a`mMo dZ `mZs nm[hbo. "`wJmVa' `m JWmV `edVamdOtMs 1962 Vo 1969 `m H$mbIS>mV `mZs [Xbobs ^mfUo gJhrV Ho$bs AmhoV. 1962 gmbs "[hXs [MZs ^mB ^mB' hUV MsZZo ^maVmda AmH$_U Ho$bo. dmV` [_im`mZVa XoemVJVM Iyn g_`m AmhmZ hUyZ C`m hmo`m. `mV MsZMo AmH$_U. dmV` [_im`mZVa n[h`mXmM naH$s` AmH$_UmMo gmdQ> ^maVmnwTo> C^o am[hbo. n[S>V Zoh$ [MVmH$mV hmoVo. `mZs `edVamd MhmUmZm gajU_s hUyZ Vm~S>Vmo~ ~mobmdyZ KoVbo. _hmam>m`m _w`snXmda Agbobo `edVamd jUmMmhs [db~ Z bmdVm [Xbsbm admZm Pmbo. OmVmZm _w~B`m MmnmQ>sda `mZs ^mfU Ho$bo. `mV Vo hUmbo, gajUrnXmMr moR>r hmd Amho hUyZ Zho, Va XoemMr hmH$ d Xoem`m Zo`mZo mabobr hmH$ Ambr` hUyZ EH$ g{ZH$ ~ZyZ AmnU {Xrbm OmV AmhmoV. mW[_H$ [ejUmMm [dMma, ghH$ma jomMs

o$~wdmar 2013

17

g_sH$aUo, bmoH$^mfm, _mV^mfoMm [dMma, gm_m[OH$ jomVsb AmOMs AmhmZo, XoemVsb AZYm`mMo Z, Vm[H$[dkmZ-[dH$mgm`m ~m~s `m [df`mda gImob [MVZ "`wJmVa'_Ysb boImVyZ AmT>iVo. hm~mX `oWo ^abo`m _amR>s gm[h` g_obZmV gm[hp`H$mH$Sy>Z Am[U AmO`m boIH$mH$Sy>Z ^maVmMs AIS>Vm, EH$m_Vm A~m[YV am[hbs nm[hOo hm [dMma _mS>VmZm `mZs gm[JVbo H$s, [OsZo C`m am[hbo`m ^maV Xoem`m gm_`gdYZmMo H$m_ gm[h{`H$mZs Ho$bo nm[hOo. gm[h{`H$mZs `m`m AZw^dm`m _`mXm AmhoV `mnojm A[YH$ [dVV Ho$`m nm[hOoV, Aes Anojmhs `mZr `V Ho$bs. ^y[_H$m "`wJmVa'ZVa OdiOdi 10 dfmZs H$m[eV Pmbobo "^y[_H$m' ho `edVamdmMo [Vgao ^mfUmMo nwVH$. 1966 Vo 1979 `m H$mbIS>mVsb H$mhs [ZdS>H$ ^mfUmMm `mV g_mdoe Amho. `m ^mfUm~amo~a H$mhs _wbmIVsda AmYmabobo Am[U dV Ago boIhs AmhoV. ^mfUo [H$dm _wbmIVs `m d$nmV Oem`m Vem Z XoVm `mMo $nmVa Am[U gnmXZ H$a`mV Ambo Amho. dV: Am[U nj `m Xmohs~m~V `edVamdmZs Oo ~m[YbH$sMo amOH$maU Ho$bo. `mMo n[aUm_ d [V[H$`m "^y[_H$m'Vsb ^mfUm_YyZ OmUdVo. "^y[_H$m'_Ysb boImMo d[eQ> [deX H$aVmZm S>m. Eg. Eg. ^mogbo gmJVmV, ""A`V __kVoZo, H$mQo>H$moa gmdYnUo bmoH$_Zmbm diU XoD$Z Zd[Z[_VsMo gOZesb H$m` H$a`mMs `edVamdmMs ^y[_H$m Amho; Am[U MVwa amOH$maUs, ebsXma d$m d gmdY gwYmaH$ `m _m`_`s_YyZ `mZs [VMs am~dUyH$ Ho$bs Amho. g_mOm`m aMZmndmV Z`m [dMmamMs, kmZmMs d _y`mMs ^a Q>mH$V amhUo ho [dMmadV, gm[h{`H$, amOH$maUs `mMo n[hbo d eodQ>Mo H$V` AgVo, ho `edVamdm`m "^y[_H$m'Mo Va hmo`.'' "F$UmZw~Y' hm `edVamdmMm JW doJ`m Am`m_mMm JW Amho. `mZm ^oQ>bo`m `$s, MQ>H$m bmdyZ Jobo`m `$s, `m`m _Vs, Va H$Ys EImm

Wim`m _Vs, ~mbnUmV`m H$mhs AmR>dUs, Jmdm`m _m`_mVsda [OdmnmS> _m`m H$aUmam `edV `m F$UmZw~YmVyZ Amn`mbm ^oQ>Vmo. m. Eg. E_. H$mZS>Oo "F$UmZw~Ym'[df`s [b[hVmV, mVm Am{U _mVs `mMs gOZesb nmofUj_Vm _mZdm`m H$`mUmgmR>s am~Umam hm OmUVm, godm^mds, Zs[V_mZ, nw`dV bmoH$[V[ZYs _amR>s bmoH$_mZgmV XdV $nmZo [MaOsd Pm`mg Zdb Vo `edVamdmMm [d[dY [df`mMm gImob A`mg hmoVm. `m`mOdi gdmJsU m{hVr Agm`Ms. OsdZmMm H$moUVmhs [df` `edVamdmZm d` ZhVm. gm[h`m`m [d[dY AJmMm `mMm gImob A`mg hmoVm. gm[h`, gH$Vs, B[Vhmg, H$sS>m, VdkmZ, amOH$maU B`mXr OsdZm`m [d[dY jomV `edVamdmMm dmda EH$gma`m g\$mBZo hmoV Ago. [d. g. ImS>oH$a, Zaha Hw$XH$a, nw. b. XoenmSo> `m gm[h`mVsb [XJOm_mUoM AZoH$mZm `m`m VmdZm h`m Agm``m. H$m`? "F$UmZw~Y'_Ysb `mMo [V[~~ ho gm[Oao-Jmo[Oao, bmo^gdmUo Am[U gZ_Ywa Amho. CH$Q> VmdZm `edVamdmZs AZoH$ nwVH$mZm CH$Q> VmdZm [b[h`m. [d[dY H$ma`m gm[h` H$VtMo dmMZ [ZdmVnUo d [dMmanydH$ _ZZ H$$Z [H$VsVar nwVH$mZm `mZs _m[bH$ VmdZm [bhyZ [X`m. `mVsb H$mhs nwVHo$ Aes ... 1) nwVH$mMo Zmd H$_dsa ^mD$amd nmQ>sb, boIH$mMo Zmd _m. [^. H$mQ>H$a, H$meZ df 1982.2) bmoH$gm[h` gmO[eUJma, gnmXH$ S>m. gamo[OZs ~m~a, H$meZ df 1964. 3) gKf (B[Xam JmYs `m`m OsdZmdarb H$mX~ar), gnmXZ _sZm Omoes H$meZ df 1982. 4) ISo>amd ~mJb `mMo [ZdS>H$ boI, gnmXH$ ^mB _mYdamd

~mJb, H$meZ df 1976. 5) bVm (JmadJW), gnmXH$ gamo[OZs d, emVm eoiHo$, H$meZ df 1967. 6) da (H$m`gJh), H$dr gwYmey (h. Z. Omoes), H$meZ df 1970. 7) gy`nI, m. ~m. h. H$`mUH$a, H$meZ df 1984. 8) ^maVmMs am`KQ>Zm, `~H$ H$U Q>mono. 9) N>nVs [edamO (_hmH$m`), `. [h. n|T>maH$a (`edV), H$meZ df 1968. 10) [hamo[e_m, ^m. X. Ioa, H$meZ df 1984. 11) ^y[_nw, amOm _JidoTo>H$a, H$meZ df 1977. 12) ls. OJOsdZam_ `$s Am[U [dMma, S>m. ^mH$a _mMdo, H$meZ df 1977. 13) AR>ameo gmmdZMm _hmam>, nwfmom_ nmSw>aJ JmoIbo, H$meZ df 1957. 14) A_Vnw, ^m. X. Ioa, H$meZ df 1970. 15) bmoH$_m` [Q>iH$ M[a `wJH$Vm, g[dVm ^mdo, H$meZ df 1984 `m[edm` AmUIs [H$VsVar nwVH$mZm `edVamdmZs VmdZm [b[h`m AmhoV. boImMs _`mXm bjmV KoVm gd nwVH$mMm Am[U VmdZmMm OmJoA^mds CoI H$aVm `oV Zmhs. OsdZm`m [d[dY jomV H$VdmMs [eIao JmR>Um`m `edVamdmMo _amR>s gm[h`mVsb `moJXmZhs [VVHo$M Vmobm_mobmMo Amho. eXmbm AW Am[U AWmbm n[aUm_ AgVmo `mMo ^mZ Ag`mZoM amOH$maUmVhs `mZs ^mfm OnyZ dmnabs. gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>i `mgma`m gWm WmnyZ `mZs _amR>s ^mfm Am[U gm[h`m`m [dH$mgmbm amOml` Va [XbmM _m dV:hs XO}Xma gm[h` [Z[_Vs Ho$bs. amOH$maUs-gm[h{`H$ AgUmao Ago CXmhaU Xw_ui Amho. gm[h`mVsb `mMo `moJXmZ nmhVm _amR>s gm[h`mbm gm[h{`H$ `edVamdmMs XIb `mdsM bmJob. `edVamdmMs JWgnXm - 1. Amnbo Zdo _w~B am` (B.g.1957), 2. F$UmZw~Y (Am_M[ana boI) (1975), 3. H$UmH$mR> (Am_M[a 1bm IS>) (1984), 4. ^y[_H$m (1979), 5. _hmamQ> am` [Z[_Vs [dYo`H$ (1960), 6. [dXoe XeZ (`edVamd `mZs naXoemhyZ gm.doUyVmBg nmR>[dbo`m [ZdS>H$ nmMm gJh) (1988), ^mfU gJh/nw{VH$m - 1. Ago hmoVo H$_dsa (^mD$amd nmQ>bmda gms`m [Xdmis AH$mVsb (nmZ 21 da)

18

o$~wdmar 2013

Amnbr ^mfm, Amnbr ApVm


Zmoh|~a 2010 amoOr _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. [d^mJm`m A[Yn`mImbs ^mfm gMmbZmb`, _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, _hmamQ> am` _amR>s [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>i, am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWm `m Mma gWm H$m`aV AmhoV. `m {d^mJmm$V nwT>rb CnH$ am~{d`mV `oV AmhoV. _amR>s ^mfm ^dZ : _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJm`m A[Yn`mImbsb H$m`mb`m`m H$m_mV gwgyVm d J[V_mZVm AmU`m`m Q>sZo gd H$m`mb`o EH$mM [R>H$mUs AmU`mgmR>s _w~B_`o ^mfm ^dZ C^ma`mMs ~m~

29

[dMmamYsZ Amho. _w~BVsb aJ^dZ, Ymo~sVbmd `oWsb OmJm `mgmR>s [dMmamV Ko`mV Ambs Amho. _hmamQ>-H$ZmQ>H$ gs_m ^mJmV _amR>s ^mfm d gH$Vs g_sgmR>s AWgmhm` : hs `moOZm am` emgZmZo 2011-12 nmgyZ

dfm Omoer
hmVs KoVbs Amho. `m `moOZoV _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmgh n`Q>Z d gmH$[VH$ H$m`, C d V [ejU Am[U embo` [ejU d H$sS>m `m [d^mJmMm g_mdoe Amho. 2011-12 _`o `m `moOZoImbs C d V [ejU [d^mJm_m\$V

94 bj BVH$m IM Pmbm Amho. 2012-13 gmR>s `m `moOZoImbs 5 H$moQ>s BVH$m [Z`V`` amIyZ Ro>d`mV Ambm Amho. `m `moOZoMo [Z`U d g_d`Z _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmH$So> gmon[d`mV Ambo Amho. R>iH$ Zm|Xr ^mfm gmJma g[_Vs`m A`j nXr S>m. ZmJZmW H$mommno `mMs 9 E[b 2012 amoOs [Z`w$s H$a`mV Ambs Amho. ^mfm gmJma g[_VsH$Sy>Z _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgm`m Q>sZo m Pmbo`m R>amdm`m AZwfJmZo g~[YV [d^mJmes [dMma[d[Z_` gw$ H$a`mV Ambm. ^mfm gmJma g[_Vs`m 3 ~R>H$m

dmL>_` nwaH$ma _amR>s gm[h` jomes g~[YV dmL>_` nwaH$mamMo {dVaU gmH$[VH$ H$m` gMmbZmb`m_m\$V AmVmnmdoVmo H$a`mV `oV hmoVo. 2012-13 `m dfmnmgyZ _amR>s ^mfm [d^mJmH$So> `m nwaH$mam`m {ZdS>rMr d {dVaUmMr O~m~Xmar gmon[d`mV Ambr Amho. `m nwaH$mamMs nyduMs g`m H$_s H$$Z `m nwaH$mam`m aH$_o_`o 2012-13 `m dfmnmgyZ bjUs` dmT> H$a`mV Ambs Amho. ho nwaH$ma nwT>rbmUo AmhoV1) _amR>s dmL>_` jomV _mobmMo H$m` d ^ard `moJXmZ XoUm`m gm[h{`H$mZm qdXm H$aXsH$a OsdZ Jmad nwaH$ma - . 5,00,000/2) gm[h` [Z[_Vs_`o _mobmMo H$m` H$aUm`m H$meZ gWog ls. nw. ^mJdV nwaH$ma - . 3,00,000/3) CH$Q> _amR>s dmL>_` [Z[_VsgmR>s boIH$mZm CmoOZ Xo`mgmR>r CH$Q> _amR>s dmL>_` [Z[_Vsg am` nwaH$ma - . 2,00,000/mT> dmL>_` (g`m 22) - `oH$s 1 bmI, ~mbdmL>_` (g`m 6) - `oH$s 50 hOma W_ H$meZ (g`m 6) - `oH$s 50 hOma, ~h_hmamQ> (g`m 1) - `oH$s 1 bmI _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imMo nwaH$ma 1. Jmaddmr (g`m-2) - gm[h` d bmoH$H$bm jomV H$m_[Jar H$aUm`m XmoZ `oR> `VtZm Jma[d`mV `oVo. AmVmn`V 58 `VtZm `m nwaH$mamZo Jma[d`mV Ambo Amho. nm[aVmo[fH$mMs a$_ `oH$s . 50,000/2. `edVamd MhmU dmL>_` nwaH$ma (g`m-1) - ZdboIH$m`m nwVH$mnH$s H$m`, H$Wm, ZmQ>H$/EH$m[H$H$m, H$mX~ar, b[bV J, ~mb dmL>>_` `m 6 H$mamVsb CH$Q> nwVH$mbm nwaH$ma Xo`mV `oVmo. nm[aVmo[fH$mMs a$_ . 2,000/-. 3. ga\$moOs amOo ^mogbo nwaH$ma (g`m-1) - ZdboIH$m`m CH$Q> JW[Z[_VsgmR>s H$meH$mZm [Xbm OmVmo. nm[aVmo[fH$mMs a$_ . 2,000/-.

o$~wdmar 2013

19

Am`mo[OV H$a`mV Am`m. `mV _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmMs `moOZm AmI`m`m Q>sZo [d[dY R>amd gV H$a`mV Ambo. qgJmnya `oWsb [Vg`m [dd gm[h` g_obZmgmR>s . 50 bmI AWgmhm` _Oya H$a`mV Ambo. [d^mJmMo dV gHo$VWi [Z_mU H$a`mV Ambo http://marathibhasha.maharashtra.g ov.in/

Zdo CnH$ A_amdVs d Zm[eH$ `oWo ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMs [d^mJs` H$m`mb`o. _hgwbs mXo[eH$ [d^mJs` Vamda ^mfm ^dZmMr {Z{Vr. EVXW _S>im`m _amR>s Q>H$boIZ narjo~m~V emgZmg Vmd gmXa H$aUo. ^mfm gMmbZmb` _w~B `oWsb _w` H$m`mb`mgh Zds _w~B, nwUo, ZmJnya d AmaJm~mX `oWo [d^mJs` H$m`mb`o H$m`aV AmhoV. `m[edm` A_amdVs d Zm[eH$ `oWo [d^mJs` H$m`mb`o WmnZ H$a`mMs ~m~ emgZm`m [dMmamYsZ Amho. Zdo CnH$ ^maVmMo g[dYmZ 7 ds gwYm[aV Amdms [S>bmQ> d$nmV (_amR>s - BJOs) H$m[eV H$aUo. [^mfm gymZwgma H$m`mb`mMs VnmgUs H$aUo.

A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm {i`mgmR>r ^mfmZm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm Xo`mgmR>s H|$ emgZmZo H$mhs [ZH$f [Z{MV Ho$bo AmhoV. `m [ZH$fmZm AZwg$Z _amR>s ^mfobm A[^OmV ^mfoMm XOm H$gm m H$$Z KoVm `oBb `mgmR>s emgZmZo m. aJZmW nR>mao `m`m A`jVoImbs g[_Vs J[R>V Ho$bs Amho. `m g[_Vs_`o emgH$s` d AemgH$s` Ago EHy$U 16 gX` AmhoV. `m g[_Vs`m AmVmn`V 6 ~R>H$m Pm`m AmhoV. _gwXm V`ma H$a`mgmR>s [Z`w$ H$a`mV Ambo`m Vkm`m Cng[_Vs`m AmVmn`V 18 ~R>H$m Ko`mV Am`m AmhoV. `m g[_VsH$Sy>Z _gwXm V`ma H$a`mMo H$m_ A[V_ Q>`mV Amho. gX`mH$Sy>Z _gwXm A[V_ Ho$`mZVa bdH$amV bdH$a hm Ahdmb g[_Vs_m\$V emgZmg gmXa H$a`mV `oBb. `m g[_VsH$Sy>Z Ahdmb m Pm`mZVa `mg emgZmMs _m`Vm KoD$Z Vmd H|$ emgZmg nmR>[d`mMs H$m`dmhs H$a`mV `oUma Amho. [dYr AZwdmX d n[a^mfm gmJma g[_Vs am`mVsb `m`XmZmV _amR>sMm dmna H$a`m`m Q>sZo H|$ d am` emgZmV\}$ gV H$a`mV `oUmao A[Y[Z`_/[Z`_ B`mXtMm _amR>s AZwdmX CnbY H$$Z Xo`mgmR>s godm[Zdm `m`_yVu MeoIa Y_m[YH$mar `m`m A`jVoImbs g[_Vs WmnZ H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m g[_Vs_`o emgH$s` d AemgH$s` Ago EHy$U 19 gX` AmhoV. `m g[_Vs`m EHy$U 235 ~R>H$m Pm`m AgyZ AmVmn`V 20 H|$s`, 5 am` A[Y[Z`_ d gwYm[aV `m``dhma H$moe `mZm A[V_ d$n Xo`mV Ambo Amho. gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i _amR>s ^mfm, gm[h`, gH$Vs d H$bm `m jom_`o _hmamQ>mg bm^bobm dmagm OVZ Am[U gdYZ H$a`mgmR>s _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. Zdo CnH$ ~mobs ^mfm AH$mX_s WmnZ H$aUo. B-~wH$ V`ma H$aUo. gm_m[OH$-gmH$[VH$ {W`VamMm B[Vhmg VgoM _amR>s JW AZwdmX mogmhZ `m H$nmgmR>s _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imH$Sy>Z g[_Vs J[R>V.

^mfm gmJma g[_Vs


amO^mfm _amR>sMo YmoaU am~[d`mgmR>s `m g[_VsMo H$m`_d$ns JR>Z H$a`mV Ambo AgyZ `m g[_Vs_`o 22 AemgH$s` gX` d 5 emgH$s` gX` AmhoV. 9 E[b 2012 `m emgZ [ZU`md`o S>m. ZmJZmW H$mommno `mMs g[_VsMo A`j hUyZ [Z`w$s H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m g[_VsZo nwT>rb R>amd nm[aV H$obo AmhoV. Y_H$maU, amOH$maU, `m``dWm, `mnma-CmoJ, gnH$ _m`_o `mgma`m jom_`o _amR>s ^mfm `dhma g_WnUo am~[dUo. am`mVsb gd [dmnsR> Vamda gd [dmemIm_`o _amR>s ^mfoMm [H$_mZ EH$ A`mgH$_ CmsU hmoUo A[Zdm` H$aUo. am`mVsb gs~sEgB, Am`gsEgB emim_`o _amR>sMm A`mgH$_ A[Zdm` H$a`mgmR>s nmR>nwamdm H$aUo. Ammo[JH$ [ejU gWm_`o narjo`m Zn[H$m BJOsEodOs _amR>sV H$mT>Uo. amO^mfm _amR>sMo ej[UH$ WmZ CMmd`mgmR>s H|$ emgZm`m ZdmoX` [dmb`m`m YVuda am` emgZmH$Sy>Z `oH$ [OmV AmXe emim [Z_mU H$aUo. [dmnsR> JW[Z[_Vs _S>imMo nwZOsdZ H$aUo. _amR>s _m`_m`m emimZm D$[OVmdWm AmU`mgmR>s R>mog H$Vs H$m`H$_ gwM[d`mgmR>s dV A`mgJQ>mMs [Z[_Vs H$aUo. am` `dhma d `m` `dhma `m_`o _amR>sMm dmna n[aUm_H$maH$nUo dmT>[dUo. _amR>sVyZ BVa ^mfm_`o d BVa ^mfmVyZ _amR>sV AZwdmX H$a`mgmR>s H$m`_d$ns `Um C^maUo. naam`mVsb _amR>s ^m[fH$m`m ej[UH$ d gmH$[VH$ gWm, JWmb`o `mZm [deof AZwXmZ XoUo. JW [dVaUmgmR>s ^mds `Um C^maUo VgoM, gdbVs`m XamV JW H$meZ, JW [dVaU, JW XeZ `mgma`m `moOZm AmIUo. Z`mZo [Z_mU Pmbo`m kmZemImMo H$moe V`ma H$aUo. ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo AmVmn`V V`ma Ho$bobo nm[a^m[fH$ H$moe A`mdV H$aUo. am`mMo ^mfm YmoaU R>a[d`mgmR>s OZ_V d VkmMs _Vo OmUyZ Ko`mgmR>s [d^mJdma ~R>H$m Am`mo[OV H$aUo.

20

o$~wdmar 2013

_amR>s `wnms H$moe - m. am_Xmg S>mJo / gVdMZmMo AZwdmX - am_Xmg ^Q>H$i, AmVa^maVs AZwdmX gw{dYm H|$ / dMZH$moe - S>m. AemoH$ Ho$iH$a / AbH$ma d dof^yfm H$moe - S>m. dfm Omoes / Im gH$Vs H$moe - ls_Vs AZwn_m COJao / _amR>s dmL>_` H$moe - m. [Xbsn Ym|S>Jo / _amR>s ZmQ>H$ Am[U aJ^y_sMm B[Vhmg - m. Xmm ^JV / AmYw[ZH$ _hmamQ>mMm B[Vhmg - S>m. Ho$. Ho$. MmYar `m_mUo Vm[dV H$nmMo H$m_ g~[YV Z_yX VkmH$So> gmon[d`mV Ambo Amho. {ddH$moe Egm`bmo[nS>s`m [~Q>m[ZH$m`m YVuda _amR>sVyZ gm_m` _mUgmbm kmZ nmohmoM[d`mMs JW$ns Midi, [ddmVsb gmao eX, `m_mJMm B[Vhmg, ^yJmob, VdkmZ, [dkmZ _amR>sVyZ kmZmWvZm [_imdo `m _w` CoemZo _amR>s [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>imMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. Zdo CnH$ _amR>s [ddH$moe IS> 20 Mo H$meZ Am[U IS> 14 Vo 18 _hmOmbH$mda bmoH$mnU H$aUo. [ddH$moemMo A`mdVsH$aUmgmR>s

ZdsZ Zm|XgyMs, Zm|Xs A`mdV H$aUo d ZdsZ Zm|XUsMo boIZ H$aUo. Hw$_ma [ddH$moe IS>-2 ^mJ-2 Mo boIZ, gnmXZ. Hw$_ma [ddH$moe IS>-3 ([dd Am[U nds) Mo boIZ Am[U gnmXH$s` H$m_ H$aUo. Hw$_ma [ddH$moe IS>-4 (mMsZ gH$Vs) Mo boIZ Am[U gnmXH$s` H$m_ H$aUo. Hw$_ma [ddH$moe IS>-9 (b[bV H$bm) Mo boIZ Am[U gnmXH$s` H$m_ H$aUo. am` amR>r {dH$mg gWm 1 _o 1992 amoOs `m gWoMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. _w`_s ho `m gWoMo nX[g A`j d embo` [ejU _s ho nX[g Cnm`j AmhoV. gWoMo H$m_H$mO [V`m [Z`m_H$ _S>im`m g`mZwgma MmbVo. [d[dY jomV hmoUmam _amR>sMm dmna A[YH$m[YH$ JwUdmmnyU hmoV Om`mgmR>s d _amR>s ^mfo`m A[^dsMs [H$`m [Z`moOZnydH$ J[V_mZ H$a`mgmR>s [d[dY H$maMo CnH$_ `m `moOZoAVJV Ko`mV Ambo AmhoV. Zdo CnH$ `w[ZH$moS> Q>H$ _w$moV d$nmV

CnbY H$$Z XoUo. ^maVmV VgoM naXoemV _amR>sgmR>s H$m` H$aUm`m _S>im[df`s g[dVa _m[hVs Agbobs nw{VH$m _amR>s, [hXs d BJOs `m [Vhs ^mfm_`o H$m[eV H$aUo. namVmVyZ Am[U BVa XoemVyZ ZmoH$ar d n`Q>Z `m[Z[_mmZo `oUm`m bmoH$mZm Wm[ZH$ bmoH$mes gdmX gmYUo e` hmdo `m Q>sZo `dhmamon`moJs _amR>s nw{VH$m d Am[S>Amo gsS>sMs [Z[_Vs H$aUo. AZwdmXmMo [ejU [_i[d`mgmR>s AZwdmX [ejU H$n am~[dUo. _moS>s ^mfoMo XodZmJarH$aU Vm[dV Amho. Xmg~moY `m JWmMo lm` nwVH$mV $nmVa H$$Z emgZm`m gHo$VWimda CnbY H$$Z XoUo. dH$s` `dhmamV _amR>s, d[Z[_Vs _m[hVsH$moe IS>-4, _amR>s JWgyMs, _amR>s ^m[fH$ Q>no - gsS>s, gWoH$Sy>Z H$m[eV Pmbo`m H$meZmMo nwZ_wU d B-nwVHo$, _mZ` [dm[df`H$ nwVH$mMm AZwdmX. d. `ed V amd MhmU O_eVmXs{Z{m `m`m OsdZmdarb nwVH$mMo lm`nwVH$mV $nmVa H$$Z emgZm`m gHo$VWimda CnbY H$$Z XoUo. rr

gm{hp`H$ `edVamd
(nmZ 18 d$Z) boI - 1968), 2. CmMm _hmamQ> - (^mfU (am`m`m 41 [Om`m H$boQ>a n[afXonwTo> Ho$bo`m ^mfUmMs nw{VH$m -1960), 3. H$mJog`m _mJoM C^o amhm - AmaJm~mX `oWsb nw{VH$m- 1957), 14. dMZnyVuMo amOH$maU - A[Ib ^maVs` ^mfU - nw{VH$m, 4. H$moH$U [dH$mgmMs [Xem (H$moH$U H$mJog`m \$[aXm~mX d ~Jbmoa A[YdoeZmVsb XmoZ ^mfUo [dH$mgmMo `edVamd MhmU `mZs Ho$bobo [ddoMZ (nw{VH$m - 1969), 15. [dMmaYmam - (^mfU gJh nw{VH$m -1960), 5. J.dm._mdiH$a _maH$ 1960), 16. [dX^mMm [dH$mg (_hmamQ>mMo H$Vd OmJo `m`mZ_mbo_`o "`j AmXmobZ Ama ggXs` Ho$bo nm[hOo) -(^mfU nw{VH$m - 1960), 17. eXmMo bmoH$V" `m [df`mdarb `m`mZ, (nw{VH$m - 1961), gm_` ( ^mfUo - 2000; gnmXH$ : am_ YmZ), 18. 6. OsdZmMo [dd$n : H$mhs lm, H$mhs N>X (nw{VH$m [edZoar`m Zm~Vs (^mfU gJh) - VidiH$a Jmo[dX d 1973), 7. n - gdmX (gnmXH$: g._m.JJ} - 2002), [b_`o A.h. - 1961, 19. gmsMo dmao (^mfU gJh 8. njmda A^J [ZR>m (amOH$maUmVsb _mPs ^y[_H$m1962) hdmE gm[H$s, (gmsMo dmao `m nwVH$mMm nw{VH$m), 9. _hmamQ>- hgya gs_m Z (nw{VH$m [hXs ^mfoV AZwdmX), 20. India's foreign Policy 1960), 10. _hmamQ>mMs YmoaU gyMs - (nw{VH$m 1978, 21. The Making of India's Foreign 1960), 11. `edVamd MhmUmMs _hdnyU ^mfUo - gmar`m Policy - 1980, 22. Winds of Change - 1973 XeH$mMm ew^ma^ - 1971, 12. `wJmVa ([ZdS>H$ ^mfUmMm gJh gnH$ 8600676556 rr 1970), 13. bmoH$mMo g_mYmZ hsM `eds am`H$ma^mamMs H$gmoQ>s

o$~wdmar 2013

21

amR>s ^mfm Am[U gH$Vs [dH$mgmgmR>s dV am`mMs _mJUs H$$Z _hmamQ>m`m OZVoZo XsKH$mi bT>m [Xbm. `mZVa 1 _o 1960 amoOs dV _hmamQ> am` A{VdmV Ambo. ^maVmMo nVYmZ n[S>V Odmhabmb Zoh$ `m`m hVo dV am`mMs _whyV_oT> amodbs Jobs. Zm_Xma `edVamd MhmU _amR>s ^m[fH$ dV am`mMo n[hbo _w`_s Pmbo. _hmamQ> am`m`m CXKmQ>Z gmoh`mgJs _hmamQ> am`m`m [dH$mgmMo dZ nQ> H$aVmZm _w`_s hUyZ Ho$bo`m Amn`m n[h`mM ^mfUmV `edVamd MhmU hUmbo hmoVo H$s, ""_hmamQ> hs ^y_s AZoH$ gV, namH$_s dsa, `mJs g_mO gwYmaH$ d [dmZ Xoe^$ `m`m dmV`mZo nwZsV Pmbobs Amho. gV kmZoda, N>nVs [edmOs _hmamO, _hm_m Omo[V~m \w$bo d bmoH$_m`

_amR>s ^mfm, gH$Vs d B[Vhmgm`m gemoYZmW H$n hmVs KoUo, `m gX^mVsb JW H$m[eV H$aUo, _amR>s JW, M[ao, [Z`VH$m[bHo$, eXH$moe B. gX^ JW H$m[eV H$aUo, [dd^mfmVsb loR> JWmMs _amR>s ^mfmVao H$m[eV H$aUo, _amR>s gm[h` [dH$mgm`m ZdZdsZ kmZ[dkmZ emImMm emoY KoUo, _hmamQ>m`m gm_m[OH$, amOH$s`, gmH$[VH$ Am[U gm[h{`H$ OS>UKS>UsMm B[Vhmg [b[hUo Am{U BVa dmL>`rZ CnH$ am~dyZ hmamQ>mVrb gm{h` Am{U gmH${VH$ CnH$mZm MmbZm Xo`mgmR>r am` gm{h` Am{U gH$Vr S>imMr WmnZm H$a`mV Ambr. _S>imZo Jo`m 50 dfmV `m AZwfJmZo _moRo> H$m` Ho$bo Amho.

S>m. gwZsbHw$_ma bdQo>


[Q>iH$ hs Am_Ms m[V[Z[YH$ VrHo$ AmhoV. `mZsM _hmamQ>m`m gH$VsMs OmonmgZm Ho$bs d [VMm dmagm Amn`m hmVs [Xbm. hm A_mob Ro>dm Amn`m

hmam>mMo gmH${VH$ g{MV


X`mV OnyZ Ro>dUo d `mMm [dH$mg H$aUo, ho `oH$ _amR>s _mUgmMo Am H$V` R>aVo. AmO Amnbo _amR>s ^mfs am` WmnZ hmoV AgVmZm Amn`m XoemMs ^a^amQ> H$a`mg d `mMs H$sVu [XJV nga[d`mg Amnbo e{$gdd XoD$ Aes Amn`mnH$s `oH$mZo [Vkm Ho$bs nm[hOo."" `m [VkoZwgma _hmamQ> emgZmZo 19 Zmoh|~a 1960 amoOs "_hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i" WmnZ Ho$bo. VH$VsW b_Uems Omoes `m`m A`jVoImbs Xhm gX`mMs g[_Vs WmnZ H$a`mV Ambs. `mV gdls _hm_hmonm`m` [d. [d. [_ames, S>m. E. E_. KmQ>Jo, mMm` [XZH$a H$d}, m. JmodYZ narI, S>m. ns. E_. Omoes, m. Z. a. $mQ>H$, m. dm. b. Hw$bH$Uu ^{V _m`damMm g_mdoe hmoVm. JW H$meZ _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>im`m gwdU_hmogds dmQ>MmbsV _S>imZo AZoH$ _m[bH$ JWmMo H$meZ H$$Z _hmamQ>m`m gm[h` [dH$mgmV _moRo> `moJXmZ [Xbo Amho. m. AemoH$ amZSo> [b[IV "Q>[dH$sMo gmJr[VH$ gmX`em', S>m. dm. [d. [_ames [b[IV "H$m[bXmg', "eog[nAa n[aM` JW', "_hm_m \w$bo g_J dmL>_`', "S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a Jmad JW', S>m. g. J. _mbeo [b[IV "gm[h` [gmV', "H$m[Q>bs` AWem', dmV`dsa gmdaH$amMo "^mfmews', "gnyU JS>H$ar' (^mJ 1, 2), "AmJaH$a dmL>_` IS>', "_hm_m JmYs-adtZmW R>mHy$a', "^maVs` [bnsMo _m[bH$ EH$$n', "gm[ds~mB \w$bo g_J dmL>_`', "JsH$ emoH$ZmQ>o', "H$boMs _ybVdo', "~wbsbm gmagJh', "\$mgu_amR>s AZw~Y', "Ho$edgwVmMs H$[dVm' (`Wm_yb Amdms) gmaIo JW _amR>s gmadVmVsb XsnV^ hUyZ AmoiIbo OmVmV. H$moe H$meZ EH$[dgmdo eVH$ ho kmZ-[dkmZm`m [d\$moQ>mMo eVH$ hUyZ AmoiIbo OmVo. `m ^mfoVsb gX^ dmL>_` loR> Vs g_ kmZ^mfm. `m XQ>sZo _S>imZo WmnZonmgyZM [d[dY H$ma`m H$moe [Z[_Vsda ^a [Xbm Amho. dV _amR>s [ddH$moe _S>i WmnZ H$$Z _hmamQ> emgZmZo _amR>s [ddH$moemMo 19 IS> [g H$$Z [hXsZVa [ddH$moe

22

o$~wdmar 2013

Agbobs am`^mfm hUyZ Jmad m Ho$bm Amho. gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imZo Am`wd}X, _amR>s dmL>_`, eX B. H$moemMs [Z[_Vs H$$Z H$moe dmL>_` jomV _mobmMo `moJXmZ [Xbo Amho. AZwdmX gm[h` H$moemgmaIo AZoH$ H$moe g`m Am AmhoV. `mMo nwZ_wU d[aV hmoUo JaOoMo Amho. ^mfmVamMo H$meZ XodmUKodmUsVyZ gH$Vs [dH$[gV hmoV AgVo Ves ^mfmhs. d^mfoV na^mfs dmL>_` AZwdm[XV hmoD$Z Ambo H$s AZw^d, ebs d[M`, ^mfm `moJ B`mXs`m H$jm XmdVmV. OJ^a BJOs ^mfoVyZ d^mfoV ^mfmVamMs _moR>s nanam Amho. gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imZo B[Vhmg, gm[h`, ZmQ>H$, H$mX~ar, H$m` B. [d[dY H$maMo A[^OmV gm[h` _amR>sV ^mfmV[aV H$$Z KoD$Z H$m[eV Ho$bo Amho. `m`_yVu amZSo> `m`m Rise of Maratha Power, AmZX [_lm `m`m Nanasaheb Peshwa and Fight for Freedom, [ZH$mbmAmo _Zw$s`m Storia Do Mogar Ms _amR>s ^mfmVao H$m[eV Ho$bs Amho. gH$V_YyZ "^aV_wZrMo ZmQ>em', "_wmamjg' a[e`Z_YyZ gwJZod`m "Father and Son' H$mX~arMm AZwdmX, CXy_YyZ Om\$a ear\$`m "H$mZyZB-Bbm_'Mo ^mfmVa Aes _moR>s nanam Amho. _amR>s gm[h`mV AmO BJOs b[bV gm[h`H$Vt`m AZwdmXmMs _moR>s bmQ> Ambs AgyZ _amR>s H$meH$ `mda Ahh[_Ho$Zo dma hmoV AgVmZm AmnUmg ho [dg$Z MmbUma Zmhs H$s `m ^mfmVa `wJmMm nm`m gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imZo nZmg dfmnydu KmVbm hmoVm. AmO Ho$di BJOs ^mfmVao hmoVmV. `m nmd^y_sda _S>imMo ^mfm d^d d d[d` bjmV Ko`mgmaIo Amho. Eo[Vhm[gH$ JWmMo H$meZ _hmamQ> am`m`m WmnZoZVa ho _S>i WmnZ H$a`m`m AZoH$ CoemnH$s EH$ Coe gH$Vs d B[VhmgmMo gemoYZ d H$meZ hmoVm. `mZwgma _S>imZo Xw_ui BJOs, CXy B[Vhmg JWmMs ^mfmVao Oes H$m[eV Ho$bs VgoM _m[bH$ JWhs H$m[eV Ho$boV. "Y_emmMm B[Vhmg', "AmaJOo~Mm B[Vhmg', "Xwgao _hm`w', "gmVdmhZ Am[U n{M_s jn `mMm B[Vhmg d H$moard boI', "g_mQ> AH$~a'gmaIo JW `m gX^mV CoIZs` hUyZ gmJVm `oVsb. dkm[ZH$ JW H$meZ _yb^yV dkm[ZH$ JW H$meZmMs

_amR>sVsb jsU nanam bjmV KoVm, 50 dfmnydu gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>imZo `m gX^mV KoVbobm nwT>mH$ma d Ho$bobo `Z AZwH$aUs`M hQ>bo nm[hOo. "dkm[ZH$ VdkmZmMm CX`'gma`m JWmnmgyZ Vo "dkm[ZH$ nm[a^m[fH$ gkm' Wmn`em, ^yJmob, "[dkmZ d VkmZ'gmaIo JW hdmMo AmhoV. ZdboIZ mogmhZ JW H$meZm~amo~a ho _S>i gVV ZdboIH$ [e[~ao, ZdboIH$ H$meZ, ZdboIZ nwaH$ma Aem [d[dY nVsZo _amR>s gm[h`mMs _emJV H$arV Ambo Amho. _S>im`m `m [e[~amVyZ _mJXeZ KoVbobo AZwXmZ d nwaH$ma [_idUmao [H$VsVar gm[h{`H$ AmO [WV`e Pmbo AmhoV. ^maVmV`m \$ma H$_s am`mV Aem H$maMo `Z gmV`mZo d OmUsdnydH$nUo hmoVmZm [XgVmV. `edVamd MhmU d VH$VsW b_Uems Omoes `mMs `mVyZ XyaQ>s [XgyZ `oVo. AmOda _S>imZo ZdboIH$mMs 2 hOma nwVHo$ H$m[eV Ho$bs AmhoV. `m g`od$Zhs `m `moOZoMm AmdmH$m `mZs `oVmo. _S>i ZdboIH$ V`ma H$$Z `m`m JWmZm AZwXmZ XoD$Z Wm~V Zmhs, Va ZdboIH$m`m JWmZm nwaH$ma XoD$Z mogmhZ XoV AgVo. gm[h` gWmZm AWgmhm` _hmamQ>mV AmR> _hgyb [d^mJ Agbo Var [dX^, _amR>dmS>m, ImZXoe, H$moH$U d n{M_, X[jU _hmamQ> ho `mMo nman[aH$ gmH$[VH$ [d^mJ hmoV. `m [d^mJmMo [V[Z[Yd H$aUm`m gm[h{`H$ gWm AmhoV. `m gWm_m\$V gm[h` g_obZo, `m`mZ_mbm, nwVH$ H$meZ, gm[h{`H$ Jmad, _wIn H$meZ, JWmb` gMmbZ, dmMH$ _oimdo, MMmgo B. CnH$_ Ho$bo OmV AgVmV. Aem CnH$_mZm mogmhZ d Am[WH$ ~i [_imdo hUyZ _hmamQ> emgZ `m _S>im_m\$V [Vdfu `oH$ gWobm . 5 bj BVHo$ ^aKmog AZwXmZ XoV AgVo. A[Ib ^maVs` gm[h` _hm_S>i, [dX^ _amR>s gm[h` gK, ZmJnya, _amR>dmS>m gm[h` n[afX, AmaJm~mX, _hmamQ> gm[h` n[afX, nwUo, _w~B _amR>s gm[h` gK, X[jU _hmamQ> gm[h` g^m, H$mohmnya, H$moH$U _amR>s gm[h` n[afX, aZm[Jar `m gWmMm `mV AV^md Amho. gm[h{`H$ nwaH$ma d Jmaddms _amR>sVsb CH$Q> JW [Z[_Vs, loR>

o$~wdmar 2013

23

_hmamQ>mVsb _amR>s [Z`VH$m[bH$mMs nanam Jo`m e^a Vo XsS>eo dfmMs Amho. hs [Z`VH$m[bHo$ H$mim`m dmhmV ~X nSy> Z`o, `mMo gd d dd gwa[jV amhmdo hUyZ [deof kmZ emIm, [df` B`mXtMs OnUyH$ H$aUm`m [Z`VH$m[bH$mZm _S>imH$Sy>Z [Vdfu 15 hOma Vo 35 hOma n`mMo AZwXmZ [Xbo OmVo. AmO[_Vsg gw_mao 50 [Z`VH$m[bH$mZm `m `moOZoVyZ AWgmhm` [Xbo OmVo. "Zd-AZwRw>^', "nMYmam', "~oZ Q>m[ZH$', "_amR>s [dkmZ n[H$m', "[_iyZ gm`mOUs', "hmH$mam', "~ob-OmJVs', "^mfm Am[U OsdZ', "gemoYH$', "Ho$`mZo ^mfmVa' hs [Z`VH$m[bH$mMs Zmdo dmMbs Var _S>i Ho$dTo> _moRo> gmH$[VH$ g[MV OmonmgVo Amho `mMs [MVs Am`mdmMyZ amhUma Zmhs. H$meH$, loR> boIH$ d H$bmdV Jmaddms AemVyZ gm[h` d gm[h{`H$ g_mZmMs nanam _S>imZo WmnZonmgyZ Onbs Amho. [Vdfu . 10 hOma amoI d g_mZ[Mh d$nmV [X`m OmUm`m `m nwaH$mamV _hmamQ> emgZmZo KgKesV dmT> Omhsa H$$Z Ad`m _hmamQ>mMo gm[h` o_ [g Ho$bo Amho. gm[h{`H$ OsdZ Jmadm`m $nmV [Xbm OmUmam . 50 hOma amoI, _mZn d g_mZ[Mh Aem d$nmV [Xbm OmUmam gm[h{`H$ d bmoH$ H$bmdVmMm Jmad hUOo _hmamQ>mMm g_mZM hmo`! AmOda Jma[d`m Jobo`m `m g_mZgyMsV ^mB _mYdamd ~mJb, H$ds Zmam`U gwd}, AmZXs~mB [eH}$, Hw$gw_mJO, emhsa dm_ZXmXm H$S>H$, ^mD$ nm`o, B[Xam gV, eH$aamd IamV, emVm eoiHo$, am_ ZJaH$a, H$ds Jog, m. _. X. hmVH$UJboH$a, `_wZm~mB dmBH$a, S>m. ^mbM Zo_mSo> ^yVr _m`damMm g_mdoe Amho. `m CnH$_m[edm` _S>imZo gwdU _hmogds CnH$_ hUyZ _hmamQ> am` gm[h` d gmH$[VH$ _hmogd, [Ohm JW _hmogd, gs_m ^mJmVsb gm[h` g_obZmZm AWgmhm`, OmJ[VH$ _amR>s g_obZmg AWgmhm`, B-~wg, gHo$VWi [Z[_Vs Aem ~hw[dY CnH$_mVyZ H$m`[dVma Ho$bm Amho. _hmamQ> am`mMo Zdo gmH$[VH$ YmoaU, ^mfm gMmbZmb`, _amR>s ^mfm {d^mJ B. _m`_mVyZ _amR>s ^mfm, gm[h` d gH$Vs [dH$mgmMm g_{dV `Z gw$ Ho$bm AgyZ [d[dY `moOZm d CnH$_mMo EH$sH$aU Ama[^bo Amho. `mVyZ _amR>s amO^mfm dmnamV dmT>, emgH$s` d `m`mb`sZ H$m_H$mOmV _amR>sMm Cn`moJ, ~h_hmamQ>mVsb _amR>s gWmZm ghm` Ago YmoaU AJrH$ma`mZo bdH$aM `mMo gH$mam_H$ n[aUm_ [XgyZ `oVsb. _S>imMo dV_mZ A`j _Yy _Joe H$[UH$ `m`m ZoVdmImbs ([d[dY eXH$moem`m

gsS>s V`ma H$aUo), (~mobs^mfm H$n), _amR>s _mU^mfm H$moe, Jm_sU OsdZ H$moe, Xw_ui JW gHo$VWimda H$m[eV H$aUo, aJ^y_s, dof^yfm, hVH$bm, B[Vhmg boIZ, `wdH$ A`mgdms Aem H$mbgJV Z`m `moOZm, CnH$_, H$meZmMm gH$n gmoS>bm AgyZ bdH$aM `m `moOZm A_bmV `oD$Z _amR>s ^mfm, gm[h`, gH$Vs [dH$mgmg JVs `oBb Aes Amem Amho. Xw_ui JWmMo nwZ_wU, _hmamQ> [enH$ma _m[bH$m H$meZ, B`mXsVyZhs _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, _hmamQ> g_mO [dH$mg d CWmZmMo _hdmMo H$m` H$arV Amho. `m _S>imMo AmOdaMo A`j d gX` `mZs `m H$m`mV doimodois Ho$bo`m gmhm` d _mJXeZmVyZ ho _S>i am`mVsb H$m`j_ d J[V_mZ _S>i hUyZ bmoH$mXamg [ZaVa nm am[hbo Amho. B-_ob : drsklawate@gmail.com gnH$ 9881250093 rr A[YH$ _m[hVsgmR>s H$m`mb`mMm nmm _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, Xwgam _Obm, adt ZmQ> _[Xa B_maV, nw.b. XoenmSo> H$bm AH$mX_s Amdma, g`mZs amoS>, ^mXods, _w~B - 400 025. XyadZs 022- 24325931 \$g 022- 24325931 gHo$VWi -http://mahasahityasanskriti.in

B-_ob- secretary.sblc@gmai.com

AmO`m _amR>s dmMH$mMs eXH$moe[df`H$ JaO `mnH$ Pmbs Amho. hUyZ ^m[fH$ nW:H$aUmMm d Eo[Vhm[gH$ Am[U VwbZm_H$ ^m[fH$ A`mg nVsMm Cn`moJ H$$Z A[^Zd H$moemMs aMZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m H$moemV OdiOdi XsS> bmI eX AgVsb d Vmo 7 IS>mV H$m[eV H$a`mV `oBb. _S>im`m dVsZo AmVmn`V Mma IS> H$m[eV Pmbo AgyZ nmMdm IS> H$meZ nyd AdWoV Amho. _S>im`m gwdU_hmogds dfm[Z[_m ~mobs^mfm[df`H$ gemoYZ H$n hmVs Ko`mV Ambobm Amho. H$nmVJV _amR>s ^mfo`m _wI ~mobs Agbo`m A[hamUs, dhmS>s, AmJar, _amR>dmS>s `m ~mobtMm gemoYZ H$n AZwH$_o _hmamQ>mVsb Cma _hmamQ> [dmnsR>, OiJmd, _w~B [dmnsR>, _w~B, gV JmS>Jo~m~m A_amdVs [dmnsR>, A_amdVs, S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a _amR>dmS>m [dmnsR>, AmaJm~mX `m`m _m\$V am~[d`mV `oV Amho. b[bVoVa dmL>_`m`m H$meZmW AZwXmZ `m `moOZo AVJV _amR>sVsb dMm[aH$ d ems` [df`mdarb JWmMs CUsd bjmV KoD$Z _amR>sV [b[hbo`m ems` d Vm[H$ [df`mdarb gemoYZ d d[eQ>nyU Aem C XOm`m boIZmMm [dMma AZwXmZmgmR>s Ho$bm OmVmo. _S>im`m nwVH$ H$meZ `moOZo AVJV _S>imZo AmVmnmdoVmo 490 nwVHo$ H$m[eV Ho$bs AmhoV. `mnH$s _hmamQ>mMo [enH$ma `moOZoVsb 1) ~. ZmW n, 2) Zm.J. Jmoao, 3) Eg. E_. Omoes, 4) dmV`dsa gmdaH$a, 5) `edVamd MhmU, 6) eH$aamd MhmU, 7) VwiesXmg OmYd, 8) n[S>Vm a_m~mB 9) eH$aamd _mo[hVo-nmQ>sb hs ZD$ nwVHo$ d 1) _s nm[hbobo `edVamd 2) `edVamd amQ>s` `{$_d hs XmoZ nwVHo$ Aes EHy$U 11 nwVHo$ _S>imZo B-~wH$ d$nmV H$m[eV Ho$bs AmhoV. VgoM Cd[aV H$m[eV nwVH$mMo B-~wH$ H$a`mMo _S>im`m dVsZo Vm[dV Amho. darb 11 nwVHo$ _S>im`m http://mahasahityasanskriti.in `m gHo$VWimda CnbY H$$Z Xoo`mV Ambr AmhoV.

24

o$~wdmar 2013

H$VsW b_Uems Omoes ho Zmd [ddH$moemes H$m`_Mo OmoS>bo Jobo Amho BVH$s JWgnXm `mZs [ddH$moemgmR>s [Z_mU Ho$bs. EH$ Zho, XmoZ Zho, V~b 14 IS> `mZs gnm[XV Ho$bo. VX>ZVa _o. nw. aoJo m`m H$mimV IS> 15 Va am. J. OmYd `m`m H$mimV IS> 16 Mo gnmXZ Pmbo. `m XmoKm`m H$mimV [Z_mU hmoV Agbobm Hw$_ma [ddH$moe n[aM` JW S>m. lsH$mV [OMH$ma `m`m H$mimV H$m[eV Pmbm, VgoM _amR>sVyZ nYm narjmZm ~gUm`m `wdH$`wdVtgmR>s [OMH$mamZs "[ddH$moe dm[fH$s' H$mT>bs. S>m. [dO`m dmS> `m`m H$mimV IS> 17, IS> 18, IS> 19 `mZs gnm[XV Ho$bo VgoM hmo_s ^m^m [dkmZ [ejU gWo`m dVsZo "Hw$_ma [ddH$moe - OsdgQ>s Am[U n`mdaU' ^mJ - 1 hm g_d`H$ S>m. ho_M

YmZ d gnmXH$ [dO`m dmS> `m `sZo _hmamQ>mVsb emkm`mgh V`ma Ho$bm. hs gmar _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmgmR>sM Mmbbobs YS>nS> Amho. _amR>sVyZ `mZm `mZm [eH$m`Mo Amho `m`m `m`m JaOm m JWmZs nyU H$a`mMm `Z Ho$bm Amho. nH$ma [_hs `m JWmMm nwH$i Cn`moJ H$$Z KoVmV. [ddH$moe hm _m[hVsMm I[OZm

S>m. Mmesbm AmoH$


AgyZ `mMs [ddmgmhVm gd gnmXH$mZs Onbs Amho. Zm|X V`ma H$aUo ho H$m_ `m `m [df`mVsb kmZs bmoH$ H$aVmV. `mZVa `mMs g_sjmhs _hmamQ>mVbo kmZdV H$aVmV. _J gnmXZ hmoVo; `m_wio _amR>s ^mfoVsb ho JW A[YH$m[YH$ gYZ hmoVmV. AmVm BQ>aZoQ>Mo _m`_ Ambo Amho Am[U

`mMm AMyH$ Cn`moJ [ddH$moe _S>imZo H$$Z KoVbm Amho. [ddH$moemMs gsS>s [ddH$moemMo EH$ H$m[VH$mar nmD$b [dO`m dmS> `m`m H$mimV CMbbo Jobo. [ddH$moemMs gsS>s H$amds Agm R>amd `mZs _S>imnwTo> Ro>dbm. 20182 nRo> g_m[dQ> Agbobm 6 gsS>tMm 1 Vo 17 IS>mMm gsS>s gM Ho$di 750 n`mZm gJUH$ Vk _mYd [eadiH$a `m`m Vm{H$ ghH$m`mZo CnbY Pmbm. emgZmMs ^y[_H$m _amR>s`m [dH$mgmgmR>s CnH$maH$ Ag`mZo d `mVyZ Z\$m H$_mdUo ho emgZmMo C[Q> Zg`mZoM hm gM Ho$di 750 n`mV OZVog CnbY Pmbm. VH$mbsZ _w`_s [dbmgamd Xoe_wI `mZs gsS>s gMmMo CXKmQ>Z Ho$bo. gwdmVsMo 2 _[hZo Vmo 500 n`mg OZVobm m d _amR>s dmMZmMs ds H$am,

AX>^wV Am{U A{Vr`

amR>r {ddH$moem`m 19`m IS>mMo H$meZ gmH${VH$ H$m`r gO` XodVio `mZr Ho$bo. `mdoir {ddH$moe {Z{Vr S>im`m A`jm S>m. {dO`m dmS>, amR>r ^mfm {d^mJmMo g{Md moX `. ZbmdS>o d BVa m`da CnpWV hmoVo.

o$~wdmar 2013

25

Hw$ma [ddH$moe _S>imZo V`ma Ho$bobm ~mobH$m [ddH$moe Va _amR>s ^mfo`m XmbZmVsb Am[U H$moedmL>_`mVsb EH$ A[^Zd CnH$_ Amho. hs gsS>s AY ~mYdmgmR>s V`ma Ho$bs Jobs Va Hw$_ma [ddH$moe OsdgQ>s Am[U n`mdaU ^mJ - 1 hm marathivishwakosh.org.in `m gHo$VWimda OZVog _mo\$V [Xgy bmJbm Am[U `mMs ~ob Amdmshs V`ma Pmbs. `mgmR>r S>im`m A`jm S>m. {dO`mVmB dmS> `mZr nwT>mH$ma KoVbm. AmOn`V ~ob_`o AZoH$ nwVHo$ Pmbs AmhoV, nU OJmVsb EH$hs H$moe ~ob_`o Pm`mMo Hw$Ro> dmMbo Zmhs hmyZ `m H$m_mMo _Z_moH$ionUo H$mVwH$ H$amd`mg hdo. [ddH$moe _S>i gmV`mZo ZdZ`m `moOZmmao H$mim`m ~amo~a nmdbo Q>mH$sV _amR>s ^mfm gdXya nmoM[d`mMm `Z H$arV Amho. Ago `mZs gy[MV Ho$bo. [ddH$moeamO nYm [ddH$moe H$moemV Z amhVm [ddmV `mdm, `wdH$ - `wdVs, [H$emoa - [H$emoar, ^[JZs, dmMH$, `oR> ZmJ[aH$ `m gdmn`V nmoM[d`mMs _Zrfm ~miJyZ gmao gX` A`jm~amo~a _hmamQ>^a [\$abo. 22 [Oho [nOyZ H$mT>bo. [dbmg Imobo, gXmZX _moao, XmXm Jmoao, O`Hw$_ma _Ja, _mYd [eadiH$a, gwYm H$miXmVo, dfm [eaJmdH$a, Mmesbm AmoH$, ea`y ~~Zamd Vm`dmSo>, emo^m [eXo, ho_M YmZ, Xmm ^JV, S>m. gw. a. XoenmSo> Aes [H$VsVar _S>is doimodois [dO`m~mB~amo~a hmoVs Am[U JWdmMZmMs JmoS>s `mVyZ AZoH$mZm [Z_mU Pm`mMs no [ddH$moe H$m`mb`mV m Pmbs AmhoV. bmoH$mZs JW [dH$V KoD$Z `m nY}V ^mJ KoVbm ho [deof. AmaJm~mXoV Va hagyb Oob_`ohs hs nYm Pmbs. Vohm ~[XdmZmMo S>moio gOb Pmbo hmoVo. AnJmgmR>s, AYmgmR>s hs nYm hmoUo hm [ddH$moem`m ndmVsb H$igm`m` hmo`. H$m_JmamZshs `m nYmV ^mJ KoD$Z "h_ ^s Hw$N> H$_ Zhs' ho XmIdyZ [Xbo. H$mohmnya, gmobmnya, am`JS>, [gYwXwJ, R>mUo, nwUo, _w~B, Zds _w~B, AmaJm~mX, JS>[Mamobs, ZmJnya, VwiOmnya... [H$Vs hUyZ Zmdo `mds? ""dmMZmMs JmoS>s bmJbs Va [dMmahs n[and hmoVmV ho `m nYmZs Amhmg [eH$[dbo,'' ho CXJma AmhoV _hm[dOoVm A[O` AmnHo$ `m `wdH$mMo. Vmo H$mohmnyaMm Amho. hm Va _amR>s ^mfoMm "~mobH$m' [dH$mgM hUy `m. _hmamQ> H$`m _[hbm g~bsH$aUm`m JmoQ>s g_mOmV hmoV AgVmV Am[U `oH$M gWm Amnmn`m nar `mg hmV^ma bmdsV AgVo. [ddH$moe _S>imZo 22 VmgmMm 3 gsS>tMm gM Agbobs ^oQ> OJmg AnU Ho$bs Amho. `mMs gOZ gH$nZm [dO`m dmS> `mMs Va g_d`H$ AmhoV _mYds Hw$Qo>, _s, Mmesbm AmoH$. `m H$m_mV Amhr AJXs W_nmgyZ ag KoVbm. Am[Ve gmogo, ho_mJs H$Sy>, _Zsfm H$X_, H$mVs Ho$iH$a `m VU _wbmZs Anma _ohZV KoVbs. `o> [ZdoXH$ Xsn [^So>, [e~mZs Omoes, [ZVse ^mamO, Zsbm g`Zmam`U, Jmar Xoe_wI AemZs dmMZ Ho$bo Amho. `mMo esfH$JsV Jmar Hw$bH$Uu `mMo AgyZ Vo XodH$s n[S>V Jm``m AmhoV. 275 _[hbmMo \y$[VXm`H$ M[ao hs C_b`m d`m`m [H$emoatgmR>s hs _amR>s ^mfobm [ddH$moemZo [Xbobs EH$ o_^oQ> Amho. Amnbm [ddH$moe Amnbm [ddH$moe hm Amho EH$ [ZVmV gwXa bKwnQ>. `mV [ddH$moe JsV Amho. ^m`H$ma O`V ZmaisH$a `mZs [ddH$moemMm B[Vhmg CbJS>bm Amho. [a_m `m [g A[^ZosMo [ZdoXZ Amho. [ddH$moe H$m` [dO`m~mBZs d[Ubo Amho. hm bKwnQ> OZ_mZgmV [ddH$moem~b Am[U VXAZwfJmZo _amR>s ^mfo~b [Z{MV o_ [Z_mU H$aob Agm [ddmg dmQ>Vmo. dm_ZmMo nmD$b _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `mZs [ddH$moemMm Eo[Vhm[gH$ XVmdoO 25 AmQ>mo~a 2011 amoOr OJmg AnU Ho$bm. Vmo marathivishwakosh.in `m gHo$VWimda CnbY Amho. Am_`m _XVsbm AmhoV gsS>H$ H$nZsMo ghgMmbH$ _hoe Hw$bH$Uu, `mMo ghH$mar, MH$mV, XsnH$, amhwb d BVa. S>m. [dO` ^Q>H$a, S>m. aKwZmW _meobH$a, S>m. ZohbVm Xoe_wI, S>m. [dO`m amOm`j, S>m. Zohm amOnmb, S>m. A[Zb H$mH$moS>H$a, w~B {dmnrR>mMo Hw$bJw$ S>m. amOZ doiyH$a, am. J. OmYd, gmH${VH$ H$m`r gO` XodVio, AmZX XoenmSo>, S>m. _mYds noRo> `mZs _mZZs` _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `m`m nmR>monmR> EHo$H$m IS>mMo bmoH$mnU [V_mg Ho$bo Amho. g`m 13 IS> Cnamo$ gHo$VWimda _mo\$V CnbY AgyZ AmVmn`V 22 Xoe Am[U 5 bmI bmoH$mZs OJ^amVyZ `m gHo$VWimg ^oQ> [Xbs`. _amR>s ^mfoMm [dH$mg Am[U [dVma H$arV [ddH$moemMm eodQ>Mm earaIS> 27 \o$~wdmar 2013 nmgyZ AmnU Xa _[h`mbm H$mhs A`mdV Zm|Xs d$nmV hiyhiy nmhy eH$mb. rr

26

o$~wdmar 2013

amR>sMm emgZ `dhmamMs ^mfm hUyZ [dH$mg KS>dyZ AmU`mgmR>s _hmamQ> emgZmZo 6 Owb 1960 amoOr gm_m` emgZ [d^mJmVJV ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMs WmnZm Ho$`mZVa _amR>sVsb Zm_dV H$moeH$ma, ^mfmVk, nH$ma d g_mO~moYH$ `mMm AV^md Agbobo EH$ ^mfm gmJma _S>i Zo_`mV Ambo. `m gmJma _S>im`m _mJXeZmImbs emgZ `dhmamVsb _amR>sMs OS>UKS>U H$a`mMo H$m_ gw$ Pmbo. [d[dY [df`mVsb ems` d Vm[H$ n[a^mfm [Z[_VsgmR>s _hmamQ>m_Ysb `oH$ [dmnsR>mVsb Vk m`mnH$ [V[ZYsMm AV^md Agbo`m Cng[_`m WmnZ H$a`mV Am`m d `m`m gmhm`mZo n[a^mfm [Z[_VsMo H$m_ H$a`mV Ambo. ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo ^mfm gmJma

_S>im`m g`mZo nXZm_ H$moe, emgZ$ dm`moJ, emg[ZH$ boIZ, [dms` eXmdbs, emgZ `dhma H$moe, emgZ `dhmamV _amR>s hs nwVHo$ [g Ho$bs. hs gd H$meZo _mJXeH$ d$nmMs AmhoV. nXZm_ H$moemMs Xwgar gwYm[aV Amdms _mM 1990 _`o [g H$a`mV Ambs. emgH$s` H$_Mm`mZm `m`m XZ[XZ H$m_H$mOmV _amR>s ewboIZm`m ~m~VsV `mo`

b{bVm XoR>o
_mJXeZ hmdo `m CoemZo ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo "mUboIZ [Z`_mdbs' d "H$m`X[eH$m' m nw[VH$m [g Ho$`m AmhoV. ems` d Vm[H$ n[a^mfm _hmamQ>mVsb gd [dmnsR>mZm n[a^mfm

[Z[_Vs`m `m [H$`oV gh^mJs H$$Z KoD$Z ems` d Vm[H$ [df`m`m jomV EH$$n gwgK[Q>V n[a^mfm V`ma H$a`m`m CoemZo _hmamQ> emgZmZo n[a^mfm [Z[_VsMo H$m_ AmQ>mo~a 1967 nmgyZ hmVs KoVbo. `m gMmbZmb`mZo ^mfm gmJma _S>im`m _mJXeZmImbs doJdoJ`m ems` d Vm[H$ [df`mVsb n[a^mfm V`ma Ho$`m. AmOVmJm`V [dkmZ, H$bm, dm[U`, A[^`m[H$s, dH$ B`mXs emmes g~[YV Ago EHy$U 34 n[a^mfm H$moe [g Pmbo AmhoV. `m_`o [dH$Vrem, `m`dH$ d [dfem, ^yJmob, dmn[dm, Osdem (gwYm[aV), AmfYem, ^mfm[dkmZ d dmL>_`[dm, ^m[VH$em, JWmb`em, J[UVem, agm`Zem d dm[U`em `m H$moemMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. emgZ `dhma eXmdbr d

1 _o 1960 amoOs _hmamQ>mMs WmnZm Pm`mZVa _amR>s hs am`mMs amO^mfm Agob Ago Kmo[fV H$a`mV Ambo. `mZwgma amO^mfm _amR>sMm emgZ `dhmamV dmna H$a`m~m~VMo YmoaU am~d`mgmR>s 6 Owb 1960 amoOr ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambr.

gj Am{U gW

o$~wdmar 2013

27

H$m`mb`mH$Sy>Z AZoH$ df} Ho$bo OmV Amho. `oH$ dfu [dYmZ_S>imMs VsZ A[YdoeZo hmoVmV. `m VsZ A[YdoeZmH$[aVm gw_mao 8 Vo 10 hOma nR>mMm _amR>s AZwdmX A[YdoeZ nydH$mimV An_wXVsV mW`mZo H$amdm bmJVmo. _mb`sZ gd [d^mJm`m, H$m`mb`m`m, _hm_S>im`m [Z`_nw{VH$m, [d[dY MmH$es g[_`mMo Ahdmb, emgH$s` H$m`mb`mVyZ dmnabo OmUmao gd H$maMo gmYmaU, [deof d _mU Z_wZo, emgZ [ZU`, n[anHo$, _[_S>i [Q>n`m, _m. am`nmbmMo A[^^mfU, [dm_s `mMo AWgH$ns` ^mfU, bmoH$Am`w$ Ahdmb, bmoH$godm Am`moJm`m Zn[H$mMo gM, [dms` eXmdbs `m XmoZ eXmd`mhs Ho$`m OmUm`m AWgH$ns` H$meZmMm _hmboImnmbmMo `oH$ dfmMo Mma boImnarjm H$m[eV Pm`m AmhoV. _amR>s AZwdmX H$a`mMo MS> H$m_ `m Ahdmb, [ZdS>myH$ Am`moJmMo H$m_ B`mXtMm _amR>s AZwdmX `m H$m`mb`mH$Sy>Z H$a`mV [d[Y[df`H$ AZwdmX d n[a^mfm `oVmo. gw_mao 196 [Z`_nw{VH$mMm _amR>s am` A[Y[Z`_ d H|$s` A[Y[Z`_ AZwdmX H$$Z `m H$m`mb`mZo _mb`sZ `m`m AZwdmXmMo H$m_ `m gMmbZmb`m`m [d^mJmVsb XZ[XZ `dhmamZm J[V_mZ WmnZonmgyZ H$a`mV `oV Amho. `mgmR>s Ho$bo Amho. H$m`mMs Aes [d[eQ> boIZebs `m _amR>s ^mfm narjm gMmbZmb`mZo [dH$[gV Ho$bs AgyZ "`m` emgH$s` go doV Agbo`m A_amR>s ^m[fH$ `dhma H$moe' `mXQ>sZo H$m[eV Ho$bm H$_Mm`mZm _amR>s ^mfoMm gdmJmZo n[aM` Amho. VgoM, AmVmn`V gw_mao 212 am` H$$Z Xo`mgmR>s "amO^mfm n[aM`' ho nwVH$ A[Y[Z`_mMm d 1260 am` [Z`_mMm V`ma Ho$bo Jobo. wUmb`mVrb `m AZwdmX H$a`mV Ambm Amho. `m`XmZmV nwVH$m`m Vs gn`m_wio `mMo nwZ_wU _amR>sMm dmna H$a`m`m XQ>sZo [d[Y[df`H$ H$$Z Ko`mMs H$m`dmhs gw$ Amho. emgH$s` n[a^mfm [dH$[gV H$a`mgmR>s emgZmZo godoV Agbo`m A_amR>s ^m[fH$ amOn[V {Zdm `m. MeoIa Y_m[YH$mar `m`m A[YH$m`m`m d AamOn{V H$_Mm`m`m A`jVoImbs "[dYr AZwdmX d n[a^mfm _amR>s ^mfm narjm EVXW _S>im_m\$V gmJma g[_Vs'Ms WmnZm Ho$bs. dfmVyZ XmoZ doim Ko`mV `oVmV. emg[ZH$ d [Z`_nw{VH$mMm AZwdmX qhXs ^mfm narjm [dm [d^mJm_m\$V [dYmZ_S>img gmXa emgH$s` godoV AgUm`m gd amOn[V ^mfm gMmbZmb` H$m` H$aVo... amO^mfm _amR>s[df`H$ emgZmMo YmoaU am~dUo. emg[ZH$ n[a^mfm H$moe d _mJXeH$ nw{VH$m V`ma H$aUo. _hm[dmb`sZ A`mgmgmR>s ems` d Vm[H$ n[a^mfm H$moe V`ma H$aUo. [d[Y[df`H$ AZwdmX d n[a^mfm V`ma H$aUo. AWgH$ns` VgoM emg[ZH$ d [d^mJs` [Z`_nw{VH$mMm AZwdmX H$aUo. A_amR>s H$_Mmar d A[YH$m`mgmR>s _amR>s ^mfm [ejU d narjm Am`mo[OV H$aUo. qhXs ^mfm narjm Am`mo[OV H$aUo. hmamQ> am`mVsb H|$ gaH$ma`m H$m`mb`mV [^mfm gymMm dmna H$aUo. BJOs Q>H$boIH$ d bKwboIH$ `m`m _amR>s Q>H$boIZ d bKwboIZ narjm Am`mo[OV H$aUo. Ang`mH$ ^mfmVyZ AZwdmX H$aUo. emgZ `dhmamV _amR>sMm A[YH$m[YH$ dmna H$a`mg~Ys`m YmoaUmMs A_b~OmdUs H$a`m`m XQ>sZo H$m`mb`mMs VnmgUs d `mZm _mJXeZ H$aUo. amO^mfm _amR>s[df`H$ emgZmMo YmoaU AmYw[ZH$ VkmZmmao [d[dY [df`mdarb ems` d Vm[H$ n[a^mfm H$moe V`ma H$aUo, emgZ `dhmamgmR>s Amd`H$ n[a^mfm KS>[dUo, eXmd`m V`ma H$aUo. H|$s` d am` A[Y[Z`_, [Z`_ `mMm _amR>s AZwdmX H$aUo, Vmo nwVH$ d$nmV VgoM gHo$VWimda OZVobm CnbY H$$Z XoUo. H|$m`m [^mfmgymZwgma _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna hmoV Ag`mMo nmhUo. amQ>s` Eo`mgmR>s _amR>s gkm d [hXs gkm `m`mV [hXses EH$$nVm Ro>d`mMm `Z H$aUo. _amR>s ewboIZmMm gma H$aUo. [dYmZ S>i, C `m`mb` d BVa H$m`mb`m_Ysb AZwdmXH$mes gdmX gmYyZ gkm_`o EH$$nVm amIUo. ^mfmVkm`m Zm[_Ho$_m\$V BJOs d CXy `m ^mfm_`o _mZYZ Vdmda AZwdmX H$$Z Xo`mMs gmo` H$aUo. H|$ gaH$ma, _hm_S>io B`mXtH$Sy>Z Ambobo Ahdmb B`mXs AZwdmXmMo H$m_ _mZYZ Vdmda H$$Z XoUo. _amR>s d [hXs ^mfm narjm d Q>H$boIZ d bKwboIZ narjmgmR>s AO d narjmMs doimnHo$, ZgM gHo$VWimda CnbY H$$Z XoUo. Q>H$boIZ narjm gJUH$mda KoUo. emgH$s` H$m`mb`mVyZ _amR>sMm e^a Q>o$ dmna hmoV Ag`mMs Ims H$$Z Ko`mgmR>s H$m`mb`sZ Vnmg`m Am`mo[OV H$aUo. AmYw[ZH$ VkmZm`m AmYmao _amR>s`m [dH$mgmgmR>s [d[dY jomMm emoY KoUo d ZdZdsZ CnH$_ am~[dUo. emg[ZH$ n[a^mfm H$moe d _mJXeH$ nw{VH$m V`ma H$aUo.

28

o$~wdmar 2013

^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m gHo$VWimMm nmm http://bhasha.maharashtra.gov.in. `m H$m`mb`m`m EHy$U 49 H$meZmnH$s 45 H$meZo `m gHo$VWimda Q>mH$`mV Ambs AgyZ, Cd[aV H$meZo `m gHo$VWimda Q>mH$`mMo H$m_ gw$ Amho; VgoM H$m`mb`mMs EHy$U 35 H$meZo H$Z H$$Z nwZ_wUmgmR>s emgH$s` _wUmb`mH$So> nmR>d`mV Ambr AmhoV. A[YH$m`m`m d AamOn[V H$_Mm`m`m [hXs ^mfm narjm EVXW _S>im_m\$V dfmVyZ XmoZ doim [Z`[_VnUo [d^mJs` H$m`mb`m`m [R>H$mUs Ko`mV `oVmV. _amR>s Q>H$boIZ d bKwboIZ narjm _amR>s Q>H$boIH$ d bKwboIH$ `m`mgmR>s EVXW _S>im_m\$V dfmVyZ XmoZ doim _amR>s Q>H$boIZ d bKwboIZm`m narjm [Z`[_VnUo Am`mo[OV Ho$`m OmVmV. gJUH$mZo bKwboIZ jomV H$mVs KS>dyZ AmUbs Amho. AmO`m gJUH$`wJmV H$mimZw$n OwZs Q>H$boIZ nVs ~XbyZ gJUH$mMm A[YH$m[YH$ dmna H$aUo d H$mJXn[da[hV (nonabog) emgZ `dhmamH$So> dmQ>Mmb H$a`mMs JaO Amho. `mg AZwg$Z E[b 2009 nmgyZ Q>H$boIZm`m narjm Q>H$boIZ `mda Z KoVm gJUH$mda Ko`mV `oVmV. [^mfm gymMm dmna H|$ emgZm`m [^mfm gymZwgma _hmamQ>mVsb H|$ emgZm`m H$m`mb`m_YyZ / m[YH$aUm_YyZ OZVo`m _m[hVsgmR>s Zm_\$bH$ d gyMZm\$bH$ `mda [hXs d BJOs ^mfogh _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo H$s Zmhs, ho nmh`mMo H$m_ d dmna Ho$bm OmV Zg`mg `m H$m`mb`mH$So> `mMm nmR>nwamdm H$a`mMo H$m_ [Ohm[YH$mar `m`mH$So> gmond`mV Ambo Amho. [Ohm[YH$mar `mZs `m`m [OmV H|$ emgZmMs Os H$m`mb`o / m[YH$aUo AmhoV `m_YyZ [^mfm gymZwgma _amR>s ^mfoMm Amd`H$ Vmo dmna Ho$bm OmVmo [H$dm Zmhr ho VmH$mi OmUyZ KoD$Z emgZmH$So> Vgm Ahdmb gmXa H$a`mg~Ys AmXoe [Xbo AmhoV. `m~m~V _mJXeZ H$a`mMs O~m~Xmar emgZmZo ^mfm gMmbZmb`mda gmondbs Amho. Ang`mH$ ^mfmVsb AZwdmX 1966-67 _`o Ang`mH$ ^mfmZm gajU Xo`m`m emgZm`m YmoaUmZwgma Zds _w~B, nwUo, ZmJnya d AmaJm~mX `oWo [d^mJs` (mXo[eH$) H$m`mb`o WmnZ H$a`mV Ambs. Ang`mH$ ^mfmZm gajU [_imdo Am[U Ang` ^m[fH$mZm emgZmMo _hdmMo AmXoe, A[YgyMZm, [Z`_ B`mXs CnbY H$$Z XoVm `mdoV `mgmR>s ^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m _w~B, nwUo, ZmJnya d AmaJm~mX `m Mma [d^mJs` H$m`mb`mV _amR>s AZwdmXm~amo~aM Ang`mH$ ^mfmVsb AZwdmXmMs gmo` H$a`mV Ambs. ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMs [d^mJs` H$m`mb`o [d^mJs` nmVisdarb _amR>sH$aUmMo H$m_ gm^miVmV. CXy _OHw$amMm BJOs / _amR>s AZwdmX H$a`mgmR>s ^mfm gMmbZmb`mV CXy ^mfm VkmMs Zm[_H$m (nZb) WmnZ H$a`mV Ambo Amho. emgZ `dhmamV _amR>sMm A[YH$m[YH$ dmna H$a`mg~Ys`m YmoaUmMs A_b~OmdUs H$aUo, `mXQ>sZo H$m`mb`mMs VnmgUs d `mZm _mJXeZ H$aUo. emgZm`m XZ[XZ emgH$s` H$m_H$mOmV _amR>sMm dmna OmVsVOmV hmo`m`m Q>sZo d Vmo Vgm hmoVmo Amho [H$dm Zmhs ho `j nmhyZ H$m`mb`mMs VnmgUs H$$Z `mMm Ahdmb emgZmg doimodis gmXa H$a`mMo H$m_ ^mfm gMmbZmb`mH$So> gmond`mV Ambo Amho. `oH$ emgH$s` H$m`mb`mMs _amR>sH$aUm`m Q>sZo Vnesbdma VnmgUs H$$Z VnmgUsMm Ahdmb `m H$m`mb`mg d g~[YV emgH$s` [d^mJmg nmR>d`mV `oVmo. VnmgUs`m dois _amR>sH$aUm`m gX^mV Amd`H$ Vo _mJXeZ `m `m H$m`mb`mZm H$a`mV `oVo. 1989 nmgyZ 704 emgH$s` H$m`mb`o, _S>io, _hm_S>io, [Ohm n[afXm `m H$m`mb`mMs VnmgUs

B[S>`Z bm [anmoQ>g`m YVuda _hdm`m `m`[ZU`mMm _amR>s AZwdmX H$a`mMo H$m_hs `m H$m`mb`mV gw$ hmoVo. AmVmn`V gw_mao 171 `m`[ZU`mMm AZwdmX H$a`mV Ambm Amho. ^maVm`m g[dYmZmMs _amR>sVsb A`mdV Aes ghmds Amdms H$mT>`mV Ambs Amho. ^maVm`m g[dYmZmMs gwYm[aV gmVds Amdms hs _amR>s d BJOs Aem Xmohs ^mfoV [S>bmQ> d$nmV H$mT>`mMo H$m_ gw$ AgyZ `mMs _w[Vo _m`VogmR>s amO^mfm IS>, Zds [Xs `m`mH$So> nmR>[d`mV Ambs AmhoV. `m`mb`sZ H$m_H$mO _amR>sVyZ H$aUo gwH$a hmo`m`m Q>sZo Zoh_s Cn`moJs nS>Umao d _hdmMo AZoH$ H|$s` A[Y[Z`_ CXm. ^maVs` XS> g[hVm, \$mOXmar [H$`m g[hVm, [XdmUs [H$`m g[hVm, _`mXm A[Y[Z`_, gmjrnwamdm A[Y[Z`_, g[dXm A[Y[Z`_ d BVa AZoH$ H|$s` A[Y[Z`_ `mMm AZwdmX H$a`mV `oD$Z Vo nwVH$$nmZo H$m[eV H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. AmVmn`V 151 H|$s` A[Y[Z`_mMm AZwdmX Pmbobm Amho. emgZmH$Sy>Z doimodois H$mT>`mV `oUmao A`mXoe, [dYo`Ho$, A[Y[Z`_, [Z`_, [d[Z`_, Cn[dYs d A[YgyMZm `mMm _amR>s d H$mhs ~m~VsV [hXs AZwdmX `m H$m`mb`mV Ho$bm OmVmo.

o$~wdmar 2013

29

H$a`mV Ambs Amho. [Ohm `m`mb`mV _amR>sMm dmna A[YH$m[YH$ hmo`mgmR>s [dYr AZwdmX d n[a^mfm gmJma g[_VsZo H$mhs `m`mb`mZm ^oQ> XoD$Z `mZm _mJXeZ Ho$bo Amho. ^mfm gmJma g[_Vs ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo H$m[eV Ho$bo`m AZoH$ H$moem_`o ZdsZ M[bV eXmMs ^a KmbyZ H$moe A`mdV H$aUo, ZdsZ n[a^mfm H$moemMs CXm. Am`wd}X, gmJa[dkmZ, gJUH$em, n`mdaU em [Z[_Vs H$aUo, n[a^mfm H$moemMo nwZ_wU, n[a^mfoVsb A`md`H$ n[aH$aUo, eX`wnms, _amR>s nm[a^m[fH$ gkm`m g_`m gmoS>[dUo, `mgmaIs H$m_o nma nmS>`mgmR>s VgoM _hmamQ> am`mMo gmYmaUnUo nwT>sb 25 dfmVsb _amR>s ^mfoMo YmoaU R>a[dUo, ^mfm A[^dsgmR>s ZdZdo Cnm` d H$m`H$_ gwM[dUo d `m AZwfJmZo emgZmbm _mJXeZ H$a`mgmR>s ^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m AVJV ^mfm gmJma g[_Vs H$m`_d$ns WmnZ H$a`mV Ambs AgyZ [V`m AemgH$s` gX`mMs 3 dfmgmR>s [Z`w$s H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m g[_Vs`m ~R>H$m_`o AZoH$ _hdnyU [ZU` Ko`mV Ambo AgyZ _w`doH$$Z g[_VsZo nwT>sb 25 dfmV _amR>s ^mfoMo gdYZ d [dH$mg H$a`mgmR>s YmoaU R>admd`mMo Amho. ZdsZ kmZ emImMo n[a^mfm H$moe [Z_mU H$a`m~m~V ~R>H$sV MMm H$a`mV Ambs AgyZ gwdmVsbm nwT>sb 10 n[a^mfm H$moe[Z[_VsMo H$m_ hmVs Ko`m~m~V [ZU` Ko`mV Ambm Amho. H$[fA[^`m[H$sem n[a^mfm H$moe gy_Osdem n[a^mfm H$moe gJUH$em d _m[hVs VkmZ n[a^mfm H$moe

Ob d ^y_s `dWmnZem n[a^mfm H$moe

gmJa[dkmZem n[a^mfm H$moe `moJem n[a^mfm H$moe Amhmaem n[a^mfm H$moe OdVkmZem n[a^mfm H$moe OZgdmX n[a^mfm H$moe / gmX`gmYZem n[a^mfm H$moe Amnms `dWmnZem n[a^mfm H$moe ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo `mnydu V`ma Ho$bobo nwT>sb 5 n[a^mfm H$moe A`mdV H$a`m~m~V [ZU` Ko`mV Ambm. emgZ `dhma H$moe H$[fem n[a^mfm H$moe VdkmZ d VH$em n[a^mfm H$moe AWem n[a^mfm H$moe [ejUem n[a^mfm H$moe [dYr AZwdmX d n[a^mfm gmJma g[_Vs [Zdm `m. MeoIa Y_m[YH$mar `m`m A`jVoImbs `m g{VrMr WmnZm 12 Zmoh|~a 1992 amoOr H$a`mV Ambs. `m g[_Vs_`o g`m A`jmgh 13 gX`mMm g_mdoe Amho. C[Qo> `m`XmZmV _amR>sMm dmna H$a`m`m XQ>sZo H|$s` A[Y[Z`_mMm d am` A[Y[Z`_mMm _amR>s AZwdmX daoZo m[YH$V nmR>m`m d$nmV CnbY H$$Z XoUo. [d_mZ H$m`mMm AZwdmX A[YH$ gwb^ H$aUo. H$m`Xo[df`H$ [ejUmMo _m`_ _amR>s am`mMo H$a`m`m XQ>sZo [dmnsR>m`m d `m`m nwT>sb 25 dfmMo _amR>s H$joVsb _hm[dmb`m`m ghH$m`mZo `m ^mfm[df`H$ YmoaU R>ad`mgmR>s A`mgH$_mMs nmR>nwVHo$ _amR>s am`mVsb [d[dY ^mJmVsb OZVoMs ^mfoVyZ V`ma H$a`m`m g~YmV _Vo OmUyZ Ko`m`m Q>sZo doJdoJ`m [dmnsR>mZm AmXoe d gyMZm XoUo. [d^mJm_`o [d^mJdma ~R>H$m Am`mo[OV C `m`mb`mZo [Xbo`m H$a`mg~YsMm [ZU` ^mfm [ZdS>H$ d _hdm`m `m`{ZU`mMs gmJma g[_Vs`m ~R>H$sV [ZdS> H$$Z `mMo _amR>s ^mfmVa [g Ko`mV Ambm Amho. H$aUo.

g[_Vs`m gX`mMo "[ZarjU nWH$' WmnZ H$$Z [d[dY `m`mb`mMs nmhUs H$$Z `m`mb`mV _amR>s`m dmnamV `oUm`m AS>sAS>MUsgX^mV `m`mb`mZm gyMZm XoUo d _mJXeZ H$aUo. [d[Y[df`H$ _amR>s _gwXm boIZmMs [ejU `moOZm V`ma H$aUo. BJOs _mU Z_wZo d `mMo gM _amR>sV CnbY H$$Z KoD$Z `mg A[YH$V _m`Vm XoD$Z Vo nwVH$ d$nmV CnbY H$$Z XoUo. H$m`} g[_Vs WmnZ Pm`mnmgyZ AmVmn`V g[_Vs`m gw_mao 235 ~R>H$m Pm`m AmhoV. [dYr AZwdmX d n[a^mfm gmJma g[_VsZo 20 H|$s` A[Y[Z`_ d 5 am` A[Y[Z`_ `m`m AZwdmXmbm A[V_ d$n [Xbo Amho. ^maVm`m g[dYmZm`m _amR>s AZwdmXmda bmoH$mH$S>yZ Ambo`m A[^m`mda [dMma H$$Z, n`m`m_Ysb {bQ>Vm Q>mimds hUyZ ^maVm`m g[dYmZm`m AZwdmXmda MMm H$$Z AZwdmX A[YH$ gwb^ hmdm `m XQ>sZo AZwdmXmV gwYmaUm H$a`mV Ambs. `mZVa amO^mfm IS>, Zds [Xs `m`m _m`VoZo ghm`m AmdmsMo H$meZ H$a`mV Ambo. `m`mb`sZ H$m_H$mOmV _amR>sMm dmna gwb^ hmo`m`m XQ>sZo gwYm[aV `m` `dhma H$moe V`ma Ho$bm. `m`mb`mV _amR>s`m dmnamV `oUm`m AS>MUsgX^mV `m`mb`mZm gyMZm Xo`mgmR>s d _mJXeZ H$a`mgmR>s g[_Vs`m gX`m`m [ZarjU nWH$mZo R>mUo d am`JS> [OmVsb VgoM nw`mVsb `m`mb`mZm ^oQ>s [X`m. g`m g[_VsH$Sy>Z \$mOXmar [H$`m g[hVm `m H|$s` A[Y[Z`_mMm AZwdmX A[YH$ gwb^ H$a`mMo H$m_ gw$ Amho. rr

30

o$~wdmar 2013

amR>r ^mfoMr A{^dr


hmamQ> am`mMs amO^mfm Agbo`m _amR>s ^mfoMm JwUdmmnyU [dH$mg hmdm m hoVyZo am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWoMs WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. 1 _o 1960 amoOs _hmamQ> am` WmnZ Pmbo. _amR>s ^mfobm amO^mfoMm XOm Xo`mV Ambm. amO^mfm _amR>s`m gdYZmgmR>s Am[U [dH$mgmgmR>s emgZm`m dVsZo [d[dY d$nmMo `Z H$a`mV Ambo. 25 OyZ 1979 amoOr _hmamQ>-emgZmZo Am`mo[OV _hmamQ> am`mVsb ej[UH$ A`mgH$_mV d emgZmV _amR>s ^mfoMo WmZ m [df`mdarb n[afXoV _amR>s ^mfoH$[aVm am`Var` gWm Wmn`mV `mds Aes gyMZm _mS>`mV Ambs. m gWoMs WmnZm Am[U [VMo d$n `m[df`s [ZU` Ko`mgmR>s m. dgV ~mnQ> `mZm [Z_H$ Zo_yZ emgZmZo A`mgJQ> WmnZ Ho$bm. m. _o. nw. aoJo, m. dgV XmVma, S>m. AemoH$ Ho$iH$a, m. _. [d. amOm`j ho `m A`mgJQ>mMo gX` hmoVo. `m JQ>mZo Ho$bo`m AmamIS>mV _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmgmR>s A` am`m_mUoM _hmamQ>mVhs EH$ dV

gWm Agmds. Vs emgZmes gbZ naVw ~`mM Aes dm`m Agmds. [VMo H$m_ [dgwb^ (AH$So>[_H$) nVsZo Mmbmdo Aem gyMZm H$a`mV Am`m hmo`m. ^mfoMm [dH$mg hm AIoa ^mfH$mMm [dH$mg AgVmo. n[a^mfm, gmjaVmgma, ewboIZgwYmaUm `m [H$dm Aem _moO`m d A[Vn[a[MV {df`m`oM ^mfo`m {dH$mgmMm {dMma AS>Hy$Z nS>Uo {hVmMo Zmhr. 1 _o 1992 `m [Xdes am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWooMs AmnMm[aH$ar`m WmnZm H$a`mV Ambs. gd H$m`Xoesa ~m~s nyU Pm`mZVa [XZmH$ 1 _mM 1993 nmgyZ gWo`m H$m_H$mOmg `j gwdmV Pmbs.

S>m. AemoH$ gmobZH$a


gWo`m H$m_H$mOmMo d$n am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWm hs emgZnwaH$V dm`m gWm AgyZ [Z`m_H$ _S>im`m g`mZwgma gWoMo H$m_H$mO MmbVo. EHy$U 30 gX`m`m [Z`m_H$ _S>imV 10 gX` ho nX[g gX` AgyZ Vo emgZmMo [V[ZYs AgVmV Am[U 20

gX` ho AemgH$s` gX` AgVmV. am`mMo _w`_s ho gWoMo nX[g A`j Va embo` [ejU_s ho gWoMo nX[g Cnm`j AgVmV. AemgH$s` gX` ho [d[dY [df`mVsb Vk AgVmV. gWoMo gMmbH$ ho gWoMo emgH$s` _wI d _w` H$m`H$mar A[YH$mar AmhoV. gWoMo CnH$_ d H$n _amR>s`m _wimjamVyZ gmH$mabobo PmS> ho gWoMo ~moY[Mh Amho. `mbm AZwg$Z gWoZo [d[dY CnH$_ Am[U H$n WmnZonmgyZ AmOda am~dbo AmhoV. `mV [d[dY [df`mdarb H$meZo, H$m`emim, gd}jUo AmXtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. X[bV-Jm_sU gm[h`-eXH$moe X[bV d Jm_sU gm[h`mV dmnabobo [d[eQ> XoemVsb dm ~mobtVsb eX, gkm, gH$nZm, hUs, dm``moJ B`mXtMm Zo_H$m AW XoUm`m eXH$moem`m [Z[_VsMo H$m_ gWm H$aV Amho. `m eXH$moemMm W_ IS> (A Vo K) 27 \o$~wdmar 2012 amoOs _amR>s ^mfm [XZs _w`_s `m`m hVo H$m[eV H$a`mV Ambm. `m H$moemV [d[dY gm[h`H$Vt_YyZ [ZdS>bobo eX Am[U `mMo AW, VgoM eX `mV dmna`mV Ambo Vo _yi dm`hs gX^mgmR>s `m `m Zm|Xs_`oM [Xbobo Amho. gm[h`H$VtMo dmMZ H$$Z `mVsb An[a[MV eXm`m Zm|Xs H$aUo VgoM Vkmmao eXmMs AW[Z{MVs H$aUo hs H$m_o

[d[dY jomV hmoUmam _amR>sMm dmna A[YH$m[YH$ JwUdmmnyU hmoV Omdm `mgmR>s `Zesb amhmdo d _amR>s ^mfo`m A[^dsMs [H$`m [Z`moOZnydH$ J[V_mZ H$amds hs am` amR>r {dH$mg gWo`m WmnZo_mJsb _w` C[Qo> AmhoV. `mZwgma [d[dY Vamda _amR>sMm [dH$mg gmY`mgmR>s gWm {d{dY CnH$_ am~dVo. ^mfm d gH$Vs `m jomV _amR>s ^mfo`m A[^dsgmR>s H$m_ H$aUm`m emgH$s` VgoM AemgH$s` gWm_`o g_d` amIyZ `m gWm`m gmhm`mZohs H$mhs H$n gWm am~dV AgVo.

o$~wdmar 2013

31

gWoV Mmbbs AmhoV. d[Z[_Vr _m[hVsH$moe d[Z[_VsVsb [d[dY [H$`mMs _m[hVs XoUmam d[Z[_Vr-_m[hVsH$moe V`ma H$a`mMo H$m_ BMbH$aOs `oWsb XmmOsamd H$X_ Vm[H$ [ejU gWm `m`m ghH$m`mZo gWoV Mmbbo Amho. gH${nV AmR> IS>mnH$s VsZ IS> H$m[eV Pmbo AmhoV. [dkmZ gH$nZm H$moe embo` [dm`mZm nXmW[dkmZ, agm`Z[dkmZ d Osd[dkmZ `m [df`mVsb gkm, gH$nZm `m gmo`m _amR>sV g_OmdyZ XoUmam hm H$moe _amR>s [dkmZ-n[afXo`m ghH$m`mZo gWoZo H$m[eV Ho$bm Amho. \$mgu-_amR>s-`wn[mH$moe _``wJsZ d dV_mZH$mbsZ _amR>s_`o Ag` Aa~s, VwH$u, \$mags eX AmhoV. 14 `m eVH$mnmgyZ `m eXmMm _amR>sV g_mdoe Pmbm. `m eXmMo _yi XmIdyZ XoUmam \$mgu_amR>s-`wn[mH$moe gWoZo H$m[eV Ho$bm Amho. _amR>s d \$mguMo `oR> A`mgH$ S>m. `y. _. nR>mU `mZs `m `wnmsH$moemMo H$m_ Ho$bo Amho. gWoMo gy[MH$m` : [d[dY gX^mMs _m[hVs XoUmar gyMs ho A`mgH$m`m Q>sZo Cn`w$ gmYZ AgVo. AmOda gWoZo `m jomV _m[bH$ Ago H$m` Ho$bo Amho. _amR>s JWgyMs_mbm (1951-2000) H$. e. J. XmVo `mZs 1950 n`V`m _amR>s JWmMs gyMs XmoZ IS>mV V`ma Ho$bs hmoVs. [VMo gQ>sn nwZ_wU gWoZo `mnydu Ho$bo Amho. 1951 Vo 2000 `m H$mbIS>mV _amR>s_`o H$m[eV Pmbo`m JWmMs [df`dma JWgyMs V`ma H$a`mgmR>s gWoZo _amR>s JWgyMs_mbm hm H$n hmVs KoVbm Amho. `m H$nmVJV AmOda 1951 Vo 1978 `m H$mbIS>mVsb JWm`m gyMsMo 3 IS> (_amR>s JWgyMs IS> 3, 4, 5) H$m[eV Pmbo AmhoV. JWgyMs`m 6 `m IS>mMo

_amR>sVsb dUH$_ [Z{MV H$a`mgmR>s gWoZo A[Ib ^maVs` _amR>sgm[h`-_hm_S>im`m ghH$m`mZo ^mfmVk d gJUH$Vkmes MMm Ho$br. `mda AmYm[aV dU_mbm Am[U dU[bns[df`H$ emgZ [ZU` 6 Zmoh|~a 2009 `m [Xdes emgZmZo [g Ho$bm. (1979 Vo 1985) mW[_H$ hV[b[IV V`ma AgyZ `md$Z gJUH$s` V H$$Z _wUV V`ma H$a`mMo H$m_ gWoV Mmbbo Amho. hV[b[IVm`m gyMs [d|_, _mg, VOmdya `oWsb JWmb`o d A[^boImJmao `mVsb _amR>s hV[b[IVm`m gyMshs gWoZo H$m[eV Ho$`m AmhoV. ~mobs^mfmMm g_mO^mfmdkm[ZH$ A`mg gWoZo gmoZmonV XmSo>H$a _hm[dmb`, nmbKa `m`m ghH$m`mZo _w~BOdisb nmbKa Vmbw`m_`o ~mob`m OmUm`m AZoH$ ~mobtMm g_mO^mfmdkm[ZH$ A`mg H$$Z `m ~mobt[df`sMm gX^JW V`ma Ho$bm Amho. Am[Xdmgs, AmJar, Hw$U~s `m ~mobs d `mMo BVa [^Z H$ma ~mobV Agbo`m g_mOm[df`sMs g[dVa VgoM `m g_mOmMs AmS>Zmdo, gU, eoVs, [eH$marMs nV, OsdZebs, gH$ma, JsVo, eXdm`o-hUs, g_OwVs, AYlm, Jmd, n[aga B`mXs AZoH$ [df`mMs _m[hVs `m JWmV [Xbs Amho. emgH$s` H$meZmMo XeZ gWoZo 2002 gmbs AmVaamQ>s` nwVH$-dfm`m [Z[_mmZo n[h`mXm emgH$s` [d^mJmZs d emgZnwaH$V gWmZs [g Ho$bo`m nwVH$mMo XeZ _w~BV Am`mo[OV Ho$bo. `mZVa Aem H$maMs AmUIs XeZo Am`mo[OV H$a`mV Ambs. `m XeZmZm bmoH$mMm Cm_ [VgmX [_iV Ag`mZo _hmamQ>mVsb AZoH$ [R>H$mUs Aes XeZo gWm Am`mo[OV H$aV AgVo. [dYr d `m` `dhmamV _amR>sMm dmna [Zdm `m`_yVu MeoIa Y_m[YH$mar `m`m A`jVoImbs WmnZ Ho$bo`m [dYrAZwdmX d n[a^mfm gmJma g[_VsMo gX`d gWobm Xo`mV Ambo Amho. `m gd H$m_m_`o ^m[fH$Q>m JwUdmm [Z_mU hmds `mgmR>s gWm g[_Vsbm ghH$m` H$aVo. H$m`emim gWoZo AmOda [d[dY H$m`emim Am`mo[OV Ho$`m AmhoV. `mnH$s H$mhs nwT>sb_mUo AmhoV. 1. emgZmV _amR>sMm JwUdmmnyU dmna hmdm `mgmR>s _hmZJanm[bHo$`m H$_Mm`mgmR>s ghm _[h`mMm [ejUdJ. (1994) 2. BJOs _m`_mVsb emim_YyZ _amR>sMo A`mnZ H$aUm`m [ejH$mgmR>s H$m`emim. (2 gQ|>~a 1994) 3. [edmOs [dmnsR>, H$mohmnya `oWsb [ejHo$Va (emgH$s`) H$_Mm`mZm emg[ZH$ boIZmg~YmV _mJXeZ H$a`mgmR>s H$m`emim. (14 Vo 16 AmQ>mo~a 1997) 4. "bmoH$dH$' `m H$nmImbs dH$ `dgm`tZm _amR>sVyZ H$m_H$mO H$a`m`m XQ>sZo _mJXeZ H$a`mgmR>s [d[dY H$m`emim. 5. gOZ-AmZX [ejU H|$, H$mohmnya `m`m ghH$m`mZo mW[_H$ emioVsb [dm`mgmR>s boIZ H$me` H$Vrg. (5 \o$~wdmar 2006) gd}jUo gWoZo _amR>ses g~[YV H$mhs gd}jUo

32

o$~wdmar 2013

Ho$bobs AmhoV. CXm. E[b 1994 _`o A_amR>s emimVsb _amR>sMo A`mnZ `m [df`mda _w~BVsb emim_YyZ Va \o$~wdmar 1996 _`o _amR>s`m gX^mVsb Zm[df`s EH$ Zmdbs V`ma H$$Z `m AmYmao _amR>s gm[h` g_obZm`m [Z[_mmZo AmiXs `oWo gd}jU H$a`mV Ambo. _hmamQ>mVsb [d[dY ~mobtMm nam_e KoD$Z am`mMm ^m[fH$ ZH$mem [g H$a`mMm H$n gWoZo hmVs KoVbm Amho. `mMs nydV`mar hUyZ _hmamQ>mVsb H$mhs ehao d Jmdo [ZdSy>Z OyZ 1995 _`o MmMUs gd}jU H$a`mV Ambo. Zdo CnH$ _amR>s [d^mJm`m A[Yn`mImbs gWoZo AZoH$ Zdo CnH$_ hmVs KoVbobo AmhoV. Am[S>Amo H$goQ> / gsS>sO (Talk Books) `m H$nmVJV _amR>sVsb nwaH$mam nwVHo$ [ZdSy>Z `m`m Am[S>Amo H$goQ> / gsS>sO ( Talk Books ) V`ma H$a`mV `oV AmhoV. `mV H$[dd` Hw$gw_mJmMo "dmgs njs' Am[U "ag`mm' ho H$m`gJh VgoM [dXm H$aXsH$a `mMo "Am[X_m`m' Am[U "g[hVm' ho H$m`gJh lm` $nmV $nmV[aV H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. gVgm[h`mMo lm` _m`_mV $nmVa _amR>sVsb gVgm[h`mVsb _hdm`m gm[h`mMo lm` _m`_mV $nmVa H$$Z Vo [dZm_y` CnbY H$$Z Xo`mMm H$n _w`_`m`m gyMZoZwgma am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWo`m dVsZo am~d`mV `oV Amho. `mV _amR>sVsb Zm_dV H$bmdVmMm gh^mJ Amho. n[h`m Q>`mV g_W am_Xmg `m`m Xmg~moYmMo lm` $nmVa H$a`mV Ambo Amho. ho lm` d$nmVsb gm[h` gWo`m gHo$VWimd$Z CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV `oUma Amho. gV VwH$mam_ `m`m gm[h`mMo lm` $nmVa H$a`mMo H$m_ gWm bdH$aM hmVs KoV AgyZ Vohs CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV `oBb.

Zds H$meZo Am[U H$meZmMo nwZ_wU X[bV-Jm_sU gm[h` eXH$moe `m H$nmVJV X[bV Jm_sU gm[h` : $T>s, Wm, nanam, [d[YH$moe `m H$moemMo H$m_ nyU Pmbo Amho. [dkmZ[df`H$ nwVH$mMo AZwdmX _amR>s [dkmZ n[afX Am[U am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWm `m`m g`w$ [d_mZo [dkmZ gma `m gWoZo H$m[eV Ho$bo`m [dkmZ[df`H$ nmM nwVH$mMs ^mfmVao H$a`mV Ambs AmhoV. _mZ`[dm[df`H$ nmR>nwVH$mMo AZwdmX EZ. gs. B. Ama. Q>s. `m gWoZo V`ma Ho$bo`m gm_m[OH$ emo `m [df`m`m 6 nmR>nwVH$mMm _amR>sV AZwdmX H$a`mV Ambm Amho. _amR>s gHo$VWimMs nYm AbsH$So> gJUH$mda _amR>sVyZ _m[hVsMs XodmUKodmU H$a`mMo _mU dmT>bo Amho. emgZmVsb [d[dY [d^mJmH$So> AgUmar _m[hVs bmoH$mZm ghO CnbY hmds `mgmR>s `Z hmoV AmhoV. H$bm, H$sS>m, gH$Vs, [dkmZ, AW`dhma Aem

_amR>sgmR>s `w[ZH$moS> AmYm[aV [H$_mZ 4 Vo 5 MmJbo, XoIUo VgoM 2009 _Ysb dU_mbm Am[U dUH$_[df`H$ emgZ [ZU`mVsb gyMZmZwgma Q>H$ V`ma H$$Z KoD$Z Vo bmoH$mZm _w$ (\$s AS> AmonZ gmog) nadm`mgh CnbY H$$Z Xo`mMm H$n gWoZo hmVs KoVbm Amho.

[df`mdarb _m[hVs _amR>sVyZ gJUH$mda CnbY hmoD$ bmJbs Amho. `m `dhmambm mogmhZ Xo`m`m hoVyZo am` _amR>s [dH$mg gWom$V _amR>s gHo$VWimMs nYm Am`mo[OV H$a`mV `oV Amho. `m nYmZm Cm_ [VgmXhs bm^bm Amho. kmZXod _amR>s ZmJar `moOZm _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna emgZ `dhmamV Am[U bmoH$`dhmamV dmT>mdm `m hoVyZo Amn`m H$m_H$mOmV Am[U H$m`jomV _amR>sMm A[YH$m[YH$ dmna H$aUm`m Jm_nMm`V/ [Ohm n[afX/ ZJa n[afX/ ZJanm[bH$m/ _hmZJanm[bH$m/ [d^mJ (dmS>) `mZm nwaH$ma Xo`mMs hs `moOZm AgyZ hs `moOZm bdH$aM H$m`m{dV hmoUma Amho. `edVamd MhmU O_eVmXs _hmamQ> am`mMo n[hbo _w`_s `edVamd MhmU `m`m O_eVmXs dfmV gWoZo `m`m "H$UmH$mR>,' "F$UmZw~Y,' "eXmMo gm_`' `m nwVH$m`m VgoM "`edVamd: amQ>s` `{$_d' `m `m`mdarb nwVH$m`m lm` gsS>s H$mT>`mMm CnH$_ hmVs KoVbm Amho. VgoM `m`m `{$_dmMm doY KoUmam aJ_Ms` H$m`H$_ Am`mo[OV H$a`mMm CnH$_hs hmVs KoVbm Amho. gWoZo `m XmoZ CnH$_mgmR>s EH$ Vk g[_Vs Zo_bs AgyZ [V`mmao `m CnH$_mMs AmIUs H$a`mV `oV Amho. gnH$ 9850858720 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

33

fo`m X[Q>H$moZmVyZ [dMma Ho$`mg ^maVs` ^mfm `m gH$VnmgyZ [dH$[gV Pm`m Agm g_O hmoVm. VWm[n, VwV [gmV AmVm H$mb~m Pmbm AgyZ gH$V[edm` `oH$ ^yXoemMs dV:Ms Aes EH$ ~mobs, EH$ ^mfm hmoVs. Aem H$ma`m ~mobs`m ^mfm `m mXo[eH$ Zm_md$Z AmoiI`m OmV hmo`m. Ogo _JYMs _mJYs, eyagoZmMs gmagoZs, dO^y_r XoemMs dOs ~mobs. `mM_mUo _hmamQ>mMs _hmamQ>s dJao.... `m gd mXo[eH$ hUOoM mH$V ^mfm hmoV. H$mbmKmV `m_`o AZoH$ ~mobtMo dmh gm_sb hmoD$Z An^e ^mfoMm CX` Pmbm. An^e ^mfo`m XsK MbZmZVa B.g.nydu gmYmaU nmM`m/ghm`m eVH$mV An^e, _amR>s, H$mZS>s, VobwJw AmXs ^mfm^[JZtMm CX` Pmbm Ago _mZbo OmVo. ^maVs` ^mfm H$mo[dXmZs _hmamQ> Am[U _hmamQ>s mH$V VWm _amR>s `m EH$mM Zm`m`m XmoZ ~mOy Ag`mMo R>m_nUo hQ>bo Amho. hUyZM _hmamQ>mbm _amR>sMo _mhoa hUyZ Jma[dbo OmVo. VWm[n, hm dmg H$a`mg AZoH$ eVH$mMm H$mbmdYs Omdm bmJbm ho [Z{MV. gdgm_m`V: B.g.nyd [Vg`m eVH$mnmgyZ _hmamQ>s`m (mH$VAn^e - _amR>s`m) doJionUmMo A{Vd g_H$mbsZ ^mfm, [ebmboI, ZmUs, bmoH$gm[h` d bmoH$gH$Vs `m_YyZ OmUdy bmJbo hmoVo. `mnydu`m H$mbIS>mda H$me Q>mH$`mgmR>s _hmamQ>mV AZoH$ [R>H$mUs CIZZo H$a`mV Ambs. `m_YyZ g_H$mbsZ ^m[VH$ gH$Vsda ~amMgm H$me nS>`mg _XV Pmbs. VWm[n, `m g_mOm`m ^mfm d _Zmo`mnma `mda hUmdm Vgm H$me nS>bm Zmhs. Omon`V EImm g_mOmMm _Zmo`mnma ^mfo`m _m`_mVyZ g_Oy eH$V Zmhs, Vmon`V `m g_mOmMo gmH$[VH$ doJionU hUmdo Vgo OmUdV Zmhs. _hmamQ>s ^mfm hs Ho$di bmoH$^mfm ZgyZ amO^mfmhs hmoVs. _hmamQ>mMo Am amOKamUo hUOo em[bdmhZ (gmVdmhZ) KamUo hmo`. AmOMo nR>U ([VR>mZ) hs `mMs Am amOYmZs hmoVs. `m Kam`mZo gdgm_m`V: 450 df} am` Ho$`mMo _mZbo OmVo. `m`m gm_m`mV Z_XonmgyZ OdiOdi gd

^m

amR>r`m mhoar VrWV^


_hmamQ>s- mH$V An^e ^mfm hs _hmamQ>mV [dH$[gV Pmbs. Vs AemoH$nyd H$mbmnmgyZ dmMZmV hmoVs. `mXdH$mimV hUOoM BgdsgZm`m Voam`m eVH$mV hUOoM kmZodar_`o [VMm nyU [dH$mg Pm`mMo nQ> hmoVo. X[jU ^maVmMm ^yXoe AV^yV hmoVm. _hmamQ>sbm hUOo mH$Vbm amO^mfoMm XOm XoUmao ho Am amOKamUo hmo`. `mMo gd amOH$s` `dhma _hmamQ>s ^mfoVyZ MmbV hmoVo. `m_wio _hmamQ>s mH$V ^mfm g_ hmo`mg _XV Pmbs. `m Kam`mVsb AZoH$ loR> ZnVtZs Amnbs ZmUs, Amnbo [ebmboI, Amnbo amOXa~mar `dhma VWm [eQ>mMma _hmamQ>s ^mfoVyZM Ho$`mMo kmV Amho. `m_wio _hmamQ>s ^mfoMm ^maV^a, OJ^a gma hmo`mg _XV Pmbs. amO_mVm JmV_s ~blsMm Zm[eH$ `oWsb [ebmboI ho `mMo Xa`mZ`m H$ds Am[U gm[h{`H$mZs An^e ^mfoMm dmna Ho$`mZo mH$V ^mfoMm [dH$mg hmo`mg _XV Pmbs. `m gd OS>UKS>UsMo H|$ [VR>mZ hUOo AmOMo nR>U hmoVo. nR>Us gH$Vs`m dMdmImbs `oUmam ^yXoe hUOo AmOMm gd _hmamQ> Am[U X[jUoH$S>sb H$mhs ^y^mJ hmo`. `m gd dmQ>MmbsMo nR>U _wI H|$ hmoVo. hUyZ `m H$r[VV^mH$So>, Y_V^mH$So> AmnU nmhy eH$Vmo. n[agamVsb gd amOKam`mZs Aml` [Xbo`m gH$VsMo ho VsH$ hmo`. VwV V^ nyd `mXdH$mbsZ AgyZ `m_`o g_H$mbsZ H$boMo [V[~~ nmhmd`mg [_iVo. AmO `mbm VsWIm~ hUVmV. `m [df`s`m eoH$S>mo XVH$Wm nR>U n[agamV AmOhs _moR>m MdsZo gm[JV`m OmVmV. `m V^m_wioM nR>Ubm X[jUH$mes _mZbo OmVo. dJ, _`y, nmVmi hs gH$nZm `m V^mmao Xe[d`mV Ambs Amho. _hmamQ>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmMo Am[U JVH$mbsZ [VR>mZ`m d^dmMo ho EH$_od VsH$. _m` _amR>sMm AmJhmZo nwaH$ma H$aUmao [VR>mZsMo MmJXod amD$i, ls MH$Ya, A_VmVohs nOm [OH$Um`m ls kmZXodm`m nXnemZo Am[U _mPs mH$V H$m` MmoamnmgyZ Pmbs Ago hUUm`m emVs~ EH$ZmWm`m dmV`mZo hm n[aga nmdZ Pmbm Amho. `mMm hm EH$_od gmjsXma hmo`. (eXmH$Z : A[Zb XoenmSo>) rr

S>m. am.ls. _moadMsH$a


Cm_ CXmhaU hmo`. `m Kam`mVsb "hmb' gmVdmhZmMs "JmWmgmgB' hm H$m`gJh B.g.Zm`m n[h`m eVH$mV [Z_mU Pm`mMo _mZbo OmVo. hm _hmamQ>s mH$V ^mfo_Ysb AmJW hmo`. `md$Z Agm [ZH$f [ZKVmo H$s, gm[h`mMs ^mfm hUyZ _hmamQ>s- mH$V `mnydu AZoH$ eVHo$ bmoH$_ZmV Obobs hmoVs. Vo "JmWmgmgB'_Ysb ^mfm Am[U Cnamo$ [ebmboIm_Ysb ^mfod$Z nQ> hmoVo. gmV`m eVH$mV hmoD$Z Jobo`m "XS>s' `m gH$V H$dsZo _hmamQ>s mH$V ^mfo~b JmadmoXJma H$mT>bo AmhoV. `mZVa Pmbo`m

34

o$~wdmar 2013

gmjrXma d^dmMm
hmamQ > m`m amOH$r` ^m J mo [ bH$, gm H $ [VH$, Ym[_H$, `mnma-C[X_ Aem MmohmoAJm`m B[VhmgmMr gmj AmnUmg [VR>mZ ZJarV hUOoM nR>U ZJarV nXmonXr gmnS>VmV. nR>U_Yrb VrWIm~ hm `m B[VhmgmMm gmjrXma R>aVmo. n R >U`m X[jU ^mJmV hUOo M ZmJKmQ>m`m n[agamV mMrZ [VR>mZ`m "nmbWr ZJar'Mm ^y^mJ Amho. mMrZ [VR>mZ ZJarMo eo H $S>mo Adeo f `m[R>H$mUr BVa [dIw a bo b o [XgVmV. AJXr `m "nmbWr ZJar'`m n[agamVM "VrWIm~' C^m Amho. "VrWIm~m'`m C^maUrMm H$mi `m "VrWIm~m' `m gX^mV AZoH$ Am`m[`H$m gm[JV`m OmVmV. X[jU ^maVmV B.g. nyd 230 Vo B.g. 230 `m H$mbI S >mV gmVdmhZ Kam`mMr gmm hmoVr. `m H$mimV [VR>mZ ho amOYmZrMo [R>H$mU hmoVo Am[U hUyZ `m amOdQ>r`m B[VhmgmMm g X ^ Xo V "VrW I m ~ m'[df`r`m AZo H $ X V H$Wm [Z_mU Pm`m. gmVdmhZ Kam`mVrb amOgmoV Oo EHy$U 30 gmmQ> Pmbo `mnH$r B.g. nyd 159 Z V a gmo d a Ambo b m gmVH$Ur (W_) hm Ogm namH$_r hmoVm VgmM Ym[_ H $ d mrMmhr hmo V m. `mZo Xmo Z Ad_oY `k, EH$ amOgy` `k Am[U AZoH$ lmV`mJ H$$Z hOmamo Jm`r, Ad XmZ Ho $ `mMo Co I [ebmbo I mV AmT>iVmV. nR>U `oWrb B[Vhmg gemoYH$ H $ . ~mimgmho ~ nmQ>rb `m `m _Vo gmVdmhZmZr `m Ad_oY `kmZVa Omo [dO`mo gd gmOam Ho $ bm `mdo i r hm H$rVrV^ [Z_mU H$a`mV Ambm. gmVdmhZmZr X[jU^y^mJmdarb "eH$, jnmMr' AmH$_Uo naVdyZ bmdbr. `m [dO`mMr gmj hUyZ `m "VrWIm~mMr' C^maUr Ho$br Ag`mMr hr Am`m[`H$m gm[JVbr OmVo. naVw nR>U`m B[VhmgmMo A`mgH$ S>m. am.lr. _mo a d M rH$a `m Z r _m

VrWIm~mdarb [enH$boMm XmIbm XoV "[enemm`m XQ>rZo [dMma Ho$`mg ho Cma`mXdH$mbrZ [en Agmdo Ago dmQ>Vo, Ago _V ZmoXdbo Amho. "VrWIm~m'Vrb [enH$bm do $i`m H $ bmgbo U rMm [enH$ma H$mH $ mo g hm _y i n R >UMm. `m`m Zo V dmImbr 800 H$mam[Jam M o nWH$ bo`m`m H$m_mgmR>r do$ibm Jo`mMr ZmoX B[VhmgmV AmT>iVo. hUyZM H$r H$m` VrW I m ~ mMo [en ~`mM _mUmV do$i`m [enH$boer ZmV gmJVo. VrWIm~mMr aMZm Mma [d^mJmV (VwH$S>mV) Ho$bobr [XgVo. `mVrb Mma [d^mJmVrb [enm`m AmYmao dJ, nmVmi, _`y bmoH$mMr H$nZm Ho$`mMo OmUdVo. ho Mmahr VwH$So> ZVa EH$ AmUbobo dmQ>VmV. daMm ^mJ, VimMm MmWam, gw$Xma XJS>r V^ Am[U `mZm OmoS>Um`m XJS>r AUHw$MrXma H$_mZr

S>m. hgamO OmYd-dOraJmdH$a


ZVa`m _moJb, _amR>m H$mimVrb dmQ>VmV. V^m`m Vi`m VwH$S>mda _mVH$m _S>i Am[U ^ad Cm_ nVrZo H$moa`mV Ambo AmhoV. ^adm`m J`mVrb _wS>_mi, `mVyZ JiUmao a$ d a$ MmQ>Umam Hw$m ho gmaoM ~maH$mdo [enH$mamZo AMyH$ [Q>nbo AmhoV. _mVH$m _S>imgmo~V JUoe Z`hr [MVmabo Amho. _Y`m VwH$S>mV _H$a _wImMo AQ>H$moZr n>rXma dVwi AgyZ darb AJmg gwXa KQ>m dVwimH$Vr n>rV ~g[d`m AmhoV. `mdarb nQ>mV "_WyZ [eno' H$moabr AmhoV Aer [eno do$i`m bo`mV AmT>iVmV. AIoa`m VwH$S>mV EHy$U ~mam ImZo AgyZ g_mVH$m, Z` H$aUmam JUnVr lrXodr, [ed Am[U B XmI[dbm Amho. `mda`m ^mJmda OZ [d_mZ Amho. JmoXmdar ZXrbm _hmnya `oD$Z b` Pmbm Am[U VrWIm~m`m Q>moH$mda ~gyZ `m _hmnwamMo H$md`mZo nmUr `m`bo Va OJ~wS>r hmoUma Aer hr H$mhr bmoH$mMr

YmaUm Amho. gmVdmhZm`m namH$_mMr gmj XoUmam hm VrWIm~ hm nR>U`m ^m[fH$ d^dmMohr moVH$ R>aVmo. nR>U hr [dmZ [dmMr, n [ S>Vm M r ZJar Am[U hUy Z [VWo g H $ VMo m~`, VarnU n R >U`m B[VhmgmZo _amR>r ^mfoMm Ho$bobm Jmad `m VrW I m ~ mZo AZw ^ dbm`. gmVdmhZ amOdQ>rV`m gmVH$Ur `m Xa~mamVbm n [ S>V Jw U mT>mZo "~ h H$Wm' hm J W [b[hbm. nwTo> nR>U`m B[VhmgmMm gX^ Agbobm "JmWmgmgB' hm amOm hbmZo [b[hbobm JW ^mfoMr AmoiI H$$Z XoVmo. nw T o > ~mam`m eVH$mV lrMH $ Yam Z r _amR>rMm drH$ma H$$Z [Vbm XoddmUrMm XOm [Xbm Am[U VmoM YmJm nH$Sy>Z nyTo> _hmZw^md JWH$mamZr _amR>rV [dnyb JW [Z[_Vr Ho$br. Vmo lrMH$Ya MaUm[H$V n[aga VrWIm~m`m AJXr OdiM Amho. hUOoM _amR>r gm[h`m`m AmX`dm`m J W [Z[_ V rMm EH$mAWm Z o VrW I m ~ gmjrXmaM R>aV Zmhr H$m`? _amR>r ^mfo V A_ V mbm [O H $`mMo gm_` Ag`mMr Imr nQ>bo`m gV kmZodamZr aoS>m_wIr doX ~mobd`mMo (doXmMo gmd[H$rH$aU Ho$`mMo) [R>H$mU ZmJKmQ>mda hUOo M VrW I m ~ m`m n[agamVM Amho . kmZXo d m `m ^mfm [dVmaUrH$aUm`m `m KQ>ZoMmhr Vmo EH$ _yH$ gmjrXma R>aVmo. VrW I m ~ m`m g X ^m V `m AZo H $ Am`m[`H$m, X V H$Wm h`m n R >U`m bmoH$dmL>`mMo A[d^m` AJ ~Z`m AmhoV. nwTo> gV EH$ZmWm`m H$mimV ^m$S>m`m $nmZo nR>U`m bmoH$dmL>`mMo n`m`mZo _amR>r ^mfoMo EH$ AZmoIo XeZ gnyU _hmamQ>mbm Pmbo. hm VrW I m ~ AmOhr `w J m-`w J mMo Chmio-nmdgmio (Zg[JH$, amOH$r`, gmH$[VH$, Ym[_H$ gKfmMo `m AWmZo) PobV VodT>m`m A[^_mZmZo C^m Amho ho _m [Z{MV... gnH$ 7588429228 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

35

[h`[Z[_Vs`m gX^mV `$s hs [ZIi `Vr amhmVM Zmhs; Va Vs g_Q>s[ZR> hmoVo. hUyZM `Vr`m g_Q>s[ZR> AZw^dmMo d$n `m`m A` AZw^dmnojm doJio AgVo. X[bV gm[h`mMs {WVs AesM Amho. Aem H$ma`m gm[h`mMs [Z[_Vs gm_m[OH$ d$nm`m {W`VamMs AgVo. g_mOm_`o KS>Um`m n[adVZmMm ^md An[ahm`nUo gm[h`[Z[_Vsda hmoVmo. hUyZM gm[h` ho g_mO[ZR> AgVo. X[bV gm[h`mVsb _amR>s ^mfoMm [dMma H$aVmZm EH$ ~m~ nQ> Ho$bs nm[hOo H$s, gm[h`[Z[_Vs Ho$di _mU ^mfoVM Agm`bm hds `m nman[aH$ g_Ombm X[bV

gm

X[bV gm[h`mMs [Z[_Vs Ho$di dmL>_`sZ jomVsb EH$ KQ>Zm ZgyZ Vs gm_m[OH$ d gmH$[VH$ jomVsb _m[bH$ KQ>Zm Amho. X[bV boIH$ [Z[_Vs`m gX^mV Ho$di EH$ `$r CaV Zmhs, Va `m`m AZw^dmV g_mOm`m AV:dmhmMo AmoK g_yV Pmbobo AgVmV. `m`m A[^`$sVyZ jmo^ gH$[_V hmoV AgVmo. hUOo Vmo AZw^d ZVa `{$[ZR> amhmV Zmhs, Va Vmo g_Q>sMm AZw^d hmoVmo. X[bVoVa dmL>_`m`m gX^mV Ago hUVm `oUma Zmhs. X[bVoVa boIH$m`m [Z[_VsV `mMo `[V_d gVV `$ hmoV AgVo. hUyZM OsdZmMm, g_mOmMm H$bmH$Vses g~Y ZgVmo Agm AmH$VsdmXs g_sjH$mMm AmJh AgVmo. gm_m[OH$-gmH$[VH$ gX^ `mZm A[^oV ZgVmo. X[bV gm[h`[Z[_Vs`m gX^mV AmH$VsdmX Ho$di AVwV Amho. hUyZM X[bV gm[h`mMm [dMma g_sjm, ^mfm, AZw^dgQ>sM doJionU Aem [d[dY AJmZs H$amdm bmJVmo. X[bV gm[h`mMo `m gd jomV _moRo> `moJXmZ Amho. _amR>s ^mfobm X[bV gm[h`mZo g_ Ho$bo Amho.

S>m. JJmYa nmZVmdUo


gm[h`[Z[_VsZo No>X [Xbm Amho. `m gX^mV X[bV H$[dVoVsb ^mfoMm mYm`mZo [dMma H$aVm `oBb. X[bV H$[dVoV nwamU `dWm, dUdmX, [df_Vm, emofU `m[d [ZfoY `$ H$aUmar ^mfm VsV hmoVo. AWmVM _mZds _y`mMm, n[adVZmMm, H$mVsMm Jmad H$aUmar ^mfm A[^`$ hmoVo. [ZfoYm_H$Vm Am[dH$V hmoVmZm nwH$iXm [ZfoYmMm MT>m

X[bV gm{h`
amR>r ^mfoMo ^yfU
gyahs AgVmo. Aemdois Ho$di [ZXm_H$Vm Am[U [edaminUmMm Adb~hs hmoVmo. Ho$di eXmMs _moS>VmoS> [H$dm Ame`ey` ^mfm g_WZs` Zmhs. H$mhs X[bV H$[dVoV Ago XJmoMa hmoVo. nU ~arMes X[bV H$[dVm [ZfoYm_H$Vm `$ H$aVmZm Cnamo[YH$ ^mfoMm Aml` KoVo, ho CboIZs` Amho. ~`mMem X[bV H$[dVoVsb Amnamo[YH$Vm YmaXma AgVo. AmhmZmnX ^mfm, H$[dVm_y` hadyZ ~gVo. H$mhs X[bV H$[dVoVsb eX~~minUmgwm AmdmOs d Amdoes AgVmo ho ZmH$maVm `oUma Zmhs. naVw mYm`mZo X[bV H$[dVoVsb jmo^mbm Amnamo[YH$Vobm, ghmdYs dfm`m gm_m[OH$ d gmH$[VH$ Xw:ImMm gX^ Amho. eVH$mZweVHo$ ^moJbo`m emofUmMm, A`m`mMm, N>imMm, Ad_mZmMm, ZmH$mabobm _Zw`dmMm gX^ Amho. hUyZ X[bV H$[dVoVsb jmo^, XmhH$Vm, dmP Zmhs. `m gX^mMs OmU Ag`m[edm` X[bV H$[dVoVsb [ZfoYm_H$ ^mfm AmH$bZ hmoUma Zmhs. H$ds Ho$ed _olm_ `m`m "CnXoe_" `m H$[dVoVsb H$mhs AmoisV Vsd ^mfm Agbs Var [VMo gmH$[VH$ d gm_m[OH$ gX^ Xwb[jVm `oUma ZmhsV. Vo hUVmV. Omo H$moUs `m XoemV OmV Z [dMmarb `mMm ~mn fT> JUbm OmBb. _mZbs OmBb `mMs AmB `[^Mmar _yi `mMo [R>gyi R>aob, Jmo R>aob Hw$`mMo nmoao hmoVs `mMs IwOs, nmoar hmoVs bJS>mbw`m H$go~go O_ob bZ, dYw Agob g_Ji, dmPmoQ>shs OmdB [_iVsb XwamMaUs, H$Xm[MV N>o$~wiohs hUyZ Vwhs bjmV Ro>dm- `oVm OmVm! MVwamBMo ~mob `mZs Yam....... gdmXm_H$ ^mfm hs X[bV gm[h`[Z[_VsM AmUIs EH$ [deof. dN>VmdmXmMm nwaH$ma H$aVmZm, Zoh_sM H$bmdVm`m ^md{WVs`m $nmMm gX^ bjmV `mdm bmJVmo. H$bmdV

36

o$~wdmar 2013

PnmQ>bonUmVyZ [Z[_Vs H$aVmo, H$[dVm hUOo "nmoQ>[Z`g Amohabmo Am\$ nmda\y$b [\$qbO" Agohs hQ>bo OmVo. X[bV gm[h`mbm _m `moOZ_y` Amho. X[bV gm[h{`H$ EH$ OsdZQ>s KoD$ZM [b[hV AgVmo. S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a `mMo H$m[VH$mar VdkmZ hsM `mMs D$Om^y_s AgVo. hUyZ dN>XVmdmX [H$dm H$nZmaOZmMs Anojm X[bV gm[h`mH$Sy>Z dm gm[h{`H$mH$Sy>Z Ja Amho. Am_[dbmons d Am_aVsdms X[bV gm[h`mbm _m` Zg`mZo Am_JwOZ [H$dm Am_gdmXmbm `oWo WmZ Zmhs. X[bV gm[h{`H$ gVV gdmX H$arV AgVmo. Vmo dV:`m g_mOmes Var ~mobVmo [H$dm doVa g_mOmes gdmX H$aVmo. `mMs gdmX^mfm AH$[_ Am[U AmH$bZgwb^ AgVo. `mMm lmoVm A_yV ZgVmo Va Vmo g_yV AgVmo. `m gX^mV dm_Z [Z~miH$a `m`m H$mhs Amois CXYV H$aVm `oVsb. `m JmdHw$gm~mhoMm H$mimoI _mdiUma Amho Am_`m AmoR>mVsb H$meJsVmMo da Xmhs [XemZm YwX H$aUma Amho Ago gmao EH$[V `m hmVmV hmV KmbyZ H$memMo JsV Jm.. X[bV gm[h`mV [d[dY mXo[eH$ ~mobs, ^mfm XJmoMa hmoVmV. `m_wio EHy$UM _amR>s ^mfobm EH$ AmJim Am`m_ m Pmbm Amho, ho [Z:ge`! X[bV gm[h`m`m gdM dmhmVsb boIZmV `m ~mobs ^mfm `oVmV `m Amn`m g_doV, mXo[eH$ _mVs`m JYm~amo~aM eX d dm`aMZm, ebs Am[U A[^`$sMs bH$~ KoD$Z `oVmV; Am{U `mMm ~mOhr Jm_sU dm ZmJar AgVmo. _hmamQ>mbJV A` ^mfs gs_m AmhoV. `m `m ^mfoVsb AZoH$ eX d dmMma `mMm ^md gs_mdVu X[bV gm[h`mV \$ma Zmhs, nU OmUdVmo. [deofV: X[bV Am_H$WZmV `mMm `Z hmoVmo. [hXs, VobwJw, H$mZS>s ^mfoVsb eXmMm dmna BV`m ghOVoZo H$mhs X[bV boIH$mZs Ho$bm Amho H$s `mMo $n _amR>s_`M Pmbo Amho. S>m.

^s_amd JwOs (~oaS>), Ho$ed _olm_ (hH$sH$V d OQ>m`w, CIZZ), dgV _yZ (dVs), . B. gmoZH$m~io (AmR>dUtMo njs), eaUHw$_ma [b~mio (A$a_mes), Vw_ AMbIm~ (JmdH$s) `m dmL>_`sZ H$VsVyZ `mMm AmT>i hmoVmo. ghO hUyZ [dMma H$$ OmVm X[bVmVsV [^Z [^Z OmVtMohs eX[deof Am[U ^mfm[deofhs AmT>iVmV. `oWo EH$m eXmMm CoI H$aVmo. _mg (_Q>Z) `m eXmMs [H$Vs [d[dY $no AmhoV ~Km. gmJwVs, Mm`m (dmiV KmVbobo _mgmMo VwH$So>), ~a~mQ> (_mgmMm agm), CaHw$Xm (N>mVsMo _mg), JwS>gm (_mg bmJbobs Zis), ImS>`m (dmibo`m _mgmMo VwH$So>), Ho$Z (dOS>s), S>bs (_mgmMm VwH$S>m), [OOs (_Q>Z), JoidU (_mg) ho. `mgmaIo EH$mM dVyes [ZJ[S>V AgUmao eX, _amR>s ^mfoMo gmR>d Zho H$m`? X[bV dmL>_`sZ H$VsV `oUmao AZoH$ eX dV:Ms Zds _wm XoUmao AmhoV. _mU ^mfoMm `W AmJh YaUm`m A`mgH$mZs, X[bV eXmMs dV [V_m d _wm bjmV KoUo Amd`H$ Amho. ho eX A` AmT>iV ZmhsV nU Vo _amR>s AmhoV. `m eXmMm Vm|S>dim Am[U H$Vs dV Amho. _amR>s ^mfoMo Vo ^yfUM hmo`. _amR>dmS>s, dhmS>s, ImZXoes (A[hamUs), H$moH$Us, `m ~mobs ^mfmVsb H$mhs eXmMm [ZX}e H$aVmo. hUOo _amR>s ^mfoMo ho d^d, _amR>s ^mfoMo ^[d` AYmamV Amho, Aes AmoaS> H$aUm`mZm [Xbmgm XoD$ eHo$b. eX d `mMo AW `oUo_mUo ~|S>dm (IwamS>), \$moH$ZmS> (Wmn), \$moH$ZmS>m (WmnmS>m), [hamoVs (bmb

[VIQ>), BMH$BX (_moS>VmoS>), JmJam (Yyi), AJmoes (_mb), Am^amZ (nmoVamOmMm aJs~oaJs KmJam), H$mi[O`m (AneHw$Zs), AmaXH$mS>s (nmo$), BJmoS> ([dMH$m), Pw~aKmB (H$bH$bmQ>), doQ>mi (_mohm), BVmar (nmdmi), C~waJw~ya (CKS>CKS>), Am^miUs (CM), Iwbdar (H$_mB), KZKmd (_O~yV), H$m|S>ma (JwamT>moamZm ~g`mMs OmJm), K_S>m (bmMma), CH$sa (CH$abobm _mVsMm T>sJ), [H$Vmb ([T>Jmam), [VV~m

X[bV gm[h`H$VsVsb AZoH$ eX, dmMma, hUs _amR>s ^mfobm An[a[MV AmhoV. _amR>s ^mfobm Vo \$ma _moRo> `moJXmZ Amho. doJdoJ`m ^mJmo[bH$ XoemV EH$mM eXmMo [^Z [^Z AWhs hmoVmV. ho d[d` bjUs` Amho. `mVyZ gH$VsMo doJio Am[dH$mahs VsV hmoVmV.

(Jm|Yi), Cbm (MwbsMm EH$ ^mJ), AmiyMbmds (_ZH$dS>s), IJmob (PwnH$m), Kw_mi (gwXa) CXmhaUo hUyZ `m X[bV gm[h`mV `oUm`m `m WmoS>mM eXmMm [ZX}e Ho$bm. _amR>s ^mfoVsbM ho eX AmhoV. `m eXmIoarO Z_wZm hUyZ H$mhs dmMmamMm d hUtMm CoI H$aVm `oBb. CXm : EH$ Jmd gyZm Va Xg Jmd nyZm (EH$mdaM Adb~yZ Z amhmUo), Jar~ Jm` AmZ S>m`mVb H$Usg Im` (daH$aUs gmYm nU AmVyZ ~oaH$s), KmoS>md$Z nS>md AmZ [eJamM H$mZ _moS>md (EH$mMs H$aUs, Xwg`mg [ejm), AmS>mV JwidUs, AmZ PmS>mbm H$mZdbs (A[Ve`mo$s H$aUo). Vohm X[bV gm[h`[Z[_VsZo _amR>s ^mfobm AZoH$ Zdo AWnyU eX, dmMma, hUs [X`m AmhoV. _amR>s ^mfm hUOo Ho$di _mU ^mfm hm g_O Xya H$$Z X[bV gm[h`mZo _amR>s ^mfobm d^d [Xbo Amho `mV eH$m Zmhs. gnH$ 9422205187 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

37

^mfm Am{U ApVm


nbr ^mfm Amn`m OrdZm`m gd jomV H$m` H$arV AgVo. CXm. `dhma, em, H$bm. Ym{H$ jomV H$H$mS>mMr ^mfm AgVo, H${fjomMr ^mfm AgVo, {Za{Zam`m `dgm`mMr ^mfm AgVo, `oH$M ^mfm Amn`m narZo d`nyU AgVo. dfmZwdf} AZoH$ {nT>mMo `dhma `m ^mfo`m AmYmao Mmbbobo AgVmV. Xg`m gmOmer, Xg`m gH$Vrer gnH$ hmoVmo Vohm ^mfoV ^a nS>V AgVo. {~{Q>e amOdQ>rV aodo, nmoQ>, Q>o{bJm$, AH$mCQ>g B`mXr jomVbr ^mfm Ambr. OrdZmV Zdr

Am

joo {ZmU hmoVmV Vohm Amn`m ^mfoVhr n[adVZ KS>V AgVo. H$mb Am{U n[apWVr `mZwgma ^mfoV ~Xb hmoVmV. `mXdH$mbrZ, {edH$mbrZ, noedoH$mbrZ, Adb BJOrVrb ^mfoV ~Xb hmoV AmOMr, AmVmMr ^mfm V`ma Pmbobr Amho. mH$V, gH$V, n{e`Z, Aao{~H$, BJOr, nmoVwJrO B`mXr ^mfmMo gH$ma Pmbo. AmVm`m ^mfoV H$m`wQ>a, BQ>aZoQ>, mo~mBb $moZ Aem Z`m Jmo>r Ambo`m AmhoV. Z`m kmZemIm Ambo`m AmhoV. H$bm, dm{U`, {dkmZ, VkmZ `m jom`o Zdo {dMma Ambobo AmhoV, Z`m gH$nZm Ambo`m AmhoV. `dhmam`m Am{U kmZm`m ZdZ`m

dgV Am~mOr S>hmHo$


jom`o Amn`m ^mfoZo gMma Ho$bm nm{hOo Ago Amn`mbm dmQ>V AgVo. `mgmR>r Zdr eX$no KS>dbr OmUo Amd`H$ R>aVo. ^mfm g hmoV AgVo. amR>r ^mfoMm {dMma H$aVmZm Amn`mbm amR>r ~mobtMm {dMma H$amdm bmJVmo. amR>r`m AZoH$ ~mobr AmhoV. doJdoJ`m ^mJmV`m OZOrdZmVrb `dhmam`m `m dmhH$ AmhoV. `m amoO`m g^mfUmV`m AmhoV, VemM `m bZmXr {dYrV dmna`m OmUm`m AmhoV, `m ~mobr`o Ioi, d`nmH$mMo nXmW, {^Z{^Z dZnVr `mgmR>rXoIrb eX^mS>ma Amho. `oH$ gmO JQ>mMr dV:Mr Aer ~mobr AgVo. EH$ `dVu ^mfm Agmdr, kmZm`m-{dMmam`m jomV gdmZm Vr dmnaVm `mdr `mgmR>r mU ^mfoMm AmJh

Yabm OmVmo. mU ^mfm ho ^mfoMo EH$ gdm` Ago $n AgVo. Vo AZoH$ dfmVyZ KS>V Ambobo AgVo. mU ^mfm hr H$moU`mhr EH$m ^y^mJmV`m, H$moU`m EH$m JQ>mMr ^mfm ZgVo. ^mfoMm amOH$maUmgmR>r Cn`moJ H$aVmZm H$mhr doim Agm AngO V`ma Ho$bm OmVmo. H$moU`mhr EH$m ^mfH$ JQ>mMr Vr ^mfm ZgyZhr gdM ^mfH$ JQ>mMr Vr ^mfm AgVo. `mM~amo~a ~mobr hr AkmZr, {Zaja bmoH$mMr ^mfm AgVo hmhr JagOM Amho. ~mobt`o AZoH$ {nT>m`m kmZmMm Am{U ehmUnUmMm gmR>m AgVmo. ~mobtwio mU ^mfm g hmoV AgVo. `mwio ~mobr Z> hmoVm H$mm Z`o Ago ^mfo`m {hVqMVH$mZm dmQ>V AgVo. eoVr`o `mdfu`m {nH$mYyZ nwT>`m dfmV noa`mgmR>r ~r{~`mUo {ZKy Z`oV Aer {~`mUr Ambobr AmhoV. nanaoZo MmbV Ambobr CH$> {~`mUr `mwio Z> Pmbobr AmhoV. ~mobr AemM Z> Pm`m Va Amnbr mU ^mfm {Z:gd hmoBb. {ejUjomV ^mfm VrZ H$mao `oVo. ^mfoMo {ejU, gm{h`mMo {ejU Am{U {df`mMo m`. {df`mMo m` hUyZ EImm ^mfoMm drH$ma H$aVmZm w` AS>MU nm[a^m{fH$ gkmMr AgVo. AmYw{ZH$ H$mimV gdM {df`mVrb kmZmMm moV `wamon d Ao[aH$m `oWrb kmZmMm gmR>m hm Amho. `wamon`o doJdoJ`m ^mfm AmhoV. `mVbo kmZ BJOr ^mfoV `oV AgVo. Amn`mgmR>r BJOr hmM Iam moV Amho. BJOr {dm hUOo BJOr ^mfoVrb {dm. BJOr ^mfm Am{U gm{h` hm doJim kmZ{df` Amho. doJdoJ`m kmZemImYbo kmZ BJOrVyZ amR>rV AmUVmZm nm[a^m{fH$ gkm KS>dm`m bmJVmV. gmm{OH$ {dkmZo AgmoV H$s ^m{VH$ {dkmZo, gdM {df`mV ZdZ`m kmZmMr ^a nS>V AgVo. ho kmZ

doJdoJ`m kmZemImYbo kmZ BJOrVyZ amR>rV AmUVmZm nm[a^m{fH$ gkm KS>dm`m bmJVmV. gmm{OH$ {dkmZo AgmoV H$s ^m{VH$ {dkmZo, gdM {df`mV ZdZ`m kmZmMr ^a nS>V AgVo. ho kmZ BJOr ^mfoV `m doJmZo, gjVoZo Am{U gWnUo `oVo Vmo doJ, Vr gjVm, Vr gWVm ho kmZ amR>rV AmU`m`m >rZo {XgV Zmhr.

38

^mfoMo {ejU hUOo H${dVmMo, H$WmMo {ejU Zho. `dhmamV ^mfm H$er dmnabr OmV AgVo, emr` boIZmV ^mfoMo $n H$go AgVo, {d{dY `dgm`mV ^mfm H$er dmnabr OmVo, gm{h`H$Vt`o ^mfoMr A{^`$s H$er AgVo ho H$mH$mZo {eH$m`Mo H$a`mV `oVmo. H${dVm, H$Wm, b{bV boI, EH$m{H$H$m, H$mX~ar, ZmQ>H$, {Z~Y ho $n~Y H$go {dH$[gV hmoV Jobo, Voam`m eVH$mnmgyZ AmOn`V ^mfo`o H$gH$go ~Xb hmoV Jobo, Om{UdmMo doJdoJio dmh H$go Ambo, Am{dH$mamMo doJdoJio `moJ H$go Pmbo ho A`mgH$mZm gOmdo hm gm{h`m`m {ejUmmJMm Coe AgVmo. `mMmUo gm{h`mVyZ `$ hmoUm`m OrdZ^mZmMm, y`mMm gH$ma hmdm hohr C{> AgVo. gm{h`mwio ^mfoMo gH$ma hmoVmV, eXgnmr dmT>Vo, A{^`$s`m {Za{Zam`m arVr H$iVmV. `mwio ^mfm {eH$dm`Mr Va `mgmR>r H${dVm, H$Wm, b{bV J B`mXr H$mamVrb do`mMm nmR>nwVH$mV gmdoe Ho$bm nm{hOo Aer gOyV Amho. amR>r {df`mMr nmR>nwVHo$ `mMm AW {Za{Zam`m boIH$m`m do`mMm gJh Ago grH$aU Pmbobo Amho. m B`mm ~mamdrn`VM ^mfoMo-gm{h`mMo ho {ejU gmd{H$ d$nmMo AgVo. `mZVa Ho$di ~rEbm OmUm`m {dm`mZm Vo Iwbo AgVo. dm{U`, {dkmZ, A{^`m{H$s, dH${dm, `dWmnZ{dm B`mXr kmZemImH$S>o OmUm`mZm gm{h`{ejUmnmgyZ d{MV R>odbo OmVo. ~rEbm OmUmao {dmWu gm{h`mMm "gm{h` : EH$ H$bm' `m >rZo A`mg H$aVmV Ago mZbo Va Vo ~mamdrn`V ^mfm {eH$V hmoVo H$s gm{h` {eH$V hmoVo H$s gm{h`H$Vt`m m`mVyZ ^mfm {eH$V hmoVo? Agm Z CnpWV hmoVmo. `mMmUo OrdZ^mZ, y`gH$ma B`mXr Jmo>r ~mamdrn`V R>rH$ AmhoV, nwT>o `mMr H$mhr JaO Zmhr, {deofV: dm{U`, {dkmZ, A{^`m{H$s, dH${dm, `dWmnZ{dm B`mXr kmZemImH$S>o OmUm`mZm Va H$mhr JaOM Zmhr Ago gOm`Mo H$m`? ^mfoMo {ejU hm EH$ hdmMm wm Amho. d^mfoMo {ejU Am{U na^mfoMo {ejU Ago XmoZ {df` AmhoV. d^mfoMo, CXm. amR>rMo. hr ^mfm wbmZm AdJV AgVo. wbo ~mobV AgVmV. {b{hUo {eH$m`Mo AgVo. `mMmUo Q>`mQ>`mZo OrdZm`m {d{dY jomV dmnabr OmUmar ^mfm {eH$m`Mr AgVo. d^mfoMo {ejU KoV AgVmZmM d^mfo`m ~mobtMrhr AmoiI hm`bm hdr. IaoVa {d{dY ~mobr ~mobUmar wbo mU ^mfm {eH$m`bm Ambobr AgVmV. mU ^mfm Am{U ~mobr `mV C-ZrMVoMm ^oX^md Z H$aVm `m Xmoht`o gmYm OmoS>bm nm{hOo. gnH$ 9890362703 rr

BJOr ^mfoV `m doJmZo, gjVoZo Am{U gWnUo `oVo Vmo doJ, Vr gjVm, Vr gWVm ho kmZ amR>rV AmU`m`m >rZo {XgV Zmhr. `m gX^mV H$mhr CnH$ gw$ Ho$bo hmoVo. nwT>o Vo X Pmbo, AWdm ~X nS>bo. gd {df`mgmR>r amR>r m`mMm AmJh Ad` H$amdm, `mMdoir Vmo {df` amR>rVyZ {eH$`mgmR>r MmJbr nmR>nwVHo$ Agbr nm{hOoV, BVa nyaH$ gm{h` amR>rVyZ Agbo nm{hOo Am{U A{YH$ nwT>Mo kmZ XoUmar nwVHo$hr amR>rVyZ Agbr nm{hOoV `mMmhr AmJh Yabm nm{hOo. A`Wm nwVHo$ ZmhrV hUyZ m`mMm {dMma H$aVm `oV Zmhr Aer pWVr H$m`M AgUma. ^mfo`m gX^mV gm{h`mMo {ejU hmhr EH$ hdmMm ^mJ Amho. Voam`m eVH$mnmgyZ AmOVmJm`V amR>r gm{h` {b{hbo OmV Amho. amR>r gm{h`mMr A{Ve` g nanam Amho. hm dmagm Amn`mbm bm^bobm Amho `mMr OmUrd amR>r ^mfH$mZm hmdr, `m gm{h`mMm `mZr gy A`mg H$amdm `mgmR>r {ejUmV gm{h`mMm AV^md

o$~wdmar 2013

39

gH$UmVrb amR>r ^mfm


`H$`mMs Os ^mfm AgVo Vs `m XoemVbs Om dsH$mam`Mm `Z H$aVo, hm OJ^amMm B[Vhmg Amho. _mUyg _mUgmbm H$i`mgmR>s ^mfm Cn`moJs Agbs Var, nmoQ>mbm AZ XoU hmhs ^mfoMm EH$ Cn`moJ AgVmo, Am[U am`H$`m_`o nmoQ>mbm Xo`mMs VmH$X Ag`mZ, `mMs ^mfm OoH$Sy>Z dsH$mabs OmU ho gmh[OH$ Amho. Xwg`m ~mOybm am`H$`mZmhs OoMs JaO AgVoM. `m_wi OJ^a`m [H$`oH$ [R>H$mUs am`H$V} Am[U Om `m`m ^mfmMo gH$a Pm`mMhs [XgyZ `oV. gH$[aV ^mfmMm Agm B[Vhmg Va ^maVmV XmS>Jm Amho. ^maV hm ~hw^m[fH$ Xoe Amho. AJXs WmoS>m WmoS>m AVamgmR>s EHo$H$ dV ^mfm Ag AmOM [M Amho. hs ~hw^m[fH$Vm H$es [Z_mU Pmbs, H$es [dH$[gV Pmbs `mMm dmVd Am[U XsK B[Vhmg _m`m dmMZmV Var Ambm Zmhs. [H$_mZ dsg Vo Mmisg hOma

am

dfmMm hm ^maVs` ^mfm KS>UsMm B[Vhmg Agmdm Ag _bm _mZd deemm`m Am[U _mZds WbmVam`m AmYmamda dmQ>V. EH$ dV Am[U gVV H$m`aV AgUmam A`mg JQ> [Z_mU H$$Z `m B[VhmgmM `d{WV CIZZ hm`bm hd. `m ^mfm B[Vhmg

amOZ ImZ
gemoYZmVbm _moR>m AS>Wim R>aob Vmo - Am[U AmOhs R>aVmo Amho Vmo- gH$V hs gd ^maVs` ^mfmMs OZZs Amho, ho [dYmZ. AJXs da da nm[hb Var `m [dYmZmbm H$mhshs AW Zmhs, Ag bjmV `oV. Am[U ^maVmV`m gd ^mfm gH$V_YyZ H$em O_mbm Am`m `mMs [b[IV _mS>Ushs Hw$R> CnbY hmoV Zmhs. `m [dYmZm`m g`VoMm H$m~ybnmgyZ H$mo[h`mn`VMm Am[U H$m_ranmgyZ Ho$ain`VMm B[Vhmg Hw$UsVar _mS>m`bm hdm Ag _bm Zoh_s dmQ>V.

_amR>s g_mOmV`m gm[h`gQ>s `m jomZ OodT>m Vi_isZ XsK H$mi _amR>s ^mfo`m [MVoMm _wm bmdyZ Yabm`, VodT>m Vi_isZ _amR>s g_mOmV`m BVa jomZs, KQ>H$mZs Vmo _wm bmdyZ Yabobm [XgV Zmhs. CmoJ, Amamo`, eoVs, [ejU, `m`, amOH$maU, `mnma B`mXs Os _amR>s g_mOmMs BVa gd jo AmhoV, `mMs _amR>s ^mfo~bMs `m`m _mJ`m H$mimV H$m` ^y[_H$m hmoVs [Z AmO H$m` Amho? Va Vs ^y[_H$m gmV`mZ AZmWoMs Am[U XwbjmMsM am[hbobs. ^mfm OJdU, [Q>H$dU, [VMs ds H$aU ho H$mhs \$$ gm[h`gQ>sM H$m_ ZgV, Va EH$mM dois gdM jomZs m [df`mV nyU AmWoZ gh^mJ m`Mm AgVmo.

AmO`m `m gd ^maVs` ^mfm EH$_oH$tMm gH$a AmhoV EdT> _m [Z{MV dmQ>V. gH$V hs `m XoemV`m H$moU`mhs am`H$`mMs ^mfm ZhVs Am[U OoMs Va Vs ZhVsM H$Ys. gd Am`mZmgwm gH$V ^mfm dmna`mMm A[YH$ma ZhVm, Am`m_Y`m \$$ CdUu`mZm Am{U `mVhr Ho$di nwfmZmM Vs ^mfm dmna`mMm A[YH$ma AmhoAg `m ^mfo~bM [dYmZ Amho, Am[U Vo g` Agob Va - Vs ^mfm am`H$`mMs, am`H$ma^mamMs Am[U Oo`m dmnamMs AgU e` Zmhs Am[U Vg Agob Va gd ^maVs` ^mfm gH$V_YyZ O_mbm Am`m `m [dYmZmbm H$mhs AW Zmhs. H$maU H$mhs [d[eQ> Am[U _moOHo$ bmoH$ gH$V dmnaV hmoVo, Vohm g_mOmVbo ~hwg` bmoH$ ^mfo[edm` _wHo$ amhV hmoVo, H$mhs [d[eQ> _moOHo$ bmoH$ EH$_oH$mes gH$V_`o ~mobV hmoVo, Vohm ~mH$sMo ~hwg` bmoH$ `mZm EH$_oH$mes ~mobm`bm ^mfmM Zg`mZ _wHo$ OJV hmoVo, H$maU Vo gH$V_YyZ Amnmn`m ^mfm O_mbm `o`mMs dmQ> nmhV hmoVo, Agm `mMm AW hmoBb Am[U Vmo gdWm MwH$sMm Amho. AmO OJmVbs EH$hs ^mfm dV Zmhs Am[U O_mbm Am`mnmgyZ`m ew d$nmV CnbY Amho Aghs Zmhs. _wimV ^mfoM d$n ew-Aew AgU Ag e` Zmhs. [d[dY ^m[fH$ _mUgmMm g~Y [OW [OW `oV amhUma, [VW [VW ^mfmMs EH$_oH$mV [_giU hmoV amhUma. hm Ioi OwZmM Amho Am[U AmOhs MmbyM Amho Am[U OJmV`m gdM ^mfm~b Vmo g` Amho. EH$_oH$t`m gnH$mV `oUm`m ^mfm EH$_oH$tMo gH$ma KoUmaM. `m [Z`_mZ _amR>s ^mfm Amnbm AmH$ma KoV Jobs Am[U nwT>hs Vs AmH$ma KoV amhUmaM. amR>rbm {imbm AmH$ma Jo`m Mma-nmM hOma dfmV _amR>s ^mfobm Omo AmH$ma Ambm, `mV Vwiy, nmbs, AY_mJYs, Aa~s, \$mags `m ^mfmMm _moR>m dmQ>m Amho Ag _bm dmQ>V. (^maVmV`m AmO`m BVa ^mfmMm B[Vhmghs AgmM AgUma.) OZm`m-Oo`m EH$_oH$m`m ggJmZ Va hs ^mfm AmH$mambm AmbsM, nU am`H$`mMm ^mdhs `m ^mfm`m AmH$mamV

40

o$~wdmar 2013

am[hbm. Aa~s-\$magsMm _amR>sVbm ^md hm Ho$di am`H$`m_wi am[hbm Ag _bm dmQ>V Zmhs, Va Aa~s-\$mags ^m[fH$ am`H$V} ^maVmV `o`mAmYsnmgyZ WbmVa, `mnma `m [Z[_mmZ `oUmao Aa~s-\$mags ^m[fH$ bmoH$, ^m[fH$ ggJmV _w` am[hbo Ag dmQ>V. hm H$ma VsZ Vo nmM hOma df OwZm Agmdm. Aa~s-\$mags ^mfm `m _w{b_m`m AmhoV Agm EH$ Jag_O Amn`mH$S> Amho. Bbm_Ms WmnZm hmoD$Z \$$ nYameo df Pmbs, Aa~s-\$mags `m ^mfm `mAmYsnmgyZ`m AmhoV. OJmV`m H$moU`mhs ^mfm H$Ys Hw$`m Y_m`m-OmVs`m _mbH$s`m Zh`m. AndmX gH$V. _wgb_mZ am`H$V} ^maVmV `o`mAmYsnmgyZ Aa~s-\$mags ^m[fH$ am`H$V} ^maVmV ZmX`mMm B[Vhmg Amho. nwT> Aa~s-\$mags ^m[fH$ am`H$V} Am[U ^maVs` ^mfm `m`m gH$amVyZ CXy hs ^mfm O_mbm Ambs. _amR>s ^m[fH$ mVmda am` Ho$bo`m am`H$`mZs _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna Ho$`mMs CXmhaU \$ma ZmhsV. Am[Xbemhs, ZJaMs [ZOm_emhs Am[U [edmOs _hmamOmZs Aa~s-\$mags~amo~a XIZs Am[U _amR>s ^mfoMm dmna Ho$`mMo CoI AmT>iVmV. BJO `oBn`V ^maVmV mXo[eH$ ^mfm Am[U am`H$`mMs ^mfm `m`m [_giUsMm Ioi MmbV am[hbm. BJOmZs am` Vm`mV KoVmZm \$mags-CXyMm AmYma KoVbobm [XgVmo. nU nwT> am` nyUnUo Vm`mV Am`mda `mZs BVa gd ^mfmZm S>y XoD$Z Ho$di BJOs ^mfm bmXm`bm gwdmV Ho$bs. Ho$di VsM EH$_od am`H$ma^mamMs ^mfm Ro>dbs. ZVa Vo Jobo, nU OmVmZm BW`m bmoH$emhs am`H$`mZm BJOs hs Am_s` ^mfm dmQo>b `mMs `dWm H$$Z Jobo. ^mfmdma mVaMZm dmV`mZVa ^mfmdma mVaMZm A_bmV Ambs, nU mVmMs gaH$ma Am[U H|$ gaH$ma `mZm OmoS>Umar ^mfm AZ[YH$V hUV hUV A[YH$VnUo BJOsM am[hbs. 1947 gmbs gs_mMs [Z{MVs Pmbobm AmH$ma~ Agm EH$ Xoe, ^maV `m ZmdmZ Amn`mbm [_imbm, nU Am`m Xoembm, XoemV`m `oH$ ZmJ[aH$mbm EH$_oH$mes OmoSy>Z KoBb, Aes EH$hs Xoes ^mfm Amn`mbm [_imbs Zmhs. AmnU gJ`mes [_iyZ Ves EH$hs ^mfm amQ>s` hmoUma Zmhs, `mMs VOdsO H$a`mVM Amnb dmV` Kmbdb. n[aUm_V: BJOs hs ^mfm am`H$ma^mamMs

Pmbs. ^maVs` ^mfmZm mXo[eH$ S>~`mM d$n Amb Am[U amQ>s` nmVisdagwm EH$mhs am`s` [H$dm mXo[eH$ ^mfobm _hd `oUma Zmhs `mMs `dWm Ho$bs. ^maV ~hw[dY gH$VtZs ZQ>bobm, ~hw^m[fH$ Xoe Ag`mM ~`mMXm A[^_mZmZ ~mobb OmV. nU hm A[^_mZ _bm dWm Am[U [ZaWH$ dmQ>Vmo. Am`m amQ>mbm dV:Ms Aes H$moUVshs EH$ ^mfm ZgU ho _bm ho amQ>, "amQ>' hUyZ AIS> C^ am[hb Zg`mM bjU dmQ>V. am`H$`mZs H$ma^mamgmR>s BJOsMm dmna H$aU, ho mXo[eH$ [H$dm Xoes ^mfmZs S>moH$s da H$mTy> Z`oV hUyZ Ho$bobs `dWm dmQ>Vo. AmVm Va OmJ[VH$sH$aUmMm H$mi Amho Am[U `mMs A[YH$V gnH$ ^mfm BJOsM Amho. OmJ[VH$sH$aUmV am`H$V} Va AmoT>bo Jobobo AmhoVM, nU `m`m nmR>monmR> g_mOhs

OmJ[VH$sH$aUmMs ^mfm Jo`m XmoZVsZeo dfmV`m BJOm`m gdXya nmohmoM`m_wi AmnmoAmn BJOs R>$Z Jobs AgyZ Vs OJ^a`m `oH$ mXo[eH$ ^mfobm _mJ hQ>dyZ Amnb WmZ ~iH$Q> H$aV [ZKmbs Amho. dV:Mm ^m[fH$ A[^_mZ Am[U A{_Vm Agbobo Oo Xoe AmhoV. CXm. \$mg, O_Zs, MsZ, BQ>bs, noZ, nmoVwJmb, Aa~ amQ>, OnmZ B`mXs, Vohs AmVm BJOsg_moa JwS>Ko Qo>H$VmZm [Xgy bmJbo AmhoV. X[jU A_o[aH$m, Am[\$H$m Am[U Am[e`m_Yb Oo [dH$gZesb amQ>mM [Vga OJ Amho, `mbm ^m[fH$ A{_Vm- [H$_mZ OmJ[VH$ nmVisdaMs - H$YsM ZhVs. `m [Vg`m OJmV`m [H$`oH$ amQ>mZm dV:`m ^mfm hmo`mM, nU BJOs, n[Ze, \o$M ^mfm AmH$_U H$am`bm Am`m Vohm `mZs `mhs dsH$ma`m. [Vg`m OJmV`m amQ>mZm _m

AmoT>bm OmUma ho [Z{MV Amho. VoM AmVm`m `m OmJ[VH$sH$aUmM _moR> d[eQ> Amho. `m OmJ[VH$sH$aUmMs ^mfm CKS>nUo BJOs Ag`mZo g_mOhs AmVm `m ^mfo`m N>N>m`oV AmoT>bm OmUma hohs An[ahm` Amho. amQ> ZmdmMs gH$nZm O_mbm `o`mAmYs- XsS>eoXmoZeo dfmnydu _mUgmMs WbmVa, `mnma, am` H$am`bm OmU, Xoe bwQ>m`bm OmU Aem $nm_Ybs OmJ[VH$sH$aU nds^a H$m`_M Mmby hmoVs Am[U `mV ^mfm`m gH$amMo Ioihs H$m`_M Mmby hmoVo. nU `m OmJ[VH$sH$aUm_`o H$moU`mhs EH$m ^mfoM dMd ZhV. AmVm`m `m OmJ[VH$sH$aUmM _m Vg Zmhs. `m

dV:Ms EH$M ^mfm H$YsM ZhVs. `m XoemV`m N>moQ>m N>moQ>m XoemZm dV:`m ^mfm Am[U `m`m A{_Vm hmo`m, nU AIS> amQ>s` nmVisda [H$dm gd amQ> [_iyZ EH$m ^mfoMs A{_Vm Ag`mMs AdWm H$YsM ZhVs. `m_wi BJOs ^mfoMs ^md [H$`m ^maVmV AJXs ghOM Pmbs. XoemMs ~hw^m[fH$Vm Am[U ^m[fH$ A{_VmMs [dI[S>V, [dH$isV AdWm BJOs`m [eaH$mdmbm gmo`sH$a R>abs. OmJ[VH$sH$aUmV`m BJOs ^mfogmR>s ^maV hm OUy AmYsnmgyZ Am`VmM nm`KS>m AW$Z ~gbobm hmoVm. AmVm`m `m OmJ[VH$sH$aUmMs [H$`m

o$~wdmar 2013

41

I[S>V hmoV Zmhs [H$dm OJ Amnmn`m amQ>m_`o nwhm AmH$gV Zmhs, Vmoda, [H$dm `o`m nZmg-gmR> dfmV OJmMs _w` ^mfm BJOs hmoUma, ho [Z{MV Amho. hs AdWm Hw$Um am`H$`m`m ^mfoZ, g_mOm`m ^mfoV [_gi`mMs Zmhs, Va Jo`m XmoZVsZeo dfmV OJ^a Oo dV:M am` BJOs ^mfoZ [Z_mU Ho$bob Amho, `mMs n[aUVs hUyZ, `mnmar Am[U nmoQ>mWu OJmMs gnH$mMs An[ahm` JaO hUyZ BJOsMm ^md `o`m H$mimda Am[U OJmda amhUma Amho. amR>rM H$m` hmoUma? AemV Amn`m _amR>s ^mfoM H$m` hmoUma, Agm Z Amho. Iyn bmoH$ hUVmV, Am[U Ag dmQ>V H$s, Iyn bmoH$mMm AmdS>Vm gya Amho H$s, _amR>s ^mfm _aUmgZ Amho, Vs _aUma Amho. H$mhs WmoSo> bmoH$ Jw_uZ hUVmV H$s, H$mhs hmoV Zmhs _amR>s ^mfobm, Vs _aUma Zmhs. (eha _amR>s ^mfo`m ~m~VsV [~KS>bs Agbs Var _amR>s IoS>m_`o [OdV Amho Am[U IoS>sM Vs ^mfm OJdVsb Aghs `mVbo H$mhs bmoH$ hUVmV, AmYw[ZH$ gw[dYmMs Os ^mfm AgVo Am[U Os ^mfm nmoQ>mbm XoVo, Vs ^mfm [Q>Hy$Z amhVo, hm [Z`_ bmdbm Va, IoS>m_`o nmohmoMbo`m AmYw[ZH$ gmYZmMs ^mfm BJOs Amho Am[U IoS>s AmVm Am[WH$Q>m Xw~i Pmbs`V Am[U [VWhs BJOs [ejUmMs AmoT> dmT>bs`, hs JmoQ> Vo bmoH$ [dgaVmV.) amR>rMr qMVm Jo`m e^a-gdmeo dfmV OodT>s A[Ib ^maVs` _amR>s gm[h` g_obZ PmbsV, `m gdm`m A`jmMs ^mfU dmM`mda EH$ _wm bjmV `oVmo H$s, m gdmZs _amR>s ^mfo`m A{VdmMs H$miOs Am[U dsMs Anojm `$ Ho$bobs Amho. hUOo _amR>s ^mfm [OdV Ro>d`mMs [MVm hs Jobo eo-gdmeo df gm[h` dVwimV`m bmoH$mH$Sy>Z Ho$bs OmVo`. nU EImXm g_mO hUVmZm, `mVbs Ho$di gm[h`gQ>s hUOo Vmo g_mO ZgVmo. `oH$ g_mOmMs doJdoJis jo, doJdoJio KQ>H$ Am[U [d^mJ AgVmV. _amR>s g_mOmV`m gm[h`gQ>s `m jomZ OodT>m Vi_isZ XsK H$mi _amR>s ^mfo`m [MVoMm _wm bmdyZ Yabm`, VodT>m Vi_isZ _amR>s g_mOmV`m BVa jomZs, KQ>H$mZs Vmo _wm bmdyZ Yabobm [XgV Zmhs. CmoJ, Amamo`, eoVs, [ejU, `m`, amOH$maU, `mnma B`mXs Os _amR>s g_mOmMs BVa gd jo AmhoV, `mMs _amR>s ^mfo~bMs `m`m

_mJ`m H$mimV H$m` ^y[_H$m hmoVs Z AmO H$m` Amho? Va Vs ^y[_H$m gmV`mZ AZmWoMs Am[U XwbjmMsM am[hbobs. ^mfm OJdU, [Q>H$dU, [VMs ds H$aU ho H$mhs \$$ gm[h`gQ>sM H$m_ ZgV, Va EH$mM dois gdM jomZs m [df`mV nyU AmWoZ gh^mJ m`Mm AgVmo. BVa jomMs H$mhs ^mfoMs O~m~Xmar Zmhs. Os ^mfm `dgm` XoBb, ngm XoBb, nmoQ>mbm XoBb, Vs ^mfm dsH$mam`Ms `mMs V`mar. nU gdmZs [_iyZ AmnbsM ^mfm `dgm`mMs, nemMs, nmoQ>mMs H$amds Agm _m gd [_iyZ `Z Zmhs. ^mfo~b gm_y[hH$ A{_Vm Zmhs. {ejU jomMr O~m~Xmar H$moU`mhs mVmV`m ^mfoMs O~m~Xmar [ejU jo gj_nUo KoD$ eH$V. nU `mgmR>s gnyU [ejU`dWm `m mVm`m ^mfoV, hUOoM EH$ ^m[fH$ Agmds bmJVo. Am[U [ejU `dWoVyZ nma hmoUm`m _mZds [nT>mZm OJd`mMs O~m~Xmar `m ^mfoZ `mds bmJVo. _amR>s mVmV`m [ejU `dWoV ^mfoMs {WVs Zoh_s Jm|YimMs

Cn`mo[JVm-[Zn`mo[JVm nm[hbs OmV Zmhs. H$moU`m Var EH$mM ^mfoV _mUyg KS>dbm nm[hOo, `mM OJU KS>db ho Zg[JH$ Am[U `dhmar g` nm[hb OmV Zmhs. EH$mM dois AZoH$ ^mfm [eH$`mZ ~m[H$ VmU dmT>Vmo Am[U ~wsMm doi dm`m OmVmo hohs nm[hb OmV Zmhs. [ejU `dWoV`m `m ^m[fH$ [IMS>sZ AmO Aes AdWm Ho$bs Amho H$s, _amR>s mVmV`m [ejU `dWo`m ZmXs bmJUm`m _mUgmbm H$moUVshs EH$ ^mfm n[anyU `oV Zmhs. `mbm dV:Ms _amR>s ^mfmhs n[anyU `oV Zmhs. [ejUmV ^mfm AgyZhs ^m[fH$ AS>mUs [H$dm AYdQ> _mUg KS>dU hoM AmOda`m _amR>s [ejU `dWoZ Ho$bob H$m_ Amho. AmO _amR>s mVmVbs [ejU `dWm _mUgmZm H$moU`mhs EH$m ^mfoM n[anyU kmZ Xo`m`m ~mOyZ Aj_ Amho. gmam`mMr O~m~Xmar ^mfo`m g_sV gma_m`_mMshs _hdmMs ^y[_H$m AgVo. nU Amnbs Vs ^y[_H$m AgVo, `mM ^mZ AmO`m _amR>s

am[hbs. EH$Q>m _amR>s ^mfo`m [Odmda _mUg OJVsb Aes AdWm _amR>s mVmV H$YsM ZhVs. _mUgmZm _amR>s ^mfoVyZ nmoQ>mbm [_iob `mMs n[anyU h_s Xo`mMm H$mi H$YsM ZhVm. Oo bmoH$ [ejU `dWoV `oV ZmhsV, AS>mUs hUdbo OmVmV, [Zaja AgVmV, `mM bmoH$mH$S> nanaoZ MmbV Ambobs _amR>s ^mfm [Q>Hy$Z amhVo. Oo bmoH$ [ejU [H$`oV [eaVmV, `mMm _m ^mfoMm AdmT>` Jm|Yi CS>Vmo. `m`mda bhmZ d`mV EH$mM dois _amR>s, qhXs, gH$V, CXy, BJOs Aem AZoH$ ^mfmMm X~md AmUbm OmVmo. `m ^mfmMs kmZ Am[U nmoQ> `m`m ~mOyZ

gmam`mZm Amho Ag [XgV Zmhs. Z`m H$mim`m ZmdmImbs `mZs g[_l [H$dm [IMS>s ^mfmM YmoaU dsH$mab Amho. (_amR>s gm[h`gQ>shs `mM [IMS>s YmoaUm`m diUmda `oD$ Ro>nbs Amho. Vshs gma_m`_mMM EH$ AJ AgVo.) gma_m`_mMs O~m~Xmar hs g_mOm`m ^m[fH$-~m[H$ ZoVdmMs AgVo, hoM AmOMs gma_m`_ [dgabs AmhoV. `mZs Amnb ZoVd g_mOmH$S> gmondb Amho. Am[U g_mO Va ^m[fH$-~m[H$ gH$_UmV Amho, Jm|Yibobm Amho. Aem Jm|Yibo`m ZoVdm`m gmdbsV gma_m`_mMmhs

42

o$~wdmar 2013

^m[fH$-~m[H$ Jm|Yi Mmby Amho. IaVa gma_m`_- `mV dV_mZn, [MdmUs, H$bm, gm[h`, [MnQ> Ago gJio KQ>H$ `oVmV- AJXs R>m_ amhyZ ^m[fH$-~m[H$ nmVisda g_mOmMs KS>U H$$ eH$VmV. g_mO `m`mH$Sy>Z AmXe KoVmo. nU VsM Oohm g_mOmbm hd VoM Amhs XoUma, VgM dmJUma Aes [_Ys, `mdgm[`H$ ^y[_H$m KoVmV, Vohm gm_m[OH$ [dH$mgmMm _mJM IwQ>Vmo. BVa gdM ~m~VsV AmO Vo Ia Amho, nU ^m[fH$ ~m~VsVhs OmV Ia Amho. gma_m`_ Oa ^m[fH$ ~m~VsV AmJhs, R>m_ am[hbs Var g_mOmV`m ^mfoMm [dH$mg, ds Am[U [Q>H$mD$nUm [XgyZ `oBb. (g_mOm`m _mJ \$a\$Q>V OmU ho gma_m`_m`m dV:`m [dH$mgmbmhs ZwH$gmZH$maH$ Amho. H$maU gma_m`_mH$S> g_mO _mJXeH$m`m Q>sZ nmhV AgVmo. dV:`m gd H$ma`m Jm|Yimbm gma_m`_ Cma [_idyZ XoBb Ag g_mOmbm dmQ>V. nU gma_m`_ dV:M Jm|Yibobs AmhoV [H$dm Jm|Yi KmbVm`V Ag bjmV Amb Va- Am[U Vo H$Ys Zm H$Ys `oVM- g_mOmMs gma_m`_mdaMs lm, AmWm T>iVo Am[U gma_m`_mZm `dgm`m`m, [ddmgmhVo`m ~m~VsV Vo hm{ZH$maH$M R>aV. EHy$UM gd _amR>s gma_m`_mM ^mfo`m ~m~VsV VoM Pmbob Amho.) gH$UmVbo `Z _J _amR>s ^mfm OJd`mMo, dmT>`mMo, [Q>H$d`mMo `Z Mmby ZmhsV H$m? Va Vo Mmby AmhoV, nU Vo `Zhs gH$_UmV AmhoV, Jm|Yibobo AmhoV AgM g`mM [M Amho. _hmamQ>mV _w`V: gm[h`gQ>sVbm WmoS>m ^mJ (gd Zmhs.), [ejU jomVbm WmoS>m ^mJ (gd Zmhs.), amOH$s` jomVbm WmoS>m ^mJ (gd Zmhs.) _amR>s ^mfo`m A{VdmgmR>s PJS>VmZm [XgVmo Amho. nU `m PJS>mM ~hwVme d$n ho "gaH$mar' Amho, gm_m[OH$ Zmhs. `m jom_Ybs PJS>Umar _S>is ^mfogmR>s gaH$ma H$m` H$aV`, gaH$maZ H$mhsVar H$amd, gaH$mar `Z `m YmaUoda OJUmar Am[U AmYmabobs AmhoV. (_amR>s ^mfm OJdUdmT>dU ho A[V_V: gaH$maM, gaH$mar H$m_ Amho Agm EH$ g_O gdXya nmohmoMbobm g`m`m dmVmdaUmV nQ> [XgVmo; Am[U hsM _amR>s ^mfo`m [dH$mgmbm gdmV _moR>s KmVH$ JmoQ> Amho.) `m g_Om_wi ^mfogmR>s AmnUhs H$mhsVar H$am`M AgV Aes [ZR>m

g_mOmV Am[U g_mOm`m [d[dY jom_`o [Z_mU hm`Ms amhyZ OmVo. (_hmamQ> am` [Z_mU Pm`mZVa Ves ^m[fH$ [ZR>m gd _amR>s g_mOmV [Z_mUM Pmbobs Zmhs. Vem H$maMo `ZM Pmbobo ZmhsV. am`mVbs BVa gd jo Va `m~m~VsV ^m[fH$ R>m_ ZhVsM, nU am`H$ma^mamM Oo jo Amho, Vohs Zoh_s _amR>s-[hXs-BJOs `m VsZ ^mfm_`o [I[S>V am[hb Am[U `mVhs BJOs `m ^mfobm OmV [VR>m [Xbs Jobs, db` [Xb Job Am[U am`H$`mH$S> ~KyZ OJm`Ms gd` Agbobm g_mO _amR>s H$s BJOs `m V`mV_`mV H$m`_ AS>Hy$Z am[hbm Am[U `mMs ^m[fH$ [ZR>m O_mbm `m`Ms amhyZ Jobs.) am`mVbs Os Os jo _amR>sMm dmna H$aVmV, _amR>sgmR>s am~VmV, Vs Vs jo ho AmnU gaH$magmR>s H$aVmo` AgM g_OyZ dmJVmV. `m``dWm Agob, gmdO[ZH$ `dWoMs H$m`mb` AgVsb, gaH$mar AZwXmZmda Adb~yZ Agbobs ^m[fH$ _S>i, [Z`VH$m[bH$ AgVsb, _amR>s [eH$dUm`m [ejU gWm AgVsb, `m gdmMm ^md, AmnU ho gaH$mar H$m_ hUyZ H$aVmo` AgmM AgVmo. ho H$m_ Amn`m dV:gmR>s Amho, Amn`m g_mOmgmR>s Amho, Aem AmWoMm gd A^md Amho. WmoS>`mV

gaH$mada CnH$ma hUyZ _amR>s ^mfoM H$m_ Ag g`mM d$n Amho Am[U ho gm_m[OH$ H$m_ Amho, `m Om[UdoMm XwH$mi ho g`mM g` Amho. gd g_mOmbm _amR>s ^mfo`m H$doV KoBb, Ag EH$hs gm_m[OH$ H$m_ Hw$R>hs Mmby Zmhs. gaH$ma[edm` _amR>s ^mfoM H$m_ AmOH$mb hmoVM Zmhs, ho [dXmaH$ Amho. `mZm BJOs `oV Zmhs, `m`m_wi g`m _amR>s ^mfm [OdV Amho. Oohm gmjmV BJO BW hmoVo, Vohm _amR>s H$bm, gm[h`, gH$VsV`m BJOs ^mfo`m [_gisM _mU A`n hmoV, nU Vo BWyZ Jobo Am[U `mZVa BJOs ^mfo`m AmH$fUmbm _amR>s mVmV (Am[U Am`m XoemVM.) D$V Ambm. dmV` [_im`mZVa gJ`m Xoembm Am[U _hmamQ>mbmhs Amnmn`m ^mfm gj_, ~iH$Q> H$a`mMs gYs Ambs hmoVs, nU `mgmR>sMo gd `Z MmH$Q>sV AS>Hy$Z am[hbo, "gm_m[OH$' Pmbo ZmhsV. Am[U AmVm Va BJOs ^mfo`m OmJ[VH$sH$aUmMm H$mi Amho. `m_wi _amR>s _mUgm`m BJOs ^mfo`m AmH$fUmbm Pimis Ambobs Amho. hs Pimis `o`m H$mimV H$_s hmoBb Ag [M Zmhs, Va Vs dmT>VM OmBb. H$mhs H$mimZVa BJOs ^mfmM _amR>s g_mOm`m H|$WmZs Agob ho A[Ve` nQ> Amho. `m _amR>s ^m[fH$mZm BJOsMm ggJ hmoVmo, Vo bmoH$ OodTo> O_Vsb VodTo> BJOs eX _amR>sV no$Z dmnam`bm gwdmV H$aVmV. AmM` hUOo `mbm EH$hs _amR>s _mUyg Am[U EH$hs _amR>s jo AndmX amhV Zmhs, Am[U AmnU H$mhs MwH$sM H$aVmo` Aghs g~[YVmZm dmQ>V Zmhs. Amn`mbm AI[bV _amR>s Amb nm[hOo, ^ogi Z H$aVm Amnbs ^mfm dmnaVm Ambs nm[hOo, `mMs AmM Hw$UmH$S> am[hbs Zmhs. emim_`o _amR>s eXmMo AW gmJ`mgmR>s BJOs n`m`s eX gm[JVbo OmVmV. _amR>s ^mfoV [b[hUmao gamg BJOs eX [b[hVmV, N>mnVmV, EdT>M Zmhs, Va amo_Z [bnsV _amR>s [bImUmV BJOs eX dmnaVmV. eoVs, Amamo`, CmoJ `m Am[U BVa jom_`o Va BJOs [eabM Amho. _amR>s ^mfoM gmoS>`mg ~mH$sM gd C [ejU _amR>s g_mOmgmR>s \$$ BJOsVyZ CnbY Amho. g_mOm`m `oH$ AJmn`V Am[U VimJmimn`V gd ~mOyZs BJOs eX, gd _m`_mVyZ BJOs eX `oD$Z nmohmoM`mMs `dWm Amho. [nT>s Xa [nT>s EHo$H$ H$aV BJOs eX (nmZ 51 da)

o$~wdmar 2013

43

gnZ H$moedmL>_`
e qH$dm H$mof hUOo I{OZm. VwV coIm`m gX^mV H$moe `mMm gmYm gai AW kmZmMm I{OZm Agm Amho. cjUoZo hm eX kmZgJh `m AWmZo `moOcm OmVmo. _m{hVr dm kmZ Xo`m`m CoemZo hoVwV: Ho$cocr aMZm hr gH$nZm H$moe `m gko_mJo Amho. g_mOm`m ^m{fH$ d OrdZ`dhmam`m doJdoJ`m AJmg~YrMo kmZ gdmZm CncY H$$Z Xo`m`m hoVyZo H$moemMr aMZm Ho$cr OmVo. OZgm_m`mZm g_Ooc Aem H$mao ^mfoVrc eXgJh d kmZgJh gH${cV H$$Z H$moe {Z_mU Ho$co OmVmV. ^mfoMm d kmZmMm {dH$mg OgOgm KS>Vmo VgVgm H$moe{Z{_VrMm `Z dmT>rg cmJVmo Ago H$moedmL>_`m`m B{Vhmgmd$Z AmT>iVo.

H$mo

^maVr` H$moedmL>_`mMm B{Vhmg doXmBVH$m mMrZ Amho. doXmV`m eXmMm gJh H$aUmam H$`nH$V "{ZKQy>' ZmdmMm H$moe gw{g Amho. {ZKQy>ZVaMm Ow`mVcm OwZm H$moe hUOo "A_aH$moe'. _amR>rVrc H$moemMr nanam Ama^r gH$V_Yrc H$moemZm AZwg$Z Pmcr. AmO H$moemMo OodT>o hUyZ H$ma AmhoV `mnH$s ~hVoH$ gd H$ma _amR>rV AmhoV. doJdoJ`m ^maVr` ^mfmV

{dcmg Imoco
Pmcocr H$moeaMZm nmhmVm _amR>rV H$moedmL>_`mZo _macocr _Oc IamoIar A{^_mZmnX hUVm `oBc. _amR>rVrc EH$Xa H$moemMr g`m AmR>eo Vo gmS>oAmR>eo

g_mOm`m ^m{fH$ d OrdZ`dhmam`m doJdoJ`m AJmg~YrMo kmZ gdmZm CncY H$$Z Xo`m`m hoVyZo H$moemMr aMZm Ho$cr OmVo. OZgm_m`mZm g_Ooc Aem H$mao ^mfoVrc eXgJh d kmZgJh gH${cV H$$Z H$moe {Z_mU Ho$co OmVmV. ^mfoMm d kmZmMm {dH$mg OgOgm KS>Vmo VgVgm H$moe{Z{_VrMm `Z dmT>rg cmJVmo Ago H$moedmL>_`m`m B{Vhmgmd$Z AmT>iVo. ^maVr` H$moedmL>_`mMm B{Vhmg doXmBVH$m mMrZ Amho.

Amho. kmZH$moe/{dH$moe, eXH$moe, M[aH$moe, {VWrH$moe, g`mgHo$V H$moe, gw{dMma H$moe, JWgyMr, Or Am{U eH$mdcr, {ZXoe nwVHo$, {ZX}{eH$m, dm{fHo$ d nMmJo, ^mJmo{cH$ H$moe-Jm_gyMr, JPo{Q>`g Ago H$moemMo {Za{Zamio H$ma _amR>rV AmT>iVmV. _amR>rVrc {Zdi eXH$moemMr g`m 390 `m KamV OmBc. `mV doJdoJio CnH$ma gm_mdco AmhoV. _amR>rVrc JWgyMtMr g`mhr ~arM _moR>r Amho. `mVhr Xhm H$ma AmhoV. `m gdmMm {ZX}e VwV coI_`mXoV H$aUo AJXr Ae` Amho. dmZJrXmIc doMH$ H$moemMm CoI VodT>m `oWo Ho$cm Amho. n{hbm H$moe _amR>r-_amR>r Agm n{hcm H$moe 1831 _`o {g Pmcm. OJZmWemr H$_dV Am{U A` H$moeH$mamZr "_hmam> ^mfoMm H$moe' ^mJ 1 d 2 Aem d$nmV hm V`ma Ho$cm. `m H$moemg {c{hco`m mVm{dH$mV H$moemMr Amd`H$Vm, H$moemMo d$n `mg~Yr _hdnyU {ddoMZ Ho$co Amho. `m H$moemMr aMZm H$aVmZm nwUo ho _mU^mfoMo H|$ _mZco Amho. `mIoarO nT>anya`m AmgnmgMm ^mJ, H$moH$U, amOmnya d gmdVdmS>r `m ^mJmVrc eX `mV AmhoV. Ow`m _amR>r H$m`mVrc Xw~m}Y eXmMm CcJS>m `m H$moemV Ho$cocm AmT>iVmo. ^maVmV {~{Q>emMr gmm Am`mZVa H$moe{Z{_Vrcm {deof MmcZm {_imcr. H$maU {~{Q>emZm Amncr gmm {Q>H${d`m`m X>rZo `oWrc ^mfm d ^yXoe `mMo A{YH$m{YH$ kmZ H$$Z KoUo A`md`H$ dmQ>V hmoVo. `m X>rZo `mZr H$moedmL>_`{Z{_Vrcm CmoOZ d mYm` {Xco. `mM~amo~a `mZr am>r` nmVirdarc Am{U mV d {Ohm nmVirdarc Or JPo{Q>`g V`ma H$$Z KoVcr `mmam `oWrc ^yXoemMr gH$Vr, cmoH$OrdZ B`mXrg~YrMr ^anya _m{hVr CncY Pmcr. _modW, H$S>r `mZr BJOr_amR>r d _amR>r-BJOr H$moe V`ma Ho$co. n{hbm eXH$moe g`oZo gdm{YH$, CnH$mamV gdm{YH$ Am{U gdm`m n[aM`mMm H$moeH$ma hUOo eXH$moe hm hmo`. _amR>rVrc n{hcm eXH$moe

44

o$~wdmar 2013

hUOo {d`_ H$ao `mZr 1810 _`o H$m{eV Ho$cocm "_amR>r-BJOr H$moe' (A {S>eZar Am\$ Xr _hmQ>m cdoO). hm ~Jmc_`o goam_nya `oWrc {Vr {_eZar _S>imH$[aVm {d`_ H$ao `mZo N>mnyZ {g Ho$cm. hm H$moe n{S>V {dmZmW (dOZmW e_m) `m`m _XVrZo V`ma Ho$`mMo VmdZoV hQ>co Amho. dOZmW e_m hm H$cH$`m`m \$moQ> {d`_ H$mcoO_Yrc _amR>rMm _wI n{S>V hmoVm. `m H$moemMr n>g`m 652 AgyZ `mV _amR>r eX _moS>r {cnrV d AW B{ce ^mfoV {Xcm Amho. Xwgam H$moe co. H$. hmg Ho$ZoS>r `m cH$amVrc gmho~mZo _w~B `oWo B. g. 1824 _`o {g Ho$cm. `m H$moemMo XmoZ ^mJ AgyZ n{h`m ^mJmV _amR>r eXmZm Bpce {VeX XoD$Z Xwg`m ^mJmV Bpce eXmMo _amR>r AW {Xcoco AmhoV. H$moemVrc eXg`m AmR> hOman`V Amho. ""EH$m "BQ>o{cOQ>' ~mUmZo A_aH$moe _amR>rV CV$Z {Xcm d d {_Va ApH$Z `m {dmZmZo V`ma H$a{dcoco XmoZ BJOr-_amR>r hV{c{IV H$moe d H$Q>Z H$mH$ `mOdirc qhXwWmZr _amR>r hV{c{IV H$moe `mg {_imco. `mMo `mg \$ma gmhm` hmoD$Z `mZo hr JW{gr Ho$cr.'' (_amR>r JmMm BJOr AdVma, {Vr` Amdmr, n. 36) _hmam> ^mfoMm H$moe `mM gw_mamg "~m~o Zo{Q>d E`wHo$eZ gmogm`Q>r'Zo _hmam> ^mfo`m H$moemMr aMZm H$a`mgmR>r ~miemr KJdo, JJmYaemr \$S>Ho$, gImam_ Omoer, XmOremr ewc Am{U naewam_nV JmoS>~moco Ago nmM n{S>V Zo_co. `mZr ~`mM `mgmZo B. g. 1829 _`o "_hmam> ^mfoMm H$moe' {g Ho$cm. hm H$moe A`V {dVV AgyZ `mV _hmam>m`m gd ^mJmV M{cV Agcoco A{YH$m{YH$ eX g_m{d> Ho$co AmhoV. B. g. 1831 _`o OJmWemr H$_dV `m`m gnmXH$dmZo `mcm nwadUrIS> OmoS>`mV Amcm. ho gd n{S>V _mogdW Am{U H$S>r `m`m _mJXeZm_mUo H$m_ H$arV hmoVo Agm CoI _mogdWZo Amn`m _amR>r-BJOr H$moem`m Xwg`m Amdmr`m VmdZoV Ho$cm Amho. `m n{S>Vr H$moem~amo~aM _mogdW-H$S>r

`mMm _amR>r-BJOr eXH$moe B. g. 1831 H$moe{Z{_Vr_mJrc X>r hmoVr. `m H$moemV _`oM ~m~o E`wHo$eZ gmogm`Q>r (_w~B Aa~r, \$meu, VwH$s eXmMo AW {Xcoco {ejm _S>ir) `m _m\$V H$m{eV Pmcm. `m AmhoV. `m H$moemg CnmoXKmV OmoS>cocm AgyZ doir `m H$moemVrc eXmMr g`m Mmirg `mV `wn{m{dMma, \$meuVyZ _amR>rV `mH$aU{deof, eX{gr hOmamn`V hmoVr. H$moemMr Xwgar Amdmr Amcoco 1857 _`o Oohm {g Pmcr Vohm B`mXt{df`rMo {ddoMZ AmT>iVo. ^mfm n{S>V qH$dm gmoim ^mfmMm H$moe Vr_Yrc eXg`m gmR> hOmamn`V Jocr. 1927 gmcr X. Jmo. _amR>r-BJOr h g H$mo e gS>oH$a `mZr "^mfm n{S>V H$moem~amo~aM BJOrB. g. 1863 gmcr qH$dm gmoim ^mfmMm H$moe' _amR>r H$moe H$a`mMr hm ~h^m{fH$ H$moe H$m{eV H$nZm _mogdW`m aKwZmW ^mH$a JmoS>~moco `m Z r "h g H$mo e ' ZmdmMm Ho$cm. `mV ZX^mfm, _ZmV hmoVr. `mMm Vmo {_Vmjar, H$andr gH$n `mMm ghH$mar EH$ EH$^m{fH$ H$moe V`ma Ho $ cm. hm ~mo c rMm qH$dm `mMmhr AV^md Pmcm Amho. H$S>r `mZo 1840 Vo `. Z. Ho$iH$amMm 1847 `m H$mimV nwam `dhmamVrc ^mfoMm H$moe "Eo{Vhm{gH$ eXH$moe' Ho$cm. `mZo ZhVm, Va _hmam>^mfoVrc (1962) _amR>rVrc OmgZMm BJOr H${dVm_Yrc {ZdS>H$ d Eo{Vhm{gH$ J-n H$moe AmYmamcm KoD$Z H$R>rU eXmMm H$moe hmoVm. dmL>_`m`m AmH$cZmgmR>r BJOr eXmMo `mMr N>nmB {eimN>mnmMr A`V Cn`w$ Amho. _hmam> {Za{Zamio AW hmoVr. am` gm{h` Am{U gH$Vr BJOr_`o W_ XoD$Z `m `m AWmg g_mZmWH$ _amR>r eX ZVa _S>imZo eXH$moem`m gX^mV Ho$coco H$m` {Xco. H$S>rMm hm H$moe hr _amR>r CoIZr` Amho. JwOamVr-_amR>r (^mD$ H$moedmL>_`m`m AZwfJmZo Pmcocr Y_m{YH$mar), CXy-_amR>r (lrnmX Omoer, EZ. Eg. JmoaoH$a), H$ZS>-_amR>r (nwS>{cH$Or dmJVmh H$m_{Jar _mZcr OmVo. _amR>r ^mfoV dmV`nyd H$mimV 134 Va H$mVJS>o), V_ri-_amR>r (a_m~mB Omoer, nw. dmV`moma H$mimV 250 nojm A{YH$ {X. Omoer), _amR>r-H$ZS> (JwZmW eXH$moe {Z_mU Pmco. `mMr {d^mJUr {XdoH$a), _amR>r-qgYr (cN>_Z hXdmUr), EH$^m{fH$, {^m{fH$ Am{U ~h^m{fH$ Aer _amR>r-JwOamVr (^mD$ Y_m{YH$mar), nmcrH$aVm `oVo. "{^m{fH$ eXH$moem'V _amR>r- _amR>r (~m~m ^maVr) `mgmaIo H$moe _S>imZo BJOr, _amR>r-H$ZS>, _amR>r-JwOamVr, H$m{eV Ho$co AmhoV. _amR>r eXaZmH$a _amR>r-O_Z, _amR>r-V_ri, _amR>rdmgwXod JmoqdX AmnQ>o `mZr 1922 _`o nmoVwJrO, _amR>r-qgYr, _amR>r-gH$V, _amR>r-qhXr, _amR>r-qhXwWmZr Aer {d{dYVm "_amR>r eXaZmH$a' hm _amR>r eXmMm AmT>iVo. "{^m{fH$ eXH$moem'Mm A` ^mfm _amR>rV AW XoUmam H$moe aMcm. `m H$moem`m d _amR>r Agm CnH$ma Ho$cm OmVmo. `mV VmdZoV `mZr Vnydu Pmco`m AR>am BJOr-_amR>r, CXy-_amR>r, H$ZS>-_amR>r, eXH$moemMr _m{hVr {Xcr Amho. 1930 _`o JwOamVr-_amR>r, OnmZr-_amR>r, V_ri- {dmYa dm_Z {^S>o `mZr _amR>r ^mfoMm _amR>r, VocwJy-_amR>r, \$maer-_amR>r, "gadVr H$moe' V`ma Ho$cm. _amR>rVrc ~Jmcr-_amR>r, qgYr-_amR>r, gH$V-_amR>r, gdmV Adc XOmMm H$moe hUOo `. am. qhXr-_amR>r, qhXwWmZr-_amR>r Ago Voam H$ma XmVo, qM. J. H$d}, Am~m MmXmoaH$a, qM. e. nmhmd`mg {_iVmV. _mYdamd nQ>dYZ `mZr XmVma `m gnmXH$_S>imZo V`ma Ho$cocm _amR>r 1925 _`o aMcocm "\$meu-_amR>r H$moe' ^mfoMm gdg_mdoeH$ H$moe. `mMo Zmd "hmam> gw{g Amho. Eo{Vhm{gH$ H$mJXnmMo dmMZ eXH$moe'. `mMm n{hcm {d^mJ 1932 _`o H$a`mgmR>r Cn`w$ R>amdm Aer `m Va gmVdm {d^mJ 1938 _`o {g Pmcm.

_amR>rVrc EH$Xa H$moemMr g`m AmR>eo Vo gmS>oAmR>eo Va eXH$moemMr g`m 390 `m Amgnmg Amho.
o$~wdmar 2013

45

gmV IS>m`m `m H$moemV EH$ cmImh Z A{YH$ eXmMo Vnercdma AW {ddoMZmgh {Xco AmhoV. 1950 _`o `m H$moemMm nwadUr {d^mJ {g Pmcm. . Z. Omoer `mMm "AmXe _amR>r eXH$moe' B. g. 1970 _`o H$m{eV Pmcm. AmH$mamZo _moR>m AgUm`m `m H$moemV "AmXe' `m {deofUmg Z emo^Um`m H$mhr wQ>r AmT>iVmV. A{^Zd _amR>r-_amR>r eXH$moe 1983 Vo 1985 `m H$mcmV X. h. ApZhmor `mMm nMIS>m_H$ "A{^Zd _amR>r-_amR>r eXH$moe' V`ma Pmcm. 2850 n>m`m `m H$moem`m n{h`m ^mJmV AmXe _amR>r eXH$moemg~YrMr ^y{_H$m, _amR>r eXmMo _m{UV Cma, _amR>r`m _wI ~mocr d `mMr Cmad{eQ>o B`mXrg~YrMo {Z~Y AmhoV. e. Jmo. Vwinwio d AZ \o$S>hmg `mZr aMcocm "{S>eZar Am\$ AmoS> _amR>r' (1999) hm eXH$moe AmR>`m eVH$mnmgyZ MmXm`m eVH$mn`V`m _amR>r eXmMm H$moe Amho. `m eXH$moemV _amR>r d B{ce ^mfmV eXmW {Xco AmhoV. _mo. {d. ^mQ>dS>oH$a{Z{_V "amOhg `mdhm[aH$ _amR>r eXmW H$moe' (2007) hr _amR>rVrc eXH$moeg^mamV nS>cocr _hdmMr ^a hUVm `oBc. Jo`m eVH$mV _amR>r ^mfH$m`m OrdZgaUrV Oo AZoH$ ~Xc Pmco, XZ{XZ `dhmamMr gnH$^mfm hUyZ _amR>rV `m ZdZ`m eXmMr {Z{_Vr Pmcr/^a nS>cr Vr {dMmamV KoD$Z hm H$moe V`ma Ho$cm Amho. kmZH$moe lrYa `H$Q>oe Ho$VH$a `mZr {g Ho$cocm "kmZH$moe' hr _amR>r H$moedmL>_`mVrc A`V _hdmMr, Eo{Vhm{gH$ d$nmMr H$m_{Jar hUVm `oBc. kmZH$moe `mMm AW gd {dmemImVrc _m{hVrMm nVeranUmZo Ho$cocm gJh. gdgJmhH$d hm `mMm _w` {deof. "_hmam>r` kmZH$moe' (1920-29) hm lr. `. Ho$VH$a `mMm _amR>rVrc n{hcm kmZH$moe. Ho$VH$am`m AmYr am_mOr

Ho$edamd gm~mao `mMm "{dmH$nV$' (1870) Am{U OZmXZ har AmR>`o `mMm "{dm_mcm' (1878) ho H$moe aM`mMr gwdmV Pmcr hmoVr. ho Xmohr H$moe _m{gH$$nmV H$m{eV hmoV hmoVo. VWm{n, ho H$moe AnyUM am{hco. `m_wio Am kmZH$moeH$ma R>a`mMm _mZ Ho$VH$amH$S>o OmVmo. A_amdVr`m ZJa dmMZmc`mV "Egm`cmonr{S>`m {~Q>m{ZH$m' nmhVmZm _hmam>r` kmZH$moe H$a`mMr H$nZm Ho$VH$amZm gwMcr. H$moeaMZoV H$moU`mhr H$maMr VS>OmoS> Z H$aVm Ho$VH$amZr A{Ve` H$>nydH$ AmXe Agm kmZH$moe {Z_mU Ho$cm. `m_wio H$moe`wJm`m dVH$mMm _mZ `mZm {Xcm OmVmo. Ho$VH$amMm kmZH$moe _w`do A`mgH$, gemoYH$, `mgJr dmMH$ `mZm {deof Cn`moJr R>acm. gdgm_m`m`m AmH$cZH$joV `oUmao {df` KoD$Z gmo`m ^mfoV kmZH$moe aM`mMr H$nZm `m_wioM nwT>o Amcr Am{U `. am. XmVo d qM. J. H$d} `mZr ghm ^mJmV (1949 Vo 1951 `m H$mimV) "gwc^ {dH$moem'Mr {Z{_Vr Ho$cr. JUoe aJmo {^S>o `mZr 1935 Vo 1940 `m H$mcmdYrV "`mdhm[aH$ kmZH$moem'Mr nMIS>m_H$ aMZm Ho$cr. _amR>rVrc kmZH$moemMr g`m AmVm e^a`m KamV Jocr Amho. VrV _wcmMo kmZH$moe, gdgJmhH$ H$moe, {df`kmZH$moe Aer ^anya {d{dYVm Amho. ^maVr` gH${VH$moe {dH$mo e mBVH$sM _amR>rVrc _hdmMr H$moe{Z{_Vr hUyZ _hmXodemr Omoer `mZr 1962 Vo 1979 `m H$mimV {g Ho$cocm Xhm IS>mMm "^maVr` gH${VH$moe' A`V CoIZr` Amho. gH$VrMo {d{dY KQ>H$ cjmV KoD$Z Ho$co`m gw_mao ~mam hOma Zm|Xr `m H$moemV AmhoV. `m H$moem_mUoM XmoZ hOma n>mMm,

Mma IS>mVrc _wcmMm gH${VH$moehr _hmXodemtZr {Z_mU Ho$cm. gH${VH$moemIoarO A` {df`mMo dV H$moehr _amR>rV AZoH$ AmhoV. XodrXmg Xmm` dmS>oH$a `mMm {IS>m_H$ "_amR>r VdkmZ _hmH$moe', h. lr. eoUmocrH$a `mMm "_amR>r gV-VdkmZ gkm H$moe' (199394) `m Xmohm|_YyZ VdkmZg~ ~h{dY Vnerc gwn>nUo Amcm Amho. g. _m. JJ} `mZr gnm{XV Ho$co`m "^maVr` g_mO{dkmZ H$moem'`m ghm IS>mV g_mOem, AWem, am`em ho VrZ {df` d `m {df`mg nyaH$ Aem Zm|Xr Am`m AmhoV. amO| hmoam d gwhmg nierH$a `mZr {Z{_cocm "am`em H$moe' am`emmVrc gkm-gH$nZmMm, _V_VmVamMm d am`emm`m JV A`mgmMm n[aM` H$$Z XoVmo. ^maVmVrc amOH$s` {dMma, `m_mJrc VdkmZ d _y`o, emgZgWm, AmVaam>r` g~Y `mMm CcJS>m H$a`mMmhr `Z `m H$moemVyZ Pmcm Amho. eH$a A`H$a `mMm nMIS>m_H$ "^{$H$moe', A_a| JmS>Jria{MV "lram_H$moe', "hZw_mZ H$moe', "JUoe H$moe', "am_m`U WcXeZ H$moe', . Z. Omoer `mMo "lr Xmmo` kmZH$moe' d "lr {edXdV H$moe', {earf Am_mam_ H$dS>o{Z{_V "lrZqghH$moe', hmX H$U ^wXogmB `mMm "lr Xodr H$moe' `mgmaIo XodXoodVm{df`H$ H$moehr `m gX^mV gmJ`mOmoJo AmhoV. ej{UH$ gX^H$moe e. ^m. Jm|YioH$a `mMm "ej{UH$ gX^H$moe' (1959), c. ~. hamocrH$a d nm. ~. nmZgo `mMm "ej{UH$ gX^H$moe' (1970), e. H$. gmohmoZr `mMm "ej{UH$ Q>rnmH$moe' (1992) ho {ejUemm`m AZwfJmZo {Z_mU Pmcoco H$moe Z_yX H$amd`mg hdoV. Xw. H$m. gV `mZr "emoY{dkmZH$moe : gmYZ d gX^JW' (1985) `mMr aMZm H$$Z gemoYZm`m {dm`mg gemoYZnVr`m _ycVdmMm

gm{h` Am{U gH$Vr _S>i gH$pnV "_amR>r eXH$moemMr' Zm. Jmo. H$mcocH$a, {d. am. H$aXrH$a, `. e. H$m{ZQ>H$a Aem H$mao hVmV[aV hmoV Amcocr d XrK H$mi a|Jmicocr `moOZm AIoarg _S>imMo {d_mZ A`j _Yy _Joe H${UH$ `mZr _mJu cmdcr Amho. `mZr ho H$m_ am_Xmg S>mJo `m`m ghH$m`mZo nwao H$aV AmUco Amho. am_Xmg S>mJo `mZr "_amR>r eXH$moem'Mo Mma IS> (20092011) {g Ho$co AmhoV Am{U Cd[aV IS> H$meZm`m _mJmda AmhoV.

46

o$~wdmar 2013

_hmam> emgZmZo c_Uemr Omoer `m`m ZoVdmImcr _amR>r {dH$moemMr {Z{_Vr gw$ Ho$cr. 1976 _`o {dH$moemMm n{hcm IS> {g Pmcm. VXZVa emrOt`m gnmXH$dmImcr nYam IS>mMr {Z{_Vr Pmcr. _o. nw. aoJo `mZr gmoim`m IS>mMr {Z{_Vr Ho$cr. H$mcmVamZo {dH$moem`m gnmXH$ Pmco`m {dO`m dmS> `mZr {dH$moemMo gVam, AR>am d EH$moUrg Ago VrZ IS> H$m{eV Ho$co Am{U {dH$moem`m H$meZmMr JVr dmT>cr. EH$Xa drg IS>mMr `moOZm AgUm`m {dH$moemMo EH$moUrg IS> AmVm V`ma Pmco AmhoV. gw_mao df^amV {dgmdm IS>hr nyU hmoD$Z {dH$moemMr _yi `moOZm _mJu cmJoc. {dH$moem`m AZwfJmZoM {dH$moe {Z{_Vr _S>imZo "Hw$_ma {dH$moem'Mrhr `moOZm AmIcr hmoVr. Hw$_ma {dH$moemMm "n[aM` IS>' _o. nw. aoJo `mZr V`ma Ho$cm. Hw$_ma H$moemVJV "Ordg>r Am{U n`mdaU' `m {df`mg dm{hco`m IS>mMm n{hcm ^mJ B. g. 2012 _`o {g Pmcm Amho. `m`m gnmXH$hr {dO`m dmS> AmhoV. {dH$moe Ho$di JW$nmVM amh Z`o, dV_mZ`wJmMr JaO hUyZ Vmo _hmOmcH$mdahr Omdm, `m>rZo dmS> `mZr A`V `ZnydH$ {dH$moemMo gmoim IS> gd OJmg CncY H$$Z {Xco AmhoV. nmm` H$moemVrc kmZ `m_mUo OJm`m H$mZmH$mon`mV CncY hmoD$ eH$Vo VgmM hm CnH$_ Amho. n[aM` H$$Z {Xcm Amho. X. ~m. XoenmS>o `mMm H$m`mMm H$moe (1984) Am{U dgV qeXo `mMm "H$m`XmH$moe' (1997) ho H$moe dmMH$mg H$m`mMr AmoiI H$$Z XoUmao AmhoV. O`V ZmairH$a d lram_ JrV `mMm "g{>{dkmZJmWm' (1994), c. dm. JwOa `mMm "J{UV kmZH$moe' (1995), _mohZ AmnQ>oH$V "eVH$ emoYmMo', _mVr {MV_nr `mMm "njrH$moe', gwaoeM dmaKS>o `mMm "^maVr` d` mUrH$moe' B`mXr H$moem_wio _amR>rVrc H$moedmL>_`mMo d{d` AYmoao{IV hmoVo. H$moe{Z{_Vr`m ~m~VrV H$sS>m d H$cm hr Xmohr joohr Cno{jV am{hcocr ZmhrV. 1936 Vo 1949 `m H$mcmdYrV Xmmo` qMVm_U _wOw_Xma `mZr Xhm IS>mV nmM hOma n>mMm H$sS>mH$moe aMcm. AcrH$S>rc H$mimV gwaoeM ZmS>H$Uu `mZr "H$sS>m kmZH$moem'Mr aMZm (1981) Ho$cr. `mMr Xwgar gwYm[aV Amdmr 1999 _`o {g Pmcr. adt nmQ>H$a `mZr 1996 _`o "{H$Ho$Q>Mm kmZH$moe' V`ma Ho$cm. `mMm AW EHo$H$m Ioimg dm{hco`m H$moemMr {Z{_Vrhr AmVm hmoD$ cmJcr Amho. ZmQ>H$moe B. g. 2000 _`o {d. ^m. XoenmS>o `mZr _amR>rVrc ZmQ>dmL>_`mcm dm{hcocm "ZmQ>H$moe' {g Ho$cm. AmH$mamZo MS> Agco`m `m H$moemV _amR>r ZmQ>H$, aJ^y_r, ZQ>, {XXeH$, ZmQ>H$_S>`m, doJdoJio aJH$_u, ZmQ>`moJ B`mXt{df`rMr _m{hVr {Xcocr Amho. H$moemV amh Z Joco`m AZoH$ MwH$mMr XwVr H$$Z gwYm[aV d$nmV `m H$moemMr Zdr Amdmr ZOrH$`m ^{d`mV gd ZmQ>a{gH$m`m hmVr nS>Uma Amho. dgV _mYd Im{S>cH$a `mMm "lr JYd doX - Jm`Z Z`emmMm kmZH$moe' (1982), g`dmZ VoQ>m~o `mZr aMcoco "{gZoZmQ> gX^H$moe' (1988), aJ^y_r {MnQ>H$moe (1994) Ago VrZhr H$moe g~{YV jom{df`rMm Vnerc nwa{dUmao AmhoV. ^maVdfu` Eo{Vhm{gH$ H$moe ^maVr` ^mfmV n{h`mXm M[aH$moe{Z{_Vr H$a`mMm _mZ _amR>r ^mfoZo {_i{dcm Amho. `m >rZo aKwZmW ^mH$a JmoS>~moco `mZr 1876 _`o aMcocm "^maVdfu` Eo{Vhm{gH$ H$moe' _hdmMm Amho. J. Xo. ImZmocH$aa{MV "AdmMrZ _amR>r dmL>_` godH$' (^mJ 1 Vo 7) Am{U {goaemr {Mmd `mMm "^maVdfu` mMrZ, _``wJrZ d AdmMrZ M[aH$moe' IS> 1, 2 d 3 `m H$moemMm `oWo JmadnydH$ CoI H$amd`mg hdm. AcrH$S>rc H$mimV lram_ nmSw>aJ H$m_V `mZr "{dM[aH$moem'Mr ghm IS>mV aMZm Ho$cr Amho. A` H$moU`mhr ^maVr` ^mfmV Amn {dM[aH$moe {Z_mU Pmcocm Zmhr. `m H$moemV _mZdr gH$Vr`m Ama^H$mimnmgyZ {dgm`m eVH$m`m AIoarn`V`m H$mimVrc {d{dY XoemVrc, {d{dY jomVrc nm`m^aUrMo H$m` H$aUm`m Odinmg ~mam hOma `$t`m M[amMr Zm|X Ho$cr Amho. . Z. Omoer `mZr mMrZ H$mimnmgyZ AVami`wJmn`V`m gw_mao 2000 _wI emkmMm, VkmMm, gemoYH$mMm ZoQ>H$m n[aM` H$$Z XoUmam OmJ{VH$ emkH$moe {Z_mU Ho$cm Amho. ~m. X. gmVmoH$aa{MV "Jmo_VH$s` _amR>r gm{h`mMo AmYw{ZH$ {enH$ma' `m H$moemMo XmoZ IS> _m{hVrnyU AmhoV. gwhmg Hw$iH$Uu d {_qcX MnmZoaH$a `mMm "`mZr KS>{dco ghH$' (2009) Am{U AZV Omoer `mMm {IS>m_H$ "_amR>r gmadV' ho H$moehr _wm_ {ZX}e H$a`mOmoJo AmhoV. {ddoH$ gmm{hH$m`m dVrZo "AmYw{ZH$ _hmam>mMr OS>UKS>U : {enH$ma M[aH$moe' Zm_H$ ~mam IS>mMr `moOZm AmIcr Jocr AgyZ `mnH$s B{Vhmg, gm{h`, {dkmZVkmZ- {ejU, `m`nm{cH$m-emgZgajU, H$fr-ghH$ma Ago nmM IS> H$m{eV Pmco AmhoV. gw{dMma H$moe gw{dMma H$moemMr {Z{_Vr hr _amR>rVrc H$moedmL>_`mMo d{eQ> R>amdo Aem d$nmMr Amho. d. {d. Hw$cH$Uu `mZr "nmM hOma AmXe gw{dMma H$moe' (2000) `mMr aMZm Ho$cr Amho. `m AZwfJmZo 1929 _`o Xm_moXa gmdimam_ `Xo `mZr aMcocm "gmW gw^m{fV gJh', c. Jmo. qdPo `mMm "gH$V _amR>r gw^m{fV H$moe', ^mD$ Y_m{YH$mar `mMm "_amR>r ^mfoMr gH$V coUr', eaX JmoJQ>o `mMm "doMH$ {dMma' hm cmoH$moma `$t`m

A. nm. XoenmS>o d ~mi \$m|S>Ho$ `mZr V`ma Ho$cocm "{dkmZ Am{U VkmZ H$moe' gm{h` Am{U gH$Vr _S>imZo H$m{eV Ho$cm Amho.

o$~wdmar 2013

47

AdVaUmMm H$moe, e{eH$cm Jmoao Am{U dmgVr ^monQ>H$a `mMm "H$m`-AdVaU H$moe' Aem nyda{MV H$moemMrhr Zm|X H$amd`mg hdr. h. A. ^mdo `mZr B{ce d _amR>r Aem `oH$s nmMeo gw{dMmamMm EH$ ^mJ `m_mUo Vrg ^mJmV "A ~M Am\$ JwS> WmQ>g' aMcm Amho. B. g. 2011 _`o am. e. ZJaH$a `mZr kmZoa, Zm_Xod, EH$ZmW, VwH$mam_ d am_Xmg `m nmM gVm`m gm{h`mVrc dMZo {ZdSy>Z "gV gw^m{fV H$moe' V`ma Ho$cm Amho. `m H$moemV _amR>r dmL>_`mcm d gH$Vrcm g_ H$aUmar nmM hOma gVdMZo gH${cV Ho$cr AmhoV. eXaZmdcr g_mZmWu, {dmWu d n`m` ({Wgmag) eXH$moemV dmV`nyd H$mimV Pmcocm "eXaZmdcr' (hon Qy> Qw>S>Q>g AS> AmWg) hm nX>ZOr~m~mMm eXH$moe {deof CoIZr` Amho. {eimN>mnmV N>mnco`m `m eXH$moemMo EH${V d$nmV XmoZ ^mJ AmhoV. n{h`m ^mJmV _yi eX 358 d `mMo AW qH$dm {dVmaXeH$ eX 4853 AmhoV. Xwg`m ^mJmV _yi eX 265 d `mMo CneX d ^mfUgXm{`H$ eX 6582 AmhoV. amOo`m {Wgmag`m nVrMr `m H$moemMr _mS>Ur Amho. CXm. "^mS>r' `m eXmImcr 68-69 ^mS>mMr Zmdo {Xcr AmhoV. {dgm`m eVH$m`m AIoarg _mo. {d. ^mQ>dS>oH$a `mMm "_amR>r n`m`r eXmMm H$moe' Am{U {d. e. R>H$ma `mMm "A{^Zd _amR>r_amR>r BJOr eXH$moe : g_nH$ eXmMm H$moe' ho XmoZ H$moe {deof _hdnyU AmhoV. gdercm gm_V `mZr 2007 _`o "eXmZX' `m H$moemMr {Z{_Vr Ho$cr Amho. _yi gmmdrg hOma Bpce eX Am{U `mMo _amR>r d qhXr `m ^mfmVrc `oH$s Vrg

hOmamda {VeX, Agm hm H$moe ^mfmVaH$mamZm Cn`w$ R>aUmam Amho. _amR>r coIZ-H$moe ewcoIZ ho {_eZ _mZUm`m AU \$S>Ho$ `mZr aMcocm "_amR>r coIZ-H$moe' (2001) {deof CoIZr` hUmdm Agm Amho. `m H$moem`m AZoH$ Amd`m {ZKm`m AgyZ `oH$ AmdmrV Amd`H$ R>acoco H$mhr ~Xc \$S>Ho$ `mZr Ho$co AmhoV. `mM nVrMm "_amR>r eXcoIZH$moe' (2007) `mp_Z eoI `mZrhr aMcm Amho. "\w$Sw>H$ dhr' (1842) hm {eimN>mnmV N>mncocm _amR>r hUtMm n{hcm H$moe. B. g. 1858 _`o gXm{ed {dZmW `mZr "XoemVrc {ZdS>H$ hUr' (Mma hOmamda) `m H$moemMr {Z{_Vr Ho$cr. `m H$moemV BJOr dUmZwH$_mZo hUr {X`m AmhoV. {dmYa dm_Z {^S>o `mZr aMcocm "_amR>r ^mfoMo dmMma, hUr B`mXr' (1910) hm H$moe EHo$H$mir A{Ve` cmoH${` hmoVm. dm. Jmo. AmnQ>oa{MV "_amR>r ^mfoMo gXm` d hUr' (1910), `. am. XmVo d qM. J. H$d} `mMm XmoZ {d^mJmVrc "_hmam> dmgXm`H$moe' (1942-47) ho H$moehr gw{g AmhoV. _amR>rV JW d JWH$mamZm dm{hcoco H$moehr AZoH$ {Z_mU Pmco AmhoV. `~H$ Zmam`U Amo {c{IV "JmdJmS>m-' ""_hmam>mV`m JmdR>m`mMr Vnercdma _m{hVr, {dbofU, Jm_g_mOaMZm d gm_m{OH$ Vdo'' {deX H$aUmam H$moe am. {d. _amR>o `mZr n[al_nydH$ {g Ho$cm Amho. lrkmZoar eXmW H$moe {edmOr Zaha ^mdo `mZr V`ma Ho$cocm "lrkmZoar eXmW' H$moe gw{g Amho. `mZrM "lrkmZoar nXH$moe'hr aMcm Amho. "kmZoarMo eX^mS>ma' hm am_M Zmam`U

doqcJH$a `mMm H$moe doJdoJ`m n[a{e>mZr `wV$ Amho. _w. lr. H$mZS>o `mMm "lr_V JWamO Xmg~moY eXmW gX^H$moe' Am{U _w. lr. H$mZS>o d am. e. ZJaH$a `mZr {_iyZ V`ma Ho$cocm "lr VwH$mam_JmWm eXmW gX^H$moe' ho eXH$moe g~{YV A`mgmgmR>r Cn`wV R>aco AmhoV. {d. Zm. JmoR>moH$a `mZr "n{dem eXH$moem'Mr aMZm Ho$cr Amho. X. dm. OmoJ `m`m "doXmV n[a^mfm cKwH$moem'V Cn{ZfXmVrc nm[a^m{fH$ eXmMm g_mdoe Amho. PmS>r~mocr _amR>r eXH$moe _amR>rV ~mocr^mfmMo H$mhr H$moe aMco Joco AmhoV. Eg. ~r. nQ>dYZ Am{U E_. ~r. nQ>dYZ `mZr {_iyZ AZwH$_o Jm|S>r Am{U _m{S>`m ^mfoMm eXH$moe 1981 _`o V`ma Ho$cm Amho. h[a ~moaH$a `mMm "PmS>r~mocr _amR>r eXH$moe' PmS>r~mocrMr `mr {g H$aUmam Amho. "dX^u ~mocrMm eXH$moe' XodrXmg gmoQ>o `mZr 1974 _`o {g Ho$cm Amho. `mV ZmJnwar d dX^u `m Xmohr ~moctMm g{_l eXgJh d hUr Am`m AmhoV. a_oe gy`der `mZr "A{hamUr ^mfoVrc hUr d dmMmamMm H$moe' 1997 _`o {g Ho$cm Amho. X. Vm. ^mogco `mZr "Jm_rU ~mocrMm eXH$moe' 2003 _`o V`ma Ho$cm Amho. am` _amR>r {dH$mg gWogmR>r JJmYa nmZVmdUo d `mMo ghH$mar `mZr X{cV gm{h`mVrc eXm`m H$moemMm n{hcm IS> 2012 _`o H$m{eV Ho$cm Amho. A`mgH$mgmR>r CnH$maH$ _amR>rVrc dmL>_`H$moemMo XmcZ Ogo ~h{dY d$nmMo Amho VgoM Vo _amR>r gm{h`m`m A`mgH$mg A{Ve` CnH$maH$ R>aco Amho. ZmJnya {dmnrR>m`m _amR>r {d^mJmZo 1974 _`o _w` gnmXH$ A. Zm.

OrdZ`dhmamV ^mfoMm g_OyVXmanUo Cn`moJ Ho$cm Omdm `mgmR>r nm[a^m{fH$ eXH$moemMr {Z{_Vr A{Ve` Cn`wV R>aVo. {deofV: _hmam> am`mMr {Z{_Vr Pm`mZVa d _amR>rV gd H$ma^ma gw$ Pm`mZVa nm[a^m{fH$ eXH$moe hr EH$ An[ahm` JaO hmoD$Z ~gcr. _hmam> emgZmZo WmnZ Ho$co`m ^mfmgMmcZmc`mZo g~{YV {df`mVrc {dmZmMo gmhm` KoD$Z AWem, YmVwem, `A{^`m{H$s, {dwV A{^`m{H$s, Wmn` A{^`m{H$s, AmfYem, H${fem, J{UVem, JWmc`em, Ordem, VdkmZ d VH$em, ^m{VH$em, agm`Zem, _mZgem, am`em, ^yJmoc, cmoH$emgZ, dm{U`em, `m`dH$ d {dfem, `dgm` `dWmnZ, {ejUem, g_mOem, gm{h`g_rjm, g`mem B`mXr {df`mZm dm{hcoco nm[a^m{fH$ gkmH$moe {Z_mU Ho$co. `m H$moemVrc AZoH$ gkm AmVm `dhmamV M{cV Pm`m AmhoV.

48

o$~wdmar 2013

XoenmS>o d A` gnmXH$ {d. ~m. ^wXogmB, _. e. dm~JmdH$a, X. {^. Hw$iH$Uu d _. am. Omoer Aem gnmXH$ _S>imZo _amR>r ^mfm d dmL>_` `m`m Ama^mnmgyZ 1850 n`V`m dmL>_`mg dm{hcocm n{hcm dmL>_`H$moe V`ma Ho$cm. _hmam> am` gm{h` Am{U gH$Vr _S>imZo Mma IS>mMr, _amR>r dmL>_`H$moemMr EH$ `moOZm AmIcr hmoVr. `m `moOZoAVJV J. Xo. ImZmocH$a gnm{XV _amR>r dmL>_`H$moemMm n{hcm IS> B. g. 1050 Vo 1857 `m H$mimVrc _amR>r JWH$mamMm `dpWVnUo n[aM` H$$Z XoVmo. A` gnmXH$mZr gnm{Xbo`m Xwg`m d {Vg`m IS>mV _m ImZmocH$am`m gemoYZm`m d coIZm`m {eVrMm A^md AmT>iVmo. dmL>_`H$moemMm MmWm IS> "g_rjm gkm IS>' Amho. `m`m g_d`H$ {dO`m amOm`j AgyZ `mV _amR>r g_rjm`dhmamer g~{YV _hdm`m gkmMm ZoQ>H$m n[aM` H$$Z Xo`mV Amcm Amho. Or. Ama. ^Q>H$i \$mCS>oeZ, _w~B `m gWoZo gXmZX ^Q>H$i `m`m oaUoZo "g{j _amR>r dmL>_`H$moe' Zm_H$ XmoZ IS> {g Ho$co. Ama^mnmgyZ 1920 n`V`m dmL>_`mer g~{YV n{hcm IS> Am{U 1920 Vo 2003 `m H$mcIS>mVrc gm{hp`H$ d gm{h` `m`mer g~{YV Xwgam IS>. ^m JUmoaH$a, Cfm Q>mH$iH$a, dgV Am~mOr S>hmHo$, O`m XS>H$a, gXmZX ^Q>H$i AmXr `m IS>mMo gnmXH$ AmhoV. `mM _m{cHo$Vrc {Vgam IS> "dmL>_`rZ gkm gH$nZm H$moe' Amho. gm{h``dhmamVrc gd _hdmMo gm{h`{gmV Am{U g_rjm`dhmamVrc {ZdS>H$ gkm Am{U gH$nZm `m IS>mV gwn> Ho$`m AmhoV. `m {Vhr IS>mZm dgV Am~mOr S>hmHo$ `mZr XrK VmdZm {c{h`m AmhoV. `m VmdZm_wio _amR>r ^mfoMm d dmL>_`mMm B{Vhmg Am{U _amR>r gH$VrMr doJdoJir AJmonmJo gwgynUo dmMH$m`m `mZmV `oVmV. VgoM H$moemVrc Zm|XtZm {dVV Aer n>^y_r d n[ao` `mMm cm^ KS>Vmo. gH$nZm H$moe _amR>r H$moenanaoVrc AmUIr EH$ _hdmMo H$m` gwaoe nmSw>aJ dmKo `m`m "gH$nZm H$moem'_wio nma nS>co Amho. _amR>rV hm H$moe AZ` d$nmMm Amho. `m H$moemV _mZdr {dMma`mnmamVrc {d{dY gH$nZm gJ{hV Ho$`m AgyZ `m gH$nZoer g~{YV

g_mZmWu eX W_ XoD$Z {V`mer g~{YV Zmdo, {deofUo, {H$`m{deofUo d {H$`mnXo {Xcr AmhoV. `m nMIS>m_H$ gH$nZmH$moemMo _mZdr OrdZ`dhmamer g~{YV Ago Y_, H$mc, {d, mUr d dZnVr, _mZdr eara, Hw$Qw>~gWm, ZmJ[aH$ OrdZ, JwUmdJwU, _Z d d^md Am{U c{cV H$cm Ago Xhm {d^mJ AmhoV. "g`m-gHo$V H$moe' Aer d{eQ>nyU H$moe{Z{_VrXoIrc _amR>r ^mfoV Pmcocr Amho. Aem H$moemV g`oZo gw$ hmoUm`m eXmMo {ddaU Ho$coco AgVo. CXm. Zdag, XemdVma B`mXr. aI_mOr XodOr _wio `mZr 1867 _`o "qhXwemmVrc g`mdmMH$ Xw~m}Y eXmMm H$moe' aMcm. `mZVa `mV {d{dY gHo$V `V H$aUm`m eXmMr ^a KmcyZ lr. em. hU_Vo `mZr 1958 _`o "gHo$V H$moe' V`ma Ho$cm. g`mdmMH$ eXmnwaVr _`mXm Z R>odVm $T> `dhma, g_mO, Y_, gXm` em `mVrchr $T> gHo$V `oWo {Xco AmhoV. VgoM Mma n[a{e>m_YyZ H$Q>^`mXr gHo$V, ZX^mfm gHo$V, H${dgHo$V d {d{dY gHo$V {Xco AmhoV. aKwZmW c_U CnmgZr `m ZmJnya`m JhWmZr "_amR>r cmj{UH$ eXH$moe' Zmdm`m H$moemMr aMZm Ho$cr Amho. {XZ{deof H$moe gm_m{OH$, amOH$s`, dmL>_`rZ, gmH${VH$ Aem jomVrc KS>m_moS>tMr {VWrZwgma qH$dm {XZmH$mZwgma KS>co`m CoIZr` KQ>ZmMr Zm|X H$aUmao {VWrH$moehr _amR>rV AmhoV. `m H$moemV H$moeH$mamg _hdm`m dmQ>Um`m {d{dY jomVrc KQ>ZmMm {ZX}e AmT>iVmo. . Z.

Omoer `mZr V`ma Ho$cocm "{XZ{deof (^maVr` B{VhmgmMo {VWrdma XeZ') hm H$moe 1950 _`o H$m{eV Pmcm AgyZ `m H$moemcm lr. _. _mQ>o `mMr VmdZm Amho. nwT>rc H$mimV `m H$moem`m gwYm[aV Amd`m {ZKV am{h`m. naewam_ har ~d} Am{U H$_cmH$a _hmXod naMwao `mZr aMcocm "OJmMm B{Vhmg (d{H$ KS>m_moS>tMm kmZH$moe') B. g. nyd 5000 Vo B. g. 2001 n`V`m KQ>ZmMr Zm|X H$aUmam Amho. _mZdr gH$Vr`m gwdmVrnmgyZ `m {dmV KSy>Z Amco`m M_H${VO` Zg{JH$ d _mZd{Z{_V KQ>ZmMm _mJmodm KoUmam H$moe eo. am. Hw$cH$Uu `mZr "{dkmZ-~moY' `m ZmdmZo V`ma Ho$cm Amho. "_hmam>m`m H$mc_wm' (_YwH$a {dUy gmodZr), "nwUo ehamMm kmZH$moe' IS> 2 {XZ{deof (em. J. _hmOZ) `m H$moemV AZwH$_o _hmam> d nwUo eha `mVrc KQ>ZmMr Zm|X Ho$cocr AmT>iVo. _. lr. Xr{jV `mZr "EH$mo{Ugm`m eVH$mVrc _hmam> : EH$ X{>jon' (B. g. 1801 Vo 1901 `m eVH$mVrc {d{dY KQ>ZmMr gZdma Zm|X) `m d$nmMr EH$ Zm|XnwpVH$m V`ma Ho$cr Amho. mMrZ ^maVr` WcH$moe _hmam>m{df`r Eo{Vhm{gH$, ^mJmo{cH$ d gmH${VH$ _m{hVr XoUmam d _hmam>m`m JVrMr ^mdr {Xem gwM{dUmam "_hmam> n[aM` AWmV g`wV _hmam>mMm kmZH$moe' qM. J. H$d}, g. Am. OmoJioH$a d `. Jmo. Omoer `mZr {Z_mU Ho$cm Amho. {goaemr {Mmd `mZr gemoYZnydH$ "mMrZ ^maVr` WcH$moe' V`ma Ho$cm AgyZ `mV d{XH$ gm{h`, H$m{Q>cr` AWem, nm{UZr` `mH$aU, dmp_H$s

o$~wdmar 2013

49

am_m`U, _hm^maV, nwamUo, _``wJrZ gH$V gm{h` Am{U eXH$moe VgoM JrH$ n{e`Z, ~m, OZ, {MZr gm{h` Am{U {ecmcoI `m{df`rMo Vnerc {Xco AmhoV. {Z{X> ^mJmo{cH$ WimMr gmYma _m{hVr XoUmam hm H$moe mMrZ ^maVr` ^yJmocmMm kmZH$moe hUmdm Agm Amho. "dm{fH$' ho df^amVrc KS>m_moS>tMr _m{hVr XoUmao gmYZ Amho. Vo `m dfmMr {Z{_Vr Agoc `m`m AJmoXa`m dfmVrc KS>m_moS>tMr _m{hVr `mV AgVo. Wyc_mZmZo VrZ H$maMr dm{fHo$ AgVmV. EH$, AmVaam>r`, am>r` qH$dm am` nmVidarc ^mJmo{cH$ jomJ{UH$ _m{hVr XoUmao; XmoZ, EImm {df`mg dm{hcoco dm{fH$ `mV g~{YV {df`mV nS>cocr kmZmMr ^a, H$m{eV JW, {g Pmcoco coI, {df`g~ n[afXm, MMmgo, A{YdoeZo B`mXtMo dmmV; VrZ, kmZH$moe H$m{eV Pm`mZVa `mVrc kmZmV df^amV nS>cocr ^a Zm|X{dUmar nwadUr. _hmam> emgZmZo "_hmam>' `m ZmdmMo dm{fH$ 1971 _`o gw$ Ho$co. emgZm`m gd `moOZmMr, {d^mJr` H$m`mMr, dfmVrc A{YH$V _m{hVr {_i`mMo ho EH$ _hdmMo gmYZ hmoVo. `mMm eodQ>Mm IS> 1974-75 `m dfu {ZKmcm. gVmof XmVmZo `mZr gw$ Ho$coco "_hmam>' ("dm{fH$') 1989 nmgyZ {ZKVo Amho. `m{edm` `mZrM 1895 _`o "^maV - EH$ nhmUr' ho dm{fH$ 1995 _`o gw$ Ho$co. JOmZZ jragmJa `mZr gw$ Ho$coco "H$meZ dm{fH$' H$mhr df} {ZKmco. `m dm{fH$mV H$meZ`dgm`, df^amVrc H$m{eV JW, _amR>r coIH$mMr n`mgh {Xcocr `mXr `mgmaIm Cn`wV Vnerc AmT>iVmo. AcrH$S>o _mohZ dgV d, "H$meZ{d' `m dm{fH$mmao hoM H$m` H$arV AgVmV. gyMr-dmL>_` kmZH$moe, eXH$moe, H$moegXe JW{Z{_Vr `m`mBVH$mM H$moedmL>_`mMm _hdmMm KQ>H$ hUOo "gyMr-dmL>_`'. JWgyMr, JWH$ma gyMr, {Z`VH$m{cH$ gyMr `mgmaIo gyMrdmL>_`mMo doJdoJio H$ma

gmJVm `oVrc. H$moU`mhr gemoYH$mcm, A`mgH$mcm `m`m A`mg{df`mV `m`m AmYr H$moUH$moU`m H$maMr H$m_o Pmcr AmhoV Vo OmUyZ Ko`mgmR>r JWgyMr ho nm`m^yV gX^gmYZ R>aVo. _amR>rV Odinmg XmoZeo JWgyMr AmhoV. `m gyMtV JWH$ma gyMr, {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m d {Z`VH$m{cH$mVrc coIm`m gyMr, hV{c{IVm`m gyMr, {df`gyMr, gX^gmYZm`m gyMr, Eo{Vhm{gH$ gmYZm`m gyMr, _amR>r {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m gyMr, _amR>r {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m coIgyMr, ~Y-gma-gyMr Aem {d{dY H$ma`m gyMtMm AV^md hmoVmo. _amR>r JWgyMr e. J. XmVo `mZr Ho$cocr _amR>r JWgyMr (18001937 Am{U 1938-1950) hr JWgyMr gdmV _mocmMr gyMr Amho. _amR>r gm{h`m`m gemoYH$mg gXd gmhm`H$mar R>aUmar `m gyMrBVH$s _yc^yV gyMr Xwgar Zmhr. og AS> a{OQ>oeZ AQ>Zwgma Zm|XUrcm gwdmV hmo`mAJmoXa Oo JW H$m{eV Pmco `mMm emoY KoD$Z `mMr gyMr H$a`mMo H$m` A. H$m. {`moiH$a, gwa| JmdgH$a, JJmYa _moaOo `mZr Ho$co. `m JWmZm Xmocm_w{Vo Ago hUVmV. gyMrH$ma XmVo `m`m _aUmW _w~B _amR>r JWgJhmc`mZo nwUo `oWo XmVo gyMr _S>imMr WmnZm Ho$cr. `m _S>im`m dVrZo _amR>r {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m gyMrMo doJdoJio IS> {g Ho$co AmhoV. 1832 nmgyZ 1980 n`V`m {Z`VH$m{cH$mVrc coImMo {df`dma gyMtMo IS> {g Pmco AmhoV. `m H$m_mMm Ama^ e. J. XmVo, {X. {d. H$mio^VtZr Ho$cm. Vo H$m` nyUVog Zo`mg e. Zm. ~d}, Ho$. h. ~moaJmdH$a, d. {^. ~ocgao `mZr Ho$coco n[al_ H$maUr^yV R>aco AmhoV. eaX Ho$ed gmR>o `mZr am` _amR>r {dH$mg gWogmR>r 1951 Vo 1962 `m H$mcmVrc JWgyMrMm CnH$_ Ho$cm Amho. JWH$ma gyMr`m gX^mV gw. am. MwZoH$a `mZr Ho$co`m "S>m. _mYdamd nQ>dYZ dmL>_`gyMr', "A. H$m. {`moiH$a `m`m dmL>_`mMr gyMr', "~miH$U AZV {^S>o `m`m H${dVmMr gyMr' Am{U "~miH$U AZV {^S>o `m`m dmL>_`mMr gyMr' `m gyMr

Z_wZoXma AmhoV. adt Kdr `mZr Ho$cocr "Jmo_VH$s` JWH$mam`m _amR>r JWmMr gyMr' Jmo`mVrc ghmeonojm A{YH$ JWH$mam`m gm{h`{Z{_VrMr Zm|X H$aUmar Amho. Eg. Eg. ZmS>H$Uu `mZr Ho$cocr "~mcH$dr gX^gyMr', ~mcH$dt`m g_J A`mgmMm _mJmodm KoUmar Amho. _Xm ImS>Jo Am{U BVa `mZr {g Ho$co`m "rgm{h`mMm _mJmodm' (1850 Vo 2000) `m JWmMm {Vgam IS> _amR>rVrc rcoIH$m`m gm{h`{Z{_VrMr gyMr XoUmam Amho. gwYm Omoer `mZr Ho$cocr "JJmYa JmS>Jri dmL>_` gyMr', O`m XS>H$a `mZr Ho$cocr "{d. g. ImS>oH$a dmL>_` gyMr', C_m XmXoJmdH$a `mZr Ho$cocr "AmZX gmYco gm{h`gyMr', gwf_m nmS>dmc `m`m "Jmo. {d. H$aXrH$a gyMr' d "`~H$ eH$a eoOdcH$a gyMr', gwYm ^Q> `mMr "am_ JUoe JS>H$ar dmL>_`gyMr' Aem {H$VrVar JWH$magyMtMm CoI `oWo H$aVm `oBc. 1921 _`o J. a. XS>dVo `mZr "_amR>r rcoIH$mMr gyMr' (B. g. 1872 Vo 1921) Zm_H$ gyMr ~S>momhyZ {g Ho$cr Amho. {df`gyMr`m AZwfJmZo _w. lr. H$mZS>o `mZr Ho$cocr "`moJj_ _amR>r ZmQ>Ho$' hr dUZm_H$ gyMr, `mZrM {g Ho$cocm "gV gm{h` gX^ H$moe', lr. a. {^S>o `mZr Ho$cocr "EH$m{H$H$m gyMr', am. {d. gmodZr `mZr Ho$cocr "_amR>r {dkmZ dmL>_`gyMr' (1951 - 1999) `mMm {deofdmZo CoI H$amd`mg hdm. {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m coIgyMr _amR>r {Z`VH$m{cH$m`m dV coIgyMrhr AmVm ~`mM _mUmda {g Pm`m AmhoV. `mV _Um{cZr H$m_VH$V "A{^Mr-gyMr', _ram KmS>JoH$V "AZww>^ gyMr' d "_hmam> gm{h` n{H$m gyMr', Ho$ed OmoerH$V "`wJdmUr gyMr' d "g`H$Wm gyMr', A. H$m. {`moiH$a `mZr {g Ho$cocr "_amR>r gemoYZn{Ho$Mr ~mam df}' (H$mcIS> : 1953 - 1965), hr gyMr, nwnm ^mdo `mZr Ho$cocr "{d{dYkmZ{dVma gyMr' Aem gd gyMtMo _hd {Z{ddmX Amho. doJdoJ`m {dmnrR>mVyZ _amR>r {df`mVJV nr. EM. S>r. gmR>r drH$V Pmco`m gd ~YmMr Zm|X H$aUmar dgV {dUy Hw$cH$Uu `mZr {g Ho$cocr "_amR>r ~Y gyMr' _amR>rVrc nrEM. S>r. nXdrgmR>r Pmco`m gemoYZ{df`mMr H$nZm XoUmar Amho. `mM_mUo lr. a. Hw$cH$Uu, d. Xm. Hw$cH$Uu Am{U X. n. Omoer `mZr "hXam~mXMr _amR>r hV{c{IVo' hr

50

o$~wdmar 2013

dUZm_H$ gyMr, dgV g. Omoer `mZr Ho$cocr _mgMr _amR>r hV{c{IVo d {d|_Mr _amR>r hV{c{IVo `m _amR>r hV{c{IVm`m dUZm_H$ gyMr, {d. ~m. ^wXogmB `mZr Ho$cocr "_amR>r gemoYZ _S>imVrc gy_nQ>mMr gyMr', Q>r. Ama. ^r_am_ `mZr V`ma Ho$cocr VOmda_hmamO ga\$moOr `m`m gadVr_hmc JWmc`mVrc "_amR>r hV{c{IVmMr dUZm_H$ gyMr' (nmMdm IS>) `m gd gyMrXoIrc gemoYH$mg gmhm`^yV R>aUm`m AmhoV. gyMtMr gyMr gw. am. MwZoH$a `mZr {g Ho$cocr "gyMtMr gyMr' hr _amR>rVrc A{^Zd gyMr hUVm `oBc. `m gyMrV AmOda Pmco`m doJdoJ`m gyMtMr EH${V Zm|X nmhmd`mg {_iVo. hr gyMr 1995 _`o {g Pmcr. `mZVa `m gyMr ApVdmV Am`m `m gd

gyMtMr Zm|Xhr MwZoH$a `mZr H$$Z R>odcr Amho. hr ^a _yi gyMrV KmcyZ A`mdV d$nmV "gyMtMr gyMr' H$m{eV Pmcr Va Vr _amR>r dmL>_`m`mgH$mZm A`V Cn`moJmMr R>aoc. _amR>rVrc H$moeH$m`m~c g_mYmZ dmQ>mdo Aer H$moe{Z{_{VjomMr JVr Amho ho {Z:ge`. `mMm AW Pmco`m H$moeH$m`mV wQ>r ZmhrV Ago Zmhr. VWm{n Pmcoco H$m_ _amR>r ^mfo`m d dmL>_`m`m X>rZo {Z{VnUo _hdmMo Amho. H$moU`mhr ^mfocm m hmoUmar g_r Oer VrV CnZ hmoUm`m ~h{dY gm{h`m_wio hmoV AgVo, VerM VrV {Z_mU hmoUm`m H$moegnXoVyZ hmoV AgVo. H$moeaMZoMo ZdZdo gH$n AmOhr Ho$co OmV AmhoV. Vo {grg Joco hUOo _amR>rVrc H$moeH$m`mMr `mr AmUIr dmT>oc. H$moeH$m`mMm AmOdaMm B{Vhmg Ago gmJVmo

H$s, ~hVme H$moeH$m` ho `{$JV `ZmZrM KS>co Amho. AWcm^mMr Anojm XyaM, H$moeH$m`{df`H$ o_m_wio Am{WH$ Pi gmogyZ H$moeH$mamZr {ZanojnUo H$moe {g Ho$co AmhoV. gJ{deofr g~{YVm`m {hVqMVH$mMm qH$dm H$mhr ~m~VrV emgZmMm _XVrMm hmV nwT>o Pmcm Agochr, VWm{n. H$moe{Z{_VrMr CH$Q> AmH$mjmM _amR>r ^mfoVrc H$moedmL>_`m`m g_rg _ycV: H$maU R>acr Amho. (Q>rn :{OkmgyZr H$moe{df`H$ A{YH$ Vn{ecmgmR>r dgV {dUy Hw$cH$Uu `mZr V`ma Ho$cocr "_amR>r H$moe d gX^gmYZo `mMr g_J gyMr B. g. 1800-2003' (H$meH$ : am` _amR>r {dH$mg gWm, _w~B) Ad` nmhmdr.) gnH$ 9922404694 rr

gH$UmVrb amR>r ^mfm


(nmZ 43 d$Z) _amR>s eXmMs OmJm KoV AmhoV. Amn`mbm BJOs `oV Zmhs hUOo Amn`mbm `yZ Amho, AesM gd _amR>s _mUgmMs _mZ[gH$Vm Amho, Vs BJOsM MbZ dmT>dm`bm ~iH$Q>s XoVo Amho. g_mOm`m gdM Vamda BJOsMm CXmo CXmo Amho. "BJOs `oV Zmhs' Ag hUUmambm _mJmg g_mO`mMm H$mi Amho. _amR>s _mUgmMs _Z BJOsZ ^mabobs AmhoV. _amR>s _mUgm`mM _ZmV _amR>sbm JmU Am[U BJOsbm [VRo>M WmZ Amho. AemV ngo IM H$$Z Ho$bobo _amR>s`m [dH$mgmMo `Z AmnmoAmnM m`mo[JH$ Am[U H$[_ R>aV AmhoV. g_mOm`m _mZ[gH$VoMm `m `moJmZm H$gbmhs AmYma Zmhs. `m_wi `o`m H$mhs dfmV-nZmge^a dfmV- ho _amR>s [Q>H$d`mMo `moJ haUma AmhoV Am[U `m`mda IM hmoV Agbobm g`mMm ngm dm`m OmUma Amho. Vmo H$mi Xya Zmhs, Oohm _amR>s ^mfm, gd \$$ BJOs dmnaUm`m bmoH$mgmR>s gJhmb`m`m [^VtAmS> OVZ H$$Z Ro>dbs OmBb Am[U Aem [Zag [df`mV H$m` nmhm`M hUyZ, `m gJhmb`mH$S> Hw$Ushs [\$aH$Uma Zmhs. (~hwVoH$ ^maVs` ^mfmM AgM hmoBb.) ho IaM Amho H$s, Os ^mfm _mUgm`m nmoQ>mMs `dWm H$$ eH$V Zmhs, Vs _aVoM. Omoda _amR>s ^mfoV _amR>s _mUgmMs nmoQ> ^a`mMs Y_H$ Amho, Vmoda Vs [Q>Ho$b. Omoda _amR>s Am[U BJOs`m [IMS>s ^mfoV nmoQ> ^a`mMs Y_H$ amhsb, Vmodahs Vs Adeof $nmZ [Q>Ho$b. `mZVaMm H$mi _m Ho$di BJOsMm Agob. AmO _hmamQ>mV Ho$di _amR>s`mM [Odmda OJUmar dmJUmar _mUg \$V ~moQ>mda _moO`mBVH$sM AgVsb. Vs \$V Am[U ew _amR>s OmonmgUmar eodQ>Ms [nT>s. nwT>Mm H$mi BJOs-_amR>s`m [_lUmMm Agob Am[U Vmo H$mi nwT>`m [nT>mZm Ho$di Am[U ew BJOsH$S> KoD$Z OmBb. Am[U hohs IaM H$s, H$moUVshs EH$ ^mfm H$moU`mhs Xwg`m ^mfoda AmH$_U H$aV Zmhs, Va gnV OmUm`m ^mfoVboM Jma Am[U [\$Vya bmoH$ `m ^mfoMm hiyhiy Osd KoV amhVmV. EImm ^mfoV Jma Am[U [\$VwamMs g`m H$m dmT>Vo, Va `m`m nmns nmoQ>mMm gdmb AgVmo ~m~m! O` _amR>s! gnH$ 9422005065 rr

o$~wdmar 2013

51

{$_d kmZoemMo& Acm{H$H$ Ago gmMo&' `mMm `` `oVmo, Vmo `m`m dmL>_`H$VtVyZ. "kmZodar' Va `mMr dmL>_`r _yVuM hUmdr cmJoc. "{V`m AmYmamda (kmZodamMr) Wmoadr {MaVZ $nmVM nwT>rc {nT>m`mhr g_moa C^r amhUma Amho,' Agm {ddmg {dZmW Iao `mZr "kmZodamMo M_H$ma'_`o `$ Ho$cm Amho. "_hmam> gmadV'H$ma ^mdo `mZr "kmZodar' JWm`m gX^mV "ho Ho$dT>o AmM`!' AgoM CXJma H$mT>co AmhoV. "kmZodar'`m gX^mV, A`mgH$m`m >rZo AmUIr EH$ _hdmMr ~m~ Amho, Vr hUOo kmZodarMr Am{U kmZodar`m eXH$moemMr hV{c{IVo. _``wJrZ _amR>r dmL>_`m`m BVa JWm`m hV{c{IVm`m g`onojm kmZodarMr Am{U

"`

kmZodar eXmWH$moe

mMm` am_Xmg S>mJo


Vg~Yr eXH$moemMr g`m IynM A{YH$ Amho. "lrkmZXodr : {M{H$pgV ewnmR> Amdmr' gnm{XV H$arV AgVmZm Amhmcm hm AZw^d Amcm Amho. VwV gnmXZ H$arV AgVmZm Amhmcm kmZodar`m AZoH$ hV{c{IV Am{U H$m{eV eXmWH$moemMo gm Pmco Amho. "nmR>{ZpMVr`m gX^mV AWVdmcm {deof WmZ Zmhr,' ho _. dm. Ym|S> `mMo _V AeV: Iao Amho. H$maU d. {X. Hw$cH$Ur hUVmV `m_mUo "nmR>^oXmMr {M{H$gm d `mMr {Z{Vr H$aUo hrhr EH$m narZo _ycV: AW{Z{VrMrM {H$`m hmo`.' (_amR>r gm{h` : {d_e Am{U {d_eH$); H$. nm. Hw$cH$Uu `mZrhr "{ddoH$qgYy'`m VmdZoV "In
selecting the readings attention has never seen allowed to devite from their phonetic and semantic aspects,' Ago n> Ho$co Amho.

"^mfmemmV AW_r_mgocm WmZ Agmdo,' Ago \|$M AWdkm{ZH$ ~oAmc `mMo _V Amho. Jmonmiml_dm_tZr ^mfmemr`Q>m kmZodarMr nmR>{ZpMVr Ho$cr, hm IwnoaH$a emr `mMm A{^m` "nXmWmV'(nX Am{U AW `mMo AV) Z g_O`m_wio hUOo Z _mZ`m_wio H$gm MwH$sMm R>aVmo ho cjmV `oVo. "_mPm _hmR>m{M ~mocw H$d>{VH|$& n[a A_VmV| nOm qOHo$& eXmMr `m{ VoU| nmS>|&

AZw^dmdr&&4.215&&' Ago hUUm`m kmZoamZr "Og| q~~ O[a dmMHo$ EdT>|& n[a H$mBn cmo` WmoH$S>|'& Aer eXm`m AWmMr _hVr JmBcr Amho. Amn`m eXm`m gX^mV Vo "Vmo emVw{Z A{^Zdc& Vo n[agm _hmQ>o ~moc& Oo g_wmhrh {Z Imoc& AW^[aVm&&' Aer dmhr XoVmV. "{Vew kmZodar' {g H$aVmZm A`m{gco`m eXH$moem`m AmYmao Amhr kmZodarMm EH$ gdmJrU gdg_mdoeH$ H$moe V`ma H$arV AmhmoV. eXH$moe hm CKS>CKS> CXmm MmoarMm _w$hV _m_cm AgVmo. BVamZm "dmQ>mdr' Aer hr Mmoar! kmZodar`m eXH$moemMr AZoH$ hV{c{IVo VOmda, Ywio, nwUo, _w~B, AmaJm~mX B. {R>H$mUr Agco`m gWmV CncY AmhoV. H$mhr hV{c{IVo hr `{$JV gJhmV AmhoV. `mVrc XmoZ-VrZ hV{c{IVo _w{V $nmV H$m{eV Pmcocr AmhoV.

1. nwUo `oWrc ^m. B. g. _SimVrc {g gemoYH$ J. h. Iao `mZr _S>im`m "gemoYZ n{Ho$'VyZ "eX_m{cH$m - kmZodar AWdm ^mfmaZ_m{cH$m' {g Ho$cr. mVm{dH$mV VwV hV{c{IVmMo H$mhr {deof gmJyZ VXZwf{JH$ _hdm`m Jmo>tMm D$hmnmoh Ho$cm Amho. "nmMdoCcr' qH$dm "gmVdoCcr' `m eXmMm AW ~hVoH$ H$moemV "nmM qH$dm gmV Zm`mMr' Agm Ho$cocm Amho. VwV`m eX_m{cHo$V "doCcr' hUOo "H$mS>r' Agm "dmVdmcm A{YH$ OdiMm AW' Ho$cm Amho. Aa~r_`o gdma = KmoS>odma Am{U "Adma' ho `m eXmMo ~hdMZ. "Vohm hm eX g`m Var Aa~r Yamdm' Ago `mZm dmQ>Vo. 2. lr{ZaOZ aKwZmW `mMm "kmZodar : >mV-n[a^mfm-Q>rH$m' hm JW e{$nmV`moJm gmYH$ Ho$. am. Omoer `mZr gnm{XV Ho$cm Amho. VwV JWm`m eodQ>r {ZaOZ aKwZmWdm_r `mZr n[al_nydH$ V`ma Ho$cocr

52

o$~wdmar 2013

"kmZodar : X>mV-n[a^mfm-Q>rH$m eXmWgyMr'hr OmoS>cr Amho. VwV eXmWgyMr dada MmiyZ nm{hcr AgVm, Vr gnyU kmZoarMr eXmWgyMr Amho, Ago {ZXeZmg `oVo. "Y_YoZw' hUOo "hmam{c'; "nwg cmC{Z' hUOo "gonwQ> H$mnyZ' ho `mo` AW Amhmg `m eXmWgyMr_`o AmT>ico. 3. OJZmW ~miH$U CJmCH$a `mZr {c{hco`m "kmZodar {Q>nUm'Mo emnyV gnmXZ Ho$co Amho _w. lr. H$mZS>o Am{U gw. ~m. Hw$iH$Uu `m m`mnH$`rZo. ~mdZ n>mMr VmdZm d eXgyMrgh _yi JW gnmXZmMm hm AmXe dVwnmR>M hUmdm cmJoc. ~hVoH$ H$moe kmZodar`m EH$m Vrd$Z V`ma Ho$coco AmhoV qH$dm AgVmV. VwV "kmZodar {Q>nU' kmZodar`m H$moU`m Vrd$Z V`ma Ho$co, `mMmhr (_`m{XV H$m hmoBZm) emoY Ko`mMm `Z gnmXH$mZr Ho$cm Amho. hm emoY _w`V: A`m`dma Amodrg`o`m AmYmao Ho$cm Ag`m_wio Am{U Amodrg`o`m ~m~VrV EH$dm`Vm Zg`m_wio, gnmXH$mZm {ZpMV {ZH$fmV nmohmoMVm Amco Zmhr. n. 51 darc ViQ>rnmV H$mhr nmR>^oX {Xco AmhoV. Q>rn H$. XmoZ Am{U VrZ `m_`o "Amar' `m EodOr gaH$mar VrV d XmS>oH$a VrV "Aa{gH$mV' Am{U "OmUo-ZoUo'EodOr gaH$mar VrV "OmUUo' d XmS>oH$a VrV "Oogo H$m H$aU|' Ago nmR> AmhoV. `m nmR>^oXmd$Z VwV H$moe amOdmS>o qH$dm XmS>oH$a `mZm {_imco`m hV{c{IV Vrda AmYmacocm Zmhr, Agm "Zo{V Zo{V' {ZH$f H$mT>Vm `oBc. Q>rn H$. 1 _`o "CH$> 5. 178'EodOr gaH$mar Am{U XmS>oH$a nVtV "C$' Agm nmR> Amho, `md$Z H$mhr emoY KoVm `oVmo H$m ho VnmgV AgVm "CH$>' hm nmR> H$Um Jwadm`m "ncVra' dm{fH$mV nmhmd`mg {_imcm. "kmZodarMo AmYw{ZH$ H$moeH$ma d OJZmW ~miH$U' `m CnerfH$mImcr H$mhr {ZdS>H$ eXm`m AWmMr Vmc{ZH$ Zm|X Ho$cr Amho. `mV "docd[a`m' `m eXmMm AW BVa gnmXH$mZr "docr`m Om`m' Agm Ho$cm AgyZ OJZmW ~miH$U `mZr "OOa' Agm AW Ho$cm Amho, Agm n> ^oX {XgyZ `oVmo. {deof hUOo `m eXmMm "{N>Z{^Z' Agm AW {ZaOZ aKwZmW `mZrhr Ho$cm Amho. "Y_YoZw'`m ~m~VrVhr `m XmoKmMr AerM EH$dm`Vm Amho Am{U J. h. Iao `mZr

"kmZodar`m A`mgmgmR>r An[ahm` EH$ _wI coIr gmYZ m hmdo,' `m ^y{_Hoo$VyZ {g Ho$cocm {edmOramd ^mdo `mMm "lr kmZodar eXmWH$moe' hm gdmWmZo AmXe dVwnmR> R>amdm AgmM Amho. H$moe ho EH$ Zdo gOZ AgVo, `mMm gmjmH$ma KS>mdm Agm hm H$moe. km, {V^m Am{U gmX ho VrZhr EH$dQ>co`m {edmOramd ^mdo `m`m namH$_mg _amR>r H$moeJUZoV "AZm{_H$m gmWdVr ~^yd' Ago hUUo dmVdmcm Y$Z hmoBc. `mM H$moemV "`wnmr' Mm g_mdoe Amho. "B' gmaIm EH$mjar eX kmZodarV XmoZ H$mamZr CnpWV Amho; H$maU EH$ "B' hm "BX_'nmgyZ Am{U Xwgam "B' hm "A{n' nmgyZ! n{hcm gdZm_, Va Xwgam "A``'. "kmZodarV "O|' hm eXhr gdZm_ Am{U A`` `m XmoZ H$mamV _moS>Vmo, ho _m AZdYmZmZo `mZr ZmoXco Zmhr. "O|' nXmMm dmna kmZodarV H$m`H$maU^md Xe{d`mgmR>r _mCctZr AZoH$ Amo`mVyZ Ho$cm Amho.' - dm_r g`XodmZXgadVr, lr kmZodar VmdZm.

H$m{eV Ho$co`m "eX_m{cHo$V'hr "hair' Agm AW Amho. Ago Agco Var AcrH$S>`m _amR>r`m H$moeH$mamZr _m `m AWmMr Zm|X KoVcr Zmhr!' - _hmam> am` gm{h` gH$Vr _S>imZo H$m{eV Ho$co`m "_amR>r eXH$moem'V `mMr Zm|X Ho$cr Amho.

EH$moU{dgm`m eVH$m`m CmamYmV Am{U {dgm`m eVH$m`m nydmYmV kmZodar`m H$moeaMZoMo Pmcoco `Zhr _hdmMo AmhoV. `mV JmoYioH$a, JUnV H$UmOr (XodWir), _mS>JmdH$a `m`m JWmMm g_mdoe H$amdm cmJoc. `mhr JWmMm Cn`moJ AcrH$S>`m H$moeH$mamZr Ho$cocm {XgyZ `oV Zmhr. "kmZodar n[a^mfm nwUo `oWo amdOr lrYa JmoYioH$a `mZr Vm[aI 28 gQ>|~a g. 1890 Amd[m 2 ar.' H$m{eV Ho$cr. Amo. 16.329 Y_ YoZy-hair_`| Aer gV`V Zm|X VwV H$moemV AmT>iVo. _mS>JmdH$a dV: H$moe V`ma H$$ eH$co ZmhrV. `mZr H$mT>co`m Q>mMUmd$Z nahVo hm H$moe `mZr H$adyZ KoVcm, Aer n> H$~wcr VmdZoV {Xcr Amho. Varhr am. J. hf} `mZr Amn`m "kmZodar n{hcm A`m`m'`m VmdZoV dmL>_`Mm`mMm A`j Amamon Ho$cm Amho. 1950 ZVa H$m{eV Pmco`m {edmOramd ^mdo Am{U doqcJH$a `m`m H$moemg~Yr {ddoMZ H$a`mnydu AW{Znmr`m >rZo _hdm`m Agco`m XmoZ JWm{df`r gjonmZo _m{hVr KoD$ `m. "eX_m{cH$m : kmZodar'darc coImV J. h. Iao `mZr "kmZoarV H$mZS>r eX Amco AmhoV `m{df`r _V^oX Zmhr,' ho n> Ho$co. kmZodarVrc H$mZS>r eXmda H$mhr {dmZ A`mgH$mMo coIhr {g Pmco AmhoV; naVw kmZodar`m AmYmao "kmZodaH$mcrZ _amR>r ^mfoda H$ZS>Mm ^md' hm a. em. cmoH$mnwa `mMm JW eXm`m AW{ZYmaUm`m >rZo _hdmMm _mZmdm cmJoc. "H$miwJm', "Xoer' B. AZoH$ eXm`m gX^mV `mZr Ho$cocr MMm CX~moYH$ Amho. AgmM EH$ `Z Am. am. ZmS>H$Uu `mZr "kmZodarVrc eXmMm H$m|H$Ur ~mocrV emoY' KoD$Z Ho$cm Amho. H$moH$Ur ^m{fH$ coIH$m`m _amR>r coIZmVrc "X` AZw^dr A_amdVr' ho CXmhaU XoD$Z "AZw^dUo' hUOo Cn^moJ KoUo Agm AWmMm Zdm Am`m_ Vo XmIdyZ XoVmV. H$moH$Ur_`o "Q>mir' hUOo PmS>mMr \$mXr. `m_wio "Q>m{i`o H$mdim gmnS>o' `m MaUmMm {Z{V AW~moY hmoVmo. "hmVm`m Q>mirV' Agmhr AW H$mhr gnmXH$mZr Ho$cm Amho. kmZodarVrc Amo`mMm Ame` n> H$a`m`m >rZo AW{ddaUm_H$ {Xco`m {Q>nm H$moegnmXZmgmR>r Iyn _hdm`m AgVmV. `m>rZo J. H$. AmJmeo Am{U

o$~wdmar 2013

53

YZoda `mZr Ho$cocr gnmXZo _mJXeH$ R>aVrc AerM AmhoV. `mVhr YZodamMo gnmXZ "ZmW gXm`r' Ag`m_wio eXm`m AWm`m >rZo doJir ^a nS>Vo. gmXm{`H$ n[a^mfo`{V[a$ Agco`m H$mhr eXmMo `mZr Ho$coco AW A{YH$ ^mdVmV, ho _m` Ho$coM nm{hOo. "JJmdVr' `m eXmMm gd H$moemV Agco`m "{ZJwS>r' `m AWmnojm, JJmdVr hUOo "JJWS>rMr ^mfm' hm AW A{YH$ MnIc Amho, ho A`mgmVrM cjmV `oBc. nmR>^oXMM}`m _m`_mVyZ, dm_r g`XodmZX gadVr `mZr Ho$cocr AWMMmhr (CXm. Icw) eXH$moem`m gX^mV Cn`w$ R>aUmar Amho. Amhrhr "hgm' hUOo "JwJwi' Agm Zdm AW "_ycnmR>Xr{nH$m lrkmZXodr'_`o "Amao _amR>r'`m gmhm`mZo {Xcm Amho. ^mdo-doqcJH$am`m AmYr _w. J. nmZgo `m`m 'Linuistic peculiaraties'Mm {dMma H$amdm cmJoc; naVw hm H$moe {d hV{c{IVmda AmYmacocm Am{U BJOr ^mfoV Amho. kmZodarMm BJOr ^mfoV AZwdmX H$a`mgmR>r _m `m H$moemMr Cn`w$Vm dmXmVrV Amho. `m Am{U Aem H$moem`m gmhm`mZo AS>. gwYmH$a cmcgao `m`m kmZodarMm AH$m{eV BJOr AdVma Amhr eXH$moemgmR>r A`mgV AmhmoV. AZdYmZmZo H$m` hmoD$ eH$Vo, `mMo Cm_ CXmhaU Amho, Vo "kmZodarMo eX^mS>ma' JWm`m nwaH$mamV. AZdYmZmZo H$mhr ZmoXr nmhmd`m`m amh Z Jo`m_wio, ^mdo `m`m H$moemg~Yr "kmZodarMm dV Agm H$moe V`ma H$a`mMr n{hcr H$nZm am. {edmOramd ^mdo `mMr Amho.' Ag {ch Z {`moiH$a hUVmV, "Ama^r`m "XmoZ eXmV' `mMo ~Yy AmMm` {dZmo~m ^mdo "kmZodarVrc ``mdV, eXmMo AW XoUmam hm H$moe' Ago `mMo Oo dUZ H$aVmV, Vo `WmW hUdV Zmhr. H$mhr gmono eX `mZr dJicoco {XgVmV. CXm. Vmo-Vr-Vo.' VmdZoV n> Ho$cocr qcJa{hV {deofU nVr drH$macr Ag`m_wio "Vmo-Vr-V|'Mr Zm|X "Vo' `m eXmZo Ho$cr Amho. `mXdH$mcrZ _amR>r ^mfo`m A`mgH$mZm `m H$moemMm AmYma KoV`m{edm` nwT>o OmVm `oUma Zmhr, Agm hm JwUd{eQ>gnZ H$moe. Ago Agco Var, `m H$moemgmR>r ^mdo `mZr amOdmS>o V AmYmamg KoVcr Am{U amOdmS>o VrV Zgco`m Am{U BVa VrV

Agco`m 143 Amo`m \$$ Xwg`m n[a{e>mV {X`m AmhoV, hr _`mXmhr cjmV KoVcr nm{hOo. "lr kmZodar eXmW H$moem'ZVa am. Zm. doqcJH$amZr "kmZodarM| eX^mS>ma' A`mgH$mgmR>r Iwco Ho$co. "nwaH$ma' ({`moiH$a), "A{^m`' (XmS>oH$a) Am{U "_mPo _ZmoJV' (\$mQ>H$) `m AWmZo "_amR>r`m H$moe^mS>mamV ~h_moc ^a' Aem eXmV {Xco`m epVnmg "gmW' AgoM {deofU cmdmdo cmJoc. BVa H$moemV Zgcoco kmZodarVrc Amo`m`m MaUmMo gX^ hr `m H$moemMr \$ma _moR>r O_oMr ~mOy hUmdr cmJoc. 126 nR>mV R>mgyZ ^acocr 11 n[a{e>o hr EH$ A`mgH$mgmR>r Cm_ gmYZgm_Jr Amho. kmZodarMm H$mhr {d{e> gX^mV A`mg H$a`mgmR>r hr n[a{e>o \$ma Cn`moJr nS>Umar AmhoV. VwV H$moemVrc dUmZwH$_mH$S>o Q>r Q>mH$cr AgVm, "j' Am{U "k' AZwH$_o "H$' Am{U "O' `m dUmZVa, nU dV Aem d$nmV Amco AmhoV. ^mdo `mZrhr AerM _mS>Ur Ho$cr Amho; naVw "j' Am{U "k' hr OmoS>mjao Y$Z n[aUm_r doqcJH$am`m H$moemV "dmcm' eX "k' `m AmYr `oVmo Am{U ^mdo `m`m H$moemV "k' ZVa `oVmo. {ZaOZ aKwZmWm`m H$moemVhr "j', "k' dV dU AZwH$_o "H$' Am{U "O' ZVa KoVco AmhoV. `m Am{U Aem BVa H$moemMm (CXm. mMrZ _amR>r eXH$moe, Vwinwio-\o$S>hmCg) A`mg H$$Z Amhr gdg_mdoeH$ Agm EH$ kmZodarMm H$moe gnm{XV AmhmoV. "gdg_mdoeH$' hU`mMo H$maU gd H$moemMm g_mdoe, ho Va A{^oV AmhoM; {edm` kmZodar`m {d{dY VtVrc nmR>^oXmMmhr `mV g_mdoe Amho. AmVmn`VMo gdM H$moe EHo$H$m Vrda AmYm[aV AmhoV. ^mdodoqcJH$amMo H$moe amOdmS>o Vrda, nmZgo `mMm H$moe {d `m`m hV{c{IV Vrda AmYmacoco AmhoV. BVa H$moehr ZmWmoma Vtda AmYmacoco. nm. Zm. Hw$iH$Uu `mZr

`mZr gnm{Xco`m eHo$ 1490 _Yrc ZmWnyd {gZmWr VrVrc H$R>rU eXmMm H$moe qH$dm YZodamMm ZmWnyd VrVrc eXmMm _hmZw^mdr` Q>rnJW nVrMm H$moe hohr `mM H$mamV _moS>VmV. EH$m VrV Agcocm nmR> Xwg`m VrV Zgoc, Va Vmo eX Xwg`m Vr`m eXH$moemV ZgUma ho CKS> Amho. AWm`m ~m~VrVhr {^ZVoMm {dMma H$aUo Amd`H$ AgVo. "kmZodar n[a^mfm' m H$moemV "16.329 Y_YoZy hair_`|' Agm AW {Xcm Amho. "kmZodarM| eX^mS>ma' `m JWm`m nwaH$mamV `m H$moemMm A. H$m. {`moiH$amZr CoIhr Ho$cm Amho. Varhr doqcJH$amZr "Y_YoZw(Zw) Y_mW gmoS>cocr Jm` 16.327' Agm {^Z AW {Xcm Amho. {d^$sZwgma AW hm doqcJH$am`m H$moemMm {deof cjmV KoVm "Y_YoZw'_Yrc AZwdma Xwc{jV H$$Z `m eXmMm "W_m' AW Ho$cm Amho. ({edmOramd ^mdo `m`m H$moemV Am{U gdM gnmXH$mZr AZwdmXmV hmM AW Am`m_wio Ago KS>co Agmdo.) kmZodar`m A`mgmgmR>r An[ahm` EH$ _wI coIr gmYZ, Ago H$moemMo dUZ {edmOramd ^mdo `mZr Ho$co Amho. ho gmYZ H$m{eV Pmco Agco, Var AmO ghO CncY hmoV Zmhr. CncY PmcoM Va H$moU`m Var EH$m {d{e> VrMoM AgVo. AWm`m ~m~VrVhr WmoS>r \$ma Jm|YimMr AdWm AmhoM. "gwX' eX VOmdar H$moemVyZ, "hgm' eX Amao _amR>r H$moemVyZ, Va "JJmdVr' eX YZodam`m Q>rn JWmVyZ KoV`mg `m eXmda Zdm H$me nS>Vmo. "_ycnmR>Xr{nH$m lr kmZXodr'V Amhr ho gd Ho$co Amho. `m {Vew kmZodarMr gmW CH$c hmdr, `mgmR>r A{^Zd eXmWH$moeM hdm. nydgwat`m ~iH$Q> Immda ~g`m_wio Amhmg WmoS>o XyaMo A{YH$ {Xgco hUyZ Amhr H$mhr A{YH$ ehmUo R>aV Zmhr, `mMr Amhmg ImrnydH$ OmUrd Amho. B`c_& Mc^mf : 9850750624 rr

54

o$~wdmar 2013

"_madm' AZw^dVmZm
gw_mJOmMo _madm hmVs KoVbo Am[U EH$m Z`m [XeoZo Mmby bmJbmo. Hw$gw_mJOmMm _madm AmdmXVmZm _s m _hmH$dr`m H$m`mVsb Hw$Us OdiMo ZmVodmBH$ AmhoV H$m ho emoY`mMm doJim N>X OS>bm. ghOM n[hb Zmd g_moa Amb Vo adtZmW Q>mJmoamM. nwhm EH$Xm adtZmWm`m _`y[df`s`m H$[dVmMs COiUs Ho$bs. d{dH$ [dMmamMs _mS>Us H$aUmao adtZmW Am[U Hw$gw_mJO _bm AmVm EH$[V [Xgy bmJbo. n`mS> [Xgy bmJ`mda `m H$VmWVoZo _mdiVsMm [Zamon ho _hmH$ds KoVmV Vohm _`yVhs Z`m OsdZmMm gmjmH$ma g_moa `oVmo. adtZmWm`m "E~ma Vmoam Am_ma O~ma ~obmVo' m H$[dVoV adrgJsV Ago AdVabo... _m`m [_mZmo _bm ew^oN>m m `m [d`moJm`m jUs Am^mimda nhmQo>Ms bmbs ngabs Amho. Am[U _mPm _mJ gwXa [XgVmo Amhoo.. g\$a _mPs Pmbs nyU H$s CJdob gm`Vmam g[YH$mem`m Vam`mMo No>S>bo OmVsb `mHy$i gya amOm`m doemam nmes&& ho VamUo adtZmWmMo, Hw$gw_mJOmMo, gV VwH$mam_mMo, gV H$~samMo. hs nanam [ZaVZ Amho. nwhm adtZmWm`m Amo`m_mUo... Jobo nm[hOo _bm AmVm, ~YwZmo A_wMm am_am_ `mdm H$arZ _s gdm dXZ AmVm aOm KoBZ AmVm [Xg ~wS>mbm, AYma Pmbm [Xdm [dgwZs Jobm _m`m H$mon`mVbm Ambm Amho gmJmdm [g _s `mUm&& Amn`m Am`w`m`m _ma`m`m nR>mamda nmohM`mn`V`m dmgmV Hw$gw_mJO AZoH$ _w$m_mda Wm~bo hmoVo. `m`m _`mhs`m A[dH$mamV aJ YJYJVs hmoVs hUyZM `mg_`s "gmW gmo~V hds` H$moUmbm _mPM Am^mi _mPsM YaVs, AgmM EH$Q>m MmbV amhsZ dmXi KoD$Z ImmdaVs" Agm \w$Vu`w$ A[d^md H$Q> hmoVmo. nU OJ`mMo gy emoYVmZm Zds OmUsdhs eX$n KoD$Z `oVo. `mwio _mZds OsdZ hUOo H$m` Vohs H$iV. OJU hUOo OmJdsV OmU A_mob _mVs, gy`MmMo AgUo _hmZ Agbo Var _m`m hmVs EH$M _emb Amho. Vs _emb H$me \w$bdsb _mJmdaVs. BWo H$ds Wm~V

Hw$

Zmhs Va nwTo> hUVmo, hm H$me amhsb OJ`mdaVs Am[U _a`mdaVsgwm. [demIm Vo _madm m Hw$gw_mJOm`m XsK H$m` dmgmMs gmX`Wio emoYVmZm, `mVbm [ZgJ AZw^dVmZm `mV`m Ia gm_m[OH$ Om[UdmZm ne hmoVmZm, EH$ gwaob gJsVmMs _\$b JwOs KmbV AgVo. ems` gJsVmVsb amJ _m[bHo$`m _mS>UsgmaIs hs eXaMZm H$Ys

H$R>damgmaIs Va H$Ys dmgJsVmV`m haH$VtgmaIs ZdZdrZ $no KoD$Z `oVo. Hw$gw_mJO g_yhmV dmdaV AgVmZm dV:_`oM a_bobo Agm`Mo. nU Vem AdWoV AgVmZm Vo A[b Agm`Mo. EH$ AZmg$ H$_`moJs _mZds d^mdmMo, [ZgJmVsb M_H$mamMo, g_mOmVsb [dgJVsMo [ZarjU H$arV eX$nmZo Jw\$U H$$Z Amn`mg_moa _mS>Vmo Amho. m

hoV Q>H$bo
H$m`mVyZ ems` gJsVmVbo Ag` amJ _J Amn`m _ZmV Vmb Y$ bmJVmV. hUyZM AIoa`m H$m`gJhmMo "_madm' Ago Zm_H$aU Hw$gw_mJOmZs Ho$bo Agob. _madmMs AmoiIM [VhsgmOo`m K[Q>Ho$Ms Amho. gy` _mdiVsda Amho. ams`m AYmamMo am` Ama^ H$arV Amho. mbm H$mVadoi hUVmV. m H$mVadois _ma`mMo VaJ bhatgmaIo Amg_V `mnyZ Q>mH$VmV. Hw$gw_mJO "[gVm hmo gmJ, _[VHo$M nmJ, VmoS>sbo _s" m [ZgJ AdWoV AmhoV Am[U _J eX$ns gJsV _ma`mVyZ gmH$ma hmoV OmVo. Amn`m Am`w`m`m AIoa`m ndmV Hw$gw_mJOmMm _madm hm H$[dVmgJh Ambm. [dgm`m eVH$m`m AIoarg Hw$gw_mJO AZVmV [dbsZ Pmbo. EH$[dgm`m eVH$mMs gwdmV AmnU nmhUma Zmhs Ago `m`m ~mob`mVyZ dmadma `$ hmoV Ago. EImXs ems` gJsVmMs _\$b eodQ>mda `mds, Amn`m AZmo`m H$[dVm_YyZ Ag` dZm_YyZ EH$m ^md[ddmMs [Z[_Vs _mohdyZ Q>mH$`mda, AmVm Vw_`m ~amo~arMm ghdmg nyU[dam_mH$So> [ZKmbobm Amho. nU OmVm OmVm Oo gmR>bo hmoVo Vo ^a^$Z [X`mda [ZamonmMo hUyZ H$mhs gmJUo hmoVo, Vo _madmVyZ Amn`m ^oQ>sbm Ambo Amho. OmVm OmVm JmBZ _s, JmVm JmVm OmBZ _s /Jo`mdahs `m JJZmVsb JsVm_YwZs am[hZ _s. hm gya gVV Amnbs gmo~V H$arV amhVmo. eXmMo da hmoVmV, gwamMo gJsV hmoVo Am[U ZH$iV hs ^md_wm gmdbsgmaIs gmW XoVo. Am`w`m`m m nR>mamd$Z _mJo nmhV AgVmZm H$dsZo gmR>[dbobo, Onbobo AZoH$ Am[dH$ma EH$m Abm[H$H$m`m _IamV nwhm

"amR>s gm[h`mVsb XoXs`_mZ aZ' Aes `mVs AgUmao H$ds, ZmQ>H$H$ma, H$WmH$ma d g_sjH$ hUOo [d. dm. [eadmS>H$a D$\$ Hw$gw_mJO. Am_[ZR> d g_mO[ZR> OmUsd AgUmao Am[U _amR>s gm[h`m`m H$jm XmdUmao boIZ `mZs Ho$bo. `mMo gm[h` hUOo _amR>s dmL>_`mVsb C H$moQ>sMo d^d Amho. _amR>s gm[h`mbm Xwgao kmZnsR> `mZs [_idyZ [Xbo. `m`m `m `moJXmZm~b H$VkVm hUyZ 27 \o$~wdmar hm `mMm O_[Xdg "_amR>s ^mfm [XZ' hUyZ gmOam Ho$bm OmVmo. gm[h`m`m [d[dY mVmV da _wem[\$ar H$$Zhs `mMm _yi [nS> hm H$dsMmM am[hbm. hUyZM `mZm A[^dmXZ H$aVmZm `m`m "_madm' `m JmObo`m H$m`gJhmMo ^mdJ^ agJhU XoV AmhmoV.

o$~wdmar 2013

55

ZOaog_moa `oVmV. Amn`m [_mH$Sy>Z Vmam ^oQ> [_im`mZVa Vo hUVmV... XodKamVsb \y$b CMbwZs/ Hw$Umg mdo Hw$Us / Ves Z^mVsb `moV AmUbs / Vy _m`m AJUs/ Am[U nwTo> Hw$gw_mJO hUVmV... dmMm`bm ~Kmd`mbm/ Zgob Hw$Us Oar / H$mVH$noZo gXd dgVsb / Hw$gw_mJO A~ar EH$sH$So> Z^mJUmV AMb WmZ [_iob Agm [ddmghs Amho. nU `mV gwm XodKamVsb dm[hbo`m \w$bmgmaIo Vo A{Vd Agob hs ^mdZmhs Amho. H$ds hm gwXaVoMm nmR>samIm AgVmo Am[U Hw$gw_mJO Oohm [ZgJm`m gmX`m`m Ag` [V_m _mS>VmV. `mdois _madm EH$m Z`m XoemV doe H$aVmo. Vo hUVmV... Cfm gwXa hmoVsM nU A[YH$ gwXa Amho hs g`m / _mdiVsda CVabobm hm gy` / [Xdg^am`m H$me XmZmZo H$VmW / Pmbobm A[YH$ H$me_` A[YH$ Zohesbhs. Am[U _s, _mPo A{Vd H$memV doe H$aVmZm nyU [Zame` Agbobo / AmVm AYmamV [dlmV hmoVmZm gdH$f Ame`mZo [eJmo[eJ ^abobo / Ag`mMo C`Z OJ`mV H$aUmar hs g`m. Cfm Am[U g`m m XmoZ nH$mVyZ _mS>Us H$aVmZm m H$[dVoV Ambobm [dlmV hm eX AdW H$aUmam Amho. [dlmVs hm eX Vgm Amn`m n[aM`mMmM nU [dlmV EoH$`mda dmVmdaUmV J^sa gya AmnmoAmnM Kw_y bmJVmo. Amn`m m ^yVbmda Ag`m~b H$ds ghOVoZo hUVmo... [ZgJmVyZ AgUo Ambo [ZgJmVM gaUo Amho / [a`m nmmV MV`m`m R>sU`m Vmoda ^aUo Amho. gVm`m aMZoes ZmVo gmJUmao ho eX AmhoV. [aVm Ambmo [aVmM OmBZ nU AgoZ Vohm MV`m`m [R>U`m ^aV amhsZ. BWo MV` gwm AmH$maVo Vo hUOo [R>UJs hUOo Omim`m dnmV. AIoarbm A{VdmMs amIM hmoUo An[ahm` AgVmZm AsMm g_mZ mnojm A[YH$ _moR>m H$m` Agy eHo$b? Hw$gw_mJOmMm dmg AIS> Mmbbobm Ago. _madm _`o dmgmMs nmD$bo AZVmH$So> [ZKmbs AmhoV Am[U ^modVmb`m [ZgJmV [daKi`mgmR>sMs V`mar hs Pmbs Amho. `m jUmbm H$dsbm H$m` [XgVo ? Anma ^y[_ [Zame`mMs VQ>W daVs VY

[ZimB Yw`mV AYwH$ bnoQ>bobs [jVsOmda [Xgo gamB hs gamB `m`m ZOaoV gm_mdbobs Amho Am[U [Xgyhs bmJbs Amho. Amn`mbm [_imbo`m WmZm~b A[^_mZmMm bdboehs `$ hmoV Zmhs. CbQ> IV _m Oa `$ hmoVo Am[U hs IVhs EH$Q>mMs Zmhs Va `m Q>`m_`o Agbo`m [nT>sMs Amho, hUyZM dS>sbYm`m `m nm`mZm / eVm[YH$mMo hmV neVs / IV EH$ H$s Cabm Zmhs hmV EH$hs ImmdaVs. _madm AZw^dVmZm Hw$gw_mJO hbHo$ Y$o gwm XoV AgVmV. Amn`m OJ`mMm hm EH$ emn Amho Ago Vo Y`mZo gmJVmV Am[U _J OJ`m`m `m emnmgmR>s C:emn Amho _aUmMm / H$mimoImVsb a`mdaVs COoS> Oi`m gaUmMm. _madmMs _\$b hiyhiy eodQ>mH$So> gaH$V AgVo. hs _\$b O_bs H$m O_bs Zmhs `m~b IoX dm IV `mZm dmQo>Zmgm Pmbm Amho, hUyZ Vo hUVmV gymdmMyZ gabs _\$b [Xdohs [dPbo g^mKamVsb AV Zgbo`m m dmgmV H$ds gVV H$mhsVar emo[YV hmoVm. Hw$Ro>Var Imob Vimes gd emoY`mMm hm IQ>mQ>mon hmoVm Am[U eodQ>s H$m` H$ibo AmVm dWm emoY hm _JOimV `m \$gbmo Amho, `mM nm`ardaVs AmVm n[bVs [dPdyZ ~gbmo Amho. OJ`mbm OI_ g_OUmam hm _hmH$ds Amn`m aMZoVyZ amo_mM C^o H$aVmo Am[U _J H$[dVm `oVo. am ^sfU nmV _mPm nmR>bmJ H$aUmar AmdmOm[dZm AmH$moeUmar JmoR>bo`m ZomMs / [Mabo`m JmmMs a$m`m aofm gJ`m [Mamda [ngmabobo Ho$g / [nMbo`m [eamda hs OI_ _mPsM /nU AmVm _aV Zmhs _s Ho$bobs H$s Pmbobs. H$dsMs gdoXZm BVH$s Ia Amho H$s hs OI_ `mZo dV:M gwm Ho$bs Agob. Am`w`m`m dmidQ>mVyZ MmbVmZm eodQ> Hw$Ro> hmoUma Amho. AmVm MmbVmZm OmUdV dmidQ>mbmhs AgV daXmZ EH$m AbmH$sH$mM Ag[XY A\$mQ>nUmM. `oWo _sM [Z_mVm _m`m a`mMm, nmdb nS>Vsb Vmo _mJ Am[U Wm~Vsb Vo _Prb. _madm AmVm _Psbnmes

Ambm Amho. AmVm _madm [ZKmbm Amho ""VoWo"" `m[R>H$mUs. hUyZM eX C_Q>VmV... Vw`m MaUmMm VoWoM [aKmdm OoWo Z [dgmdm doXZmZm / VwPs dmQ> OmB OI_m`m Jmds AmVm`m Amgds dbobs. _madm _Ysb AZm[_H$mMo OmUohs hyahya bmdyZ OmVo. Hw$UsVar Vmo OmVmo, Vmo Jo`mda VaJ EH$hs CR>bm Zmhs OZme`mda / Amobdbs Zm Hw$Ro> nmnUs Zm da Pmb H$moRo> H$mVa/ EH$ MmbUo [dgmdbobo a`mbmhs H$ibo Zmhs / AH$ Z Jdgo AmYmambm ey` Ago Vo ew`M amhs. AmVm gJ`mMs gmW gnyZ _madmVyZ H$ds [ZKmbm Amho EH$Q>mM Am[U g_OmdV. gIo, AmVm Vmo jU Ambm AIoa `m gamBVM Wm~m`MM Amho Vwbm Am[U _s nwTo> OmUma Amho. aoIsd aVm Zgbo`m `m g[XY XoemV _mPo Amho nU g~Y[hZ Aem ZmhsnUmV, nwiUsVsb gmJabmQo>gmaI ghOnUmZ [dg[OV hmoBb. gIo S>mo`mV Amgd H$embm? Vwbm R>mD$H$ Amho Zm? C~aR>mdarb AlyMo W|~.. nmWWm`m _mJmda.. m OsdZ dmgm`m AIoarbm Amnbo A{Vd gn`m`m jUs VH$ma Zmhs IV Zmhs, nyVugmR>sM dmg AgVmo / Ho$hmVar [_Q>`mgmR>s H$miOm_Ybm dmg AgVmo / AgUo AmVm AgV Zg`mnmes AS>bo Amho / [Ohm`m`m [MVm noQ>dsV ~aoM MmbUo KS>bo Amho Am[U _J _madmVsb AmX gmX `oVo `m gd`mns AmH$membmm.. _m`mdaMm Am^mi~m~m gdmb AmVm nwgV Zmhs / nds Pmbs nmdbmnwaVs A`mS> n`mS> [XgV Zmhs hm [ZdmUsMm jU, _mdibobm, H$VH$`VoMm, dmg gn`mMm, H$mhsVar Jdg`mMm, H$mhshs Z had`mMm, [ZamonmMm, AdW H$aUmam, EH$ MS> H$mobmhb Wm~`mMm, [ZgJmV [dZ Om`mMm. hm gya JwOs KmbVmo. Wm~bo`m dmmVyZ VaJ C_Q>V ahmVmV. `m`m Om`mZVahs Amn`m Ag`mbm nmKU AgV _ma`m`m _m`oM. (boIH$ {dYmZn[afXoMo gX` AmhoV.) gnH$ 9822052433 rr

56

o$~wdmar 2013

^mfm d^d
emgZmMo _amR>s ^mfm[df`H$ YmoaU am~[dUo, _amR>sMm [dH$mg H$aUo Am[U _amR>s ^mfobm bmoH$emhs amOdQ>ses gwgJV Ago d$n XoUo `m CoemZo ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMs WmnZm Pmbs. ^mfm gMmbZmb`mZo AmOVmJm`V EHy$U 48 H$meZo [g Ho$bobs AmhoV. `m_`o, 29 n[a^mfm H$moe, 3 H$moe, 6 eXmd`m d emgZ `dhmamV _amR>s dmnam[df`sMs 10 H$meZo, `mV _amR>s bKwboIZ [df`H$ H$meZo, _amR>s Q>H$boIZ [df`H$ nw{VH$m, mUboIZ [Z`_nw{VH$m, gH$sU boI gJh Am[U ^maVmMo g[dYmZ `mMm g_mdoe Amho. ^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m `m H$meZmZm OZVoH$Sy>Z MS> _mJUs Amho. ^mfm gMmbZmb`m`m H$mhr nwVH$mMm n[aM` `m {R>H$mUr H$$Z Xo`mV `oV Amho. ^mfm[dkmZ d dmL>_`[dm n[a^mfm H$moe ^mfm [dkmZ d dmL>_`[dm n[a^mfm H$moemV gw_mao 3,225 BJOs nm[a^m[fH$ gkmZm _amR>s n`m` [Z{MV H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. `mV ^mfm [dkmZm`m nm[a^m[fH$ gkm [Z{MV H$aVmZm dmL>_`[dm (Philology) d g[hVm [M[H$gm (Textual Criticism) `m jomVsb H$mhs nm[a^m[fH$ gkmMm AV^md Agbobo dmL>_`[doMo n[a[eQ>hs (n[a[eQ> EH$, gw_mao 360 gkm) `m H$moem`m eodQ>s [Xbobo Amho. (qH$. 121 .) gm[h` g_sjm n[a^mfm H$moe gm[h` g_sjm n[a^mfm H$moemV gw_mao 2 hOma BJOs gkmZm _amR>s n`m` [Z{MV H$a`mV Ambo AgyZ, hm H$moe V`ma H$aVmZm `m [df`mVsb [dmnsR>s` Vamdarb nm[a^m[fH$ gkm [dMmamV KoD$Z VgoM gX^mXmIb H|$ gaH$maZo V`ma Ho$bo`m eXgJhmMmXoIsb dmna H$a`mV Ambm Amho. (qH$. 10.50 .) H$m`X[eH$m "H$m`X[eH$m' `m nw{VHo$V XZ[XZ H$m`mb`sZ `dhmamV [ZXm}f _amR>sMm dmna H$a`mgmR>s gd Vamdarb A[YH$m`mZs d H$_Mm`mZs hmVmes Ro>dmds Aes hs _mJXeH$ nw{VH$m Amho. Zoh_s`m H$m_H$mOmV `m BJOs eXmMm, nXZm_mMm, dm`moJmMm [H$dm dm`IS>mMm dmadma dmna H$amdm bmJVmo `m`m gwb^ _amR>s AZwdmXmgh Ho$bobo EH$ gH$bZ, Ago `m nw{VHo$Mo d$n Amho. (qH$. 9 .) emgZ `dhmamV _amR>s am`H$ma^mam`m ^mfoMo d$n H$go Agmdo, `m~m~V nXZm_ H$moe [g Pm`mda `mVsb _amR>s n`m`mg~YmV CbQ>gwbQ> [V[H$`m `V H$a`mV Am`m hmo`m. hUyZ Q>sH$mH$mamMo g_mYmZ hmoBb, `mZs Cn{WV Ho$bo`m eH$mMo [ZagZ emg[ZH$ boIZ emg[ZH$ H$m_H$mO `m _wI nVsVyZ Ho$bo OmVo `mMo _amR>s Z_wZo `m nwVH$mV [Xbo AmhoV. Z_w`m`m d$nmV [Xbobs _m[hVs _mb`m`m [H$dm [d^mJs` H$m`mb`m`m \$m`bt_YyZ gH$[bV H$a`mV Ambs Amho. VgoM R>amdrH$ _m`Zo Agbobo [d[dY boIZH$mahs `mV [Xbobo AmhoV. emgH$s` boIZ H$go Agmdo Am[U H$go Zgmdo `mMo VwbZm_H$ Z_wZoXoIsb `mV g_m[dQ> Ho$bobo AmhoV. (qH$. 125 .) emgZ dm`moJ emgZ dm`moJ `m nwVH$mV [Za[Zam`m emgH$s` [d^mJm`m d `m`m AVJV Agbo`m H$m`mb`m`m XZ[XZ H$m_H$mOmV dmnamV Agbobo BJOs dm`moJ d eXg_w` `mMo gH$bZ H$a`mV Ambo Amho. `m dm`moJmZm H$m`mb`sZ `dhmamV EH$m [d[eQ> ^m[fH$ n[anmR>mMo d$n m Pmbo Amho. _amR>sVhs `m dm`moJmMs VesM n[anmR>s R>adyZ XoUo d `m`m dmnamV EH$$nVm AmUUo `mo` hmoBb, `m H$nZoZo darb BJOs dm`moJmMo _amR>s n`m` ^mfm gmJma _S>im`m gmhm`mZo [Z{MV H$$Z H$moem`m $nmZo [g H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. (qH$. 60 .) emgZ `dhma eXmdbs _yi emgZ `dhma H$moe (BJOs-_amR>s) d$nmV AgyZ, emgZ `dhma eXmdbs (_amR>s-BJOs) d$nmV Amho. `m eXmdbsVsb _amR>s gkmMo dUboIZ _yi emgZ `dhma H$moemVsb dUboIZmZwgma H$a`mV Ambo Amho. `mM_mUo _amR>s gkmMo Zm_ hUyZ Agbobo BJOs n`m` [H$dm [H$`mnX dm [deofU hUyZ Agbobo BJOs n`m` `mMs

JmV qeXo
hmoBb, Aem nVsZo emgZ `dhmam`m ^mfo~m~VMs ems` d `mdhm[aH$ ^y[_H$m nQ> H$aUo Amd`H$ hmoVo. `mZwgma Eo[Vhm[gH$ nmd^y_s, `m_mJsb ems` ^y[_H$m d AmOMm ^maVs` gX^ nQ> hmoBb, Aem arVsZo emgZ `dhmamVsb _amR>s ^mfo`m d$nmg~YsMo g[dVa [ddoMZ `m nwVH$mV H$a`mV Ambo Amho. (qH$. 35 .) amO^mfm n[aM` A_amR>s ^m[fH$ H$_Mm`mZm _amR>s amO^mfoMs Ro>dU, [VMs d[eQ>o, `mMo mW[_H$ kmZ H$$Z XoUo _hdmMo hmoVo. `mH$[aVm _amR>s [ejU dJ gw$ H$a`mV Ambo hmoVo. ho [ejU XoVmZm `m AS>MUs Am`m `mMm ~maH$mBZo A`mg H$$Z A_amR>s ^m[fH$mZm Cn`wV hmoBb Aem arVsZo "amO^mfm n[aM`' `m nwVH$mMs aMZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. (qH$. 49 .)

o$~wdmar 2013

57

dV Zm|X Ko`mV Ambobs Zmhs Va, dn[dam_ XoD$Z Vo Xe[d`mV Ambo AmhoV. (qH$. 105 .) amO^mfm n[aM` (H$m`$n `mH$aU) emgZ `dhma OgOgm gdneu hmoD$ bmJbm VgVgo _amR>s ^mfoMo OwO~s kmZ VmoH$So> nSy> bmJbo. hUyZ, _hmamQ> emgZmZo, Amn`m godoV Agbo`m A_amR>s ^m[fH$ gd amOn[V A[YH$m`mgmR>s d AamOn[V H$_Mm`mgmR>s _amR>s ^mfm narjm [d[hV Ho$`m. `m narjm_Ysb H$m`$n `mH$aUm`m Zn[Ho$gmR>s `m nwVH$mMs aMZm H$a`mV Ambs Amho. (qH$. 49 .) mUboIZ [Z`_mdbs amO^mfm _amR>sMs A{_Vm d [VR>m On`mgmR>s emgH$s` H$_Mm`mZm `m`m XZ[XZ H$m_H$mOmV _amR>s ewboIZm`m ~m~VsV `mo` _mJXeZ hmdo `m hoVyZo "ewboIZ [Z`_mdbs' hs nw{VH$m V`ma H$a`mV Ambs Amho. ewboIZ hm AmJh Z amhVm Vs gd` Pmbs nm[hOo, Aes `m_mJMs ^y[_H$m Amho. _amR>s gm[h` _hm_S>imZo V`ma Ho$bo`m _amR>s boIZ[df`H$ [Z`_mZm _hmamQ> emgZmZo 1962 `m dfu _m`Vm [Xbs hmoVs. `mV 1972 `m dfu 4 ZdsZ [Z`_mMs ^a Kmb`mV `oD$Z AmYs`m _m` nmdbo`m [Z`_mVsb H$mhs wQ>s Xya H$a`mV Am`m. Aem H$mao, _amR>s gm[h` _hm_S>immo 18 [Z`_ g_m[dQ> Agbo`m "boIZ[df`H$ [Z`_' m nw{VHo$bm _hmamQ> emgZmZo _m`Vm [Xbs. (qH$. 6 .) _WZ bmoH$emhs `eds hmo`m`m XQ>sZo OZVo`m ^mfoV am`H$ma^ma MmbUo hs A`md`H$ ~m~ Amho. _amR>s ^mfobm amO^mfoMm ZwgVm XOm XoD$Z Cn`moJmMo Zmhs, Va emgZ `dhma 100% _amR>sVyZ hmdm `mgmR>s Vs bmoH$m`m _ZmV O`mBVnV gmons, gwQ>gwQ>sV VgoM AWdmhs Agm`bm hds; VgoM gdneu Pmbo`m emgZ `dhmamMs ^mfmhs [VVH$sM gj_ Agmds, `m Om{UdoVyZ [Za[Zam`m jomVsb _m`damZs [b[hbo`m boImMo Ho$bobo gH$bZ Ago "_WZ' `m nwVH$mMo d$n Amho. `mV m. Zaha Hw$$XH$a, `m`_yVu MeoIa Y_m[YH$mar, S>m. O`V ZmaisH$a, m. g`aOZ gmRo>, S>m. AemoH$ Ho$iH$a, S>m.

JJmYa nmZVmdUo, m. ^mbM Zo_mSo>, m. ^m. b. ^moio, m. MH$mV nmQ>sb, ls_Vs [dO`m [MQ>Usg, ls. `. e. H$m[ZQ>H$a, ls. g. Am. go, S>m. Z. ~. nmQ>sb `mgma`m [Za[Zam`m jomVsb _m`da boIH$m`m boImMm g_mdoe Amho. (qH$. 6 .) nXZm_ H$moe nXZm_ H$moe ho ^mfm gMmbZmb`mMo n[hbo H$meZ AgyZ `m`m n[h`m AmdmsVsb ^mJ - 1 _`o _mb`sZ [d^mJ d `m AVJV H$m`mb`mVsb VgoM [dYmZ _S>i, _hm_S>io, Am`moJ d H|$s` _hm_S>io `m_`o [d_mZ Agbo`m nXmMs [d^mJ[Zhm` _amR>s Zmdo Xo`mV Ambs AmhoV. ^mJ - 2 _`o BJOs dUmZwH$_mZwgma BJOs nXZm_o d `mnwTo> _amR>s nXZm_mMm ^mJ - 1 _Ysb nR> H$_mH$ Xo`mV Ambm hmoVm. naVw, `m nXZm_ H$moemVsb _amR>s n`m` {bQ> d Xw~m}Y dmQ>`mZo d nXZm_mMs nwZamdms Q>mi`mgmR>s Xwgar gwYm[aV Amdms (1990) H$m[eV H$a`mV Ambs. (qH$. 35.50 .) emgZ `dhma H$moe emgZ `dhma H$moemV gw_mao 30 hOma BJOs nm[a^m[fH$ gkmMo _amR>s n`m` [Z{MV H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. nm[a^m[fH$ eXm~amo~aM emgZmV d A` jomV Cn`moJs Agbo`m AZoH$ gm_m` d n[a[MV BJOs gkmZm $T> d M[bV eXm`m gmhm`mZo Zo_Ho$ d AWdmhs _amR>s n`m` [Xbo AmhoV. `m H$moemMo AZ`gmYmaU d[eQ> hUOo, gOmVs` d g_mZmWu eXmMs Hw$io VgoM emgZmVsb d H$m`m`m ^mfo`m Zo_`m dmnam`m XQ>sZo AWN>Q>mVsb gy_ ^oX Xo`mV Ambo AmhoV. (qH$. 77 .)

[ejUem n[a^mfm H$moe [ejUem n[a^mfm H$moemV gw_mao 4 hOma BJOs nm[a^m[fH$ gkmMo _amR>s n`m` [Z{MV H$a`mV Ambo AmhoV. [ejU ho _mV^mfoVyZ [Xbo Jobo nm[hOo d `mgmR>s _hmamQ>mV [ejUmMo _m`_ _amR>s Agmdo, ho AmVm gdgm_m` Pmbo Amho. [ejUem n[a^mfm H$moe mW[_H$, _m`[_H$, C _m`[_H$ d [dmnsR> Vamdarb [ejH$ d m`mnH$ VgoM A`mnH$ [dmb`o, [ejUem _hm[dmb`o `m_Ysb m`mnH$ d ^mds [ejH$ `m`m XQ>sZo A`V Cn`moJs d _mJXeH$ Amho. (qH$. 9 .) bmoH$emgZ n[a^mfm H$moe bmoH$emgZ n[a^mfm H$moemV gw_mao 4 hOma BJOs gkmZm _amR>s n`m` [Z{MV H$a`mV Ambo AgyZ hm H$moe V`ma H$aVmZm Robbins `m`m Administrative Process `m JWmMm VgoM R. J. S. Baker, Paul C. Partholomew`m AZwH$_o
Administrative theory and Public administration d An outline of Public administration `m JWmMm, VgoM A`

JWmMm AmYma KoVbm Amho. (qH$. 9.25 .) ^maVmMo g[dYmZ ^maVmMo g[dYmZ `mMs _amR>s ^mfoVsb n[hbs Amdms 1979 _`o H$mT>`mV Ambs Am[U doimodois `m_`o Pmbo`m gwYmaUmMm g_mdoe H$$Z ZdsZ Amd`m H$mT>`mV Ambo`m AmhoV; VgoM 1996 _`o Mm`m AmdmsMo nwZ_wU H$a`mV Ambo Va 2006 _`o ghm`m AmdmsMo H$meZ H$a`mV Ambo. ^maVm`m g[dYmZmV EHy$U 395 AZwNo>X AgyZ, EHy$U 22 ^mJmV `mMs _mS>Us H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m[edm` 12 AZwgy`m `mV OmoS>`mV Am`m AmhoV. eodQ>s [Xbo`m n[a[eQ>m_`o gwYmaUm A[Y[Z`_mMm gmame Xo`mV Ambm Amho Am[U AIoarg BJOs_amR>s eXgyMs d _amR>s-BJOs eXgyMs Xo`mV Ambs Amho. (qH$. 245 .) r r
4. ghm`H$ gMmbH$, emgH$s` wUmb`, AmaJm~mX 431001. XyadZr 2331525. 5. `dWmnH$, emgH$s` wUmb` d boIZgmJr ^mS>ma, Vmam~mB nmH$, H$mohmnya - 416003. XyadZr 2650395, 2650402.

nwVHo Hw$R>o {iVrb?


1. gMmbH$, emgZ wU, boIZgmJr, H$meZ gMmbZmb`, ZoVmOr gw^mf mJ, w~B - 400004. XyadZr : 23631433, 23631799. 2. `dWmnH$, emgH$s` $moQ>mo{PH$mo wUmb` d JWmJma, $moQ>moqPH$mo wUmb` Amdma, Or.nr.Amo.ZOrH$, nwUo - 411001. XyadZr : 26125808. 3. `dWmnH$, emgH$s` wUmb` d JWmJma, {gphb bmBg, ZmJnya - 440001. XyadZr : 2562615.

58

o$~wdmar 2013

Omdo JW m`m Jmdm...


emgH$s` Vamda nwVH$ H$meZ Am{U {dH$sMo H$m` moR>m mUmda MmbVo. AZoH$ XO}Xma JWmMr {Z{Vr emgZmV}$ Ho$br OmVo. {deof hUOo hr nwVHo$ VwbZmH$XQ>m An {H$VrV {iVmV. hmamQ>m`m doJdoJ`m ehamVrb emgH$s` JW {dH$s H|$mMm hm AmT>mdm...

nwUo
emgH$s` JWJma nw`mV Hw$Ro> Hw$Ro> AmhoV. EH$ Amho [Ohm[YH$mar H$m`mb`m`m eoOmar \$moQ>mo[PH$mo emgH$s` JWmJma, `mbm [~Q>se H$mimnmgyZ B[Vhmg Amho. Xwgao Amho goZmnVs ~mnQ> amoS>da ~mb^maVsMo JWmJma Am[U [Vgao Vgo gm[h`m`m `m`oV _moS>V Zgob Var emgH$s` H$_Mmar, AemgH$s` gWm, gm_m[OH$ H$m`H$V} `m`mgmR>s A[Ve` _m[hVsnyU nwVH$ Agbob [R>H$mU hUOo ~mUoa amoS>darb `eXm `oWo Agbobm `eXm H$meZ [d^mJ. `m VsZ [R>H$mU`m ^oQ>sV doJdoJio dmMH$ ^oQ>bo `m`m dmMZm`m _mJMo Coehs doJdoJio hmoVo. [R>H$mU emgH$s` $moQ>mo[PH$mo JWmJma, doi XwnmaMo EH$ dmObobo, gJio JWmJma gd d`moJQ>mVsb dmMH$mZs w$bbobo... `mV `wdH$mMm ^aUm _Zmbm C^mar XoUmam... AmOMs [nT>s dmMV Zmhs... `mbm H$VsVyZ [_imbobo ho Cma. EH$ `wdH$ _moR>_moRo> JW MmVmZm [Xgbm. `oWo Amn`m KamV Am[U _ZmV gH$ma noaUmao AZoH$ JW Am[U nwVH$ CnbY AmhoV. `mV VwH$mam_ JmWm, kmZodar, ^mdmW am_m`U, _amR>s [ddH$moe IS>, H$m[Q>`mMo AWem, _hm_m w$bo, ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a `m`mdarb IS>, _hmamQ>mMo [enH$ma Ago AZoH$ Xw_ri JW `m [R>H$mUs An [H$_VsV CnbY AmhoV. nmm emgH$s` \$moQ>mo[PH$mo _wUmb` d JWJma, 5, \$moQ>mo[PH$mo nW, nwUo 411001, XyadZs 020- 26125808, 26124759 B-_ob : govtpzp@yahoo.com ~mb^maVs nw`mVbm goZmnVs ~mnQ> amoS> hUOo ~mb^maVs Ago [g Agbobo Zmd. [H$`oH$ [nT>mZm BW`m AjamZs gmja Ho$b. ~mb^maVs $$ nmR>nwVH$M H$m[eV H$arV Zmhs Va AZoH$ gH$ma KS>[dUmar nwVH$, M[a H$m[eV H$aVmV. ho H$mhs OUmZm _mhrV Zgob Va `mZs `m [R>H$mUs ^oQ> [Xbs Va H$iob, Aao ho nwVH$ Va _m`m Kar _wbmgmR>s qH$dm ZmVdmgmR>sM Zho Va _m`mgmR>shs Amd`H$ Amho. gV VwH$S>moOs _hmamOmMs Jm_JsVm Ho$di ~mam n`o, CXy eXH$moe 64 n`o Va ^yJmob WwbZm_ gyMs 49 n`o, y$Vu JsVo 13 n`o, ~mhwbs H$m_ 15 n`o, _amR>s gwb^ ^maVs 21 n`o Aem [H$_Vs Agbobo bhmZ _wbm`m gH$ma Am[U _y` [ejUmV A[Ve` _hdmMs ^y[_H$m ~OmdUmaro AZoH$ nwVH$ BWo CnbY AmhoV. nmm ~mb^maVs JWmJma : _hmamQ> am` nmR>nwVH$ {Z[_Vs A`mgH$_ d gemoYZ _S>i, ~mb^maVs, goZmnVs ~mnQ> amoS>, nwUo 411 004, XyadZr- 020/25659465 `eXm `edVamd MhmU emgZ [dH$mg ~mo[YZs (`eXm) `oWsb H$meZ [d^mJmVhs _m[hVs A[YH$ma, emgZmV Cn`moJs nS>Umao AmWmnZm Am[U boIm [df`H$ Z`m [Z`_mMo doimodois A`mdV Ho$bobs A[Ve` Cn`moJs nwVH$, Jm_[dH$mg, emgZm`m [d[dY `moOZmdarb nwVH$, [ejU H$me`mda AmYm[aV nwVH$, Ob `dWmnZ AmXs [df`mdarb _m[hVsnyU nwVH$ BW CnbY AmhoV. nmm H$meZ [d^mJ, `edVamd MhmU emgZ [dH$mg ~mo{YZs (`eXm), am`^dZ n[aga, ~mUoa amoS> , nwUo- 411 007. XyadZr 020- 25608227/234 B- _ob yashadabooks@gmail.com, do~gmBQ> : www.yashada.org - `wdamO nmQ>sb

_w~B
_w~B ho dmMZ gH$VsMo H|$ _mZbo OmVo. nwVH$doS>m dmMH$mMs BWo A[O~mV H$_VaVm Zmhs. dmMZmMs hmg ^mJ[d`mgmR>s nwVH$m`m XwH$mZmMs Am[U JWmb`mMs EH$ gmIisM BWo [Z_mU Pmbs Amho. AJXs a`m`m H$So>darb Ow`m nwVH$m`m XwH$mZmnmgyZ Vo dmVmZwHy$bsV _mbn`V BWo gd nwVHo$ [_iVmV. _w~BV emgH$s` JWmJmamMmhs MmJbmM X~X~m Amho Am[U emgH$s` JWmJmamV OmD$Z nwVHo$ [dH$V KoUm`mMs g`mhs bjUs` Amho. emgH$s` Vamda [Z[_V nwVH$mMs [dH$s H$aUmar VsZ

o$~wdmar 2013

59

gm[h`_mbm, VU-^maVs, bmoH$mon`moJs [dkmZ_mbm, AmOMo [dd B`mXs. `mIoarO gWoZo AmOn`V AZoH$ [R>H$mUs amQ>s` nwVH$ Om ^a[d`m AmhoV; Va ^maVmVsb [d[dY am`mVsb [Za[Zam`m [R>H$mUs mXo[eH$ JWXeZohs ^a[dbs AmhoV. nmm ZeZb ~wH$ Q>Q>, n{hbm Obm, adt ZmQ {Xa, ^mXodr, w~B - 400 025. XyadZr 022-24320380 .

ZmJnya
[Pamo _mBg m [R>H$mUmbm Ho$di ZmJnya`mM Zmhs Va gnyU ^maVm`m XQ>sZo EH$ doJio _hd Amho. `m [Pamo _mBgnmgyZ AJXs hmHo$`m AVamda nwVH$o_sMs dmQ> nmhUmao emgH$s` JWmJma Amho. _hmamQ>mVsb 5 JWmJmamnH$s EH$. emgZm`m [d[dY [d^mJmZs H$m[eV Ho$bobs nwVHo$ BWo [_iVmV. `m JWmJmambm ^oQ> [Xbs AgVm [VWbo dmVmdaU nmhyZ _hmamQ>mMs dmMZgH$Vs J^ Ag`mMo [Xgbo. BWo dmMH$ _moR>m _mUmda `oVmV. [Xdg^a bmoH$mMs MmJbsM dXi AgVo. Ow`m Am[U Xw_ui JWmMs Iyn _mJUs AgVo. [deofV: S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a, _hm_m \w$bo JmadJW, [ddH$moemMo gd IS>, _hmamQ>mMo [enH$ma hs nwVH$ _m[bH$m `m JWmZm _moR>s _mJUs Amho. [edm` _hmamQ> ZmJar godm A[Y[Z`_ hs nw{VH$m A[YH$m[YH$ [dH$bs OmVo. nwVH$m[edm` `m

_hdmMs [R>H$mUo _w~BV AmhoV. emgH$s` JWmJma, gm[h` AH$mX_s Am[U ZeZb ~wH$ Q>Q> hs Vs VsZ _wI [R>H$mUo. emgH$s` JWmJma _w~B nm[hbo`m _mUgmZo _arZ S>mBh nm[hbm Zmhs Ago hmoV Zmhs. `mM _arZ S>mBhbm ZoVmOs gw^mf _mJmda emgH$s` JWmJma dgbo Amho. emgH$s` nmVisd$Z H$m[eV hmoUm`m nwVH$mMm _moR>m I[OZm BWo XS>bm Amho. _hmamQ> emgZm`m [dm [d^mJ, gm_m` emgZ [d^mJ, _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am[U gH$Vs _S>i, [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>i, nwamVd d A[^boI, [ejU [d^mJ, Xe[ZH$m [d^mJ, `dgm` _mJXeZ, OZJUZm H$m`mb` B. [d[dY [d^mJmMs nwVHo$, nw{VH$m BWo CnbY AmhoV. [edm` _hmamQ> emgZmMo A[Y[Z`_ d [Z`_ VgoM H|$ emgZmMo _amR>s A[Y[Z`_ BWo [_iVmV. AmOKS>sbm `m JWmJmamV Odinmg 2 hOma H$meZo [dH$sg CnbY AmhoV. XO}Xma Am[U gX^_y` AgUmao JW Vohs _m\$H$ [H$_VsV ho `m JWmJmamMo d[eQ> Amho. nmm emgZ _wU, boIZgm_Js gMmbZmb`, ZoVmOs gw^mf _mJ, _w~B400 004. XyadZs : 23631433 / 1799 gm[h` AH$mX_s _w~B `oWsb gm[h` AH$mX_sMo H$m`mb` XmXa `oWo Amho. 1972 gmbs `mMs WmnZm Pmbs. `m H$m`mb`m_m\$V _amR>s, JwOamVs, H$moH$Us d [gYs `m Mma ^mfoVsb AH$mX_sMm H$meZ `dhma nm[hbm OmVmo. [edm` boIH$ ^oQ>, n[agdmX, `m`mZo, nwVH$ _oio `mMo

Am`moOZhs Ho$bo OmVo. _w~B `oWsb [d^mJs` H$m`mb`m_`o AH$mX_sMo nwVH$ [dH$s H|$ Amho. `m [R>H$mUs _amR>s~amo~aM BVa ^maVs` ^mfm_Ysb XO}Xma gm[h` An [H$_VsV CnbY hmoVo. nmm 172, _w~B _amR>s JW gJhmb` _mJ, XmXa, _w~B-400 014. Xy.H$.02224135744. do~gmBQ>http://www.sahitya.akademi.gov.in

ZeZb ~wH$ Q>Q> ZeZb ~wH$ Q>Q> hs amV d dmOds XamV nwVHo$ H$m[eV H$aUmar EH$ gWm Amho.

AmOda gWoZo hOmamo nwVHo$ [d[dY ^maVs` ^mfm_YyZ [g Ho$bs AmhoV. `m_mJo gWoMm Coe hUOo Xoem`m ^mdZm_H$ d gmH$[VH$ Eo`mg hmV^ma bmdUo hmM AgVmo. Zm_dV ^maVs` boIH$m`m b[bV H$Vt_mUoM ^maVm[df`sMs [d[dY H$maMs _m[hVs XoUmao JWhs gWoV\}$ [g hmoV AgVmV. VgoM Aem JWmIoarO H$mhs JW_mbmhs gWomam H$m[eV H$a`mV `oVmV. CXm., AmXmZ XmZ, Zoh$ ~mb nwVH$mb`, ^maVXoe Am[U bmoH$, amQ>s` OsdZM[a _mbm, ^maVs` bmoH$gH$Vs d

60

o$~wdmar 2013

JWmJmam_`o amQ>s` _hmnw$fmMs N>m`m[Mo XoIsb CnbY AmhoV. A[Ve` A`mgnyU Am[U Xw_ui JWo Vohs H$_s [H$_VsV hdo AgVsb Va emgH$s` JWmJma hm Cm_ n`m` Amho. nmm : emgH$s` _wUmb` d JWmJma, [g{hb bmBZ, ZmJnya. XyadZs : 07122562615 / 111 - {H$aU H|$o

EH$ h_Img [R>H$mU Amho. nmm emgH$s` wUmb`, aodo WmZH$mgmoa, AmaJm~mX-nR>U aVm, AmaJm~mX, XyadZs - 0240-2331468/ 2331525. - amYmH$U wir

H$mohmnya

H$mohmnwamV _`dVu ~gWmZH$mda CVa`mZVa nmobsg _w`mb`mH$So> Om`m`m AmaJm~mX _mJmda [nVis JUoe _[Xamg_moa ho JW [dH$s AmaJm~mX-nR>U a`mda aodo H|$ Amho. `m So>nmoV g`m amoO gamgar 3 WmZH$mg_moa C>mU nwbm`m Imbs CO`m hOma n`mMs JW[dH$s hmoVo. amoO XsS>eohyZ ~mOybm gwdmVsg emgH$s` _wUmb`mMo A[YH$ gm[h`o_s `m So>nmog ^oQ> XoVmV. Amdma AgyZ `m`mbJV ho JWmJma Amho. `oWsb JW [dH$s XmbZmV H$a`mV Ambobs _mS>Ushs nwVH$ XeZmgmaIs Amho. emgZ Am[U emgZmes g~[YV `UmZs H$m[eV Ho$bobs nwVHo$ `oWo [_iVmV. AmaJm~mX ho [d^mJs` _w`mb`mMo eha. `oWo AgUm`m ej[UH$ gWm_wio `oWo [dm`mMs g`m bjUs` Amho. C `m`mb`mMo IS>nsR>, [d[dY emgH$s` H$m`mb`o AmXs_wio JWmJmamVyZ hmoUmar H$mohmnya XeZmgmR>s Ambo`m embo` ghbs [dH$s dmT>V Amho. ^maVs` am`KQ>ZoMs A`mdV Amdms, AmdOyZ `m gm[h` _[Xamg ^oQ> XoVmV. `m ~wH$ So>nmo_`o aH$da nwVHo$ _mSy>Z [d[dY H$m`Xo Am[U A[Y[Z`_mMs nwVHo$ `oWo CnbY AmhoV. `m[edm` am` gm[h` Am{U Ro>d`mV Ambs AmhoV. `m_wio hdo Vo nwVH$ gH$Vs _S>i, ^mfm gMmbZmb`, Xe[ZH$m nmhyZ Vo [dH$V KoVm `oVo. [d[dY H$maMs 25 hOmamhyZ nwVHo$, ghmeohyZ A[YH$ H$m`Xo, [d^mJ B`mXtMs H$meZo `oWo [_iVmV. H$dsd` Ho$edgwVm`m O_eVmXs _m`dmZ JW, Am_M[ao, g_J dmL>_` `oWo [Z[_m H$m[eV H$a`mV Ambobs `m`m [dH$sgmR>s CnbY Amho. g`m ^maVs` H$[dVmMs `Wm_yb hV[b[IV V, g_J am_ g[dYmZmg MS> _mJUs Amho. `mMs [H$_V JUoe JS>H$ar `m JWm_mUoM gm[h` AmH$mamZwgma 130, 245 Am[U 319 n`o gH$Vs _S>imZo H$m[eV Ho$bobs _hmamQ>mMo Aes Amho. "kmZodar" hm Y_JW hUyZ Kar [enH$ma _mboVsb nwVHo$hs `oWo [_iVmV. Agmdm Ago dmQ>Um`m g_mOmg AmVm ^maVs` [ddH$moemMo IS>, `m H$moemMs gs.S>s., Hw$_ma g[dYmZ Am[U B[S>`Z [nZb H$moS>hs Amn`m Kar hdm Ago dmQ>Vo hm g_mOmVsb ~Xb [ddH$moe, eXH$moemMo IS> `oWo [_iVmV. am` emgZm`m Xe[ZH$m [d^mJmZo Z$sM KQ>Zodarb lm XedUmam Amho. [d[dY [OmMo JPoQ>s`g [g Ho$bo JWmJmamV [ddH$moemMo 1 Vo 17 IS> gsS>s`m AmhoV. H$mhs OwZo JPoQ>s`g Am[U ZmXoS> d$nmV CnbY AmhoV. \$$ 17 dm IS> nwVH$ d$nmV CnbY Amho. Hw$_ma [OmMo Zdo JPoQ>s`a `oWo CnbY Amho. am` emgZmZo ^maVaZ S>m. ~m~mgmho~ [ddH$moehs gdbVsV [_iVmo. _hmamQ>mVsb Am~oS>H$amMo [bImU d ^mfUo [g Ho$bs gd [OmMs BJOsVsb JPoQ>g AmhoV. AmhoV. `m gH$bZmMo [d[dY IS> JWmJmamV e^a n`o [H$_V Agbobo _hm_m \w$bo `m`m g_J dmL>_`mg gdm[YH$ _mJUs Amho. VesM CnbY AgyZ `mZm gVV _mJUs AgVo. EHy$UM emgZmZo Am[U emgZmes g~[YV _mJUs AUm ^mD$ gmRo> g_J dmL>_`mg Amho. [dYr d `m` [d^mJmZo H$m[eV Ho$bobo `UmZs [g Ho$bobs nwVHo$ [_i`mMo ho

gd H$m`Xo CnbY AmhoV. `m_`o BJOsVsb 350 d _amR>sVsb 300 H$m`Xo AmhoV. _hmamQ> am` gm[h` Am{U gH$Vs _S>i, ^mfm gMmbZmb`, nwamVd [d^mJ, Xe[ZH$m [d^mJ, _hm_m \w$bo, S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a, amOfu emhy M[ao gmYZo H$meZ g[_Vs, _hmamQ> am` _amR>s [ddH$moe [Z[_Vs _S>imV\}$ H$m[eV gm[h` `oWo [dH$sgmR>s Ro>dbo OmVo. _hmamQ> ZmJar godmeVu AmR> ^mJmnH$s Mma ^mJ CnbY AmhoV. emgH$s` H$_Mm`mZm `m godmeVu Cn`moJs nS>Um`m AgVmV. `m_wio `mg _moR>s _mJUs Amho. Xe[ZH$m [d^mJmZo H$m[eV Ho$bo`m H$mohmnya, gmJbs, gmVmam, nwUo, gmobmnya `m [OmVsb

dmV`g[ZH$mMm 610 nmZmMm M[aH$moe CnbY Amho. `m H$moem_`o `m dmV`g[ZH$mMo Zmd, [ejU, O_, _`y, MidisV H$m` Ho$bo d `mZm H$m` [ejm Pmbs `mMs B`^yV _m[hVs Amho. "Qo>nb Am\$ _hmamQ>m", "_hmamQ> bS> AS> BQ>g> [nnb" hs BJOsVsb nwVHo$hs AmhoV. "Xmg~moY", amOfu emhy _hmamOmMo Am_Xma ns. ~s. gmiwIo `mZs gnm[XV Ho$bobo M[a, gamo[OZs ~m~a `mZr {b{hbo`m Hw$bXdV, lmdU ^mnX, gU Cgd, VgoM "~[hUmBMs JmUs" AmXs nwVH$mMs gVV _mJUs AgVo. _hm_m \w$bo, S>m.~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a `m`m [MmZmhs MS> _mJUs Amho. Vwhsgwm Oohm Ho$hm H$mohmnyabm `mb Vohm _hmb_s`m XeZmbm O$a Om d Vm~S>m-nmT>am a`mMmhs O$a AmdmX `m. naVw EH$Xm `m ~wH$ So>nmoghs [VV`mM AmWoZo ^oQ> m VaM Vw_Ms H$mohmnya ^oQ> H$maUs bmJ`mgmaIs hmoBb. nmm emgH$s` ~wH$ So>nmo, [nVis JUoe _[Xamg_moa, Vmam~mB nmH$, H$mohmnya. XyadZs : 0231-2650395, 2650402. - [ddmg nmQ>sb rr

o$~wdmar 2013

61

Q>o {ZU`... A{^Zd `moOZm


ZdrZ emim gw$ H$a`mgmR>r AO H$a`m`m wXVrbm 15 mMn`V dmT> hmamQ> d`AWghmp`V emim A{Y{Z`mZwgma ej{UH$ df 2013-14 `o ZdrZ emim gw$ H$a`mgmR>r qH$dm emioMm XOm dmT> H$a`mgmR>r AO H$a`mMr g`mMr 31 OmZodmarMr wXV 15 mM 2013 n`V dmT>dyZ Xo`mMm {ZU` am` {S>imZo KoVbm. hmamQ> d`AWghmp`V emim (WmnZm d {d{ZZ) A{Y{Z`mVrb VaVwXrZwgma emim WmnZ H$a`mgmR>r qH$dm {dmZ emioMm XOm dmT> H$a`mgmR>r g~{YV {ejU gMmbH$mH$S>o AO gmXa H$aUo Amd`H$ Amho. 2013-14 `m ej{UH$ dfmH$[aVm Agm AO 13 OmZodmar 2013 nydu H$a`mV `oBb, Aer VaVyX `m A{Y{Z`mV H$a`mV Ambr Amho. 2013 `m ej{UH$ dfmH$[aVm {d{hV Zw`m`o AO XmIb H$a`mH$[aVm g~{YV {ejU gWmZm CnbY hmoUmam H$mbmdYr VgoM Amd`H$ emgH$s` H$m`dmhr nyU H$a`mH$[aVm Amd`H$ H$mbmdYr An hmoVm Ago {ZXeZmg Ambo. `mwio ZdrZ emim WmnZ H$a`mgmR>r qH$dm {dmZ emioMm XOm dmT> H$a`mgmR>r AO XmIb H$a`mMr wXV 31 OmZodmar 2013 EodOr 15 mM 2013 n`V dmT>d`mV `mdr Am{U hr wXV 31 OmZodmar 2013 nmgyZ dmT>d`mV Ambr Ag`mMo mZmdo, Agm {ZU` {S>imZo KoVbm. `m A{Y{Z`mVrb VaVwXr`o ZdrZ emim hUOoM nyd-mW{H$, mW{H$, CM mW{H$, m`{H$ qH$dm CM m`{H$ emim WmnZ H$aUo qH$dm {dmZ emioMm `WmpWVr, CM mW{H$ qH$dm m`{H$ qH$dm CM m`{H$ emioV XOm dmT> H$aUo `mMm gmdoe Amho. am` ghH$mar {ZdS>UyH$ Am`wVnXr {Zdm g{Md XOm`m A{YH$m`mMr {Z`wVr am` ghH$mar {ZdS>UyH$ Am`wVnXr {Zdm g{Md XOm`m A{YH$m`mMr {Z`wVr H$a`mMm {ZU` {S>imZo KoVbm. ghH$ma H$m`mV {d{dY Xw$`m H$a`mgX^mV 30 OmZodmar 2013 amoOr {S>imZo Owar {Xbr hmoVr. `mVrb EH$ VaVyX gWm`m {ZdS>UwH$m Ko`mgmR>r am` ghH$mar {ZdS>UyH$ m{YH$aU WmnZ H$a`m~m~V hmoVr. {S>i ~R>H$sV `mda MMm hmoD$Z am` ghH$mar {ZdS>UyH$ m{YH$aUmda {Zdm g{Md XOm`m A{YH$m`mMr am` ghH$mar {ZdS>UyH$ Am`wV hUyZ {Z`wVr H$a`mMm {ZU` Pmbm. `mMr ZoUyH$ 3 dfmH$[aVm Agob. `m`m ZoUwH$sMm H$mbmdYr 2 dfmn`V am` emgZmbm dmT>dyZ XoVm `oBb. Xw^`m gH$[aV JmB-hetMo dmQ>n am`mVsb 33 [Oh`mV XyY CnmXZmbm MmbZm Xo`mgmR>s ghm Xw^`m gH$[aV JmB [H$dm hetMo JQ> dmQ>n H$aUmar `moOZm 12 `m nMdm[fH$ `moOZoV am~[d`mMm [ZU` _[_S>im`m ~R>H$sV Ko`mV Ambm. 2011-12 _`o `m `moOZ|VJV 1503 bm^m`mZm bm^ Xo`mV Ambobm AgyZ `m`m _m[gH$ CnmV 9000 $n`o Vo 12000 $n`mn`V dmT> Pmbs Amho. 2012-13 _`o `m am`Var` `moOZogmR>s EHy$U 40 H$moQ>s 16 bmI n`mMm [ZYs CnbY H$a`mV Ambm AgyZ `mYyZ 2088 bm^m`mZm bm^ Xo`mV `oBb. Mmby dfmV hs `moOZm XwH$miJV [Om_`o am~[d`mV `oUma Zmhs, VgoM Oo [Oho XwYmonmXZmV d`nyU ZmhsV AemM [Om_`o hs `moOZm am~[d`mV `oUma Amho. XyY CnmXH$Vm dmT>[d`mgmR>s `moOZm am`mVsb Jm`s-hetMs CnmXH$Vm dmT>[d`mgmR>s gdg_mdoeH$ H$m`H$_ am~[d`mMm [ZU` Ko`mV Ambm. `mV _m[hVs VkmZmMm dmna H$a`mV `oUma Amho. "am`mVsb JmB-hetMs CnmXH$Vm dmT>[d`mgmR>s gdg_mdoeH$ AZwd[eH$ gwYmaUm H$m`H$_'' Ago `m am`Var` `moOZoMo Zmd AgyZ Vs Mmby dfmnmgyZ am`mV am~[d`mV `oBb. `m `moOZoV OZmdamMs AmoiI nQ>[dUo d Zm|X Ro>dUo, `m`m CnmXZm`m Zm|Xs Ro>D$Z `mMo [dbofU H$aUo, `mAmYmao `oH$ [nT>sV CH$Q> OZmdamMs [ZdS> H$aUo `mgmR>s _moR>m _mUmda _m[hVs Jmoim H$a`mV `oBb. `mH$[aVm _m[hVs VkmZ Am[U gJUH$ UmbsMm dmna H$a`mV `oBb. naXoemVyZ Jmo[R>V aoV_mm XwY CnmXZ, demdi, breed characters, XwYnYm B.`m AmYmao [d[dY OmVs`m JmB-hetMs `m H$m`H$_mgmR>s [ZdS> H$a`mV `oUma Amho. `moOZo`m A_b~OmdUsgmR>s A[YH$mar, H$_Mmar, eoVH$ar d newnmbH$mZm Amd`H$ Vo [ejU Xo`mV `oUma Amho. [ZdS> Ho$bo`m JmB-hetZm A[VC AZwdm[eH$Vo`m /[gX diy`m Jmo[R>V aoV_momao H$[_ aoVZ H$a`mV `oUma Amho. `mgmR>s Amd`H$VoZwgma Jmo[R>V aoV_mm naXoemVyZ Am`mV H$a`mV `oUma AmhoV. dmgamMm gnyU Vnesb H$[_ aoVZ Ho$`mZVa O_bo`m gH$arV H$mbdS>s/gwYm[aV nmaS>m/Za dmgao `mMo O_V: dOZ, H$mbdS>sMo/nmaS>sMo _mOmda Am`m doisMo d`, dOZ, H$[_ aoVZ Ho$`mMs Zm|X, VmarI, H$mbdS> `m`mMs VmarI, XyY CnmXZ, `m`m [nVdm`m d _mVdm`m OZwH$r` MmMUsMm Vnesb VgoM `m `moOZ|VJV nXmg MmMUs H$m`H$_mgmR>s CnbY Pmbo`m Za dmgamMmhs Vnesb Ro>d`mV `oUma Amho. gJUH$ Amkmdbs newnmbH$m`m ZmdmMs Zm|XUs H$aUo [ZdS> Ho$bo`m JmB hetZm [d[eQ> AmoiI H$_mH$ XoUo, JmB hes`m CnmXH$ [df`H$, AZwdm[eH$, dm`mMm Vnesb, H$[_ aoVZ, H$[_ aoVZ Ho$bo`m diyMs demdi, J^VnmgUs B. Zm|Xs, BQ>aZoQ> d EgE_Egmao Ko`mgmR>s gJUH$ Amkmdbs (Software) V`ma/[dH$[gV H$a`mV `oUma Amho.

62

o$~wdmar 2013

_hm[dVaUMm nm`m^yV AmamIS>m H$n _hm[dVaU H$nZs`m Vm[dV nm`m^yV AmamIS>m (B\$m-2) H$nmg _m`Vm Xo`mV Ambs. `m H$nmgmR>s 6 hOma 500 H$moQ>s n`o IM `oUma AgyZ 80 Q>$o hUOo 5 hOma 200 H$moQ>s ^mJ^mS>db _hm[dVaU H$nZs H$OnmV C^maob. 20 Q>$o hUOo 1300 H$moQ>s n`o ^mJ^mS>db emgZ CnbY H$$Z XoUma Amho. `m H$nm_wio 2013 Vo 2016 n`V AXmOo 4 bj 88 hOma H$fs nn JmhH$, 23 bj 48 hOma KaJwVs JmhH$, 2 bj 64 hOma dm[U{`H$ JmhH$ Am[U 58 hOma 200 Ammo[JH$ JmhH$ Ago 31 bmI 58 hOma JmhH$mZm [dwV OmoS>`m XoUo e` hmoUma Amho. [Ohm[YH$m`mZm 2 H$moQ>tMm [ZYs _hmamQ> Jm_sU amoOJma h_s `moOZoVJV Q>MmB [Z_mU Pmbo`m JmdmV Amd`H$VoZwgma H$m_o gw$ H$amdsV Am[U H$moUVshs `$s amoOJmamnmgyZ d[MV amhUma Zmhs `mMs XjVm Ko`mV `oV Amho. Q>MmB n[a{WVsV nmUs nwadR>m`m `moOZmgmR>s nmUs nwadR>m [d^mJmbm AmVmn`V 413 H$moQ>s 98 bmI n`mMm [ZYs CnbY H$$Z {Xbm Amho. XwH$mi [ZdmaUm`m d Vg_ H$maUmgmR>s `oH$ [Ohm[YH$m`mZm XmoZ H$moQ>s n`o AmH${_H$ [ZYs hUyZ IM H$a`mgmR>s CnbY H$a`mMm [ZU` Ko`mV Ambm. am`mVsb 1,356 JmdmV nmUs Q>MmB 1,730 Q>H$gmao nmUs nwadR>m am`mVsb 1 hOma 356 JmdmVsb 3 hOma 938 dmS>mV nmUs Q>MmB OmUdV AgyZ `m [R>H$mUs 1,730 Q>H$gmao nmUs nwadR>m Ho$bm OmV Amho. Vrd Q>MmB OmUdV Agob `m [R>H$mUs AmUIs Q>H$g VmVS>sZo CnbY H$$Z Xo`mV `oVsb. Q>MmB n[a{WVsV bmoH$mZm JmdmVM amoOJma CnbY hmdm `mXQ>sZo _hmamQ> am` Jm_sU amoOJma h_s `moOZoImbs EHy$U 21 hOma 496 H$m_o gw$ AgyZ `m H$m_mda 2 bmI 912 _Oya H$m_ H$arV

AmhoV. am`mV AmVmn`V 441 OZmdam`m N>md`m CKS>`mV Am`m AgyZ `mV 3 bmI 85 hOma 141 EdT>s OZmdao AmhoV. Ah_XZJa [OmV 188, nwUo [OmV 1, gmVmam [OmV 93, gmJbs [OmV 22, gmobmnya [OmV 115, ~sS> [OmV 17, C_mZm~mX [OmV 5 Jwam`m N>md`m CKS>`mV Am`m AmhoV. `mda AmVmn`V 25,618.39 bmI n`o

IM H$a`mV Ambm Amho. Mm`mgmR>s 684 H$moQ>s 29 bmI EdT>m [ZYs [dV[aV Ho$bm Amho. [nH$mMs A[V_ ngodmar [Ohm[YH$m`mZs Omhsa Ho$bs AgyZ `mV 7 hOma 64 JmdmVsb ngodmar 50 nemnojm H$_s AmT>iyZ Ambs Amho. [Ohm[YH$m`mZs Omhsa Ho$bo`m a~s hJm_m`m hJm_s ngodmarV 3 hOma 905 JmdmVsb ngodmar 50 nemnojm H$_s AmT>iyZ Ambs Amho. nmUs `moOZo`m dsO Xo`H$mgmR>s 67 Q>$o AZwXmZ Iarn hJm_mMs A[V_ ngodmar 50 Q>$onojm H$_s AgUm`m JmdmZm nmUs nwadR>m H$aUm`m nmUs nwadR>m `moOZoMs Mmby hUOoM 1 E[b 2012 ZVaMs Xo`Ho$ ^a`mgmR>s nmUs nwadR>m [d^mJmH$Sy>Z 50 Q>$o, _XV Am[U nwZdgZ [d^mJm`m Q>MmB [ZYsVyZ 17 Q>$o Ago EHy$U 67 Q>$o AZwXmZ Xo`mMm [ZU` Ko`mV Ambm. Cd[aV 33 Q>$o [ZYs hm g~[YV Jm_nMm`V [H$dm nmUs nwadR>m gWm `mZs C^m H$amd`mMm Amho. 1 E[b 2012 nydu WH$~mH$sMs Xo`Ho$ A^` `moOZoImbs 12 h`mV ^a`mMm [ZU` `mnyduM Ko`mV Ambm Amho. `mZwgma bm^YmaH$mZm

`j 67 Q>$o a$_ AZwXmZ hUyZ Xo`mV `oBb. nmUs Q>MmB Xya H$a`mgmR>s OmbZm, C_mZm~mXbm [ZYs _amR>dmS>mVsb OmbZm Am[U C_mZm~mX eham_`o [n`m`m nm`mMs Vsd Q>MmB AgyZ Vs Xya H$a`m`m Q>sZo VmVS>sZo `moOZm hmVs Ko`mgmR>s Xmohs ehamZm [ZYs CnbY H$$Z Xo`mMm [ZU` Pmbm. OmbZm ehamgmR>s 22 H$moQ>s Va C_mZm~mX ehamgmR>s 51 H$moQ>s n`o Xo`mV `oVsb. OmbZm ehamV UIDSSMT AVJV [n`m`m nm`m`m Q>MmB`m AZwfJmZo `moOZm _Oya H$a`mV Ambs Amho. `m `moOZo`m nyVVogmR>s 22 H$moQ>s n`o BVH$m [ZYs bmJUma Amho. am`, H|$ d _hmZJanm[bHo$Mm [hgm Ago 182 H$moQ>s n`o Xo`mV Ambo AgyZ 181 H$moQ>sMo H$m_ nyU Pmbo Amho. C_mZm~mX ehamgmR>s `mM `moOZ|VJV 51 H$moQ>s n`mMs Amd`H$Vm Amho. H$n gw Ro>d`mgmR>s AXmOo 7 H$moQ>s 50 bmI n`o [V dfu XoI^mb XwVsgmR>s Am[U W[H$V dsO [~bmnmoQ>s 22 H$moQ>s n`o IM Ano[jV Amho. ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes ems` gJsV mogmhZ `moOZm ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes ems` gJsV mogmhZ `moOZm am~[d`mg _[_S>imZo _m`Vm [Xbs. `m `moOZ|VJV ZdsZ nmM CnH$_ am~[d`mV `oVsb. am` gmH$[VH$ YmoaU 2010 `m [ZU`mZwgma ems` gJsVmg mogmhZ Xo`mgmR>s ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes `m`m Zmdo ZdsZ `moOZm gw$ H$a`mV `oV Amho. `mAVJV ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes `wdm [e`dms `moOZm, ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes ems` gJsV _hmogd, ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes Jw$Hw$b `moOZm, ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes ems` gJsV OsdZ Jmad nwaH$ma, ^maVaZ n[S>V ^s_goZ Omoes ems` gJsVmVsb Zm|XUsH$V gWmZm gmhm`H$ AZwXmZ ho nmM CnH$_ am~[d`mV `oVrb. rr

o$~wdmar 2013

63

hmamQ>mMm Jmad
g|~a, OmZodmar `m _[h`m_`o [Xs`m Amg_Vmda Yw`mMo gmdQ> Am[U a`mda H$S>m`mMs WS>s AgVo. _m `mM H$mimV [Xs_`o ggXo`m A[YdoeZmZVa`m _hdm`m ~R>H$mMs lIbm gw$ hmoVo. `m_wio [Xs`m WS>sMo _mhm` JmVM Xoe^amVsb [d[dY am`mMo [V[ZYs _S>i Am[U d[aR> emgH$s` A[YH$mar _hdm`m ~R>H$s_`o gh^mJs hmoVmV. `m WS>s`m XmoZ _[h`mV _hmamQ>m`m XQ>sZo AZoH$ C~Xma [ZU` amOnWm`m gmjsZo Pmbobo AmhoV. `mVsb _ZmV gmR>bobm _hdmMm [ZU` hUOo BXy [_b`m OmJo`m hVmVaUmMs KmofUm hmo`. ggXo`m Xmohs g^mJhmV 5 [S>g|~a amoOs WoQ> [dXoes JwVdUwH$sda dmXis MMm gw$ AgVmZm gmd_VmV ^maVaZ S>m. ~m~mgmho~ Am~oS>H$a `m`m Vm[dV _maH$mgmR>s BXy [_bMs OmJm hVmV[aV H$a`mV `oV Ag`mMs KmofUm H$a`mV Ambs. Jo`m df^amV `m ^md[ZH$ _wmbm KoD$Z AZoH$ AmKmS>mda _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `mZs amOYmZsV `Z Ho$bo hmoVo. EImm ^md[ZH$ ZmMm emVVm d g`_mZo gd_m` VmoS>Jm H$gm [ZKy eH$Vmo `mMm dVwnmR> _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `mZs `m [ZU`mbm XoenmVisda nm[R>~m [_idyZ KmbyZ [Xbm amQ>s` [dH$mg n[afXoMo! `m n[afXoV Amho. gmo~VM ho _maH$ OmJ[VH$ XOmMo Xoe^amVsb gd am`m`m _w`_`mZs hmoBb `mgmR>s am` emgZmZo O~m~Xmar Amn`m am`m`m Am[WH$ n[a{WVs~m~V AmamIS>m gmXa Ho$bm. gmo~VM Xoem`m [dH$mgXam_`o Amn`m am`mMm dmQ>m Am[U _mohZ amR>moS> H|$mH$Sy>Z _XVsMs _mJUs Ho$bs. `m n[afXoda KoVbr Amho. _hmamQ>m`m B[VhmgmV _hmamQ>mgma`m [dH$[gV am`mMs N>mn hmoVs. am`mH$Sy>Z Ammo[JH$ bmIm|`m ^mdZm OmoS>bo`m _wmda AZoH$ _w`_`mZs Ho$bobs `eds [eQ>mB hUyZ [dH$mgmgX^mVsb gmXa hmoUm`m AmH$So>dmar Am[U KmofUm`m nmd^y_sda _w`_`mZs `m KQ>ZoMs Zm|X `mds bmJob. am`m`m Am[WH$ dmQ>Mmbsbm am`mMm Am[WH$ Vmio~X gmXa Ho$bm. XoenmVisda _mS>`mMs gYsXoIsb `mM _hmamQ> hoM XoemVsb gd AmKmS>sdarb am` _[h`mV _w`_`mZm [_imbs. Am[M` hmoVo Ag`mMo Amn`m [ZdoXZmV R>m_nUo _mSy>Z ~mam`m nMdm[fH$ `moOZoV am` 10.5 Q>o$ [dH$mgXa gm` H$aob Agm [ZYmahs `$ Ho$bm. am`mVsb Jo`m XmoZ dfmnmgyZ`m XwH$mis {WVsbm gm_moao OmVmZm am`mZo H$fs d [gMZ jomV Ho$bo`m [Z`moOZmMs _m[hVs `mZs `m ~R>H$sV [Xbs. XwH$miJV ^mJm_`o 145 Vmbw`mV 105 H$n am~[d`mV `oV Ag`mMs _m[hVs [Xbs. 2270 H$moQ>s n`o IM `m ^mJmgmR>s H$amdm bmJob, `m ZmH$So> `mZs bj doYbo. am`mVsb ZdsZ ^yOb A[Y[Z`_ H$m`Xm, dmomoJ YmoaU, am` nmofU A[^`mZ, _hm-B-godm H|$ C^maUs Aem AZoH$ H$nmMs ^mds A_b~OmdUs Jo`m XmoZ _[h`mV XoemV`m XmoZ AJUs _m`_ g_yhmH$Sy>Z H$a`mV `oV Ag`mMo `mZs [ZXeZmg am`m`m dmQ>MmbsMm Jmad H$a`mV Ambm. n[hbm H$m`H$_ 1 Zmoho~abm AmUbo. `mdois H|$m`m [d[dY `moOZmMs B[S>`m Qw>So> `m g_yhmV\}$ Pmbm. nm`m^yV gw[dYm d JmhH$ gw[dYm `m jomV A_b~OmdUs H$a`mMo AmdmgZ XoVmZmM MmJbo H$m` H$a`mgmR>s hm nwaH$ma _w`_s ndsamO MhmU `mZm am`mVsb b[~V aodo H$n, H|$s` H$[f_s eaX ndma `m`m hVo XmZ H$a`mV Ambm. `m n[afXoV [H$Zman>sdarb ~XamMm [dH$mg, H$moigm d _w`_s MhmU `mZm _moR>m am`mVsb gd ^mJmbm g_Vmob [dH$mgmMs JgMm [Z`[_V nwadR>m, amOsd Amdmg gYs [_iob H$m`? `m [df`mda ~mob`mg nmMmaU H$a`mV Ambo. `moOZo`m [Z`_mVsb [e[WbVm, _w~BVsb [dH$mgmMo g_Vmob am` C^ma`mgmR>s VmbwH$m KQ>H$ R>adyZ YmoaU PmonS>n>>s nwZdgZmgmR>s ^ard _XVs`m R>a[d`mMs KmofUm `mZr Ho$bs. `mZVa am`mV `mQ>sZo [Z`moOZ gw$ _mJUs gX^mV H|$mZo Jm^r`mZo [dMma Pmbo Amho. g_Vmob [dH$mgm`m _wmda _w`_`mZs Ho$bobo d$` `m H$amdm, Aes _mJUs `mZs Ho$bs. n[afXoMo w` erfH$ (hoS>bmBZ) R>abo. BVa am`m`m _w`_`m`m ObgYmaU n[afX Cn{WVsV _w`_`mZs [dH$mgm`m [dH|$sH$aUmbm [Xbobs Zds [Xem amQ>s` [dH$mg n[afXoZVa Xwg`m [Xdes BVa gdmZr CMbyZ Yabs. Pmbo`m ObgYmaU n[afXoV nVYmZ S>m.

[S>

64

o$~wdmar 2013

_w`_s _hmoX`m`m [XsVsb nwdmZw^dmMm d gnH$mMm Cn`moJ Pmbm. XwH$mis n[a{WVsbm gm_moao OmUm`m d[aR> _`m`m Cm[YH$ma g[_Vsbm `m_wioM _hmamQ>mVsb XwH$mim`m n[a{WVsMo Jm^r` H$imbo. Xa`mZ, Cm[YH$ma g[_VsMo _wI Agbo`m H|$s` H$[f_s eaX ndma d g[_Vs gX`mg_moa Zmoho~a _[h`mV XwH$mim~m~V gmXarH$aU Ho$bo hmoVo. `m_wio hs n[a{WVs `m Cm[YH$ma _[JQ>mbm g_OyZ KoVm Ambs. n[aUm_s, 10 OmZodmarbm _[JQ>mZo am`m`m XwH$mi [ZdmaUmgmR>s 778 H$moQ>sMs KmofUm Ho$bs. `mZs _hmamQ>mVsb XwH$mis ^mJmV eoVsgmR>s 563.29 H$moQ>s, \$i~mJmgmR>s 91.29 H$moQ>s, newgdYZmgmR>s 72.88 H$moQ>s, nmUsnwadR>mgmR>s 50.63 H$moQ>s Ago EHy$U 778.9 H$moQ>s n`o XwH$mi [Zdma`mgmR>s Omhsa Ho$bo AmhoV.

_Z_mohZ [gJ `mZs am`mZs Amnbs ObZrVs R>a[dVmZm H$m` Cnm``moOZm Ho$`m ho OmUyZ KoVbo. n[afXo`m gwdmVsbmM _w`_`mZm ~mob`mMs gYs XoD$Z am`m`m [Z`moOZmMs _m[hVs KoVbs. _hmamQ>mVsb XwH$miJV ^mJm_`o g`m gdm[YH$ g_`m Amho Vs [n`m`m nm`mMs, _hmamQ>m_`o [gMZ Am[U [n`mMo nmUs ho [df` A[Ve` J^saVoZo am` emgZ hmVmiV AgyZ H|$mVXoIsb amQ>s` ObZrVs YmoaU R>a[dVmZm nwT>`m AZoH$ dfmMo [Z`moOZ Agmdo, Ago AmdmhZ _w`_`mZs ghm`m amQ>s` ObgYmaU n[afXoV Ho$bo. _hmamQ> emgZmZo nm`mMo [Z`[_V, g_Vmob dmQ>n d `dWmnZ hmdo, `mgmR>s _hmamQ> ^yOb [dH$mg d `dWmnZ H$m`Xm A_bmV AmUbm Ag`mMo gm[JVbo. [d[dY n[afXm_YyZ am`m`m `o`YmoaUmMs _m[hVs XoVmZmM _w`_`m`m H|$ Vamdarb [d[dY Im`m`m _`m`m ^oQ>sJmR>s gw$ hmo`m. am`mVsb XwH$mis n[a{WVsda _mV H$a`mgmR>s AWgmhm` [_i`mgmR>s nVYmZ S>m. _Z_mohZ [gJ, H|$s` H$[f_s eaX ndma `m`mH$So> `mZs gmV`mZo nmR>nwamdm Ho$bm.

_hmamQ>m`m gdM jomVsb dmQ>MmbtMm Jmad 22 [S>g|~abm H$a`mV Ambm. Am`~sEZ `m dmdm[hZs g_yhm`m gmoh`mV am`mbm XoemVsb gdmV JV am`mMm nwaH$ma Xo`mV Ambm. nm`m^yV gw[dYm, ZmJ[aH$mMs gwa[jVVm, [ejU, amoOJma [Z[_Vs, n`mdaU, Amamo` gw[dYm, J[a~s [Z_ybZ, no`Ob Am[U nmUsnwadR>m _[hbm

gj_sH$aU, Aem ZD$ [d[dYmJs jomV hm nwaH$ma Xadfu [Xbm OmVmo. _hmamQ>mbm amoOJma [Z[_Vs Am[U no`Ob d dN>Vm `m XmoZ JQ>mV gdmV ^mds am` hUyZ hm nwaH$ma [_imbm Amho. _w`_`m`m dVsZo hm nwaH$ma [XsVsb _hmamQ>mMo [Zdmgs Am`w$ [~nsZ _{H$ `mZs drH$mabm. dMd H$m` `m[edm` Jo`m _[hZm^amV ghH$mar gmIa H$maImZm _hmgKm`m dVsZo Xo`mV `oUm`m dm[fH$ nwaH$mamV _hmamQ>mZo Amnbm AJH$_mH$ H$m`_ amIbm. 17 nH$s 9 nwaH$ma nQ>H$mdyZ ghH$mar gmIa H$maIm`mMm nm`m KmbUm`m _hmamQ>mZo Amnbo dMd [g Ho$bo. H$fs [d^mJmV\}$ [Xbm OmUmam amQ>s` Vamdarb nwaH$ma Omb`m`m g_W ghH$mar gmIa H$maIm`mbm Cm_ [dm `dWmnZmgmR>s amQ>nVs Ud _wIOu `m`m hVo Xo`mV Ambm. `mM _[h`mV dYm [OmZo AmYma `moOZoVsb nWXeu H$nmV ^mds H$m` Ho$`m~b H$moM \$mCSo>eZMm nwaH$ma nQ>H$m[dbm Va gm[h` jomVhs O`V ndma `mZs gm[h` AH$mX_sMm nwaH$ma nQ>H$m[dbm. `m`mgmo~VM gm[h` AH$mX_sMm `wdm nwaH$ma, `wdm ZmQ>H$H$ma Y_H$rVu gw_V `mZm Va AZwdmXmMm nwaH$ma emaXm gmRo> `mZs nQ>H$mdyZ amOYmZsV am`mMo Zmd AYmoao[IV Ho$bo. `mM _[h`mV _hmamQ> n[aM` H|$m`m dVsZo Am`mo[OV _amR>s nH$ma [XZm`m H$m`H$_mV amOYmZsV Amn`m boIZsMm R>gm C_Q>[dUm`m nH$ma ~mYdmMm gH$mahs g_aUs` R>abm. rr

JVs _XmZmda Zmoh|~a _[h`mV AmVaamQ>s` `mnma _o`mMo CXKmQ>Z Pmbo. `m _o`mV am`mMm gh^mJ hmoVm. `m _o`mV _hmamQ> \y$S> XmbZmZo gdmoH$Q> Im nXmWm_`o gwdU g_mZ nQ>H$mdbm. _hmamQ> \y$S>`m _wI [d^m [MniyUH$a `mMm H|$s` CmoJ am`_s S>s. nwaXaodar `m`m hVo gH$ma H$a`mV Ambm.

o$~wdmar 2013

65

mo$V AmfYmonMma
hmamQ> am` ES>g {Z`U gWm am`mVsc gd {Oh`mV doJdoJio CnH$_ am~{dV Amho. ES>g{df`s cmoH$m_`o OZOmJVs H$aUo, Jag_O Xya H$aUo, EMAm`hs gg{JV cmoH$m`m ~m~VsV hmoUmam H$cH$, ^oX^mdmMs ^mdZm H$_s H$aUo, `m`mV EMAm`hses gm_Zm H$a`mgmR>s VmH$X {Z_mU H$aUo, EMAm`hs hmo`mMs H$maUo H$m` AmhoV d Vs Q>mi`mgmR>s H$m` Ho$co nm{hOo VgoM ES>g gg{JV `$s `mo` dois CnMma KoD$Z gdgm_m` _mmgm_mUo Amnco OsdZ OJy eH$Vo. Ago AZoH$ H$maMo H$m`H$_ _hmamQ> ES>g {Z`U gWm am~drV Amho. EMAm`hsMm gma Wm~{d`mgmR>s d `mMm {V~Y H$a`mgmR>s EMAm`hs gg{JV `$sZm gaH$ma_m$V AZoH$ gX^godm d _mo$V AmfYmonMma nwa{dco OmVmV. _hmamQ> am`mV EHy$U 58 EAmaQ>s H|$o AmhoV. nH$s 9 H|$o w~B d 49 EAmaQ>s H|$o w~B~mhoa _hmamQ>m`m 33 {OmV AmhoV. `m H|$m_m$V UmZm XrKH$mi AmfYo nwa{dcs OmVmV. `mMm gs S>s 4 VnmgUs H$$Z `mZm AmfYo {Xcs OmVmV. `m_wio EMAm`hs Pmco`m UmMo Am`w` dmT>`mg _XV hmoVo. am`mVsc gd Jm_sU Umc`o VgoM 24x7 mW{_H$ Amamo` H|$mV g_wnXoeZmMs d EMAm`hs VnmgUsMs gmo` CncY Amho. EH$m{_H$ gcm d VnmgUs H$|m_YyZ VimJmimVsc cmoH$mn`V EMAm`hs ES>g~m~V gd _m{hVs d godm nmhmoM{d`mg _XV hmoVo. a$m_m$V EMAm`hsMm gma Q>mi`mH$[aVm a$noT>m_`o O_m hmoUm`m `oH$ a$ Z_w`mMo EMAm`hs/JwVamoJ, a$mVsc H$mdsi d {hdVmn {dfmUyH$[aVm VnmgUs Ho$cs OmVo d Xy{fV AmT>iUm`m a$ ~mQ>`mVsc a$ ZQ> Ho$co OmVo. `m_wio

a$m_YyZ EMAm`hsMm ggJ hmo`mMs e`Vm Ho$di 0.1 Q>`mda Amcocs Amho. EMAm`hs gg{JV `$s_`o j`amoJ hmo`mMo _mU ho A{YH$ AgVo. Odi Odi 70 Q>$o EMAm`hs gg{JVmZm j`amoJ hmoD$ eH$Vmo, naVw j` Pmco`m `$sZo {Z`{_V d nyU CnMma KoV`mg j` nyUnUo ~am hmoD$ eH$Vmoo. JwamoJ AgUm`m `$sg EMAm`hs hmo`mMs e`Vm 5 Vo 10 nQ>sZo dmT>Vo. b{JH$ g~YmVyZ ngaUmao JwamoJ ~ao hmoD$ eH$VmV. JwamoJmda VH$mi AmfYmonMma H$a`mgmR>s am`mV 75 {R>H$mUs JwamoJ {M{H$gm H|$mMs C^maUs H$a`mV Amcs Amho. `m H|$m_YyZ UmZm c{JH$ AmOmam~m~V {ZXmZ, AmfYmonMma, g_wnXoeZ godm d {ZamoYMm nwadR>m Ho$cm OmVmo. EMAm`hs gg{JV _mVoH$Sy>Z {V`m hmoUm`m ~mimg EMAm`hsMm ggJ hmoD$ Z`o `mgmR>s hm H$n am`mV am~{d`mV `oVmo. JamoXa _mVmMo g_wnXoeZ d Eo{N>H$ a$ VnmgUs H$$Z AmfYmonMma Ho$co OmVmV d `m_wio EMAm`hs gg{JV _mVoH$Sy>Z ~mimg hmoUmam ggJmMm YmoH$m Q>miy eH$Vmo. _hmamQ>mVsc gdM 578 EH$m{_H$ gcm d MmMUs H|$mV hs godm CncY H$$Z Xo`mV Amcs Amho. BAm`S>s H$m`H$_m_m$V _hmamQ> am`mVsc EMAm`hs gg{JV _mVm`m 18 _{h`mImcsc ~mcH$mMs S>sEZEnsgsAma (DNA PCR) VnmgUs Ho$cs OmVo. `m VnmgUs_`o AmT>ico`m EMAm`hs gg{JV ~mcH$mZm EAmaQ>s AmfYmonMma gw$ Ho$co OmVmV. g_mOmVsc gd Vamdarc cmoH$mn`V nmohmoM`mMo _r{S>`m ho EH$ _m`_ Amho. AmVaamQ>s` `wdm {XZ, a$XmZ {XZ, OmJ{VH$ ES>g {XZ `m {Z{_mmZo EMAm`hs ES>g gX^mVsc Om{hamVs _hmamQ>mVsc gdmV OmV In AgUm`m dV_mZnm_YyZ

{g Ho$`m OmVmV. XyaXeZ`m gms dm{hZsda "dW ^maV' `m ZmdmZo H$m`H$_ gm[aV Ho$cm OmVmo. `m H$m`H$_m_`o EMAm`hs/ES>g {df`mda Vk `$s`m _wcmIVs KoV`m OmVmV VgoM gXa H$m`H$_mXa`mZ cmoH$m`m _ZmV EMAm`hs g~{YV Agco`m ZmMo Vk `$tH$Sy>Z {ZamH$aU Ho$co OmVo. `mM~amo~a AmH$medmUr (AIR) _hmamQ>mVsc 19 Qo>egd$Z EMAm`hs `m {df`mdarc 52 ^mJm`m _m{cHo$Mo gmaU Ho$co OmVo. _mJsc dfs hm H$m`H$_ "~~csMo ~moc' `m ZmdmZo gm[aV hmoV hmoVm. `mhs dfs 10 OmZodmarnmgyZ hm H$m`H$_ "{H$Vs Xya {H$Vs Odi' `m ZmdmZo gm[aV hmoV Amho. hm H$m`H$_ WcmV[aV H$m_Jmamda AmYm[aV Amho. H$m_m{Z{_mmZo Amn`m JmdmnmgyZ Xya, eham_`o amhUm`m cmoH$mMo _Z ho gVV Kam_`o, KamVsc _mUgm_`o JwVcoco AgVo. Aem Amn`m KamnmgyZ, KamV`m _mUgmnmgyZ, ZmVodmBH$, {__S>itnmgyZ Xya amhUm`m cmoH$m`m _ZmMs VJ_J, Amn`m Odi`m _mUgm~c `mZm dmQ>Umar AmoT> `m H$m`H$_mVyZ gmXa hmoUma Amho. VgoM Amn`m KamnmgyZ Xya amhVmZm AZmdYmZmZohs `m`mH$Sy>Z MwH$sMo nmD$c nSy> Z`o `m~c _mJXeZ Ho$co OmUma Amho. OoUoH$$Z `m H$m`H$_mmao `mMo _ZmoaOZhs hmoBc. `m _m{cHo$_YyZ gWoes {ZJS>sV AgUmar EH$ `$s ehamVsc cmoH$m`m g_`m gmoS>{d`mMo, EMAm`hs/ES>g{df`s `mZm OmJ$H$ H$a`mMo, `mZm _mJXeZ H$a`mMo H$m_ H$arV Amho. EMAm`hsnmgyZ dVMm ~Mmd H$gm H$amdm, `mgmR>s H$m` H$miOs KoVcs nm{hOo ho Vs gdmZm g_OmdyZ gmJVo Amho. A{YH$ _m{hVsgmR>s gnH$ gmYm. Am_Mm honcmBZ Z~a Amho 022-24110000. - dmVs ho_V {edeaU (~ZgmoSo>) rr

66

o$~wdmar 2013

am` _amR>s dmL>_` nwaH$ma 2010-2011


dmL>_` H$ma am`em d g_mOem> am`em d g_mOem VdkmZ d _mZgem [ejUem> ^mfmem d `mH$aU ^m[VH$em Am[U V[dkmZ ^m[VH$em Am[U V[dkmZ boIH$ nwVH$ eaX Omoes ~isMo am` `oUma Amho gsVmam_ Ioa Xm[a`mMs gH$nZm Am[U [ZdmaU \$mXa \$m{gg [X[~Q>mo gw~moY ~m`~b gXsnHw$_ma gmiwIo h_ hm|Jo H$m_`m~ gwaoe dmKo gH$nZm H$moe AemoH$ dmS>H$a Am[dH$aU AmYw[ZH$ dmVwH$boMo Omogo\$ VwH$mZmo [dkmZdmQ>m X[bV-nXX[bVmdarb AmXe gm[h` bmoH$emhsa AUm ^mD$ gmRo> nwaH$ma m.`mXd Jm`H$dmS g`H$ gdmX AZwdm[XV-mT> VH$VsW b_Uems Omoes nwaH$ma gwZXm A_amnyaH$a [S>gA[nA[aJ S>mQ>g AZwdm[XV-mT> ([d^mJyZ) g`[g ~d} ls_X> ^mJdV _hmnwamU AZwdm[XV-W_ dm.am.H$mV nwaH$ma Cfm Vm~o OmUsd gnm[XV-mT> S>m.[d.[^.H$mobVo nwaH$ma _hoe Ho$iwgH$a _Yw _Joe H$[UH$ gQ>s Am[U Q>s gnm[XV-W_ am.Zm.MhmU nwaH$ma AU eodVo EodO AmYm[aV-mT> gV JmS>Jo _hmamO nwaH$ma nmSw>aJ XoenmSo> kmZodar (gmHo$[VH$ eXXeZ) gemoYZ-mT> J.`._mS>ImobH$a nwaH$ma S>m.H$Um e|So> _wbVmZs g_mO d gm_m[OH$ n[adVZ gemoYZ-mT> ([d^mJyZ) ny[U_m ^mJdV _mYd _YwnwarMm b[bVH$bm AmdmXna boIZ nw.b.XoenmSo> nwaH$ma _mYds _oh|Xio Xds [V^oMm H$bmdV _m`Ho$b AOobmo b[bVH$bm AmdmXna boIZ ([d^mJyZ) _hmdsa Om|Yio ZmX AV[aMm, lsbH$m eoVs d eoVsnyaH$ boIZ dgVamd ZmBH$ nwaH$ma AemoH$ ^obHo$ qgMZ `dWmnZ eoVsnyaH$ `dgm` boIZ> S>m.nOm~amd Xoe_wI nwaH$ma S>m.~s.Eg. H$mngo Am~m bmJdS> Vo [Z`mV H$sS>m dmL>_`-mT> amOfu emhy _hmamO nwaH$ma gw~moY _`wao Mbm [H$Ho$Q> [eHy$`m gJUH$ d BQ>aZoQ>-mT> aba namOno nwaH$ma _mYd [eadiH$a gJUH$mdarb _amR>s Am[U `w[ZH$moS> n`mdaU-mT> S>m.gbs_ Abs nwaH$ma A[^[OV KmoanSo> gW dmhVo ~h_hmamQ> nwaH$ma-mT> [d>b am_Os [eXo nwaH$ma S>m.emo^m ZmBH$ XoIUs : OJ`mMo D$dnmVZ ~h_hmamQ> nwaH$ma-mT> g`mOs _hmamO Jm`H$dmS> nwaH$ma ls.~m.Omoer Cm_ _`_ H$[dVm-~mb dmL>_` ^m.am.Vm~o nwaH$ma a_oe Vm~o dZ H$[dVm dm.Jmo._m`Xod nwaH$ma bsbm ehm H$[dVm n`mdaUm`m Am[U Z`m [dMmam`m M[ao-~mb dmL>_` [d.H$m.AmoH$ nwaH$ma _mohZ Omoes Amnbo amQ>nVs M[ao J.h. nmQ>sb nwaH$ma ~mi amUo JmD$ `mZm AmaVs gdgm_m` kmZ - ~mb dmL>_` `XwZmW Wmo nwaH$ma S>m._moX Mm~o q^JmMs H$am_V gdgm_m` kmZ - ~mb dmL>_` amOm Ho$iH$a nwaH$ma amOsd Vm~o J_V emim ZmQ>H$ d EH$m[H$H$m- ~mb dmL>_` am_ JUoe JS>H$ar nwaH$ma S>m.gVse gmiwHo$ nmg H$s Zmnmg ZmQ>H$ d EH$m[H$H$m- ~mb dmL>_` emhsa A_aeoI nwaH$ma eaX [nXS>s [MD$ H$mD$Ms H$Wm Zds ZmQ>H$ d EH$m[H$H$m- ~mb dmL>_` ([d^mJyZ) S>m.^JdmZ AOZsH$a narjm ZmQ>H$ d EH$m[H$H$m- ~mb dmL>_` dm.Jmo.AmnQo> nwaH$ma __`s ~manmSo> Mbm bmdy`m PmSo>, ZH$mo Vo XodnU, dJ ~mb H$mX~ar/N>moQ>m JmoQ>s/narH$Wm/bmoH$H$Wm JmonsZmW VidbH$a nwaH$ma gO` dPaoH$a Q>[ZJ nmBQ> ~mb H$mX~ar/N>moQ>m JmoQ>s/narH$Wm/bmoH$H$Wm gmZo JwOs nwaH$ma H$[dVm _oh|Xio bs ~mb H$mX~ar/N>moQ>m JmoQ>s/narH$Wm/bmoH$H$Wm H$ds Xm nwaH$ma gO` H$mZ \$Zs`m gmhg H$Wm ~mb H$mX~ar/N>moQ>m JmoQ>s/narH$Wm/bmoH$H$Wm Zm.Ym|.VmhUH$a nwaH$ma _Jbm JmoS>~mobo ghs ao ghs b[bV J/~mbgm[h` g_sjm Am[U gH$sU aohaS> Zm.dm.[Q>iH$ nwaH$ma a_oe _hmbo AVamimVsb Qo>eZ nwaH$ma ([d^mJyZ) ~.ZmW n nwaH$ma Zm.Jmo.ZmXmnyaH$a nwaH$ma H$_dsa ^mD$amd nmQ>sb nwaH$ma Zm.Jmo.H$mbobH$a nwaH$ma S>m.EZ.Ama.VmdSo ([d^mJyZ)

o$~wdmar 2013

R.N.I.No. 14140/57/Postal Registration No. MH/MR/South - 210/2012-14 Posted at Mumbai Patrika Channel Sorting Office, February 2013. Date of Publication : 10th of every Month

Ogo XrnmmPr {XdQ>r& H$m {VWtmPr ny{Um JmoQ>r& Vgr ^mfm`o hmQ>r gdm}m&&

gdm}m amR>rVrb A`wm m{gH$ bmoH$am` dmMm {Z COidm kmZ`moVr...


{S>g|~a>2012& qH$V : 10
mM-2012

[V/To :

ofH$/ From
{XJ~a dm. nmbdo d[aR> ghm`H$ gMmbH$, m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb` hmamQ> emgZ, ~aH$ Z. 19, $s og OZb mJ, w~B 400 021

bmoH$am` ho m{gH$ hmamQ> emgZm`m dVrZo wH$ d H$meH$ moX `. ZbmdS>o, hmgMmbH$,m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, mb`, w~B `mZr EM. Q>r. r[S`m {b. bmQ> Z. 6, Q>r. Q>r. gr. E. Am`. S>r. gr. BS>pQ>`b E{a`m, {XKo, R>mUo-~obmnya amoS>, Zdr w~B - 400 708 `oWo w{V H$$Z m{hVr d OZgnH$ hmgMmbZmb`, mb`, w~B -400 032 `oWo {g Ho$bo.

w` gnmXH$ : moX `. ZbmdS>o